Mother Goose Day
Lei Day was the brainchild of Don Blanding. In 1927 he came up with the idea of a uniquely Hawaiian holiday that everyone could celebrate. His editors at the Honolulu Star-Bulletin presented it to the public and the idea was enthusiastically embraced. Lei Day was first celebrated in 1928 and became an official holiday in 1929. During those first years the event included the selection of a Lei Day queen and court.
Lei Day celebrations continue today, marking the first day of May with lei-making competitions, concerts, and the giving and receiving of lei among friends and family.
The floral lei dates back to the ancient Hawaiians who wore braided leaves, native flowers, shells, feathers, stones and bones to beautify themselves. They also offered these hand-made garlands to each other and to their gods as a symbol of love and friendship.
The lei was treasured and worn with pride by people of every age. During the Boat
Days of the late 1800’s, the popularity of the lei grew as visitors who arrived by ship were greeted with aloha and presented with a floral leis. Legends grew around the luck of the lei. It was said if a departing visitor tossed their lei into the ocean and it floated back to the beach, it meant that the person would someday return to the islands. Hundreds of leis could be seen floating in the crystal waters off of Diamond Head as a ship steamed away.
Today, the ancient tradition continues. The tender and beautiful lei is still carefully made by hand – weaving fragrant and colorful flowers and leaves together to create a work of art. Leis are worn on all special occasions and given to family and friends as gifts of love. The leis are a symbol of Hawaii.
Acts 2:38 King James Version (KJV)
38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
“Moreover, almost all the sects of the United States are comprised within the great unity of Christianity, and Christian morality is everywhere the same.”
Alexis de Tocqueville
“Twenty years from now you will become more disappointed by the things you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Explore. Dream. Discover.”
bloviate BLOH-vee-ayt, intransitive verb:
To speak or write at length in a pompous or boastful manner.
Bloviate is from blow + a mock-Latinate suffix -viate. Compare blowhard, “a boaster or braggart.” Bloviation is the noun form; a bloviator is one who bloviates
305 – Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor.
1528 – The Spanish Narvaez expedition began an inland march to Florida with some 300 men and 40 horses.
1562 – The first French colonists in the US, a 5-vessel Huguenot expedition led by Jean Ribault (1520-1565), landed in Florida. He continued north and established a colony named Charlesfort at Parris Island, SC.
1704 – Boston Newsletter publishes first newspaper ad. It was an announcement seeking a buyer for an Oyster Bay, Long Island estate.
1751 – The first cricket match is played in America. The New York Gazette and the Weekly Post Boy carried an account of a match between a London “eleven” (as cricket teams, or “sides,” are called) and one from New York City.
1776 – Adam Weishaupt founded the secret society of Illuminati.
1778 – American Revolution: The Battle of Crooked Billet begins in Hatboro, Pennsylvania.
1785 – Kamehameha, the king of Hawaiʻi defeats Kalanikupule and establishes the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
1805 – The state of Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state, or risk either imprisonment or deportation.
1841 – First emigrant wagon train leaves Independence MO for California. The Bidwell-Bartleson Party is generally credited with being the first true emigrant train.
1844 – Samuel Morse sent the first telegraphic message.
1846 – The few remaining Mormons left in Nauvoo, Illinois, formally dedicated the Nauvoo Temple.
1848 – The Fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta is founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.
1857 – William Walker, conqueror of Nicaragua, surrendered to US Navy.
1860 – A colt is reported killed by a meteorite near New Concord OH. Over thirty individual meteorite fragments weighing a combined 500 pounds fell in a broad swath over eastern central Ohio near 12:45 PM on May 1, 1860.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate “National Flag” replaces “Stars & Bars.”
1863 – Civil War: Confederate congress passed a resolution to kill black Union soldiers.
1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville begins. General Robert E. Lee’s forces began fighting with Union troops under General Joseph Hooker. Confederate General Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded by his own soldiers in this battle.
1864 – Civil War: Wooden side-wheelers U.S.S. Morse and U.S.S. General Putnam convoyed 2,500 Army troops up the York River to West Point, Virginia, where the soldiers were landed under the ships’ guns and occupied the town.
1865 – In Charleston, SC, some 10,000 people led by 2800 Black children paraded to a mass grave site of Union soldiers at a former race track. This was likely the first large-scale US Memorial Day event. Memorial Day was started by former slaves on this day. It was to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers who had been buried in a mass grave in a Confederate prison camp. They dug up the bodies and worked for two weeks to give them a proper burial as gratitude for fighting for their freedom.
1866 – American Equal Rights Association forms. Tensions between the movements about women’s suffrage caused the AERA to split apart in 1869.
1867 – Reconstruction in the South began with black voter registration.
1875 – Two hundred thirty-eight members of “Whiskey Ring” were accused of anti-US activities.
1883 – The Philadelphia Quakers were founded to replace the disbanded Worcester “Ruby Legs” in the National League, the team’s inaugural season opened today at Recreation Park in Philadelphia, PA.
1883 – William F. Cody (Buffalo Bill) had his first Wild West Show.
1884 – Construction begins on Chicago’s first skyscraper (10 stories). Designed by Major William Le Baron Jenney, marble was used on the walls of the building, with four columns of polished granite supporting a marble balcony. Work was finished in the fall of 1885.
1884 – Moses Walker became first black player in the major league. Walker made his major league baseball debut versus the Louisville Eclipse.
1886 – The Haymarket riots in Haymarket Square in Chicago, Illinois are the start of the general strike which eventually wins the eight-hour workday in the United States. These events are today commemorated as May Day or Labour Day in most socialist industrialized countries.
1888 – Nikola Tesla was issued several patents relating to the induction magnetic motor, alternating current (AC) sychronous motor, AC transmission and electricity distribution.
1893 – The World’s Columbian Exposition opened in Chicago by President Cleveland.. It celebrated the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s landing in America. The El in Chicago was erected to take visitors to the World’s Columbian Exposition. It created a section of town called the Loop encircled by the railway. The exposition attracted over 21 million visitors who saw such wonders as the Ferris Wheel and electricity (first displayed in the Paris Exposition in 1889, but still unknown to most Americans).
1894 – Coxey’s Army, the first significant American protest march, arrives in Washington, D.C.
1895 – Electric engine for passenger trains debut. It began regular use on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Maryland.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Battle of Manila Bay – the United States Navy destroys the Spanish Pacific fleet in the first battle of the war. Dewey’s ships lobbed shells into Filipino-dug trenches and the battle became a massacre.
1900 – The Scofield mine disaster kills 200 in Scofield, Utah in what is to date the fifth-worst mining accident in United States history.
1900 – The Lighthouse Board took charge of the Puerto Rico lighthouses.
1901 – The Pan-American Exposition opens in Buffalo, New York. It runs from May 1 to November 2, 1901 on a 342 acre site .
1901 – Herm McFarland hit first grand slam in the American League. There were two Home Runs in one game, and both grand slams-by Herm McFarland and Dummy Hoy in the White Sox’ 19-9 win over Detroit.
1905 – In New York, radium was tested as a cure for cancer.
1909 – Walter Reed Hospital opened in Washington DC as an 80-bed Army medical center.
1912 – The aircraft Avro- F was successfully test flown. It was the world’s first cabin aircraft to fly.
1913 – John Barclay Armstrong, (b. 1850) died. He was a Texas Ranger lieutenant and a United States Marshal, usually remembered for his role in the pursuit and capture of the famous gunfighter John Wesley Hardin.
1915 – The RMS Lusitania departs from New York City on her two hundred and second and final crossing of the North Atlantic. Six days later, the ship is torpedoed off the coast of Ireland with the loss of 1,198 lives, including 128 Americans, rousing American sentiment against Germany.
1915 – A German submarine sank the U.S. ship Gulflight.
1920 – Babe Ruth’s first Yankee homerun & 50th of career, out of the Polo Grounds.
1920 – In Boston, Brooklyn’s Leon Cadore and the Braves’ Joe Oeschger duel 26 innings to a 1-1 tie in the longest game ever played in the ML.
1921 – The first radio fog signals in the United States were placed in commission on Ambrose Lightship, Fire Island Lightship, and Sea Girt Light Station, NJ.
1922 – Charlie Robertson of the Chicago White Sox pitched a perfect no-hit, no-run game against the Detroit Tigers. The Sox won 3-0. Another perfect game did not come along until 46 years later.
1926 – Satchel Paige makes pitching debut in Negro Southern League. He pitched Chattanooga to a 5-4 win over Birmingham.
1927 – Adolf Hitler held his first Nazi meeting in Berlin.
1928 – Lei Day begun (a Hawaiian celebration).
1928 – Pitcairn Airlines (later Eastern) began service.
1930 – The dwarf planet Pluto is officially named.
1931 – The Empire State Building is dedicated in New York City. It was dedicated by President Hoover from the White House in Washington D.C. where he pressed a button that switched on the lights. The 102 story skyscraper, at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 34th Street in New York City, was the first higher than 1,250 feet.
1931 – Singer Kate Smith begins her long-running radio program on CBS.
1934 – The Philippine legislature accepted a U.S. proposal for independence.
1936 – FBI’s J Edgar Hoover arrests Alvin Karpis. Karpis, nicknamed “Creepy” for his sinister smile, was an American criminal known for his alliance with the Barker gang in the 1930s. He was the last “public enemy” to be taken.
1937 – FDR signs act of neutrality. The public continued to favor staying out of foreign wars, and the Roosevelt administration’s response to the war in China suited the neutralists and pacifists.
1939 – The DC Comics superhero Batman first appeared in Detective Comics #27.
1939 – “Lonesome Road“ was recorded by the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra.
1940 – The 1940 Summer Olympics are cancelled due to war.
1940 – World War II: 140 Palestinian Jews died as German planes bombed their ship.
1941 – “Citizen Kane“, directed by & starring Orson Welles, premieres in New York City.
1941 – General Mills introduces Cheerios. They were introduced as CheeriOats. They were made possible by the development of the “puffing gun” invented earlier by Lester Borchardt Sr.
1941 – World War II: German forces launch Operation Mercury the largest airborne invasion to date in their bid to capture Crete.
1941 – World War II: German forces launch a major attack on Tobruk.
1943 – World War II: German forces were deployed in the following places: Norway (200,000), France (900,000), Africa (150,000), Balkans (80,000), Finland (180,000), Eastern Europe (210,000), Caucasus (260,000), Russia (1,900,000).
1943 – LT Akers demonstrates blind landing system for Carrier aviation at College Park, MD in OJ-2 aircraft. The OJ was a two-seat twin-float biplane with a fabric covered fuselage and staggered wings.
1943 – World War II: US forces complete the occupation of Hill 609 in “Mousetrap Valley.” The Axis defenses in Tunisia hold American attempts to advance further.
1943 – World War II: Food rationing began in US.
1944 – World War II: The Messerschmitt Me 262 Sturmvogel, the first jet bomber, made its first flight.
1944 – World War II: An American force of seven battleships and eleven destroyers, commanded by Admiral Lee, bombards Ponape. The carriers of Task Group 58.1 (Admiral Clark) provide cover for the operation.
1945 – World War II: A German newsreader officially announces that Adolf Hitler has “fallen at his command post in the Reich Chancellery fighting to the last breath against Bolshevism and for Germany”.
1945 – World War II: Hamburg radio announces that Hitler is dead and that Donitz is the second Fuhrer of the Reich.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1947 – Radar for commercial & private planes first demonstrated. was first demonstrated at Culver City, California on a TWA airplane. The device was developed at the Hughes Aircraft Corp. by Howard Robard Hughes and a team of electronic engineers.
1948 – Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, was arrested in Birmingham, AL for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked “for Negroes.”
1949 – Elmer Valo is the first American League player to hit two bases-loaded triples in a game when he leads the Philadelphia A’s to a 15-9 win in the first of two against the Washington Senators.
1950 – Guam is organized as a United States commonwealth.
1950 – Gwendolyn Brooks became the first Black to win the Pulitzer Prize for her book of poetry called “Annie Allen.”
1951 – Mickey Mantle hits his first home run.
1951 – Minnie Minoso becomes the first black to play for the White Sox. He plays 3rd Base and, facing Vic Raschi in his first Major League at bat, rips a home run to centerfield.
1951 – USS Princeton aircraft attack Hwachon Dam using aerial torpedoes, only use of this weapon in Korean War. They knocked out two floodgates.
1951 – The first phase of the Chinese offensive was halted north of Seoul.
1952– Marines took part in atomic explosion training in Nevada.
1952 – TransWorld Airlines (TWA) introduced tourist class.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Pretend” by Nat King Cole, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “I Believe” by Frankie Laine and “Mexican Joe” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1954 – “Wanted” by Perry Como topped the charts.
1954 – Ray York rode “Determine” to victory in the Kentucky Derby.
1954 – Disney bought 160 acres of Anaheim orange groves and today construction began toward an impossible deadline of July, 1955, when money would run out. It opened on July 17, 1955.
1954 – Legos, founded by Danish carpenter Ole Kirk Christiansen, became a registered trademark in Denmark.
1955 – Bob Feller one-hits the Red Sox 2-0, with Sammy White’s single in the 7th spoiling his bid for a no-hitter in the first game of a doubleheader.
1956 – The polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk is made available to the public.
1956 – A doctor in Japan reports an “epidemic of an unknown disease of the central nervous system”, marking the official discovery of Minamata disease. The original Minamata disease and Niigata Minamata disease are considered two of the Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan.
1957 – Larry Zeiger ‘s first radio broadcast. He acquired the name Larry King when the general manager suggested that Zeiger was too ethnic and hard to remember.
1957 – Vanguard TV-1 booster test reaches 121 miles, same distance as from LA to San Diego.
1958 – James Van Allen reported that two radiation belts encircled Earth.
1960 – Francis Gary Powers, in a Lockheed U-2 spyplane, is shot down over the Soviet Union, sparking a diplomatic crisis.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Runaway” by – Del Shannon, “Mother-In-Law” by Ernie K-Doe, “I’ve Told Every Little Star” by Linda Scott and “Don’t Worry” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1961 – The Prime Minister of Cuba, Fidel Castro, proclaims Cuba a socialist nation and abolishes elections.
1961 – First American airliner diverted to Cuba. Other such incidents took place that summer, and the government began using armed guards on commercial planes when requested by the airlines or the FBI.
1961 – A Pulitzer prize was awarded to Harper Lee, author of “To Kill a Mockingbird.”
1963 – First American (James Whittaker) conquers Mount Everest.
1964 – First BASIC program runs on a computer. It was invented at Dartmouth University by professors John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz. BASIC is an acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
1965 – “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits topped the charts.
1965 – The Supremes’ “Back In My Arms Again” was released.
1967 – Elvis Presley (32) married Priscilla Beaulieu (20) in Las Vegas at the Aladdin Hotel. They divorced in 1973. They had met when she was 14 in West Germany.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “It’s Your Thing” by The Isley Brothers, “Hair” by The Cowsills and “Galveston” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1969 – Leonard Tose bought the NFL’s Philadelphia Eagles for $16,155,000. He made a fortune in the trucking industry and was known for his lavish lifestyle.
1970 – Protests erupt in Seattle, Washington, following the announcement by U.S. President Richard Nixon that U.S. Forces in Vietnam would pursue enemy troops into Cambodia, a neutral country.
1970 – Students at Kent State University riot in downtown Kent, OH, in protest of the American invasion of Cambodia.
1971 – Rolling Stones release “Brown Sugar.”
1971 – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night topped the charts.
1971 – Amtrak (the National Railroad Passenger Corporation) is formed. The Southern Pacific Railroad turned over its money-losing passenger service and railroad cars to the government which formed Amtrak.
1973 – “Marvin Gaye Day” was declared in Washington, DC.
1974 – The federal minimum wage was set at $2.00 per hour for 1938 and 1961 groups. It was set at $1.90 for 1966 non-farm group and $1.60 per hour for farm employment.
1976 – “Let Your Love Flow” by Bellamy Brothers topped the charts.
1976 – Kawika Kapahulehua (d.2007 at 76), leading a 15-man crew on a double-hulled canoe with sails, departed Hawaii to Tahiti. Organizer and anthropologist Ben Finney wanted to prove the trip was possible. They reached Tahiti after 34 days.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Southern Nights” by Glen Campbell, “Hotel California” by Eagles, “When I Need You” by Leo Sayer and “She’s Pulling Me Back Again” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1978 – Ernest Morial was inaugurated as the first black mayor of New Orleans.
1980 – As the Mariel Boatlift continued, eleven Navy ships begin operations assisting Coast Guard in rescuing Cuban refugees fleeing Cuba in overcrowded boats.
1981 – Senator Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (Democrat, New Jersey) was convicted in New York of charges related to the FBI’s “ABSCAM” probe. ABSCAM was an FBI sting operation run from the FBI’s Hauppauge, Long Island, office in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The operation initially targeted trafficking in stolen property but was converted to a public corruption investigation.
1981 – American Airlines instituted the first “frequent flyer” program to keep customers coming back for more.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1982 – The 1982 World’s Fair opens in Knoxville, TN.
1982 – Richard LaMotta (1942-2010) dispatched 60 street-cart vendors to the streets of Manhattan to begin selling his 4½-ounce Chipwich cookies, which included 3½ ounces of ice cream. Within weeks he was selling 40,000 a day at $1 each.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa, “Crazy for You” by Madonna, “Rhythm of the Night” by DeBarge and “Girls Night Out” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1985 – US president Reagan ended embargo against Nicaragua.
1986 – Bill Elliott sets stock car speed record of 212.229 mph with his Ford Thunderbird in Talladega, AL. That record will probably stay on the books since NASCAR now enforces speed restrictions.
1987 – James Webb (b.1946) began serving as Secretary of the Navy under President Ronald Reagan. He resigned in 1988 after refusing to agree to reduce the size of the Navy.
1989 – The Supreme Court ruled that an employer has the legal burden of proving that its refusal to hire or promote someone is based on legitimate and not discriminatory reasons.
1989 – Disney held a grand opening for its 135 acre MGM studio in Orlando, Fl.
1991 – “Will Rogers Follies” opens at Palace Theater NYC for 983 performances.
1991 – Rickey Henderson of the Oakland Athletics steals his 939th base, making him the all-time leader in this category. However, his accomplishment is overshadowed later that evening by Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers, when he pitches his seventh career no-hitter (breaking his own record).
1991 – Texas Ranger Nolan Ryan pitches record 7th no hitter (beats Toronto 3-0).
1992 – On the third day of the 1992 Los Angeles riots, African-American activist, criminal, and victim of police beating Rodney King appears in public before television news cameras to appeal for calm and plead for peace, asking, “People, I just want to say, you know, can we all get along?”.
1992 – Rickey Henderson steals his 1,000th base.
1992 – Los Angeles Dodgers postpone three games due to racial riots due to Rodney King.
1992 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A school shooting and subsequent siege that occurred at Lindhurst High School in Olivehurst, California. The gunman, 20-year-old Eric Houston, was a former student at Lindhurst High School. Houston killed three students and one teacher, and wounded nine students and a teacher before surrendering to police. This was a retribution for a failing grade.
1993 – “Freak Me” by Silk topped the charts.
1996 – Gerald Williams is first New York Yankee since 1934 to get 6 hits in a game.
1997 – In Oakland, CA an armored car flipped in an accident and released some 27 bags of money claimed to be substantially less than $500,000. People in the vicinity grabbed much of the cash though some 20% was returned within two days. A total of $106,000 was recovered and $445,000 was still missing when an amnesty for returning cash ended on May 5.
1997 – An International committee agreed to create 7 new (WWW) World Wide Web domains. The new suffixes would be: .firm, .store, .web, .arts, .rec, .info and .nom for individuals.
1999 – On Mount Everest, a group of U.S. mountain climbers discovered the body of George Mallory. Mallory had died in June of 1924 while trying to become the first person to reach the summit of Everest. At the time of the discovery it was unclear whether or not Mallory had actually reached the summit.
1999 – The Liberty Bell 7 Mercury capsule flown by Gus Grissom, which sank in 1961, was found 300 miles offshore from Cape Canaveral in waters 3 miles deep.
1999 – Charismatic, a 30-1 shot, charged to victory in the 125th Kentucky Derby. His sire was Summer Squall, making him a third-generation descendant of both Secretariat and Northern Dancer.
2000 – ABC aired the first celebrity “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire.”
2000 – The “Barbie for President” doll was released in stores.
2000 – The US government began allowing civilian GPS receivers to pick up more accurate satellite signals. The sport of geocaching began 2 days later.
2000 – In Puerto Rico 2 US warships arrived off the coast of Vieques and some 50 protestors braced for the arrival of federal agents.
2001 – In Washington, DC, Chandra Levy disappeared. She was an intern at the U.S. Bureau of Prisons. California Representative Gary Condit was named in the investigation. Her body was found on May 22, 2002 in Rock Creek Park.
2001 – Pres. Bush committed the US to a missile defense shield. He also presented his case for withdrawing from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia.
2001 – The space shuttle Endeavour landed at Edwards Air Force Base following the installation of the billion-dollar robot arm on the International Space Station.
2002 – California’s Dept. of Insurance released a list of former slaves and slaveholders. Records of 613 slaves and 433 slaveholders were made public.
2003 – President Bush safely lands in an S-3B Viking jet on the deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln returning from operations in Iraq while 100 miles off the coast of San Diego, California. It is the first time a sitting president has arrived on the deck of an aircraft carrier by plane.
2003 – The US Navy withdrew from Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.
2003 – In Utah climber Aron Ralston (27) amputated his own arm to escape from a canyon where he was pinned by a boulder.
2004 – Suspected militants sprayed gunfire inside an oil contractor’s Saudi office, killing at least six people — including two Americans and three other Westerners — and wounding dozens. Police killed four brothers in a shootout after a car chase in which the attackers reportedly dragged the naked body of one victim behind their getaway car.
2004 – Smarty Jones won the Kentucky Derby and ran his record to 7-for-7, the first unbeaten Derby winner since Seattle Slew in 1977.
2005 – On what was to have been her wedding day, “runaway bride” Jennifer Wilbanks was led by Albuquerque, N.M., police to an airplane that flew her home to Georgia.
2005 – Chinese computer maker Lenovo completed its purchase of IBM’s personal computer division.
2006 – A Florida judge sentenced former professor Sami Al-Arian (48) to another year and a half in prison before he will be deported in his terrorism conspiracy case.
2007 – The Los Angeles May Day mêlée occurs, in which the Los Angeles Police Department’s response to a May Day pro-immigration rally become a matter of controversy.
2007 – The US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit rules that U.S. Representative Jim McDermott must pay damages for leaking a copy of a tape of an illegally intercepted telephone call.
2007 – Julie A. MacDonald, a deputy assistant secretary for fish and wildlife and parks, resigned after an internal review found that she had violated federal rules by giving government documents to lobbyists for industry.
2008 – News anchor Barbara Walters admits to having affair with US Senator Edward Brooke.
2008 – The US Air Force grounds all T-38C training aircraft following two fatal accidents within eight days.
2008 – Deborah Palfrey (b.1956), a woman from Vallejo, Ca., known as the “D.C. Madam,” was found hanged at her mother’s home in Tarpon Springs, Fl.
2008 – A report by the American Lung Association said the eight metropolitan areas considered to be the nation’s most polluted by every measure were Los Angeles, Bakersfield, Fresno, Visalia-Porterfield and Hanford-Corcoran, all in California; Washington-Baltimore; St. Louis; and Birmingham, Ala.
2009 – US government health officials warned dieters and body builders to immediately stop using Hydroxycut, a widely sold supplement linked to cases of serious liver damage and at least one death.
2009 – In south Texas Reymundo Guerra, former sheriff of Starr county, pleaded guilty to a drug trafficking charge for sharing law enforcement information with a Mexican drug ring.
2009 – Associate Justice David Souter announces he will retire from the United States Supreme Court in June.
2010 – Part of New York City’s Times Square is evacuated and sealed off as a car bomb is discovered and deactivated before it could be detonated.
2010 – “Super Saver”, ridden by Calvin Borel, wins the 2010 Kentucky Derby. Super Saver’s ancestors include damsire A.P. Indy, winner of the 1992 Belmont Stakes, 1957 Preakness Stakes winner Bold Ruler, 1964 Kentucky Derby winner Northern Dancer, and Triple Crown winners Secretariat (1973) and Seattle Slew (1977).
2010 – A major pipe rupture in Weston, Massachusetts leaves up to 2 million people in the Greater Boston area without drinkable tap water for 59 hours.
2010 – The worst US oil spill in decades reached into precious shoreline habitat along the Gulf Coast as documents emerged showing British Petroleum downplayed the possibility of a catastrophic accident at the offshore rig that exploded.
2010 – In South Carolina Lee County Sheriff E. J. Melvin was arrested after the FBI caught him calling drug dealers to tip them off or extort them after receiving a list of possible dealers in his county.
2011 – President Barack Obama announced in a special TV broadcast that Osama bin Laden, the founder and leader of the militant Islamist group Al-Qaeda and the most-wanted fugitive on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted Fugitives, was killed during an American military operation in Abbottabad, near Islamabad, Pakistan and that his body is in U.S. custody.
2011 – At memorial services on Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day in Israel, thousands of Holocaust survivors and Israelis commemorate the Jews who died during the Holocaust.
2012 – A New York man was convicted Tuesday of plotting an aborted suicide mission against New York City subways in 2009 — a case that featured the first-time testimony from admitted homegrown terrorists about Al Qaeda’s fixation with pulling off another attack on American soil.A jury found Adis Medunjanin guilty of all counts for his role in a terror plot that federal authorities say was one of the closest calls since Sept. 11, 2001.
2012 -President Obama visits Afghanistan on an unannounced visit coinciding with the first anniversary of Osama Bin Laden’s assassination by the U.S. Special Forces in Pakistan, signing an agreement with Afghan President Hamid Karzai outlining a continuing U.S. role in Afghanistan after 2014.
2012 – The sale for Guggenheim Partners to purchase the Los Angeles Dodgers is finalized for $2.1 billion, the most ever for a professional sports franchise.
2013 – California Governor Jerry Brown signed legislation that allows law enforcement to confiscate handguns and assault rifles from Californians who bought the weapons legally but have since had a disqualifying “criminal conviction or serious mental illness.” No indication of when the confiscation will occur.
2013 – Pennsylvania judge Mark Ciavarella Jr, a 61-year old former judge was sentenced to 28 years for selling kids to the prison system. in Pennsylvania, has was for literally selling young juveniles for cash. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has overturned some 4,000 convictions issued by him between 2003 and 2008, claiming he violated the constitutional rights of the juveniles.
2014 – More than 44,000 home-based healthcare workers parted ways with SEIU Healthcare Michigan after learning they did not have to join the union or pay dues, according to reports the union filed with the U.S. Department of Labor.
1738 – King Kamehameha I, King of Hawaii (d. 1819)
1852 – Calamity Jane, American Wild West performer (d. 1903)
1878 – James Graham, inventor of the first naval aircraft-carrying ship and the first man to film a total eclipse of the Sun.
1907 – Kate Smith, American singer (d. 1986)
1916 – Glenn Ford, Canadian actor (d. 2006)
1918 – Jack Paar, American television host (d. 2004)
1925 – Scott Carpenter, American astronaut
1930 – Richard Riordan, former mayor of Los Angeles
1961 – Marilyn Milian, current judge on The People’s Court
SMITH, MAYNARD H.
Rank and organization. Sergeant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 423d Bombardment Squadron, 306th Bomber Group. Place and date: Over Europe, May 1st, 1943. Entered service at: Cairo, Mich. Born: 1911, Cairo Mich. G.O. No.: 38, 12 July 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action above and beyond the call of duty. The aircraft of which Sgt. Smith was a gunner was subjected to intense enemy antiaircraft fire and determined fighter airplane attacks while returning from a mission over enemy-occupied continental Europe on 1 May 1943. The airplane was hit several times by antiaircraft fire and cannon shells of the fighter airplanes, two of the crew were seriously wounded, the aircraft’s oxygen system shot out, and several vital control cables severed when intense fires were ignited simultaneously in the radio compartment and waist sections. The situation became so acute that three of the crew bailed out into the comparative safety of the sea. Sgt. Smith, then on his first combat mission, elected to fight the fire by himself, administered first aid to the wounded tail gunner, manned the waist guns, and fought the intense flames alternately. The escaping oxygen fanned the fire to such intense heat that the ammunition in the radio compartment began to explode, the radio, gun mount, and camera were melted, and the compartment completely gutted. Sgt. Smith threw the exploding ammunition overboard, fought the fire until all the firefighting aids were exhausted, manned the workable guns until the enemy fighters were driven away, further administered first aid to his wounded comrade, and then by wrapping himself in protecting cloth, completely extinguished the fire by hand. This soldier’s gallantry in action, undaunted bravery, and loyalty to his aircraft and fellow crewmembers, without regard for his own personal safety, is an inspiration to the U.S. Armed Forces.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 62, 29 June 1865. Second award. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Don, May 1st, 1865. Engaged in picking up the crew of picket launch No. 6, which had swamped. Mullen, seeing an officer who was at that time no longer able to keep up and was below the surface of the water, jumped overboard and brought the officer to the boat, thereby rescuing him from drowning, which brave action entitled him to wear a bar on the medal he had already received at Mattox Creek, 17 March 1865.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 7th U S. Infantry. Place and date: At Chancellorsville, Va., May 1st, 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: St. Johns, New Brunswick. Date of issue: 28 September 1891. Citation: Took up the colors from the hands of the color bearer who had been shot down and bore them through the remainder of the battle.
The pitcher is vital to the game of baseball. When the game first started, the position was filled in rotation by any player. Until about 1870, the pitcher was merely a player assigned to put the ball in play by pitching it to the batter to hit. Now, of the 25 players on a major league club’s normal active roster, eleven or twelve are pitchers, five of these being starting pitchers and the remainder constituting the bullpen or relief pitchers.
Pitching demands more exact coordination of mental and muscular faculties and more continuous physical exertion than any other position in the game. On each pitch the pitcher is aiming at the strike zone, or a small part of it, 60 feet 6 inches away from the rubber on which his foot pivots in the act of pitching the ball. When it comes to baseball pitching mechanics, there is one truth above all else: Not every pitcher has to pitch the exact same way to be successful. But the biggest lesson is that you need to be able to consistently repeat your pitching delivery while staying injury free. Pitchers use changes of speed, control (the ability to pitch to specific points in the strike zone), and different grips that affect the flight of the pitch in order to confound batters. To be an excellent pitcher a person MUST be a team player from strategy to technique, dealing with coaches, catchers and players to get the desired result, A WIN.
4 Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be holden up: for God is able to make him stand.
5 One man esteemeth one day above another: another esteemeth every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. 6 He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doth not regard it. He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks. 7 For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself.
“We look forward to the time when the power to love will replace the love of power. Then will our world know the blessings of peace.”
“You can have brilliant ideas, but if you can’t get them across, your ideas won’t get you anywhere.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
somnolent \SOM-nuh-luhnt\, adjective:
1. Sleepy; drowsy; inclined to sleep.
2. Tending to cause sleepiness or drowsiness.
Somnolent is from Latin somnolentus, from somnus, “sleep.” A related word is insomnia (in-, “not” + somnus).
C 30AD – Jesus of Nazareth was crucified. Christ died on hill of Golgotha, Jerusalem. His path along the Via Dolorosa was later disputed as to whether he was tried by Pontius Pilate at the palace of Herod or at the Roman fortress of Antonia. His death was at an abandoned quarry, the site of today’s Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
311 – The Diocletianic Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire ends.
313 – Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.
1006 – Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.
1349 – Jewish community at Radolszell, Germany, was exterminated.
1483 – Orbital calculations suggest that on this day, Pluto moved inside Neptune’s orbit until July 23, 1503.
1492 – Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.
1494 – Christopher Columbus arrived in Guantanamo Bay on his 2nd voyage to the Americas.
1562 – First French colonists in US Jean Ribaut & Hugenots at what is now Parris Island, SC. No Marines there then!!
1598 – First theater performance in America. It was a Spanish satirical comedy-Rio Grande.
1629 – John Endecott became governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1722 – The game of Billiards is mentioned in the New England Courant. The advertisement said: Any Gentlemen or others that have a Mind to Recreate themselves with a Game of Billiards, if they will repair to the House Where David Melvill did formerly live, near Charlestown Ferry, (and Conform themselves to the Orders there) shall meet with civil Entertainment from E. Mac Daniel.
1789 – On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1798 – Department of the Navy is established. A “corps of marines” within the Navy Department was also authorized by Congress on July 11, 1798. On 11 July 1798, the United States Marine Corps was established as a separate service, and in 1834 was made a part of the Department of the Navy.
1803 – Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.
1812 – The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.
1818 – Congress authorized use of “land and naval forces of the United States to compel any foreign ship to depart United States in all cases in which, by the laws of nations or the treaties of the United States, they ought not to remain within the United States.” This was the basis of neutrality enforcement.
1832 – All commissions of naval officers in Revenue Cutter Service revoked. Vacancies filled by promotion for first time.
1852 – A strong tornado hit New Harmony, Indiana, killing 16 people.
1860 – More than 1000 Navajo Indians attacked Fort Defiance. This was one of the few recorded incidences in the history of the Indian Wars where Indians attacked a fort.
1861 – President Lincoln ordered Federal Troops to evacuate Indian Territory.
1863 – Abraham Lincoln calls for a National Day of Prayer and Fasting.
1863 – Civil War: Major General Grant ferried his troops across the Mississippi River at Bruinsburg to commence the work of isolating Vicksburg from reinforcements.
1864 – Civil War: Work began on the Dams along the Red River which would allow Union General Nathaniel Banks’ troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
1864 – New York becomes first state to charge a hunting license fee.
1865 – Civil War: Gen Sherman’s “Haines’s Bluff” at Snyder’s Mill, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: The eight suspects in the Lincoln assassination plot who had been imprisoned on monitors U.S.S. Montauk and Saugus were transferred to the Arsenal Penitentiary, located in the compound of what is today Fort McNair.
1871 – The Camp Grant Massacre takes place in Arizona Territory. Apaches in Arizona surrender to white & Mexican adventurers; 144 die. The killers took 29 children hostage and later sold them in Mexico as slaves.
1875 – The first Gold Life Saving Medal ever awarded was presented to Captain Lucien M. Clemens of the U.S. Life-Saving Service in Marblehead, Ohio, who was captain of one of the first life saving stations on the Great Lakes.
1885 – Boston Pops Orchestra forms. Called the “Promenade Concerts” until 1900, they combined light classical music, tunes from the current hits of the musical theater, and an occasional novelty number.
1889 – First US national holiday, on centennial of Washington’s inauguration.
1894 – Coxey’s Army reaches Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.
1900 – Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor. Hawaii at the time of annexation in 1898 was a republic, and had been for about 5 years, succeeding an independent monarchy. In the organic act of April 30, 1900, (note 4) all persons who were citizens of the Republic of Hawaii August 12, 1898, were declared to be citizens of the United States, and of the Territory of Hawaii.
1900 – Casey Jones dies in a train wreck in Vaughn, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) first home game. At 3 P.M., the Highlanders and Washington Senators marched from the outfield to home plate. The two squads stood at attention as the 69th Regiment band played the “Washington Post March” and then the “Star Spangled Banner.” The first ball was thrown out by Ban Johnson, and the game began. With the pitching of Jack Chesbro, the Highlanders won 6-2.
1904 – The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World’s Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri. The St. Louis World’s Fair popularized the all-American hamburger, hot-tea vendor Richard Blechynden began pouring his tea over ice thus the invention of iced-tea. It also popularized sausage in a bun, the hot dog with prepared mustard and the ice cream cone. The fair was also where the 3rd modern Olympics was held with 1,505 contestants from 7 countries participating and, although invented in Waco, Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national exposure.
1907 – Honolulu, Hawaii becomes an independent city.
1919 – US postal workers discovered 30 booby-trap bombs in the national mail system, targeting several members of congress and other public figures. Investigators later implicated a network of anarchists and radicals who were rounded up and deported.
1921 – American Professional Football Association reorganizes in Akron, OH.
1925 – Automaker Dodge Brothers, Inc is sold to Dillon, Read & Company for $146 million plus $50 million for charity.
1927 – The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women’s federal prison in the United States.
1927 – Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford become the first celebrities to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman’s Chinese Theater in Hollywood.
1935 – 2,000,000th Patent issued to Joseph Ledwinka for vehicle wheel construction.
1938 – The animated cartoon short Porky’s Hare Hunt debuts in movie theaters, introducing Happy Rabbit.
1939 – Baseball’s ‘Iron Horse’, Lou Gehrig, played his last game with the Yankees.
1939 – The 1939 New York World’s Fair opens. RCA owned NBC begins regularly scheduled television service from its New York station with the opening ceremonies and Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. President to appear on television during these opening ceremonies. The General Motors exhibit was titled Futurama. Philo T. Farnsworth premiered his television at the fair. AT&T presented its first Picture Phone and Salvador Dali created a pavilion that was called “Dream of Venus” and described as the “funny house of tomorrow.”
1939 – The streamliner “General Pershing Zephyr” placed in service. It was the first train to be equipped with fluorescent lighting, was the ninth Zephyr to join the growing fleet of stainless steel Burlington trains.
1940 – Belle Martell was licensed in California by state boxing officials. She was the first American woman, prizefight referee.
1940 – Jimmy Dorsey and his band recorded the song “Contrasts.”
1942 – The Peto was the first submarine built on Great Lakes. It was launched from Manitowoc, WI.
1943 – World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.
1943 – World War II: Bergen-Belsen, located near Hanover, formed as a POW camp.
1944 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) raids the Japanese base at Truk for a second day. Over the two days, the Japanese lose 93 aircraft out of a total 104 while the Americans lose 35 planes.
1944 – World War II: The 8th and 9th US Army Air Forces and Royal Air Force Bomber Command began to fly sorties into France and the Low Countries in preparation for the Allied Expeditionary Force landing on Jun 6 (D-Day).
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), “San Fernando Valley” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – Mel Ott became the first major-league baseball player to score six runs in a game. The Giants handily beat the Dodgers 26-8.
1945 – World War II: Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day. He shot himself while taking a cyanide capsule. Soviet soldiers raise the red flag over the Reichstag building.
1945 – “Arthur Godfrey Time” begins a 27-year run on CBS radio. His career turning point came with his emotional coverage of President Roosevelt’s funeral.
1945 – “How would you like to be Queen for a Day!”(43:43) debuts on Mutual radio. The radio host was Jack Bailey who also went on to host the TV version.
1947 – In Nevada, the Boulder Dam is renamed Hoover Dam a second time.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: U.N. Forces, having withdrawn to a new defense line, halted the Chinese offensive north of Seoul and the Han River.
1951 – Korean War: Far East Air Forces accumulated 1,277 sorties, the largest number to date. Fifth Air Force accounted for a record breaking 960 of them.
1952 – Korean War: The destroyers USS Maddox and USS Laffey participated in the most protracted gun duel of the war as the engaged enemy shore batteries in Wonsan Harbor.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher, “Blacksmith Blues” by Ella Mae Morse and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – Mr. Potato Head is first toy advertised on television. The yellow box depicting a bespectacled, smiling Mr. P was an instant hit.
1953 – Little-Bigger League changes its name to Babe Ruth League.
1954 – KQED, San Francisco-based public television, began broadcasting.
1955 – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado topped the charts.
1956 – Alben W. Barkley (b.1877), the 35th Vice President of the US (1949-53), died in Lexington, Va.
1957 – Elvis recorded “Jailhouse Rock.”
1960 – Fats Domino recorded “Walking to New Orleans.”
1961 – Willie Mays of the San Francisco Giants hit four home runs in a game with the Milwaukee Braves.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to an altitude of 246,625 feet (46.7 miles).
1964 – FCC states that all TV receivers should be equipped to receive both VHF (channels 2-13) and the new UHF (channels 14-83).
1966 – “Good Lovin‘” by Young Rascals topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: U.S. Marines attacked a division of North Vietnamese in the village of Dai Do.
1969 – Vietnam War: US troops in Vietnam peaked at 543,000. Over 33,000 had already been killed.
1970 – Vietnam War: U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas. The announcement by President Nixon led to widespread protests.
1970 – Cubs Billy Williams is first National Leaguer to play in 1,000 consecutive games.
1973 – Watergate Scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that top White House aides H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and others have resigned.
1974 – President Richard Nixon hands over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings.
1975 – Vietnam War: Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gain control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh. Last US helicopter leaves US embassy grounds.
1976 – Wings release “Silly Love Songs.”
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “Together Again” by Emmylou Harris all topped the charts.
1977 – “Southern Nights” by Glen Campbell topped the charts.
1977 – English rock band Led Zeppelin play to 76,229 paying people at the Pontiac Silverdome in Michigan. This broke the world attendance record for a single act performance.
1980 – In Pinole, Ca., Rena Aguilar was stabbed to death. 4 days later as police closed in James R. Odle shot and killed Officer Floyd Swartz. Odle was convicted and sentenced to death but his competency was later questioned due to a removed temporal lobe following a car accident. Swartz was the father of Amber Swartz, born 4 months after his death. Amber Swartz-Garcia disappeared in 1988.
1983 – “Beat It” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “Right or Wrong” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1985 – The National Basketball Association set an all-time season attendance record as 19,506,355 fans attended games in arenas around the league.
1986 – Ashrita Furman performed 8,341 somersaults over 12 miles along the length of Paul Revere’s historic ride in Massachusetts.
1987 – The Christian Coalition, created by Pat Robertson, was incorporated.
1988 – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go?” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1988 – Gen. Manuel Noriega, waving a machete, vowed at a rally to keep fighting U.S. efforts to oust him as Panama’s military ruler.
1988 – Largest banana split ever, at 4.55 miles long, is made in Selinsgrove, PA. This event was a fundraiser for the Selinsgrove High School Band. The band people backing the project contacted a corrugated cardboard manufacturer who produced a cylinder of 12.5mm thick cardboard to serve as the banana split dish.
1990 – Hostage Frank Reed was released by his captives in Lebanon, the second American freed in eight days.
1993 – The World Wide Web is born at CERN. The World Wide Web began as a CERN project called ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 andRobert Cailliau in 1990. Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.
1993 – Monica Seles was stabbed in the back during a tennis match in Hamburg, Germany. The man called himself a fan of second- ranked Steffi Graf. He was convicted of causing grievous bodily harm and received a suspended sentence.
1995 – U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first President to visit Northern Ireland.
1995 – President Clinton announced he would end U.S. trade and investment with Iran, denouncing the Tehran government as “inspiration and paymaster to terrorists.”
1996 – In Fort Myers, Florida, members of a teen militia called the “Lords of Chaos” killed Riverdale High-School band director Mark Schwebes. They had begun a crime spree on Apr 13 with acts of arson and vandalism. The teens were Kevin Foster, Pete Magnotti and Chris Black.
1997 – Tino Martinez hits record 34 RBIs in April.It came of his 9th home run in the 8th inning between the Yankees and the Mariners.
1998 – United and Delta airlines announced their alliance that would give them control of 1/3 of all U.S. passenger seats.
1998 – The Oak Ridge Boys performed in Washington, DC, at the 50th anniversary ceremony of the American Red Cross’ blood services.
1998 – U.S. Federal regulators fined a contractor $2.25 million for improper handling of oxygen canisters on ValuJet that crashed in the Florida Everglades in 1996.
1998 – A study reported in the New England Journal of medicine that RU-486, an abortion pill, was 92% effective in causing abortions with 15 days without surgery.
1998 – MASS SHOOTING: In Indiana, Antoine Whitehead (19) robbed the KeyBank in Carmel and killed Penny Schmitt (32) and shot 3 co-workers. He had just been refused a loan and killed himself following an intensive manhunt.
1999 – The US State Dept. annual report on terrorism listed Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and Syria as sponsoring terrorism groups.
1999 – The Florida Legislature gave final approval to a school voucher program that would entitle students in the worst public schools to receive $3-25,000 a year to help pay for private or parochial school tuition. In 2002 a judge struck down the school-voucher law.
2000 – The Clinton administration defended their decision to classify AIDS as a threat to national security as a means to garner attention and funding to fight the disease worldwide.
2001 – The Soyuz-32, carrying California businessman, multimillionaire Dennis Tito and 2 Russian astronauts, Talgat Musabayev and Yuri Baturin, docked with the International Space Station.
2001 – The San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a measure 9-2 to allow city employees medical benefits for a sex change.
2001 – The Mitchell Report on the Arab-Israeli conflict is published.
2001 – Chandra Levy was last seen in Washington, DC. Her remains were found in Rock Creek Park on May 22, 2002. California Congressman Gary Condit was questioned in the case due to his relationship with Levy. The media totally destroyed him and his career.
2002 – Benevolence International Foundation, an Islamic charity based in suburban Chicago, and its director were charged with perjury and accused by the FBI of supporting terrorists.
2003 – The U.S. Navy withdrew from its disputed Vieques bombing range in Puerto Rico, prompting celebrations by islanders.
2004 – On ABC’s “Nightline,” Ted Koppel read aloud the names of 721 U.S. servicemen and women killed in the Iraq war. The Sinclair Broadcast Group refused to air the program on seven ABC stations.
2004 – In the San Francisco Bay Area the National Labor Relations Board ruled that cab drivers for an East Bay syndicate to taxi companies are employees, not independent contractors, and therefore entitled to unionize. The companies refused to negotiate.
2004 – Michael Jackson pleaded not guilty in Santa Maria, Calif., to a grand jury indictment that expanded the child molestation case against him.
2005 – Jennifer Wilbanks (32) of Duluth, Georgia, turned up in Albuquerque, NM, after being missing for 4 days. She was scheduled to be married Apr 30, and got “cold feet.”
2005 – US releases a report that clears soldiers who shot Italian intelligence agent Nicola Calipari and journalist Giuliana Sgrena.
2006 – It was reported that on average a family of four should expect to pay $261 a day for food and lodging when traveling in the US this summer.
2007 – The US Supreme Court decides the case of Scott v. Harris, holding that a “police officer’s attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death.”
2007 – The US announced a major expansion of offshore oil and gas development, with proposed lease sales covering 48 million new acres.
2007 – US and Mexican law enforcement officials said Mexican druglords are taking over the business of smuggling migrants into the United States, using them as human decoys to divert authorities from billions of dollars in cocaine shipments across the same border.
2007 – Delta Air Lines emerged from bankruptcy after 19 months in Chapter 11.
2008 – The Bush administration brings back the one year Treasury bill in order to cope with rising budget deficits.
2008 – Scientists at Hewlett-Packard said they have discovered a fourth basic type of electrical circuit that could lead to a computer you never have to boot up.
2009 – Chrysler declares bankruptcy under Chapter 11 of the United States Code.
2009 – In Illinois Ali al-Marri (43) pleaded guilty to one count of conspiring to provide material support or resources to a foreign terrorist organization.
2010 – The oil spill resulting from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico reaches the Louisiana coast. It will result in widespread o animals, birds and coastline areas.
2010 – In Arkansas several tornadoes ripped through the state, killing a woman and injuring two dozen others. Leveled homes, overturned vehicles and uprooted trees were scattered across central Arkansas.
2011 – The recent US tornado outbreak becomes the second deadliest single day tornado event in US history with at least 340 people dead.
2011 – Army intelligence analyst Bradley Manning, imprisoned on charges of disclosing government information to the general public, is found competent to stand trial by a “panel of experts”, despite having earlier been thought of as a “suicide risk” and having his clothes removed.
2012 – A beam was added to the top of One World Trade Center in New York City raising its height to 1,271 feet, the tallest structure in the City. The building itself will be completed at the end of 2013.
2013 – In Illinois, two-year-old Korean-Canadian Hannah Warren, who was born without a trachea, becomes the youngest patient to receive a bioengineered organ made from stem cells.
2013 – NASA extends its contract with the Russian Federal Space Agency, paying $424 million for the RKA to deliver and receive astronauts shuttled to the ISS thru 2016.
2014 – Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal, a Republican, signed the state’s “Safe Carry Protection Act,” which critics called the “guns everywhere bill,” in north Georgia. It is now legal for licensed gun owners in Georgia to carry guns in bars, schools, churches and some government buildings.
2015 – U.S.MESSENGER spacecraft, traveling at 3.91 kilometers per second (over 8,700 miles per hour), collided with Mercury’s surface at about 3:25 p.m. EDT today. It created a crater estimated to be 16 meters (52 feet) in diameter. The spacecraft achieved unprecedented success studying the planet.
1721 – Roger Sherman, American statesman (d. 1793)
1777 – Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician (d. 1855)
1908 – Eve Arden, American actress (d. 1990)
1933 – Willie Nelson, American musician
1945 – Michael Smith, American astronaut (d. 1986)
1963 – Michael Waltrip, American race car driver
ANTRIM, RICHARD NOTT
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Makassar, Celebes, Netherlands East Indies, April 30th,1942 (The exact day of the event is unknown because of the circumstances). Entered service at: Indiana. Born: 17 December 1907, Peru, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while interned as a prisoner of war of the enemy Japanese in the city of Makassar, Celebes, Netherlands East Indies, in April 1942. Acting instantly on behalf of a naval officer who was subjected to a vicious clubbing by a frenzied Japanese guard venting his insane wrath upon the helpless prisoner, Comdr. (then Lt.) Antrim boldly intervened, attempting to quiet the guard and finally persuading him to discuss the charges against the officer. With the entire Japanese force assembled and making extraordinary preparations for the threatened beating, and with the tension heightened by 2,700 Allied prisoners rapidly closing in, Comdr. Antrim courageously appealed to the fanatic enemy, risking his own life in a desperate effort to mitigate the punishment. When the other had been beaten unconscious by fifteen blows of a hawser and was repeatedly kicked by three soldiers to a point beyond which he could not survive, Comdr. Antrim gallantly stepped forward and indicated to the perplexed guards that he would take the remainder of the punishment, throwing the Japanese completely off balance in their amazement and eliciting a roar of acclaim from the suddenly inspired Allied prisoners. By his fearless leadership and valiant concern for the welfare of another, he not only saved the life of a fellow officer and stunned the Japanese into sparing his own life but also brought about a new respect for American officers and men and a great improvement in camp living conditions. His heroic conduct throughout reflects the highest credit upon Comdr. Antrim and the U.S. Naval Service.
HEERMANCE, WILLIAM L.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 6th New York Cavalry Place and date: At Chancellorsville, Va., April 30th,1863. Entered service at: Kinderhook, N.Y. Born: 28 February 1837, Kinderhook, N Y. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Took command of the regiment as its senior officer when surrounded by Stuart’s Cavalry. The regiment cut its way through the enemy’s line and escaped but Capt. Heermance was desperately wounded, left for dead on the field and was taken prisoner.
National Zipper Day
National Dance Day
Save the Frogs Day
1900 Galveston Hurricane
On September 7th, 1900 the day opened as almost any other day in the rapidly growing city of Galveston, Texas. It was indeed a sunny, warm day, the kind of day people came to Galveston for at the turn of the century. Visitors would walk the sandy shores of the beautiful beaches on the Gulf of Mexico.
On the morning of September 9th, 1900, witness accounts described the day as simply beautiful with crystal clear air. That was if all you did was to look up above the horizon.
On September the 8th, 1900, no words could ever be spoken that would describe the horror of a deadly hurricane that destroyed Galveston, Texas. Other witnesses wrote that “nothing could ever make him forget the sounds of that night.
To this day, over one-hundred years later, that storm is still called, “The Storm.” It reshaped the Gulf Coast forever. It is a constant reminder of what can happen when the winds blow and the tides rise along the hurricane-prone coasts of America. Even today with our sophisticated warning systems, Katrina in New Orleans that nothing can stand up to monsters like this one.
For the locals in Galveston this storm is still referred to in this frame. If you are looking at old houses and the real estate person says, “This house survived the storm”, there is no doubt that the origin of the house predates September the 8th. If people say they had family who died or survived the storm, there is no doubt that they are referring to a family history that goes back more than 100 years. For in Galveston, “the storm” always refers to the hurricane that tore across Galveston on Sept. 8, 1900, and left the city in ruins.
The morning of the ninth below the horizon was a whole different scenario. The
hurricane that struck Galveston the night before had come ashore with winds of about 140 miles per hour. The highest elevation of Galveston was 8.7 feet above sea level . The storm surge was almost sixteen-feet. When the Galvestonians came out of their shelters and homes that had survived, they saw a wasteland where between 6, 000 and 8,000 of their friends, neighbors and visitors had died. More than 3600 buildings had been destroyed.
The effects of this storm went way beyond Texas. Galveston was the port where seventy percent of the nations cotton crop came ashore for distribution and more than one-thousand ships called on the port annually. Galveston was also home to numerous firsts for the state of Texas such as the first electricity and the first telephones.
Finally it had been one of the truly great vacation spots in the late 19th century. It has since recovered from “The Storm” and Galveston is again a great vacation spot but it is not the same Galveston.
The 1900 Storm is still considered to be the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. After the storm, Galveston constructed a seawall and raised the grade of the island to protect it from future hurricanes.
Psalm 115: 4-8
“Their idols are silver and gold, the handiwork of man. They have a mouth, but they cannot speak; they have eyes, but they cannot see. They have ears, but they cannot hear; they have a nose, but they cannot smell. Their hands cannot feel; their feet cannot walk; they cannot speak with their throat. Those who make them should become like them, all who put their trust in them.”
“By our form of government, the Christian religion is the established religion; and all sects and denominations of Christians are placed upon the same equal footing, and are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty.”
“It is you. YOU define your limits. And it is you who can expand them when you are ready. Now is the time to create goals high enough to ignite your spirit and inspire you to take action.”
~ E.R. Haas
vociferous voh-SIF-uhr-uhs, adjective:
Making a loud outcry; clamorous; noisy.
Vociferous derives from Latin vociferari, “to shout, to cry out” from vox, “voice” + ferre, “to carry.”
711 – Islamic conquest of Hispania: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
1429 – Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Her troops defeat the English.
1770 – James Cook arrives at and names Botany Bay, Australia.
1813 – A patent for rubber was given to J.F. Hummel of Philadelphia, PA.
1814 – War of 1812: USS Peacock captures HMS Epervier.
1852 – First edition of Peter Roget’s Thesaurus published. The original 15,000 words included in the 1805 manuscript has increased to over a quarter of a million in the 1992 edition (the tenth printing).
1856 – During the Tule River War Yokut Indians repelled a second attack by the ‘Petticoat Rangers,’ a band of civilian Indian fighters-some wearing body armor-at Four Creeks, California.
1861 – Civil War: Maryland’s House of Delegates votes not to secede from the Union.
1861 – Civil War: U.S.S. United States ordered commissioned as the first ship in the Virginia navy by Major General Rob¬ert E. Lee, Commander in Chief Military Forces of Virginia.
1862 – Civil War: New Orleans, Louisiana falls to Union forces under Admiral David Farragut.
1862 – Civil War: One hundred thousand federal troops prepared to march into Corinth, Miss.
1864 – Civil War: An expedition up the Rappahannock River including boats from U.S.S. Yankee and the U.S.S. Fuchsia, assisted by U.S.S. Freeborn and Tulip, engaged Confederate cavalry and destroyed a camp under construction at Carter’s Creek, Virginia.
1864 – Theta Xi was founded in Troy, New York. Theta Xi Fraternity was originally founded as an engineering fraternity, the first professional fraternity. It became a general fraternity by a five-to-one vote of the membership at the National Convention on April 9, 1926.
1865 – Acting Master W. C. Coulson, commanding U.S.S. Moose on the Cumberland River, led a surprise attack on a Confederate raiding party, numbering about 200 troops from Brigadier General Abraham Buford’s command.
1868 – The US government and the Sioux Indians signed another treaty that ended Red Cloud’s War, but it did not last long. The treaty at Fort Laramie (Wyoming) made the Black Hills part of the Great Sioux Reservation.
1872 – Jesse James gang robs bank in Columbia KY (1 dead/$1,500).
1873 – Eli Janney received a patent for automatic railroad car couplings.
1879 – Electric arc lights were used for the first time — in Cleveland, OH.
1892 – Charlie Reilly is baseball’s first pinch hitter.
1894 – Coxey’s Army, arrived in Wash, DC, 500 strong to protest unemployment; Coxey was arrested for trespassing at Capitol.
1898 – Spanish American War: U.S. warships engage Spanish gunboats and shore batteries at Cienfuegos, Cuba.
1913 – Gideon Sundback patented an all-purpose zipper.
1918 – Cleveland centerfielder Tris Speaker ties career outfield record of 4 unassisted double plays.
1918 – America’s WWI Ace of Aces, Eddie Rickenbacker, scored his first victory with the help of Captain James Norman Hall. He eventually racked up 26 victories before the end of the war.
1918 – WW I: Germany’s Western Front offensive ended.
1919 – A parcel bomb aimed at US Senator Thomas Hardwick and designed to explode on May day, exploded unsuccessfully. It was one of nearly 30 devices sent by anarchist groups to politicians, judges and businessmen.
1927 – Construction of the Spirit of St. Louis was completed for Lindbergh.
1932 – First broadcast of “One Man’s Family” on NBC-radio. It was the story of Henry and Fanny Barbour and their five children, Paul, Hazel, Claudia, Clifford and Jack. The show ran until May 8, 1959, leaving behind 3256 episodes, making it the longest-running series on American radio.
1934 – Pittsburgh is last major league city to play a home game on a Sunday.It happened when Pennsylvania’s Blue Law was repealed. Most businesses were closed on Sunday due to Blue Laws. Sunday was deemed a day for worship; a day of rest.
1940 – “The Bell Telephone Hour” was a long-run concert series began on NBC Radio and was heard on NBC until June 30, 1958. Sponsored by Bell Telephone as the name implies, it showcased the best in classical and Broadway music.
1940 – First radio broadcast of “Young Dr Malone” on CBS.
1941 – The Boston Bees agreed to rename the National League team the Braves, the name they used prior to 1935.
1942 – World War II: Despite a desperate defense, the Japanese take Lashio, terminus of the Burma Road. All supplies to China must now go by air as China has been cut off by land.
1942 – World War II: On Mindanao, Filipino resistance continues but they are pushed back from their positions when the invading Japanese receive reinforcements and greater air support.
1945 – World War II: The German Army in Italy unconditionally surrenders to the Allies.
1945 – World War II: Start of Operation Manna.
1945 – World War II- Fuehrerbunker: Adolf Hitler marries his long-time partner Eva Braun in a Berlin bunker and designates Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor. Both Hitler and Braun will commit suicide the next day.
1945 – World War II- The Dachau concentration camp is liberated by United States troops where more than 35,000 people had been cruelly murdered by the Nazis.
1945 – World War II: The last convoy battle of the Second World War begins as 14 German U-boats attack convoy RA-66 which consists of 24 ships with an escort including 2 escort carriers, 1 cruiser, 9 destroyers and 13 other ships.
1946 – World War II: Aftermath: Former Prime Minister of Japan Hideki Tojo and 28 former Japanese leaders are indicted for war crimes.
1950 – “The Third Man Theme” by Anton Karas topped the charts.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page, “Would I Love You” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1952 – IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Jr., informed his company’s stockholders that IBM was building “the most advanced, most flexible high-speed computer in the world.” The computer was unveiled April 7, 1953, as the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine.
1953 – The first U.S. experimental 3D-TV broadcast showed an episode of “Space Patrol” (30:04) on Los Angeles ABC affiliate KECA-TV.
1953 – Marine Corps Colonel Katherine A. Towle, Director of Women Marines, became the first woman line officer to retire from U.S. military service upon reaching the mandatory retirement age of 55.
1953 – Joe Adcock is first to homer into Polo Grounds’ center field bleachers.It was a 475-foot hit.
1953 – “Coke Time with Eddie Fisher” began its TV and radio run on NBC-TV and Mutual radio.
1954 – Ernest Borgnine made his network television debut in “Night Visitor” on NBC-TV.
1957 – The first military nuclear power plant was dedicated at Fort Belvoir, Va.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods, “(Now and Then There’s) A Fool Such as I” by Elvis Presley, “Guitar Boogie Shuffle” by The Virtues and “White Lightning” by George Jones all topped the charts.
1959 – UNIVAC, the electronic computer that was the size of a house, actually picked four out of six winners at Churchill Downs in Louisville, KY. The electronic brain set a record for right choices in horse races. Hmmm… a computer with horse sense.
1960 – Dick Clark told a House of Representatives investigating committee that he never took payola.
1961 – ABC’s “Wide World of Sports” debuts. Wide World of Sports revolutionized sports coverage by including “up close and personal” features on athletes. The show’s rallying cry, “The thrill of victory and the agony of defeat,” not only became one of the most familiar catchphrases on TV but captured the essence of athletic competition.
1961 – “Runaway” by Del Shannon topped the charts.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Somethin’ Stupid” by Nancy & Frank Sinatra, “A Little Bit Me, A Little Bit You” by The Monkees, “Sweet Soul Music” by Arthur Conley and “Need You” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1967 – Aretha Franklin releases “Respect“.
1967 – After refusing induction into the United States Army the day before (citing religious reasons), Muhammad Ali is stripped of his boxing title.
1968 – The controversial musical Hair opens on Broadway.
1968 – Dr. Ralph Abernathy led The Poor People’s Campaign in Washington D.C., less than a month after the assassination of King. It concluded on June 23. The campaign was for reforms in welfare, employment and housing policies.
1969 – Duke Ellington celebrated his 70th birthday. He was honored with the presentation of the Medal of Freedom, the U.S. government’s highest civilian honor.
1970 – Vietnam War: United States and South Vietnamese forces invade Cambodia to hunt Viet Cong.
1972 – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1974 – Phil Donahue’s TV show, “Donahue” moved to Chicago, IL.
1974 – President Richard Nixon announces the release of edited transcripts of White House tape recordings related to the Watergate scandal.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B.J. Thomas, “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn, “Supernatural Thing” by Ben E. King and “Blanket on the Ground” by Billie Jo Spears all topped the charts.
1975 – Vietnam War: Operation Frequent Wind: The U.S. begins to evacuate US citizens from Saigon prior to an expected North Vietnamese takeover. U.S. involvement in the war comes to an end.
1978 – “Night Fever” by The Bee Gees topped the charts.
1981 – Philadelphia Phillies Steve Carlton is first “lefty” to strike out 3,000 batters.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Come on Eileen” by Dexys Midnight Runners, “Beat It” by Michael Jackson, “Der Kommissar” by After the Fire and “American Made” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1983 – Harold Washington was sworn in as the first African American mayor of Chicago.
1984 – In California, the Diablo Canyon nuclear reactor went online after a long delay due to protests.
1985 – Texas Ranger Larry Parrish is fifth to hit three homeruns in a game in both leagues.
1985 – Billy Martin was brought back, for the fourth time, to the position of manager for the New York Yankees.
1986 – Roger Clemens, then of the Boston Red Sox, sets a major league baseball record with 20 strikeouts in nine innings against the Seattle Mariners. The major-league record of 19 was shared by Nolan Ryan, Steve Carlton, and Tom Seaver.
1986 – A fire at the Central library of the City of Los Angeles Public Library damages or destroys 400,000 books and other items.
1988 – The Baltimore Orioles set a new major league baseball record by losing their first 21 games of the season.
1989 – “Like a Prayer” by Madonna topped the charts.
1990 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base in California after a mission which included deploying the Hubble Space Telescope.
1990 – Wrecking cranes began tearing down Berlin Wall at Brandenburg Gate.
1991 – Richard Cheney gives a speech at the Washington Institutes Soref Symposium explaining why he believed it would have been a mistake to invade Iraq.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant, “Joyride” by Roxette, “I Like the Way (The Kissing Game)” by Hi-Five and “Down Home” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1992 – Exxon executive Sidney Reso was kidnapped outside his Morris Township, NJ, home by Arthur Seale. Seale was a former Exxon security official. Reso died while in captivity. Arthur Seale is serving a 95-year prison term, while his wife is serving a 20-year sentence.
1992 – Riots in Los Angeles, California, following the acquittal of police officers charged with excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. White truck driver Reginald Denny was beaten by a mob in south Central LA angered by the acquittal of 4 police officers caught on video tape in the beating of African-American motorist Rodney King. Over the next three days 53 people are killed and hundreds of buildings are destroyed.
1992 – Voting ends on choice of Elvis stamps.
1992 – The Coast Guard Cutter Storis’ 3-inch/.50 caliber main battery was removed from the cutter. It was the last 3-inch/.50 caliber gun in service aboard any U.S. warship.
1994 – Commodore computers declared bankruptcy.
1995 – Ten days after the blast, rescue workers in Oklahoma City continued the grim task of searching for bodies and pulling debris from the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, where 168 people died.
1996 – Opening ceremonies were held for The Stratosphere Tower of Robert Stupak in Las Vegas. The structure rises 1,149 feet. The last 149 feet consist of a needle perched atop a swollen bulb.
1996 – Former CIA Director William Colby was missing and presumed drowned after an apparent boating accident in Maryland. Colby’s body was later recovered.
1997 – The Global Anti-Golf Movement, GAG’M, proclaimed a World No-Golf Day.
1997 – Astronaut Jerry Linenger and cosmonaut Vasily Tsibliyev went on the first U.S.-Russian spacewalk.
1997 – Staff Sgt. Delmar Simpson, a drill instructor at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, was convicted of raping six female trainees. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison and was dishonorably discharged.
1997 – It was reported that a monster fountain of antimatter was discovered erupting from the core of the Milky Way. Observations from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory launched by NASA in 1991 made the observations since last November.
1998 – The U.S., Canada and Mexico end tariffs on $1 billion in NAFTA trade.
1998 – The US Supreme Court called for ending judicial delays of execution in a 5-4 vote. This reversed the US Court of Appeals Aug, 1997, reprieve for Thomas Thompson, accused of the 1981 murder of Ginger Fleischli in California and reinstated his death penalty.
1999 –The US decided to sell an early-warning radar system to Taiwan.
1999 – Iraqi War: US planes bombed sites in the no-fly zone of northern Iraq after being attacked by missiles and anti-aircraft fire. Iraq said 20 civilians were injured in Mosul and 4 in separate attacks in the south.
2000 – Lennox Lewis knocked out Michael Grant in the second round at Madison Square Garden in New York to retain his WBC and IBF heavyweight titles.
2001 – NASA scientists reported that they had contacted the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, launched in 1972, after 8 months of no communication.
2001 – China offered to allow US officials to inspect the US Navy spy plane on Hainan Island.
2003 – The governor of Virginia signed a tough anti-spam law that called for prison and asset seizures.
2003 – The United States announces that it will be reducing its military presence in Saudi Arabia to just a handful of advisors.
2004 – Ten U.S. soldiers are killed in three attacks in Iraq, raising the number of U.S. combat deaths in April to 126.
2004 – Dick Cheney and George W. Bush testify before the 9/11 Commission in a closed, unrecorded hearing in the Oval Office.
2004 – Oldsmobile builds its final car ending 107 years of production in Lansing, MI
2004 – A national monument to the 16 million U.S. men and women who served during World War II opened to the public in Washington DC. Official dedication was set for May 29.
2005 – NASA again delayed the first space shuttle launch since the Columbia disaster, worrying that ice falling off fuel tank could doom Discovery.
2005 – Apple began selling the Tiger operating system, OS X version 10.4, for the Mac computer.
2005 – “JAG” ended its ten-season TV run with a flip of a coin — frozen in mid air — that still leaves us wondering if it was Harm, or was it Mac (Sara), who gave up their career in order for the couple to be together.
2006 – The Los Angeles Times and CNN report that U.S. employers, workers, and police brace for a day-long boycott and strike to demonstrate the economic impact of illegal immigrants on the U.S. economy.
2006 – United States-Iran relations continue to deteriorate after US officials called Iran one of the world’s most active sponsors of terrorism.
2006 – A rock slide at Ferguson Ridge, 8 miles west of El Portal, Ca., shut down the Highway 140 connection to Yosemite National Park.
2007 – At least three people including the gunman die in a shooting at the Ward Parkway shopping center in Kansas City, Missouri. David W. Logsdon, driving a dead woman’s car, was shot and killed by police.
2007 – “Legally Blonde: The Musical” opens at the Palace Theatre in New York City, New York.
2007 – A stretch of highway near the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge collapsed after a gasoline tanker crashed and burst into flames, leaving one of the nation’s busiest spans in a state of near paralysis. Officials said traffic could be disrupted for months. Driver James Mosqueda (51) managed to get away with second degree burns.
2008 – Sen. Barack Obama, US presidential candidate, angrily repudiated Rev. Jeremiah Wright, his former pastor, for his recent remarks on race and US foreign policy.
2008 – James Woodward (55) walked out of a Dallas court after DNA testing overturned his conviction over twenty-seven years before for the murder and rape of his girlfriend.
2008 – Grand Theft Auto IV is released worldwide, sparking a windfall of sales. The game would go on to become the fastest selling game in 24 hours by selling 609,000 copies.
2009 – The first U.S. death from swine flu has been confirmed — a 23-month-old child in Texas. The flu death was confirmed by Dr. Richard Besser, acting director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
2009 – The Obama administration joined a federal judge in urging Congress to end a racial disparity by equalizing prison sentences for dealing and using crack versus powdered cocaine.
2009 – The last time the US Senate approved a budget. January 24th, 2012 was the 1000th day without a US Budget.
2009 – It was reported that more than 50 million American retirees can expect to receive $250 payments from the government in the next few weeks as their share of the economic stimulus package enacted in February. They did not tell those same people that that money would have to be repaid.
2009 – In New York Teresa Tambunting of Scarsdale was charged with grand larceny and criminal possession of stolen property. Prosecutors said she had stolen over $12 million in gold over six years from the Queens jewelry manufacturer where she worked. Police found 450 pounds of gold at her home.
2009 – The United States economy contracts by 6.1% in the first fiscal quarter.
2010 – The US Coast Guard starts a controlled burn to remove oils spilled during the Deepwater Horizon disaster.
2010 – A U.S. government panel, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, names Saudi Arabia and China among 13 countries as the most serious violators of religious freedom.
2011 – The wedding of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and Catherine Middleton takes place in Westminster Abbey; Middleton becomes HRH The Duchess of Cambridge. Police make at least 18 arrests along the wedding route in London.
2011 – An extremely large and violent tornado outbreak, the largest tornado outbreak ever recorded occurred from April 25 to 28, 2011. The outbreak affected the Southern, Midwestern, and Northeastern United States, leaving catastrophic destruction in its wake, especially across the state of Alabama. Three-hundred forty-nine people were killed as a result of the outbreak. That death toll included 325 tornado-related deaths across six states. Two-hundred thirty-nine of those deaths were in Alabama alone.
2011 – A ruling by the Oregon Supreme Court in the United States could lead to 30 prisoners serving life sentences for murder being freed early, if a parole board considers them to be capable of rehabilitation.
2012 – Seven people are killed, including three children, when a vehicle they were in flipped over on the Bronx River Parkway in The Bronx, New York City.
2014 – Oklahoma botched one execution and was forced to call off another when a disputed cocktail of drugs failed to kill a condemned prisoner who was left writhing on the gurney. After the failure of a 20-minute attempt to execute him, Clayton Lockett was left to die of a heart attack in the execution chamber.
2014 – A man decided to go on a shooting rampage at a local FedEx facility in Kennesaw, Georgia. He injured six people, with one of them in critical condition. It’s a terrible tragedy, and it happened even though the FedEx facility is a “gun-free zone.” The gunman committed suicide.
2014 – NBA Commissioner Adam Silver announces that Los Angeles Clippers owner Donald Sterling is banned from the league for life after a recording of Sterling making racist comments surfaces.
2015 – The Baltimore Orioles play the Chicago White Sox. Fans are not welcome because of the Baltimore Riots that have been going on for the last three days. This is the only time in the 145 year history of Major League Baseball that fans have been banned from a game
1745 – Oliver Ellsworth, 3rd Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1807)
1863 – William Randolph Hearst, American publisher (d. 1951)
1899 – Duke Ellington, American jazz pianist and bandleader (d. 1974)
1915 – Donald Mills, American singer (Mills Brothers) (d. 1999)
1918 – George Allen, American football player and coach (d. 1990)
1947 – Jim Ryun, American athlete and politician
1950 – Debbie Stabenow, American politician
1951 – Dale Earnhardt, American race car driver (d. 2001)
1954 – Jerry Seinfeld, American comedian
1958 – Michelle Pfeiffer, American actress
1958 – Eve Plumb, American actress
1970 – Uma Thurman, American actress
1972 – Dustin McDaniel, American politician
2003 – Barbaro, American thoroughbred racehorse (d. 2007)
REED, JAMES C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Arizona, April 29th, 1868. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 24 July 1869. Citation: Defended his position (with three others) against a party of seventeen hostile Indians under heavy fire at close quarters, the entire party except himself being severely wounded.
GUERIN, FITZ W.
Rank and organization: Private, Battery A, 1st Missouri Light Artillery. Place and date: At Grand Gulf, Miss., 28-April 29th, 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 March 1896. Citation: With two comrades voluntarily took position on board the steamer Cheeseman, in charge of all the guns and ammunition of the battery, and remained in charge of the same for a considerable time while the steamer was unmanageable and subjected to a heavy fire from the enemy.
HAMMEL, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Battery A, 1st Missouri Light Artillery. Place and date: At Grand Gulf, Miss., 28-April 29th, 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 March 1896. Citation: With two comrades voluntarily took position on board the steamer Cheeseman, in charge of all the guns and ammunition of the battery, and remained in charge of the same for considerable time while the steamer was unmanageable and subjected to a heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Battery A, 1st Missouri Light Artillery. Place and date: At Grand Gulf, Miss., April 28th – April 29th, 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 10 March 1896. Citation: With two comrades voluntarily took position on board the steamer Cheeseman, in charge of all the guns and ammunition of the battery, and remained in charge of the same, although the steamer became unmanageable and was exposed for some time to a heavy fire from the enemy.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1823, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Pittsburg, Mississippi River, April 29th, 1863. Engaging the enemy batteries at Grand Gulf, the U.S.S. Pittsburg, although severely damaged and suffering many personnel casualties, continued to fire her batteries until ordered to withdraw. Taking part in a similar action after nightfall, the U.S.S. Pittsburg received further damage, but receiving no personnel causalities in the latter action. Woon showed courage and devotion to duty throughout these bitter engagements.
Have you ever noticed how good you feel after laughing at a funny movie, television program, or humorous event? It is known and accepted that we respond positively when we laugh. Laughing is like exercise to the body and challenging games are to the brain. Laughing reduces stress, it changes things like blood pressure, muscle activity, and heart rate. Just laughing hard for ten minutes can release you for the next two hours. It is “internal jogging.Certainly the best example of this is in the recovery of Norman Cousins in the book, “Anatomy of an Illness.” He recovered from a long-term disease that causes inflammation of the joints between the spinal bones, and the joints between the spine and pelvis. This disease usually results in these joint solidifying. Mr. Cousins attributed much of his healing to laughter and the power of spirit.
A good dose of laughter is said to increase the release of endorphins in the brain. Endorphins are the body’s natural painkillers and relievers of depressions.
“Warning: Humor may be hazardous to your illness.” ~Ellie Katz; “You have a cough? Go home tonight, eat a whole box of Ex-Lax – tomorrow you’ll be afraid to cough.” ~Pearl Williams.
At Loma Linda University School of Medicine, in the Department of Clinical Immunology, studies have shown that laughter stimulates the immune system
Humor, as a tool or skill can be found predominately in two major places, in healthcare and in business settings especially where the work tends to be tedious. In healthcare it has been shown tobe especially advantageous in settings where pain tends to be high over long period or where there would be a highly depressing atmosphere. Regular doses of humor have proven to be good for a patient’s sense of well-being and it assists in the tolerance of pain.
The impact of stress on personal health has lead to humor being incorporated into the workplace. The high cost of burnout and stress-related illness accounts for a significant percentage of sick days being used, “just to get away from the stress.” Humor improves employee creativity, the ability to learn and “just a feeling” of general wellness.
Just a few strategies that have been shown to work include theme days picking from any number of “funny” or “crazy” holidays: Just in the month of April it is possible to celebrate National Fun Day, One Day without Shoes Day, National Pie Day, Barbershop Quartet Day, Take A Wild Guess Day, Blah! Blah! Blah! Day and Talk Like Shakespeare Day. An excellent source of these type holidays is at: http://www.brownielocks.com/.
The message is that a good laugh shared by office workers or colleagues doesn’t necessarily take much time from the workday. The pay-off is that it can improve the environment/climate and leave people feeling rejuvenated.
“He who sits in heaven will laugh, the Lord will mock them.”
“The ordaining of laws in favor of one part of the nation, to the prejudice and oppression of another, is certainly the most erroneous and mistaken policy.”
“To reach our goal we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it. But we must sail and not drift, not lie at anchor.”
~ Oliver Wendell Holmes , Sr.
imbroglio im-BROHL-yoh, noun:
1. A complicated and embarrassing state of things.
2. A confused or complicated disagreement or misunderstanding.
3. An intricate, complicated plot, as of a drama or work of fiction.
4. A confused mass; a tangle.
1192 – Assassination of Conrad of Montferrat (Conrad I), King of Jerusalem, in Tyre, two days after his title to the throne is confirmed by election. The killing is carried out by Hashshashin.
1635 – Virginia Governor John Harvey was accused of treason and removed from office.
1686 – The first volume of Isaac Newton’s “Principia Mathamatic” was published.
1788 – Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the Constitution of the United States.
1789 – Mutiny on the Bounty, Captain William Bligh and 18 sailors are set adrift and the rebel crew returns to Tahiti briefly and then sets sail for Pitcairn Island. Fletcher Christian led the mutiny against Captain William Bligh.
1818 – Monroe proclaims naval disarmament on Great Lakes & Lake Champlain.
1856 – Yokut Indians repelled an attack on their land by 100 would-be Indian fighters in California.
1862 – Civil War: Admiral David Farragut captures New Orleans, Louisiana.
1881 – Billy the Kid was held in Lincoln County Courthouse jail, near Carrizozo N.M. for the shooting of Sheriff William Brady, but escaped and killed two guards. He used an 1876 single-action army revolver made by Samuel Colt.
1881 – Robert W. Ollinger, US warden, last victim of Billy the Kid, died.
1896 – The Addressograph was patented by J.S. Duncan of Sioux City, IA.
1897 – The Chickasaw and Choctaw, two of the Five Civilized Tribes, become the first to agree to abolish tribal government and communal ownership of land.
1898 – Spanish – American War: U.S. warships engage Spanish gunboats and shore batteries at Cienfuegos, Cuba.
1902 – Using the ISO 8601 standard Year Zero definition for the Gregorian calendar preceded by the Julian calendar, the one billionth minute since the start of January 1, Year Zero occurs at 10:40 AM on this date.
1908 – Leonard Dyer obtained a patent for an automobile transmission.
1908 – In San Francisco a fire began just before midnight at a stable at 475 11th St. 48 horses belonging to F.M. Barrett, a lumber drayman, were killed.
1914 – W.H. Carrier was issued a patent for a method of “dew point control,” crucial to the development of automatic air cooling systems. In 1923 he invented an air-conditioning system powerful enough for installation at movie theaters.
1918 – World War I: Coast Guard Cutter Seneca saves 81 survivors from the torpedoed British naval sloop Cowslip while on convoy route to Gibraltar. Cowslip was attacked by three German U-boats.
1919 – First jump with Army Air Corp (rip-cord type) parachute (Les Irvin). The parachute was designed by Floyd Smith, with free-type back-pack parachute at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio.
1922 – WOI-AM went on the air with its first regular feature market news. Announcers read commodity prices gathered by ticker tape and Morse code.
1927 – First test flight of the Spirit of St Louis is completed. Construction of the Spirit took 60 days and cost $10,580.
1929 – The first Red Sox Sunday game played in Boston was a 7-3 loss to Philadelphia at Braves Field.
1930 – The first night game in organized baseball history takes place in Independence, Kansas. The Producers lost to Muskogee, 13-3. The game was played under temporary portable lights provided by black baseball’s Kansas City Monarchs.
1931 – Program for woman athletes approved for 1932 Olympics track & field.
1932 – A vaccine for yellow fever is announced for use on humans.
1934 – FDR signed a Home Owners Loan Act.
1937 – The first animated-cartoon electric sign was displayed on a building on Broadway in New York City. It consisted of several thousand light bulbs and presented a four-minute show that featured a cavorting horse and ball-tossing cats.
1940 – Glenn Miller records “Pennsylvania 6-5000.”
1942 – World War II: Nightly “dim-out” begins along the East Coast. No lights were to be seen in stores or houses, streetlights were dimmed, and the upper halves of car headlights were blackened.
1944 – World War II: American and Japanese forces, moving west from Wewak, engage near Aitape in New Guinea.
1944 – World War II: Exercise “Tiger” ended with 749 U.S. soldiers and sailors killed, when their D-Day landing practice was attacked by German torpedo boats off the south coast of England. The casualties were not announced until nearly two months after the Normandy invasion. Full details were not known until 1974.
1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci are executed by a firing squad consisting of members of the Italian resistance movement.
1945 – World War II: The US 7th Army captures Augsburg in its advance south toward Austria. Other Allied units are crossing the Elbe River in the north and others are advancing on Munich in the south.
1945 – World War II: US 5th Army reached the Swiss border.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, fighting along the Shuri Line continues. American forces employ tanks, flame-throwers and artillery in an effort to destroy Japanese defensive positions.
1945 – John F. Kennedy, correspondent for the Hearst Newspapers, filed his first dispatch on the founding of the UN in San Francisco.
1946 – The Allies indicted Tojo with 55 counts of war crimes.
1946 – Kazue Katz became the 1st Japanese woman to marry an American following WW II. Her marriage to Sgt. Frederick Katz in Tokyo required 29 endorsements.
1947 – Thor Heyerdahl and five crew mates set out from Peru on the Kon-Tiki to prove that Peruvian natives could have settled Polynesia. The 101-day trip covered approximately 4300 miles.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton, “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “The Third Man Theme” by Alton Karas and “Long Gone Lonesome Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1952 – Dwight D. Eisenhower resigns as Supreme Commander of NATO.
1952 – War with Japan officially ended as a treaty that had been signed by the United States and 47 other countries took effect. The United States occupation of Japan ends.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s first hit record, “Heartbreak Hotel“, becomes #1.
1957 – Mike Wallace was seen on TV for the first time. He was the host of “Mike Wallace Interviews.” 1957 Frank Lloyd Wright Interview (50:02)
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tequila” by The Champs, “All I Have to Do is Dream” by The Everly Brothers, “The Witch Doctor” by David Seville and “Oh Lonesome Me” by Don Gibson all topped the charts.
1958 – Vice President Richard Nixon and his wife, Pat, began a goodwill tour of Latin America that was marred by hostile mobs in Lima, Peru, and Caracas, Venezuela.
1958 – The United States conducted the first of thirty-five nuclear test explosions in the Pacific Proving Ground as part of Operation Hardtack I.
1959 – Arthur Godfrey was seen for the last time in the final broadcast of “Arthur Godfrey and His Friends” on CBS-TV (14:35).
1961 – 41 year-old Warren Spahn pitched his second no-hit game for the Milwaukee Braves.
1962 – “Good Luck Charm” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1965 – Barbara Streisand’s first TV special aired on CBS. It was titled “My Name is Barbara”.
1965 – Lindsey Nelson broadcasts game at Astrodome from a hanging gondola. He was 208 feet above 2B. It took about 45 minutes to lower and raise the contraption.
1965 – U.S. Army and Marines under US President Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The troops stayed until until Oct 1966.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by The Righteous Brothers, “Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)” by Cher, “Secret Agent Man” by Johnny Rivers and “I Want to Go with You” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1966 – NBA CHAMPIONSHIP: 20th NBA Championship Boston Celtics beat Los Angeles Lakers, 4 games to 3.
1967 – Muhammad Ali refuses induction into army & stripped of boxing title. He cited religious grounds for his refusal.
1967 – Mrs. Robert W. Claytor elected president of the YWCA, the first African American president of the organization.
1967- Lt. Col. Leo Thorsness and “backseater” Harry Johnson ejected over North Vietnam following an attack by an enemy MiG fighter. They were released along with other POWs in 1973. In Oct, 1973, Thorsness received a Medal of Honor.
1970 – Vietnam War: President Richard M. Nixon formally authorizes American combat troops to fight communist sanctuaries in Cambodia.
1971 – Samuel L. Gravely, Jr. became the first African American Admiral in the United States Navy.
1971 – The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was established within the Dept. of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which was passed on Dec 29, 1970. It was formed to protect workers from on-the-job injuries and illnesses.
1973 – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “TSOP (The Sound of Philadelphia)” by MFSB featuring The Three Degrees, “Best Thing that Ever Happened to Me” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “The Loco-Motion” by Grand Funk and “Hello Love” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1974 – Vietnam: The last Americans were evacuated from Saigon.
1975 – Vietnam: Operation Frequent Wind evacuation from Vietnam begins.
1977 – Christopher Boyce was convicted of selling U.S. spy satellite secrets to the Soviet Union in the 1970s. His spying for the Russians was chronicled in the film “The Falcon and the Snowman,”and he was free in 2003 after spending almost half his life in federal prison.
1979 – “Heart of Glass” by Blondie topped the charts.
1980 – President Carter accepted the resignation of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), who had opposed the failed rescue mission aimed at freeing American hostages in Iran.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts, “We Got the Beat” by Go-Go’s, “Chariots of Fire” by Titles – Vangelis and “Crying My Heart Out Over You” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.
1983 – The nuclear powered aircraft carrier Enterprise ran aground in SF Bay and was stuck for over five hours, yards from her berth at the Alameda Naval air Station.
1984 – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1984 – The largest sand castle in the world was completed near St. Petersburg, FL. It was four stories tall.
1986 – The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal, navigating from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to relieve the USS Coral Sea, on station across the “Line of Death” in the Gulf of Sidra off the coast of Libya. The transit began at 0300 and lasted 12 hours.
1987 – American engineer Ben Linder is killed in an ambush by U.S.-funded Contras in northern Nicaragua.
1987 – NBA announces expansion to Charlotte NC & Miami FL in 1988 & Minneapolis MN & Orlando FL in 1989.
1988 – Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle “C.B.” Lansing is blown out of Aloha Flight 243, a Boeing 737, and falls to her death when part of the plane’s fuselage rips open in mid-flight.
1989 – Mobil announced that they were divesting from South Africa because congressional restrictions were too costly.
1989 – President Bush announced the U.S. and Japan had concluded a deal on joint development of a new Japanese jet fighter, the FSX, despite concerns that U.S. technology secrets would be given away.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nothing Compares 2U” by Sinead O’Connor, “I Wanna Be Rich” by Calloway, “How Can We Be Lovers” by Michael Bolton and “Love on Arrival” by Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1990 – Boston Celtics score most points in a playoff, beat New York Knicks 157-128.
1990 – “Chorus Line” closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 6,137 performances (15 years).
1992 – Milwaukee Brewers beat Toronto Blue Jays 22-2 with American League record 31 hits in 9 innings.
1993 – The last A-6E Intruder departed from Marine Corps service. Marine All Weather Attack Squadron 332 transferred the last Marine A-6E to St. Augustine, Florida.
1993 – Secretary of Defense Les Aspin issues a directive allowing women to fly fighter aircraft in combat.
1993 – The first “Take Our Daughters to Work Day,” promoted by the New York City-based Ms. Foundation, was held to boost self-esteem of girls with invitations to a parent’s workplace.
1994 – Former C.I.A. official Aldrich Ames pleads guilty to giving U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and later Russia.
1996 – Whitewater controversy: Bill Clinton gives a 4½ hour videotaped testimony for the defense.
1998 – The Arizona Supreme Court struck down as unconstitutional a voter-approved law requiring English be used in official state and local business.
1998 – In San Francisco, Supervisor Mabel Tang announced that the Boy Scouts of America will be barred from taking part in a city charity drive due to the groups stance against admitting gays.
1998 – Public Radio Inc. of San Francisco received a NEA grant for $185,000 to create “Lost and Found Sound: An American Record.” The project will produce a series of radio programs for NPR to chronicle, reflect and celebrate the 20th century.
2001 – First Tourist in Space Millionaire Dennis Tito of California, aged 60, 20 million dollars – seats still available.
2002 – Storms hit the Ohio and Tennessee valleys with tornadoes in Missouri and Maryland. At least six people were killed.
2003 – Operation Iraqi Freedom: US soldiers opened fire on Iraqis at a nighttime demonstration against the American presence there after people shot at them with automatic rifles.
2003 – An environmental group reported that chemical perchlorate, the explosive ingredient in rocket fuel, was found in samples of lettuce traced to growers in southern California or Arizona.
2003 – Apple Computer revealed a new online music store, entitled the iTunes Music Store. Each song can be downloaded for 99 cents and there is no subscription fee.
2003 – A Mexicana de Aviación jet is forced to land at San Francisco International Airport in California after the pilot accidentally sets off the anti-terror alarm.
2004 – CBS broadcast photos on “60 Minutes” showing US abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – In Iraq a series of explosions and gunfire rocked Fallujah in new fighting the day after a heavy battle in which U.S. warplanes and artillery pounded the city in a show of force against Sunni insurgents.
2005 – The Ivory-billed Woodpecker, long thought to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the “Big Woods” area of Arkansas.
2005 – A military jury at Fort Bragg, N.C., sentenced Sgt. Hasan Akbar to death for the murders of two officers in Kuwait that occurred in 2003 .
2006 – Storms battered eastern Texas with wind up to 100 mph and hail the size of baseballs.
2006 – Congressman John Conyers and others file a lawsuit (Conyers v. Bush) against President George W. Bush alleging a violation of the United States Constitution in the passing of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
2006 – Five members of the United States Congress are arrested outside the Sudanese embassy in Washington, D.C., for protesting the Darfur genocide.
Rep. Tom Lantos, D-Calif., a Holocaust survivor who founded the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, James McGovern, John Olver of Massachusetts, Sheila Jackson Lee of Texas and Jim Moran of Virginia. They were arrested on charges of disorderly conduct and unlawful assembly, a misdemeanor subject to a fine.
2008 – Tornadoes sweep through central and southeastern Virginia injuring more than 200 people and damaging multiple houses. The National Weather Service states that tornadoes hit Suffolk, Virginia, Colonial Heights, Virginia and Brunswick County, Virginia.The Governor of Virginia Timothy Kaine declares a state of emergency in southern Virginia.
2008 – The US Supreme Court upheld Indian’s voter-ID law, passed in 2005. It ruled that states can require voters to produce photo identification without violating their constitutional rights, validating Republican-inspired voter ID laws.
2008 – In Washington truck drivers honked horns, waved placards and shouted through bullhorns at the Capitol to protest rising fuel prices they say are hurting their livelihood.
2009 – The US Supreme Court upheld an FCC rule penalizing broadcasters for isolated utterances of expletives before 10 pm.
2009 – In California a charter bus carrying French tourists overturned near Soledad killing at least five people.
2009 – Senator Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania switches from the Republican to the Democratic Party.
2010 – The US Coast Guard plans a controlled burn to remove spilled oil in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon disaster.
2010 – Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar approves Cape Wind, the nation’s first off-shore wind farm. It will be on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
2011 – President Barack Obama nominates General David Petraeus, current head of the war on Afghanistan, as his new CIA chief, and names outgoing CIA chief Leon Panetta as head of The Pentagon. (BBC)
2011 – U.S. retail giant Wal-Mart vows increased sales of weapons, including rifles and shotguns.
2012 – One person dies and more than 110 are injured when a tent collapses at a restaurant near Busch Stadium in St. Louis, Missouri.
2013 -A man repeatedly stabs choir members at St. Jude Thaddeus Parish in Albuquerque, NM for being ‘fake preachers’”. Witnesses said the man charged the choir just after communion yelling and began stabbing. Four were injured with two being critical.
1758 – James Monroe, 5th President of the United States (d. 1831)
1819 – Ezra Abbot, American Bible scholar (d. 1884)
1838 – Tobias Michael Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, Nobel laureate (d. 1913)
1878 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor (d. 1954)
1916 – Ferruccio Lamborghini, Italian automobile manufacturer (d. 1993)
1928 – Eugene M. Shoemaker, American planetary scientist (d. 1997)
1930 – James Baker, American politician
1941 – Ann-Margret, Swedish-born actress
1950 – Jay Leno, American comedian and television host
1954 – Ron Zook, American Football Coach
1955 – Paul Guilfoyle, American actor
1960 – Joel H. Rosenthal American political scientist
1974 – Penélope Cruz, Spanish actress
NEGRON, JUAN E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army. Place and date: Kalma-Eri, Korea, April 28th, 1951. Born: September 26, 1929, Corozal, Puerto Rico Entered Service at: Departed: Yes (3/29/1996)
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Sergeant Juan E. Negron distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea on April 28, 1951. That afternoon, Sergeant Negron took up the most vulnerable position on his company’s exposed right flank after an enemy force had overrun a section of the line. When notified that elements of his company were withdrawing, Sergeant Negron refused to leave his exposed position, instead delivering withering fire at hostile troops who had broken through a road block. When the hostile troops approached his position, Sergeant Negron accurately hurled hand grenades at short range, halting their attack. Sergeant Negron held the position throughout the night while friendly forces organized and launched a counterattack. The next morning, after the enemy had been repulsed, friendly forces relieved Sergeant Negron and found the bodies of fifteen enemy soldiers surrounding his position. Sergeant Negron’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company A, 6th Armored Infantry, 1st Armored Division. Place and date: Near MedjezelBab, Tunisia, April 28th, 1943. Entered service at: Carteret, N.J. Birth: Sedden, Poland. G.O. No.: 24, 25 March 1944. Citation: For distinguishing himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the loss of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy on 28 April 1943, in the vicinity of MedjezelBab, Tunisia. When the advance of the assault elements of Company A was held up by flanking fire from an enemy machinegun nest, Pvt. Minue voluntarily, alone, and unhesitatingly, with complete disregard of his own welfare, charged the enemy entrenched position with fixed bayonet. Pvt. Minue assaulted the enemy under a withering machinegun and rifle fire, killing approximately 10 enemy machinegunners and riflemen. After completely destroying this position, Pvt. Minue continued forward, routing enemy riflemen from dugout positions until he was fatally wounded. The courage, fearlessness and aggressiveness displayed by Pvt. Minue in the face of inevitable death was unquestionably the factor that gave his company the offensive spirit that was necessary for advancing and driving the enemy from the entire sector.
RUIZ, ALEJANDRO R. RENTERIA
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 165th Infantry, 27th Infantry Division. Place and date: Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, April 28th,1945. Entered service at: Carlsbad, N. Mex. Birth: Loving, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 60, 26 June 1946. Citation: When his unit was stopped by a skillfully camouflaged enemy pillbox, he displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. His squad, suddenly brought under a hail of machinegun fire and a vicious grenade attack, was pinned down. Jumping to his feet, Pfc. Ruiz seized an automatic rifle and lunged through the flying grenades and rifle and automatic fire for the top of the emplacement. When an enemy soldier charged him, his rifle jammed. Undaunted, Pfc. Ruiz whirled on his assailant and clubbed him down. Then he ran back through bullets and grenades, seized more ammunition and another automatic rifle, and again made for the pillbox. Enemy fire now was concentrated on him, but he charged on, miraculously reaching the position, and in plain view he climbed to the top. Leaping from one opening to another, he sent burst after burst into the pillbox, killing twelve of the enemy and completely destroying the position. Pfc. Ruiz’s heroic conduct, in the face of overwhelming odds, saved the lives of many comrades and eliminated an obstacle that long would have checked his unit’s advance.
HEYL, CHARLES H.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th, 1876. Entered service at: Camden, N.J. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 26 October 1897. Citation: Voluntarily, and with most conspicuous gallantry, charged with three men upon six Indians who were entrenched upon a hillside.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th, 1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 August 1876. Citation: Gallantry in charge on hostile Sioux.
LYTTON, JEPTHA L.
INDIAN WAR PERIOD
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Near Fort Hartsuff, Nebr., April 28th,1876. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lawrence County, Ind. Date of issue: 26 August 1876. Citation: Gallantry in charge on hostile Sioux.
After becoming a New York Yankee, Babe’s transition to a full-time outfielder became complete. Babe dominated the game, amassing numbers that had never been seen. He changed baseball from a grind it out style to one of power and high scoring games. He re-wrote the record books from a hitting standpoint, combining a high batting average with unbelievable power. The result was an assault on baseball’s most hallowed records. In 1920, he bested the homerun record he set in 1919 by belting a staggering 54 homeruns, a season in which no other player hit more than 19 and only one team hit more that Babe did individually. But Babe wasn’t done, as his 1921 season may have been the greatest in MLB history. That season, he blasted a new record of 59 homeruns, drove in 171 RBI, scored 177 runs, batted .376 and had an unheard of .846 slugging percentage. Babe was officially a superstar and enjoyed a popularity never seen before in professional baseball. With Babe leading the way, the Yankees became the most recognizable and dominant team in baseball, setting attendance records along the way. When the Yankees moved to a new stadium in 1923, it was appropriately dubbed “The House that Ruth Built”. After joining the Yankees prior to the 1920 season, Babe helped the Yankees capture seven pennants and four World Series titles. The 1927 team is still considered by many to be the greatest in baseball history. Upon retiring from the Boston Braves in 1935, Babe held an astonishing 56 major league records at the time, including the most revered record in baseball… 714 homeruns.
In 1936, the Baseball Hall of Fame was inaugurated and Babe was elected as one of its first five inductees. During the fall of 1946, it was discovered that Babe had a malignant tumor on his neck, and his health began to deteriorate quickly. On June 13, 1948, his jersey number “3” was retired by the Yankees during his last appearance at Yankee Stadium. Babe lost his battle with cancer on August 16, 1948. His body lay in repose in Yankee Stadium, with his funeral two days later at St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York. In all, over 100,000 people lined up and paid their respects to the Babe.
10 My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. 11 If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood, let us lurk privily for the innocent without cause:
12 Let us swallow them up alive as the grave; and whole, as those that go down into the pit:13 We shall find all precious substance, we shall fill our houses with spoil:14 Cast in thy lot among us; let us all have one purse:15 My son, walk not thou in the way with them; refrain thy foot from their path:16 For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.
” Our fates are in the hands of An Almighty God, to whom I can with pleasure confide my own; he can save us, or destroy us; his Councils are fixed and cannot be disappointed, and all his designs will be Accomplished.”
“When a defining moment comes along, you can do one of two things, define the moment or let the moment define you.”
~ Tin Cup
propinquity pruh-PING-kwih-tee, noun:
1. Nearness in place; proximity.
2. Nearness in time.
3.Nearness of relation; kinship.Propinquity derives from Latin propinquitas, from propinquus, near, neighboring, from prope, near.
4977 BC Johannes Kepler’s date for creation of universe.
1667 – The blind and impoverished, John Milton sells the copyright of Paradise Lost for £10.
1677 – Colonel Jeffreys became the governor of Virginia.
1773 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Tea Act, designed to save the British East India Company by granting it a monopoly on the North American tea trade.
1777 – Revolutionary War:The Battle of Ridgefield: An British invasion force engaged and defeated Continental Army regulars and militia irregulars at Ridgefield, Connecticut.
1805 – First Barbary War: United States Marines and Berbers attack the Tripolitan city of Derna (The “shores of Tripoli” part of the Marines’ hymn). Lt. Presley O’Bannon and seven Marines led the attack .
1813 – War of 1812: US troops capture the capital of Ontario, York (present day Toronto, Canada).
1813 – Zebulon Pike, discoverer of Pikes Peak, dies during a battle in the War of 1812 while leading an attack on British troops in Toronto.
1838 – Fire destroyed one-third of Charleston, SC. The fire broke out at 8:15 p.m. in a paint store, on the western side of King Street, corner of Beresford St. Over 1,000 homes were destroyed.
1859 – The Clipper ship U.S.S. “Pomona” sank in North Atlantic drowning all 400 aboard.
1860 – Thomas J Jackson (the future “Stonewall”) was assigned to command Harpers Ferry.
1861 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus which requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
1861 – Civil War: West Virginia seceded from Virginia after Virginia seceded from the Union during the Civil War.
1861 – Civil War: President Lincoln extended blockade of Confederacy to Virginia and North Carolina ports.
1861 – Civil War: US Secretary of the Navy Welles issued order for Union ships to seize Confederate privateers upon the high seas.
1862 – Civil War: Fort Livingston, Bastian Bay, Louisiana, surrendered to the Navy Boat crew from U.S.S. Kittatinny who raised the United States flag over the fort.
1863 – Civil War: The Army of the Potomac began marching on Chancellorsville.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Streight’s raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL.
1864 – Civil War: Union gunboats under Rear Admiral Porter fought a running engagement with Confederate troops and artillery along the Red River as they attempted to reach Alexandria.
1865 – The New York State Senate creates Cornell University as the state’s land grant institution.
1865 – The steamboat Sultana, carrying 2,400 passengers, explodes and sinks in the Mississippi River, killing 1,700, most of whom were Union survivors of the Andersonville Prison.
1877 – President Rutherford B. Hayes removed Federal troops from Louisiana. Reconstruction ended.
1880 – The first U.S. patent for an electric hearing aid was issued to Francis D. Clarke and M.G. Foster, titled a Device for Aiding the Deaf to Hear (No. 226,902).
1886 – A band of Apaches led by Geronimo attacked a ranch west of Fort Huachuca and killed three American citizens.
1897 – Grant’s Tomb dedicated. The occasion was a full public holiday, Grant Day, and attracted a throng of spectators to rival Grant’s funeral nearly twelve years earlier.
1899 – The Western Golf Association was founded in Chicago, IL.
1903 – Jamaica Race Track opened in Long Island, NY.
1903 – The publication of W.E.B. DuBois’s “The Souls of Black Folk” crystallized opposition to Booker T. Washington’s program of social and political subordination.
1903 – Maggie L. Walker named president of Richmond’s St. Luke Bank and Trust Company and became the first African American woman to head a bank.
1911 – Following the resignation and death of William P. Frye, a compromise is reached to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
1918 – The Battle of Ambos Nogales takes place between U.S. forces and Mexican Carrancistas aided by German military advisors.
1920 – Elijah McCoy “The Real McCoy” received a patent for an air brake pump lubricator.
1927 – Actress Mae West was released from jail after 10 days. She and the entire cast and producers of her Broadway play “Sex” had been thrown in jail. The 1926 Mae West comedy-drama “Sex” caused a scandal and police closed it down after 375 performances.
1933 – Karl Jansky reports reception of cosmic radio signal in Washington DC.
1935 – US Congress declared soil erosion “a national menace” in an act establishing the Soil Conservation Service in the Department of Agriculture.
1937 – The nation’s first Social Security checks were distributed. Ida May Fuller was the first American to receive a monthly benefit Social Security check. She received the check, amounting to $22.54, on January 31, 1940. first Social Security record , (055-09-0001) belonged to John D. Sweeney, Jr., age 23, of New Rochelle, New York.
1938 – Tommy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “I Hadn’t Anyone ’til You” with Jack Leonard as vocalist.
1938 – A colored baseball was used for the first time in any baseball game. The ball was yellow and was used between Columbia and Fordham Universities in New York City.
1940 – Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of Auschwitz concentration camp.
1941 – World War II: German troops enter Athens.
1942 – World War II: The first convoys of Japanese detainees arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of San Francisco. They stayed there for 169 days and most were then transferred to Abraham, Utah.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Belgium Jews were forced to wear stars.
1942 – Tornado destroyed Pryor, Oklahoma, killing 100 and injuring 300. The town was ultimately rebuilt.
1944 – World War II: Three American LST landing craft, conducting an invasion exercise (Exercise “Tiger”), are torpedoed by German E-boats in Lyme Bay. A total of 638 troops are killed. This incident is kept secret for fear of damaging Anglo-American relations. Lyme Bay is an area of the English Channel situated in the southwest of England between Torbay in the west and Portland in the east.
1944 – World War II: US troops occupy the main airstrip at Hollandia, New Guinea.
1944 – Dr. H. Corwin Hinshaw (d.2000) first treated four tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the newly developed streptomycin antibiotic. The animals were cured.
1945 – World War II: Forces of US 5th Army liberate Genoa, which is already substantially controlled by Italian partisan forces.
1945 – World War II: US forces capture Baguio, on Luzon. Fighting continues in the Bicol Peninsula.
1945 – World War II: A squadron of three cruisers and six destroyers, commanded by Admiral Berkey, make a preparatory bombardment of targets in the Tarakan area in the northeast of the island of Borneo.
1945 – World War II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier.
1945 – World War II: The Völkischer Beobachter, the newspaper of the Nazi Party, ceases publication.
1946 – First radar installation aboard a commercial ship installed. The craft was the SS African Star. The SS African Star was a 6,507 gross ton freighter that was built in 1942 at Los Angeles, CA.
1947 – Babe Ruth Day celebrated at Yankee Stadium & through the US.
1947 – The first broadcast of “Studio One” on CBS radio was broadcast.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by The Blue Barron Orchestra (vocal: ensemble), “Forever and Ever” by Perry Como, “”A” You’re Adorable” by Perry Como and “Candy Kisses” by George Morgan all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Munsan fell to communist forces as the CCF (Chinese Communist Forces) Spring Offensive continued.
1953 – Korean War: Operation Moolah is initiated by General Mark W. Clark against Communist pilots.The U.S. offered $50,000 and political asylum to any Communist pilot that delivered a MIG jet.
1953 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10450: Security Requirements for Government Employment. The order listed “sexual perversion” as a condition for firing a federal employee and for denying employment to potential applicants. Homosexuality, moral perversion, and communism were categorized as national security threats.
1956 – Heavyweight champion, Rocky Marciano, retires undefeated from boxing. He was credited with 43 knockouts.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “Little Darlin’” by The Diamonds, “Mama Look at Bubu” by Harry Belafonte and “Gone” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1959 – Lloyd Price’s song, “Personality“, was released.
1960 – First atomic powered electric-drive submarine launched. USS Tullibee was specially designed as a quiet hunter-killer for use in narrow waters. Tullibee, the second ship in the Navy to bear the name, it was the Navy’s first submarine to be equipped with the BQQ-2 Sonar system.
1961 – NFL officially recognizes Hall of Fame in Canton OH.
1963 – “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Game of Love” by Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders, “Mrs. Brown You’ve Got a Lovely Daughter” by Herman’s Hermits, “I Know a Place” by Petula Clark and “This is It” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – RC Duncan patents “Pampers” disposable diaper.
1965 – Edward R. Murrow (b.1908), newscaster (Person to Person), died of cancer in Pawling, N.Y. He had filed his first radio broadcast from London during the WW II German air raids.
1966 – After a US Air Force B-57 became reported overdue, the US Coast Guard Eastern Area Commander commenced an intensive air search. The 2-day, large-scale, over water search for the missing aircraft, all of which was coordinated by the U.S. Coast Guard, unfortunately, yielded negative results.
1968 – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro topped the charts.
1968 – Simon & Garfunkel’s “Mrs. Robinson” was released.
1972 – Apollo 16 returned to Earth.
1972 – Vietnam: North Vietnamese troops shatter defenses north of Quang Tri and move to within three miles of the city. Using Russian-built tanks, they took Dong Ha, seven miles north of Quang Tri, the next day and continued to tighten their ring around Quang Tri
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” by Dawn featuring Tony Orlando, “Sing” by Carpenters, “The Cisco Kid” by War, “Superman” by Donna Fargo all topped the charts.
1973 – Opryland opened in Nashville, TN.
1973 – Acting FBI Director L. Patrick Gray resigned after it was revealed that he had handed over bureau files on the Watergate burglary to the Nixon White House.
1974 – “TSOP” by MFSB featuring the Three Degrees topped the charts.
1974 – Ten thousand march in Washington, D.C., calling for impeachment of President Richard Nixon.
1975 – Vietnam: Saigon was encircled by North Vietnamese troops.
1978 – Former President Nixon aide John D. Ehrlichman is released from an Arizona prison after serving eighteen months for Watergate-related crimes.
1978 – In West Virginia fifty-one construction workers plunged to their deaths when a scaffold inside a cooling tower at the nuclear Pleasants Power Station on Willow Island fell 168 feet to the ground.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “Morning Train (Nine to Five)” by Sheena Easton, “Being with You” by Smokey Robinson and “A Headache Tomorrow (Or a Heartache Tonight)” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1981 – First female soccer official is hired by the North American Soccer League (NASL).
1981 – Xerox PARC introduces the computer mouse.
1982 – The trial of John W. Hinckley Jr. began in Washington. Hinckley was later acquitted by reason of insanity for the shooting of U.S. President Reagan and three others.
1983 – Nolan Ryan becomes strikeout king (3509), passing Walter Johnson.
1985 – “We Are the World” by USA for Africa topped the charts.
1986 – A video pirate calling himself Captain Midnight (John R MacDougall) interrupts HBO.
1987 – The U.S. Justice Department bars the Austrian President Kurt Waldheim from entering the United States, saying he had aided in the deportation and execution of thousands of Jews and others as a German Army officer during World War II.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like a Prayer” by Madonna, “Funky Cold Medina” by Tone Loc, “I’ll Be There for You” by Bon Jovi and “The Church on Cumberland Road” by Shenandoah all topped the charts.
1990 – Fiftieth annual barbershop quartet singing convention was held (Michigan).
1990 – The aperture door of the Hubble Space Telescope was opened by ground controllers as the space shuttle Discovery, which had carried the Hubble into orbit, prepared to return home.
1991 – “Baby Baby” by Amy Grant topped the charts.
1994 – President Richard Nixon buried in Nixon Library in California.
1996 – William Egan Colby (76), CIA Director, disappeared while canoeing near his waterfront home in southern Maryland. His body was found 8 days later.
1997 – A Texas militia group, called Republic of Texas, took two hostages at the Davis Mountain Resort community in a standoff with 300 police officers. They advocated independence for the state. The hostages were released later the next day in exchange for a jailed comrade.
1998 – A Pentagon panel said remains of the Vietnam veteran in the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery should be exhumed to determine whether they belonged to Air Force 1st Lt. Michael J. Blassie, as his family believed. The remains were later positively identified as Blassie’s.
1998 – In Arlington, Washington, a fire at a 90-year-old building, used as a home for the elderly, killed seven residents.
1999 – The US Pentagon announced a call for 33,102 reservists for active duty in Kosovo.
1999 – A week after the Columbine High School massacre, President Clinton called for new gun control measures, saying, “People’s lives are at stake here.”
1999 – Al Hirt, “The King of the Trumpet,” died in New Orleans at age 76. Samples: September Song, Rhapsody In Blue, and Begin the Beguine.
2001 – The US National Arbor Day Foundation announced that the oak tree was nominated as the national tree in its sponsored vote.
2002 – Ruth Handler (85), co-founder of Mattel and creator of the Barbie doll (1959), died.
2002 – In Laughlin, Nev., members of the Hells Angels clashed with members of the Mongol gang and 3 people were killed in a shootout at Harrah’s. Some 80,000 bikers were in town for the annual Laughlin River Run party.
2002 – The last successful telemetry from the NASA space probe Pioneer 10.
2002 – Derek Lowe (news ) of the Boston Red Sox pitched a no-hitter against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays, 10-0.
2003 – Pitcher Kevin Millwood of baseball team the Philadelphia Phillies, throws a no-hitter against the San Francisco Giants.
2004 – Iraq: U.S. troops fought gunbattles with militiamen overnight near the city of Najaf, killing 64 gunmen and destroying an anti-aircraft system belonging to the insurgents.
2005 – President Bush called for construction of more nuclear power plants and urged Congress to give tax breaks for fuel-efficient hybrid and clean-diesel cars.
2005 – The U.S. House of Representatives votes 406-20 to rescind controversial Republican ethics rules, in order to end a stalemate in the evenly-divided Ethics Committee since their introduction in January.
2005 – The A380, the world’s largest jetliner, completed its maiden flight. The passenger capability was 840. There do not appear to be any in use by US air carriers. Update 2012, it is still flying in US airspace but is NOT owned by US Air Carriers.
2006 – Alberto Gonzales, the US Attorney General, said police nationwide had arrested 9,037 people in a roundup of fugitives from April 17 to 23, including over 1,100 sex offenders.
2006 – Construction begins on the Freedom Tower for the new World Trade Center in New York City to be completed in 2012. The 1,776-foot tower is the centerpiece of the rebuilding effort.
2007 – Randall Tobias, head of the Bush administration’s foreign aid programs, abruptly resigned after his name surfaced in an investigation into a high-priced call-girl ring.
2007 – The US dollar slid to a record low against the euro. The worst economic growth in four years raised concern that troubles in the US housing market will spread and throw the country into a recession before the year is out.
2008 – In Arizona a truck jammed with as many as sixty illegal immigrants crashed near Arizona City killing four people.
2008 – It was made public that Mars Inc. of McLean, Va., together with Berkshire Hathaway had agreed to acquire Wrigley Co. of Chicago, Ill., for about $23 billion. The deal closed on Oct 6.
2009 – Still reeling from the World Trade Center destruction, a low-flying Boeing VC-25, Air Force One, causes momentary panic in New York City, New York.
2009 – General Motors Corp. said it will cut 21,000 US factory jobs by next year, phase out its storied Pontiac brand and ask the government to take more than half its stock in exchange for half of GM’s government debt as part of a major restructuring that would leave current shareholders holding just 1 percent of the company.
2009 -Five members of the US Congress were arrested while protesting the expulsion of aid groups from Darfur in front of the Sudanese Embassy in Washington, DC. The included Democratic Reps. Keith Ellison of Minnesota, Jim McGovern of Massachusetts, John Lewis of Georgia, Donna Edwards of Maryland and Lynn Woolsey of California.
2010 – A US Senate investigation finds that Goldman Sachs made billions of dollars at the expense of its clients during the collapse of the housing market.
2010 – The evangelical group Noah’s Ark Ministries International claims to have found a 4800 year old wood structure that they are “99.9 percent” certain is the remains of Noah’s Ark.
2011 – Extreme storms in Alabama cause the temporary closure of three Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear reactors and knocking out eleven high-voltage power lines.
2011 – At least 54 people have died in the storms of Tuesday and Wednesday with 40 people dead in Alabama, five in Mississippi and one in Arkansas.
2011 – Sony’s PlayStation Network remains offline after a worldwide security breach obtains 77 million of users’ personal information, making this the largest breach of personal information in history.
2013 – A Mississippi man has been arrested by federal agents in connection with the ricin-laced letters sent to President Obama and two other public officials. The suspect Everett Dutschke, 41, is a martial arts instructor. He was taken into custody by U.S. marshals at his home in Tupelo, Miss.
2013 – US Supreme Court Justice Stephen G. Breyer is taken to hospital by ambulance after he breaks his shoulder in a fall from his bicycle.
2015 – Young protesters in Baltimore, Maryland hurl rocks, bricks and bottles at police as tensions rise in the city over the death of Freddie Gray, who suffered a severe spinal cord injury after an arrest this month.
2015 – Chipotle Mexican Grill, a fast food chain, will only serve food that’s devoid of genetically modified ingredients (GMO’s). This will be a first for a major restaurant chain.
1718 – Thomas Lewis, Irish-born Virginia settler (d. 1790)
1724 – Col. Thomas Gardner, a heroic political figure and soldier (d. 1775)
1791 – Samuel F. B. Morse, American inventor (d. 1872)
1812 – William W. Snow, American politician (d. 1886)
1822 – Ulysses S. Grant, Civil War general and 18th President of the United States (d. 1885)
1894 – George Petty, WWII Pin-Up Artist (d. 1975)
1899 – Walter Lantz, American cartoonist (d. 1994)
1922 – Jack Klugman, American actor
1927 – Coretta Scott King, American civil rights activist and wife of Martin Luther King, Jr. (d. 2006)
1939 – Judy Carne, British actress and comedian.”Sock it to me” on Rowan & Martin’s “Laugh-in.”
1944 – Cuba Gooding, Sr., American musician (The Main Ingredient)
1948 – Frank William Abagnale, Jr., con artist turned security consultant.
1972 – David Lascher, American actor
Rank and organization: Coxwain, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Yokohama, Japan, April 27th, 1902. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York. G.O. No.: 93, 7 July 1902. Citation: For heroism in rescuing Walenty Wisnieroski, Machinist Second Class, from drowning at Yokohama, Japan, 27 April 1902, while serving on board the U.S.S. Yorktown.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Rio Grande de la Pampanga, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th, 1899. Entered service at: Iola, Kans. Birth: Springfield, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 February 1900. Citation: Crossed the river on a raft and by his skill and daring enabled the general commanding to carry the enemy’s entrenched position on the north bank of the river and to drive him with great loss from the important strategic position of Calumpit.
TREMBLEY, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Calumpit, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th,1899. Entered service at: Kansas City, Kans. Birth: Johnson, Kans. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy’s fire and fastened a rope to the occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: At Calumpit, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 27th,1899. Entered service at: Kansas City, Kans. Birth: Seneca, Kans. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Swam the Rio Grande de Pampanga in face of the enemy’s fire and fastened a rope to occupied trenches, thereby enabling the crossing of the river and the driving of the enemy from his fortified position.
INTERIM 1871- 1898
Rank and organization: Captain of the Mizzen Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Louisiana. Citation: For gallant conduct in jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Plymouth, at sea, and rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel on April 27th, 1876.
BURRITT, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 27th,1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Campbell, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 July 1896. Citation: Voluntarily acted as a fireman on a steam tug which ran the blockade and passed the batteries under a heavy fire.
The Richter Magnitude Scale
Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth; they are recorded on instruments called seismographs. Seismographs record a zig-zag trace that shows the varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. Sensitive seismographs, which greatly magnify these groundmotions, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world. The time, location, and magnitude of an earthquake can be determined from the data recorded by seismograph stations.
The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included in the magnitude formula to compensate for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the earthquakes.
On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude of 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value.
A majority of quakes register less than 3 on the Richter scale; these tremors, called microquakes, aren’t even felt by humans. Only a tiny portion — 15 or so of the 1.4 million quakes that register above 2.0 — register at 7 or above, which the threshold for a quake being considered major [source: USGS]. The biggest quake in recorded history was the 9.5 quake that struck Chile in 1960. It killed nearly 1,900 people and caused about $4 billion in damage in 2010 dollars [source: USGS]. Generally, you won’t see much damage from earthquakes that register below 4 on the Richter scale.
At first, the Richter Scale could be applied only to the records from instruments of identical manufacture. Now, instruments are carefully calibrated with respect to each other. Thus, magnitude can be computed from the record of any calibrated seismograph.
Great earthquakes, such as the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Alaska, have magnitudes of 8.0 or higher. On the average, one earthquake of such size occurs somewhere in the world each year. Although the Richter Scale has no upper limit, the largest known shocks have had magnitudes in the 8.8 to 8.9 range. Recently, another scale called the moment magnitude scale has been devised for more precise study of great earthquakes.
Richter ratings only give you a rough idea of the actual impact of an earthquake, though. As we’ve seen, an earthquake’s destructive power varies depending on the composition of the ground in an area and the design and placement of man-made structures. The extent of damage is rated on the Mercalli scale. Mercalli ratings, which are given as Roman numerals, are based on largely subjective interpretations. A low intensity earthquake, one in which only some people feel the vibration and there is no significant property damage, is rated as a II. The highest rating, a XII, is applied to earthquakes in which structures are destroyed, the ground is cracked and other natural disasters, such as landslides or tsunamis, are initiated.
Deuteronomy 8 1599 Geneva Bible (GNV)
1 Ye shall keep all the commandments which I command thee this day, for [a]to do them: that ye may live, and be multiplied, and go in, and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers. 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee this forty years in the wilderness, for to humble thee, and to [b]prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments or no.
3 Therefore he humbled thee, and made thee hungry, and fed thee with Manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know it, that he might teach thee that man lived not by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord, doth a man live. 4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell those forty years.
5 Know therefore in thine heart, that as a man nurtureth his son, so the Lord thy God nurtureth thee.
“Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God.”
“Be of good cheer. Do not think of today’s failures, but of the success that may come tomorrow. You have set yourselves a difficult task, but you will succeed if you persevere; and you will find joy in overcoming obstacles. Remember, no effort that we make to attain something beautiful is ever lost.”
~ Helen Keller
cogent \KOH-juhnt\, adjective:
Having the power to compel conviction; appealing to the mind or to reason; convincing.
Cogent derives from Latin cogere, “to drive together, to force,” from co-, “with, together” + agere, “to drive.”
1478 – Easter is celebrated for the first time.
1514 – Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn.
1521 – Magellan was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Magellan named the Mariana Islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves), and was killed by natives on Cebu.
1564 – William Shakespeare was baptized. (Date of birth unknown)
1607 – English colonists of the Jamestown settlement make landfall at Cape Henry, Virginia. They found “fair meadows and goodly tall trees, with such fresh waters running through the woods.”
1655 – Dutch West Indies Co. denied Peter Stuyvesant’s desire to exclude Jews from New Amsterdam.
1717 – Pirate Black Sam Bellamy died along with 143 others when their ship, the Whydah, sank off of Wellfleet, Cape Cod.
1777 – Sybil Ludington, daughter of Col. Henry Ludington, rode from NY to Ct rallying her father’s militia to the approach of enemy troops. Her action was similar to that performed by Paul Revere, though she rode more than twice the distance of Revere and was only 16 years old at the time of her action.
1805 – United States Marines captured Derne, Tripoli under the command of First Lieutenant Presley O’Bannon.
1819 – The first Odd Fellows lodge in the U.S. was established in Baltimore, MD. The family of Oddfellowship, composed of Men, Women, and Youth, believing in a supreme being, the creator and preserver of the universe, who have come together in our local communities having the same beliefs and values as others, that; Friendship, Love and Truth are the basic guidelines that we need to follow in our daily lives.
1844 – African American pioneer Jim Beckwourth discovered a path through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that now bear his name. Beckwourth Pass on U.S. Alt 40 between Reno, Nevada and Sacramento, California made overland travel to the gold fields of California possible.
1856 – The Nataqua Territory was formed in the area between California and Utah. It was formed as a tax dodge and was led by Peter Lassen and Isaac Roop.
1862 – Civil War: Fort Macon, North Carolina, surrendered to combined land-sea forces under Commander Lockwood and Brigadier General John G. Parke. U.S.S. Daylight, State of Georgia, Chippewa, and Gemsbok heavily bombarded the fort.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Joseph Johnston surrenders his army to General William Tecumseh Sherman at the Bennett Place near Durham, North Carolina.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Tobacco, VA.
1865 – Civil War: Union cavalry troopers corner and shoot dead John Wilkes Booth, President Lincoln’s assassin, at John M. Garrett’s farm three miles outside Port Royal, Virginia in a burning tobacco barn.
1881 – Frederick Allen patented a life raft.
1892 – Sarah Boone patented an ironing board. Boone’s ironing board was made of a narrow wooden board, with collapsible legs and a padded cover and was specifically designed for the fitted clothing worn during that time period, particularly the sleeves and bodices of ladies’ garments.
1898 – African American J.A. Joyce received Patent No. 603,143 for a new and inovate Coal or Ore Bucket.
1906 – In Hawaii, motion pictures were shown for the first time.
1912 – Hugh Bradley of the Red Sox hit the first homerun at Fenway Park.
1921 – Weather broadcasts were heard for the first time on St. Louis radio station WEW.
1931 – “Lum and Abner” debuts on NBC radio. This team delighted radio audiences for the next 25 years.
1931 – New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hit a home run but was called out for passing a runner.
1932 – Ed Wynn was heard on radio’s “Texaco Star Theater”. Wynn, a popular vaudeville performer, demanded a live audience to react to his humor if he was to make the switch to radio.
1933 – The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.
1933 – Jewish students were barred from school in Germany.
1937 – LIFE magazine’s name left off its front page.
1937 – “Lorenzo Jones” (12:32) premiered on NBC radio.
1938 – Austrian Jews required to register property above 5,000 Reichsmarks.
1941 – A tradition begins, first organ at a baseball stadium. The Chicago Cubs were the first team to install an organ with Roy Nelson at the keyboard.
1943 – World War II: Admiral McMorris bombards the Japanese held harbors on Attu Island in the Aleutians.
1943 – World War II:New plans are approved for the Solomon Islands operations, code named “Cartwheel”.
1944 – World War II:First B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters, one fighter shot down.
1945 – World War II: Marshal Henri Philippe Petain, the head of France’s Vichy government was arrested.
1945 – World War II: Battle of Bautzen – last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht.
1946 – Father Divine, a controversial religious leader who claims to be God, marries the much-younger Edna Rose Ritchings, a celebrated anniversary in the International Peace Mission movement.
1946 – The Naperville train disaster occurred at the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad station in Naperville, Illinois. The wreck occurred when the railroad’s Exposition Flyer rammed into the Advance Flyer, which had made an unscheduled stop to check its running gear. The Exposition Flyer had been coming through on the same track at 85 miles per hour). Forty-seven people died, and approximately 125 were injured.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “Manana” by Peggy Lee, “The Dickey Bird Song” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Glenn Hughes) and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The XP-86 prototype for the Sabre Jet first “officially” breaks the sound barrier.
1952 – Korean War : Air Force Major William H. Wescott, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, scored his fifth aerial victory to become the 12th ace of the Korean War.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – US minesweeper “Hobson” rammed the aircraft carrier “Wasp,” and 176 were killed when the minesweeper sank.
1952 – Patty Berg set a new record for major women’s golf competition when she shot a 64 over 18 holes in a tournament in Richmond, CA.
1954 – Nationwide test of Salk anti-polio vaccine begins. It was announced on April 12th, 1955 that it had been successful. It was the tenth anniversary of FDR’s death.
1954 – Grace Kelly was seen on the cover of “LIFE” magazine.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “Ivory Tower” by Cathy Carr and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 -The SS Ideal X, the world’s first successful container ship, leaves Port Newark, New Jersey for Houston, Texas.
1958 – “Twilight Time” by the Platters topped the charts.
1958 – Final run of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s Royal Blue from Washington, D.C., to New York City after 68 years, the first U.S. passenger train to use electric locomotives.
1961 – Roger Maris hits first of 61 homers in 1961.
1962 – NASA’s Ranger 4 spacecraft crashes into the Moon.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by The Beatles, “Twist and Shout” by The Beatles, “Do You Want to Know a Secret” by The Beatles and “Understand Your Man” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1964 – NBA CHAMPIONSHIP – 18th NBA Championship Boston Celtics beat San Francisco Warriors, 4 games to 1.
1966 – Arnold “Red” Auerbach retires as Boston Celtic’s coach. Just three years after Bob Cousy.
1968 – United States exploded a one-megaton nuclear device called “Boxcar” beneath the Nevada desert.
1968 – Students seized the administration building at Ohio State University.
1969 – “Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In” by 5th Dimension topped the charts.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” – Roberta Flack, “Rockin’ Robin” by Michael Jackson, “I Gotcha” by Joe Tex and “Chantilly Lace” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1973 – The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) was founded.
1975 – “(Hey Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by B. J. Thomas topped the charts.
1976 – Pan Am began non-stop flights between NYC and Tokyo.
1977 – NY’s famed disco Studio 54 opened. It closed in March, 1986.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Call Me” by Blondie, “Ride like the Wind” by Christopher Cross, “With You I’m Born Again” by Billy Preston & Syreeta and “A Lesson in Leavin’” by Dottie West all topped the charts.
1980 – Following an unsuccessful attempt on April 24th by the United States to rescue our Embassy hostages in Iran, the Tehran government announced that captives were being scattered to thwart any future effort.
1981 – Dr. Michael R. Harrison of the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center performs the world’s first human open fetal surgery.
1983 – Dow Jones Industrial Average broke 1,200 for first time.
1984 – President Reagan arrived in China for the start of a six-day visit.
1986 – The world’s worst nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire in the No. 4 reactor sent radioactivity into the atmosphere; at least 31 Soviets died immediately.
1986 – “Kiss” by Prince & the Revolution topped the charts.
1987 – Tennis star Chris Evert won her 150th career tennis tournament. She beat Martina Navratilova in Houston, TX.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go” by Whitney Houston, “Devil Inside” by INXS, “Wishing Well” by Terence Trent D’Arby and “I’ll Always Come Back” by K.T. Oslin all topped the charts.
1988 – NBA approves addition of a third referee in the 1988-89 season.
1989 – Lucille Ball (b.1911), Actress-comedian and star of I Love Lucy, died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles at age 77.
1991 – Seventy tornadoes break out in the central US. Before the outbreak’s end, Andover, Kansas, would record the year’s only F5 tornado.
1991 – Maryann Bishop Coffey is named the first woman and the first African American co-chair of the National Conference of Christians and Jews.
1993 – Conan O’Brien was named to succeed David Letterman as host of NBC’s “Late Night” program.
1994 – Physicists announce first evidence of the top quark subatomic particle.
1995 – The US Supreme Court led by Chief Justice William Rehnquist overturned a federal law banning gun possession near schools on the grounds that it was beyond the scope of congress power to regulate interstate commerce.
1996 – The Effingham Baptist Church in Effingham, S.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – Bubba Blackwell began his career when he jumped 20 cars in Everett, Massachusetts, breaking the 19 car record held by Evel Knievel.
1999 – Detroit and Wayne County filed suits for over $800 million against 35 manufacturers, distributors and sellers of firearms.
1999 – The FDA approved an obesity drug, Xenical from Roche Holdings, that works by absorbing body fat.
2000 – Vermont Governor Howard Dean signed the nation’s first bill allowing same-sex couples to form civil unions.
2001 – A US federal judge ruled that military exercises could resume on Vieques Island. Puerto Ricans mobilized for mass demonstrations.
2001 – A group led by Larry Silverstein, a NYC developer, and Westfield America Inc., signed a 99-year lease on the 11-million square-foot WTC complex from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
2003 – Charlton Heston (78), diagnosed with symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, made his last appearance as president of the National Rifle Association during a convention in Orlando, Fla., where he briefly thanked the membership.
2003 – Hiker and mountain climber Aron Ralston is stuck for five days in Blue John Canyon after an 800 pound rock falls on his right arm, pinning it to the canyon wall. He was forced to amputate his own right forearm with a multi-tool after it became trapped by that boulder.
2004 – The US unveiled a new $50 bill to make counterfeiting more difficult. The new or upgraded security features of the $50 note include a watermark, security thread and color-shifting ink. The design also features shades of red, white and blue.
2004 – Nick Holonyak Jr., inventor of the light-emitting diode (LED), receives the 10th annual Lemelson-MIT Prize, awarded to prominent inventors by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
2005 – US Congressional aides said global terrorist attacks rose to 650 in 2004 from 175 in 2003.
2005 – A federal jury in Virginia convicted Islamic scholar Ali al-Timini of urging followers to join the Taliban and fight the US after the 9/11 attacks.
2007 – The Dow-Jones Industrial Average rose 15.61 to a record 13,105.50. Nasdaq rose 6.57 to 2,554.
2007 – New Hampshire became “…the first state to embrace same-sex unions without a court order or the threat of one.”
2008 – Eos Airlines, a business-class carrier launched in 2005, filed for bankruptcy. It ceased operations the next day.
2008 – A wildfire broke out in southern California, 10 miles northeast of Pasadena. Officials the next day said that it has scorched 270 acres and forced the evacuation of about 100 homes in neighborhoods might not be under control for days.
2009 – The United States declares a public health emergency over the outbreak of swine influenza.
2010 – Robotic submarines attempt to stop leaking oil in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion.
2010 – By a 6-5 margin, a United States federal appeals court rules that a sex-discrimination lawsuit, the largest employment discrimination case in history, against Wal-Mart can continue.
2010 – The US Supreme Court agrees to hear a case challenging laws that forbid the selling of violent video games to minors.
2011 – U.S. television personality Katie Couric announces that she will no longer host the CBS Evening News at the end of June.
2011 – Thousands of residents in Poplar Bluff, Missouri are evacuated as the Black River overflows its banks.
2011 – President Barack Obama is criticized by supporters of U.S. serviceman Bradley Manning for interfering in any future trial after Obama is caught on camera accusing Manning of breaking the law.
2012 – The National Football League draft begins in New York City’s Radio City Music Hall, with quarterbacks Andrew Luck and Robert Griffin III the first two players chosen.
2013 – Boston Marathon bombings suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev is transferred from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to the federal prison facility in Fort Devens, Massachusetts.
2013 – Country music singer George Jones dies at the age of 81.
2014 – A dangerous storm system that spawned a chain of deadly tornadoes over three days flattened homes and businesses. As the storm moved across a large swath of the U.S., the overall death toll was more than 30, in a band stretching from Oklahoma to Alabama.
121 – Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor (d. 180).
570 – Muhammed, founder of Islam, according to the Shi’a sect. Other sources suggest April 20.
1564 – William Shakespeare, English poet and playwright (d. 1616)
1718 – Esek Hopkins, American Revolutionary War admiral (d. 1802)
1785 – John James Audubon, French-American naturalist and illustrator (d. 1851) 1804 – Charles Goodyear, American politician (d. 1876)
1826 – George Hull Ward, American general (d. 1863)
1826 – Ambrose R. Wright, American CIVIL WAR General (d. 1872)
1900 – Charles Richter, American geophysicist (d. 1985)
1933 – Carol Burnett, American comedian
1961 – Anthony Cumia, American radio personality (The Opie and Anthony Show)
*ESTOCIN, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Captain (then Lt. Cmdr.), U.S. Navy, Attack Squadron 192, USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14). Place and date: Haiphong, North Vietnam, 20th and April 26th, 1967. Entered service at: Akron Ohio, 2() July 1954. Born: 27 April 1931, Turtle Creek, Pa. Citation. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on 20 and 26 April 1967. He was a pilot in Attack Squadron 192, embarked in USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14). Leading a three-plane group of aircraft in support of a coordinated strike against two thermal power plants in Haiphong, North Vietnam, on 20 April 1967, Capt. Estocin provided continuous warnings to the strike group leaders of the surface-to-air missile (SAM) threats, and personally neutralized three SAM sites. Although his aircraft was severely damaged by an exploding missile, he reentered the target area and relentlessly prosecuted a SHRIKE attack in the face of intense antiaircraft fire. With less than five minutes of fuel remaining he departed the target area and commenced in-flight refueling which continued for over one-hundred miles. Three miles aft of Ticonderoga, and without enough fuel for a second approach, he disengaged from the tanker and executed a precise approach to a fiery, arrested landing. On 26 April 1967, in support of a coordinated strike against the vital fuel facilities in Haiphong, he led an attack on a threatening SAM site, during which his aircraft was seriously damaged by an exploding SAM; nevertheless, he regained control of his burning aircraft and courageously launched his SHRIKE missiles before departing the area. By his inspiring courage and unswerving devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger, Captain Estocin upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*DUKE, RAY E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Mugok, Korea, April 26th, 1951. Entered service at: Whitwell (Marion County), Tenn. Born: 9 May 1923, Whitwell, Tenn. G.O. No.: 20, 19 March 1954. Citation: Sfc. Duke, a member of Company C, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Upon learning that several of his men were isolated and heavily engaged in an area yielded by his platoon when ordered to withdraw, he led a small force in a daring assault which recovered the position and the beleaguered men. Another enemy attack in strength resulted in numerous casualties but Sfc. Duke, although wounded by mortar fragments, calmly moved along his platoon line to coordinate fields of fire and to urge his men to hold firm in the bitter encounter. Wounded a second time he received first aid and returned to his position. When the enemy again attacked shortly after dawn, despite his wounds, Sfc. Duke repeatedly braved withering fire to insure maximum defense of each position. Threatened with annihilation and with mounting casualties, the platoon was again ordered to withdraw when Sfc. Duke was wounded a third time in both legs and was unable to walk. Realizing that he was impeding the progress of two comrades who were carrying him from the hill, he urged them to leave him and seek safety. He was last seen pouring devastating fire into the ranks of the onrushing assailants. The consummate courage, superb leadership, and heroic actions of Sfc. Duke, displayed during intensive action against overwhelming odds, reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
|SHELTON, GEORGE M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company 1, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At La Paz, Leyte, Philippine Islands, April 26th, 1900. Entered service at: Bellington, Tex. Birth: Brownwood, Tex. Date of issue: 10 March 1902. Citation: Advanced alone under heavy fire of the enemy and rescued a wounded comrade.
|CODY, WILLIAM F.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank: Civilian Scout. Born: Scott County, Iowa. Organization: 3rd Cavalry U.S. Army. Place and Date: Platte River, Nebraska April 26th, 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
(In 1916, the general review of all Medals of Honor deemed 900 unwarranted. This recipient was one of them. In June 1989, the U.S. Army Board of Correction of Records restored the medal to this recipient.)
This man was later known as “Buffalo Bill”
|FOLEY, JOHN H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
|STRAYER, WILLIAM H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Forke, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Maytown, Pa. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
|VOKES, LEROY H.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company B, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Loupe Fork, Platte River, Nebr., April 26th, 1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lake County, Ill. Date of issue: 22 May 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: New York G.O. No.: 62, 29 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on Acting Rear Admiral Thatcher’s staff. During the terrific fire at Mobile, on April 26th, 1865, at the risk of being blown to pieces by exploding shells, Cooper advanced through the burning locality, rescued a wounded man from certain death, and bore him on his back to a place of safety.
Administrative Professionals Day
Red Hat Society
“The Red Hat Society began as a result of a few women deciding to greet middle age with verve, humor and elan. We believe silliness is the comedy relief of life, and since we are all in it together, we might as well join red-gloved hands and go for the gusto together. Underneath the frivolity, we share a bond of affection, forged by common life experiences and a genuine enthusiasm for wherever life takes us next.”– Sue Ellen Cooper,
Oh! there is danger in thrift stores and at yard sales but sometimes, yes, sometimes some really good ideas happen. The story behind the Red Hat Society goes something like this: While visiting a friend in Tucson, Sue Ellen Cooper impulsively bought a bright red fedora at a thrift shop and for no other reason than that it was cheap, she thought it was quite dashing. A year or two later she read the poem “Warning” by Jenny Joseph, which depicts an older woman in purple clothing with a red hat. Sue Ellen felt an immediate kinship with Ms. Joseph. She decided that her birthday gift to her dear friend, Linda Murphy, would be a vintage red hat and a copy of the poem. She has always enjoyed whimsical decorating ideas, so she thought the hat would look nice hanging on a hook next to the framed poem. Linda got so much enjoyment out of the hat and the poem that Sue Ellen gave the same gift to another friend, then another, then another.
One day it occurred to these friends that they were becoming a sort of “Red Hat Society” and that perhaps they should go out to tea… in full regalia. They decided they would find purple dresses which didn’t go with their red hats to complete the poem’s image.
The tea was a smashing success.
Soon, each of them thought of another woman or two she wanted to include, and they bought more red hats. Their group swelled to 18, and they began to encourage other interested people to start their own chapters (18 women don’t fit well around a tea table). One of their members passed along the idea to a friend of hers in Florida, and their first “sibling” group was born.
Sue Ellen’s fondest hope is that these societies will proliferate far and wide. We have now held three successful Red Hat Society conventions entire hotels filled with women of a certain age wearing red hats and purple outfits! Could world domination be far behind?
If you access from here, please tell them you heard about them from Unerased History!!
2 Corinthians 4:8-11 King James Version (KJV)
8 We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair; 9 Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed; 10 Always bearing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. 11 For we which live are always delivered unto death for Jesus’ sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.
“A wise and frugal government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government, and this is necessary to close the circle of our felicity.”
Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address.
“Only as high as I reach, can I grow, only as far as I seek can I go, only as deep as I look can I see, only as much as I dream can I be.”
~ Karen Ravn
absquatulate (ab-SKWOCH-uh-layt) verb intransitive
To leave in a hurry; to flee.
A Mock-Latinate formation, from ab- (away) + squat + -ulate (as in congratulate). First cited from the late 1830s.
1507 – Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World “America,” for the first time in his book “Cosmographiae Introductio,” and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it.
1684 – A patent was granted for the thimble. The earliest known thimble was Roman and was found at Pompeii. This was the first patent.
1719 – Daniel Defoes publishes “Robinson Crusoe.”
1781 – Gen. Nathanael Greene engaged British forces at Hobkirk’s Hill, South Carolina, and was forced to retreat.
1792 – Highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier becomes the first person under French law executed by guillotine.
1819 – The Revenue cutter Active captured the pirate vessel Irresistible in the Chesapeake Bay.
1831 – The New York and Harlem Railway was incorporated in New York City.
1846 – The Mexican-American War ignited as a result of disputes over claims to Texas boundaries. It was called the Thornton Affair. The outcome of the war fixed Texas’ southern boundary at the Rio Grande River.
1847 – The last survivors of the Donner Party are out of the wilderness.
1854 – The Gadsden Purchase was ratified in the US.
1860 – The first Japanese ambassador to the US, Niimi Buzennokami, and his 74-man staff arrived in Washington to present their credentials to President James Buchanan.
1861 – Civil War: The Union Army arrives in Washington, D.C.
1862 – Civil War: Forces under Union Admiral David Farragut capture the Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of Marks’ Mills.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate force captures a Union wagon train trying to supply the Federal force at Camden, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War: After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returned to Alexandria, LA.
1865 – Four of the five Lincoln assassination suspects arrested on the 17th were imprisoned on the monitors U.S.S. Montauk and Saugus which had been prepared for this purpose on the 15th and were anchored off the Washington Navy Yard in the Anacostia River.
1873 – The Beaumaris Castle, an English sailing ship was shipwrecked on the Mills Breakers in the Bermuda coral reefs.
1876 – The first major league team in Chicago was the Cubs, who played in the inaugural National League season of 1876 and were known as the White Stockings at that time.
1891 – President Benjamin Harrison visited San Francisco. This was just 41 years after it became a city.
1896 – A fight at the Central Dance Hall in the red light district knocked over a kerosene lamp and started a fire that burned down a good part of Cripple Creek, CO.
1896 – In Kansas a tornado swept through several counties killing at least nine people in Clay County. Twenty-seven farms were destroyed.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The U.S. Congress recognizes that a state of war exists between the United States and Spain as of this date. Spain had declared war on the U.S. on the 24th.
1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile license plates. The “fee” was $1 and the motorists was required to make their own.
1901 – In last of 9th, Detroit Tigers, trailing by 13-4, score 10 runs to win one of the greatest comebacks in baseball (1st game in Detroit).
1913 – The formal charter of the Marine Corps Association was established.
1914 – First combat observation mission by Navy plane, at Veracruz, Mexico.
1928 – Buddy, a German Shepherd, becomes first guide dog for the blind. He was originally trained in Switzerland, then he was placed with Morris Frank in the United States.
1933 – US & Canada drop Gold Standard. The use of gold came to an end in 1933 when President Franklin D. Roosevelt outlawed private gold ownership (except for the purposes of jewelry).
1938 – U.S. Supreme Court delivers opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns almost a century of federal civil procedure case law, and established the foundation of what remains the modern law of diversity jurisdiction as it applies to United States federal courts.
1938 – “Your Family and Mine,” a radio serial, was first broadcast.
1939 – DC Comics publishes its second major superhero in Detective Comics #27; he is Batman.
1940 – W2XBS (now WCBS-TV) in New York City presented the first circus on TV.
1943 – World War II: American bombers raid an airfield around Bari, Italy in the south.
1944 – The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.
1945 – World War II : Elbe Day: United States and Russian troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the approaching end of World War II in Europe.
1945 – World War II: The Nazi occupation army leaves Northern Italy after a general partisan insurrection by the Italian resistance movement. This day is taken as symbolic of the Liberation of Italy.
1945 – World War II: Soviet forces complete the encirclement of Berlin near Ketzin.
1945 – World War II: American planes strike Skoda Works near Pilsen, Czechoslovakia.
1945 – World War II: Last B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
1946 – Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra recorded “Cement Mixer” for Majestic records.
1946 – A train crash at Naperville, Illinois, killed 45-48 and injured 125 people. The “Exposition Flyer” rammed into the “Advance Flyer”, which had made an unscheduled stop to check its running gear.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Heartaches” by The Ted Weems Orchestra (whistler: Elmo Tanner), “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – Chuck Cooper becomes the first Black to play in the NBA. The 6’5″ Cooper attended Duquesne University and was one of the first Black All-Americans. Cooper broke the color barrier in the National Basketball Association (NBA) by being drafted by the Boston Celtics.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army was pushed back twenty miles. The volunteer battalion from Belgium and Luxembourg was cut off but fought its way to safety after a 20-hour siege. Members of the battalion had high praise for the support provided by U.S. Marine Corsairs.
1952 – Korean War: After a three-day fight against Chinese Communist Forces, the Gloucestershire Regiment was annihilated on “Gloucester Hill,” in Korea. The regiment was awarded the South Korean Distinguished Unit Citation and United States Distinguished Unit Citation, the regiment gained the nickname “The Glorious Glosters”, for its heroic last stand against overwhelming Chinese forces.
1952 – American Bowling Congress approves use of an automatic pinsetter.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – NBC-TV presented “Ethel and Albert“, the video version of the popular radio show. Peg Lynch and Alan Bunce starred in the program. Ethel & Albert – Duck Hunting.
1953 – U.S. Senator Wayne Morse ended the longest speech in U.S. Senate history. The speech on the Offshore Oil Bill lasted 22 hours and 26 minutes.
1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson identify DNA They publish “Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid” describing the double helix structure of DNA.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “Unchained Melody” by Al Hibler and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The first cases of polio in children who received a vaccine were reported. It was later found that two batches of vaccine made by Cutter Laboratories of Berkeley, Ca., contained live polio virus.
1956 – John W. Powell (1919-2008), former editor of the China Weekly Review, was indicted by a federal grand jury in San Francisco on charges of sedition. Powell had published articles about alleged military use of germ warfare during the Korean War.
1957 – The Santa Susana Sodium Reactor Experimental (SRE) was a small sodium-cooled experimental reactor built by Southern California Edison and Atomics International at Santa Susana, near Moorpark in Ventura County. The reactor operated from 1957 to 1964.
1959 – The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean, officially opens to shipping. The official opening ceremonies were held three months later on June 26th in presence of Queen Elizabeth II (representing Canada) and President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
1959 “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods topped the charts.
1960 “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – Consent judgment in Memphis federal court ended restrictions barring voters in Fayette County, Tennessee. This was the first voting rights case under the Civil Rights Act.
1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.
1961 – Elvis Presley made his last stage appearance for nearly eight years at Bloch Arena, HI.
1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent for an integrated circuit.
1961 – Mercury-Atlas rocket lifted off with an electronic mannequin. An unmanned Mercury test exploded on launch pad.
1962 – The U.S. spacecraft, Ranger, crashed on the Moon.
1962 – Operation Dominic began with a test blast on Christmas Island. The operation was a series of 105 nuclear test explosions conducted in 1962 and 1963 by the United States.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “He’s So Fine” by The Chiffons, “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” by Andy Williams, “I Will Follow Him” by Little Peggy March and “Still” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – “Can’t Buy Me Love” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – MASS SHOOTING: Teenage sniper Michael Andrew Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria, California.
1967 – Colorado Governor John Love signed the first law legalizing abortion in the U.S. The law was limited to therapeutic abortions when agreed to, unanimously, by a panel of three physicians.
1970 – The band Pacific Gas and Electric was shot at while leaving a club in Raleigh, NC.
1970 – “ABC” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1970 – Freda Payne releases “Band of Gold“.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Put Your Hand in the Hand” by Ocean, “Never Can Say Goodbye” by The Jackson 5 and “Empty Arms” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1972 – Major General Frederick E. Davidson first African American to lead an Army division.
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive – The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others northwest of Kontum.
1973 – “The Sweet”, received a gold record for the hit “Little Willy“.
1974 – NFL moves the goal posts & adopts sudden-death playoff.
1976 – Cub centerfielder Rick Monday rescues US flag from two fans trying to set it on fire. William Thomas and his 11-year-old son, ran into the outfield and tried to set fire to an American flag they had brought with them. Ricky Monday, then playing with the Cubs, noticed they had placed the flag on the ground and were fumbling with matches and lighter fluid; he then dashed over and grabbed the flag from the ground to thunderous cheers. He handed the flag to Los Angeles pitcher Doug Rau, after which the ballpark police officers arrested the two intruders.
1977 – Elvis Presley recorded a concert in Saginaw, Michigan. Three of the songs later appeared on the album “Moody Blue,” which was released posthumously.
1978- William Clinton (31), attorney general of Arkansas and candidate for governor, sexually assaulted Juanita Broaddrick at the Camelot Inn in Little Rock. Broaddrick made the story public on national TV in 1999.
1978 – The US Supreme Court ruled pension plans can’t require women to pay more.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Knock on Wood” by Amii Stewart, “Heart of Glass” by Blondie, “Music Box Dancer” by Frank Mills and “All I Ever Need is You” by Kenny Rogers & Dottie West all topped the charts.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announced the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
1981 – “Kiss on My List” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed fears about nuclear war.
1983 – May 19th Communist Organization responsible for a bombing at the National War College at Fort McNair in Washington, D.C.
1983 – Pioneer 10 travels beyond Pluto’s orbit.
1985 – “Big River (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)” opened at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre on Broadway in New York City.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Knew You Were Waiting (For Me)” by Aretha Franklin & George Michael, “Don’t Dream It’s Over” by Crowded House, “Sign ’o’ the Times” by Prince, “Rose in Paradise” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts .
1990 – The Hubble Telescope is deployed into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1992 – “Jump” by Kris Kross topped the charts.
1992 – The Ms. Foundation began its “Take Our Daughters to Work Day.”
1992 – An earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale shook northern California.
1995 – Baseball season begins after lengthy strike.
1996 – Ford Motor Co. announced a recall of about eight- million cars, minivans and pickups because of an ignition switch fire hazard.
1997 – The Clinton administration extended the area over which the northwest coast silvery Coho salmon is considered a “threatened” species.
1997 – In the US a federal judge ruled that cigarettes are drug delivery systems and that the FDA has the right to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products — but said it couldn’t restrict cigarette advertising.
1998 – “Too Close” by Next topped the charts.
1998 – U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton on was questioned by Whitewater prosecutors on videotape about her work as a private lawyer for the failed savings and loan at the center of the investigation.
1998 – In Millbrae, Ca., motorcycle Patrolman David Chetcuti (43) was shot and killed by Marvin Patrick Sullivan (43) during a routine traffic stop. Sullivan, a paranoid schizophrenic, was found to be carrying a cache of pipe bombs and rifles. Sullivan was later found to be incompetent to stand trial.
1999 – More than 70,000 mourners gathered in Littleton, Colo., to remember the victims of the Columbine High School massacre.
2000 – The Ohio state motto, “With God, all things are possible,” was declared unconstitutional by a federal appeals court. The ACLU lost this battle and the motto survived this challenge.
2001 – A rescue plane flew out of the South Pole with ailing American doctor Ronald S. Shemenski in the most daring airlift ever from the pole.
2002 – The US House voted 405-9 to abolish the embattled Immigration and Naturalization Service.
2003 – Georgia lawmakers reached a compromise over the controversial state flag that bears the Confederate symbol, and redesigned the banner to display a less divisive symbol.
2005 – In Chicago 11 reputed mob figures were indicted on charges of plotting at least 18 murders including the 1986 hit on Tony Spilotro.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 13,000 for the first time closing at 13,089.89.
2007 – The House on Wednesday narrowly approved a $124 billion war spending bill that would require American troops to begin withdrawing from Iraq by Oct. 1, setting the stage for the first veto fight between President Bush and majority Democrats.
2008 – Wachovia Corp. agreed to pay as much as $144 million to settle an 18-month government investigation into its relationships with telemarketers that allegedly harmed 350,000 to 500,000 consumers.
2008 – In San Diego a bomb exploded at the FedEx building. The fire department found a second bomb in the parking lot and detonated it. On August 6 authorities indicted three people: Rachelle Carlock, Ella Louise Sanders and Eric Reginald Robinson.
2008 – Near San Diego, Ca., a shark killed triathlete David Martin (66) at Solano Beach.
2008 – Two people are killed and more than a dozen injured after a semitrailer crashes into a Chicago Transit Authority station during rush hour.
2009 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: University of Georgia Professor George Zinkhan allegedly kills three people in Athens, Georgia.
2010 – Nearly 100,000 people rally in Okinawa, Japan, demanding the removal of an American base from the island.
2011 – At least 300 people killed in deadliest tornado outbreak in the Southern United States since the 1974 Super Outbreak.
2011 – The Governor of Arkansas Mike Beebe declares a state of emergency following heavy storms including tornadoes hit the US state of Arkansas with at least two people dead and 100,000 without power.
2011 – The Governor of Kentucky Steve Beshear declares a state of emergency due to rising flood waters from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
2012 – A judge on the Cook County Circuit Court rules that the Amazon tax levied on Internet businesses by the US state of Illinois is unconstitutional.
2013 – In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombings, Michael Bloomberg, mayor of New York City, claims that the FBI briefed him that suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev said that the bombers intended to attack New York City next.
2013 – The George W. Bush Presidential Center in Dallas, Texas, is dedicated in the presence of President Barack Obama, former president George W. Bush and all living former presidents. The complex will be opened to the public on May 1.
2014 – Bullets flew between a security guard and two armed robbers at a San Diego medical marijuana dispensary. Just yesterday the city had begun the process of issuing permits for medical marijuana dispensaries. One robber was killed, the security officer wounded and the second suspect on the run, according to a report by CBS 8 News.
2015 – The Hubble Space Telescope marks 25 years in orbit today. Hubble blasted off aboard the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990, embarking upon an incredible mission filled with disappointment, drama, redemption and innumerable discoveries.
2015 – Riots started in Baltimore, MD after a citizen, Freddie Gray, who had been arrested died in police custody. The rioters wanted legal prosecution of those responsible for Gray’s death and an end to police brutality. After the final stage of the official protest event, some people became violent and damaged at least five police vehicles, and pelted police with rocks.
1599 – Oliver Cromwell, English statesman (d. 1658)
1710 – James Ferguson, Scottish astronomer (d. 1776)
1868 – John Bevins Moisant, pioneer aviator, first to cross English Channel with passenger and a cat, killed in New Orleans whose present day airport was originally name for him. (D. 1910)
1874 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1937)
1906 – William J. Brennan, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1997)
1917 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (d. 1996)
1932 – Meadowlark Lemon, American basketball player
1940 – Al Pacino, American actor
1969 – Joe Buck, American sports broadcaster
1969 – Renée Zellweger, American actress
SPRAYBERRY, JAMES M
Rank and organization: Captain (then 1st Lt.), U.S. Army, Company D, 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry , 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1968. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 24 April 1947, LaGrange, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Sprayberry, Armor, U.S. Army, distinguished himself by exceptional bravery while serving as executive officer of Company D. His company commander and a great number of the men were wounded and separated from the main body of the company. A daylight attempt to rescue them was driven back by the well entrenched enemy’s heavy fire. Capt. Sprayberry then organized and led a volunteer night patrol to eliminate the intervening enemy bunkers and to relieve the surrounded element. The patrol soon began receiving enemy machinegun fire. Capt. Sprayberry quickly moved the men to protective cover and without regard for his own safety, crawled within close range of the bunker from which the fire was coming. He silenced the machinegun with a hand grenade. Identifying several l-man enemy positions nearby, Capt. Sprayberry immediately attacked them with the rest of his grenades. He crawled back for more grenades and when two grenades were thrown at his men from a position to the front, Capt. Sprayberry, without hesitation, again exposed himself and charged the enemy-held bunker killing its occupants with a grenade. Placing two men to cover his advance, he crawled forward and neutralized three more bunkers with grenades. Immediately thereafter, Capt. Sprayberry was surprised by an enemy soldier who charged from a concealed position. He killed the soldier with his pistol and with continuing disregard for the danger neutralized another enemy emplacement. Capt. Sprayberry then established radio contact with the isolated men, directing them toward his position. When the two elements made contact he organized his men into litter parties to evacuate the wounded. As the evacuation was nearing completion, he observed an enemy machinegun position which he silenced with a grenade. Capt. Sprayberry returned to the rescue party, established security, and moved to friendly lines with the wounded. This rescue operation, which lasted approximately 7-1/2 hours, saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers. Capt. Sprayberry personally killed twelve enemy soldiers, eliminated two machineguns, and destroyed numerous enemy bunkers. Capt. Sprayberry’s indomitable spirit and gallant action at great personal risk to his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
STUMPF, KENNETH E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Duc Pho, Republic of Vietnam, April 25th, 1967. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 28 September 1944, Neenah, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Stumpf distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader of the 3d Platoon, Company C, on a search and destroy mission. As S/Sgt. Stumpf’s company approached a village, it encountered a North Vietnamese rifle company occupying a well fortified bunker complex. During the initial contact, three men from his squad fell wounded in front of a hostile machinegun emplacement. The enemy’s heavy volume of fire prevented the unit from moving to the aid of the injured men, but S/Sgt. Stumpf left his secure position in a deep trench and ran through the barrage of incoming rounds to reach his wounded comrades. He picked up one of the men and carried him back to the safety of the trench. Twice more S/Sgt. Stumpf dashed forward while the enemy turned automatic weapons and machineguns upon him, yet he managed to rescue the remaining two wounded squad members. He then organized his squad and led an assault against several enemy bunkers from which continuously heavy fire was being received He and his squad successfully eliminated two of the bunker positions, but one to the front of the advancing platoon remained a serious threat. Arming himself with extra hand grenades, S/Sgt. Stumpf ran over open ground, through a volley of fire directed at him by a determined enemy, toward the machinegun position. As he reached the bunker, he threw a hand grenade through the aperture. It was immediately returned by the occupants, forcing S/Sgt. Stumpf to take cover. Undaunted, he pulled the pins on two more grenades, held them for a few seconds after activation, then hurled them into the position, this time successfully destroying the emplacement. With the elimination of this key position, his unit was able to assault and overrun the enemy. S/Sgt. Stumpf’s relentless spirit of aggressiveness, intrepidity, and ultimate concern for the lives of his men, are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*ESSEBAGGER, JOHN, JR.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company A, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Popsudong, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Holland, Mich. Born: 29 October 1928, Holland, Mich. G.O. No.: 61, 24 April 1952. Citation: Cpl. Essebagger, a member of Company A, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Committed to effect a delaying action to cover the 3d Battalion’s withdrawal through Company A, Cpl. Essebagger, a member of one of two squads maintaining defensive positions in key terrain and defending the company’s right flank, had participated in repulsing numerous attacks. In a frenzied banzai charge the numerically superior enemy seriously threatened the security of the planned route of withdrawal and isolation of the small force. Badly shaken, the grossly outnumbered detachment started to fall back and Cpl. Essebagger, realizing the impending danger, voluntarily remained to provide security for the withdrawal. Gallantly maintaining a l-man stand, Cpl. Essebagger raked the menacing hordes with crippling fire and, with the foe closing on the position, left the comparative safety of his shelter and advanced in the face of overwhelming odds, firing his weapon and hurling grenades to disconcert the enemy and afford time for displacement of friendly elements to more tenable positions. Scorning the withering fire and bursting shells, Cpl. Essebagger continued to move forward, inflicting destruction upon the fanatical foe until he was mortally wounded. Cpl. Essebagger’s intrepid action and supreme sacrifice exacted a heavy toll in enemy dead and wounded, stemmed the onslaught, and enabled the retiring squads to reach safety. His valorous conduct and devotion to duty reflected lasting glory upon himself and was in keeping with the noblest traditions of the infantry and the U.S. Army.
GILLILAND, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: Corporal (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company I, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tongmang-ni, Korea, April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Yellville (Marion County), Ark. Born: 24 May 1933, Mountain Home, Ark. G.O. No.: 2, 11 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Gilliland, a member of Company I, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A numerically superior hostile force launched a coordinated assault against his company perimeter, the brunt of which was directed up a defile covered by his automatic rifle. His assistant was killed by enemy fire but Cpl. Gilliland, facing the full force of the assault, poured a steady fire into the foe which stemmed the onslaught. When two enemy soldiers escaped his raking fire and infiltrated the sector, he leaped from his foxhole, overtook and killed them both with his pistol. Sustaining a serious head wound in this daring exploit, he refused medical attention and returned to his emplacement to continue his defense of the vital defile. His unit was ordered back to new defensive positions but Cpl. Gilliland volunteered to remain to cover the withdrawal and hold the enemy at bay. His heroic actions and indomitable devotion to duty prevented the enemy from completely overrunning his company positions. Cpl. Gilliland’s incredible valor and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 7th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Popsu-dong, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Burnham, Maine. Born: 18 September 1929, Fort Kent, Maine. G.O. No.: 14, 1 February 1952. Citation: Cpl. Goodblood, a member of Company D, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Cpl. Goodblood, a machine gunner, was attached to Company B in defensive positions on thickly wooded key terrain under attack by a ruthless foe. In bitter fighting which ensued, the numerically superior enemy infiltrated the perimeter, rendering the friendly positions untenable. Upon order to move back, Cpl. Goodblood voluntarily remained to cover the withdrawal and, constantly vulnerable to heavy fire, inflicted withering destruction on the assaulting force. Seeing a grenade lobbed at his position, he shoved his assistant to the ground and flinging himself upon the soldier attempted to shield him. Despite his valorous act both men were wounded. Rejecting aid for himself, he ordered the ammunition bearer to evacuate the injured man for medical treatment. He fearlessly maintained his l-man defense, sweeping the onrushing assailants with fire until an enemy banzai charge carried the hill and silenced his gun. When friendly elements regained the commanding ground, Cpl. Goodblood’s body was found lying beside his gun and approximately one-hundred hostile dead lay in the wake of his field of fire. Through his unflinching courage and willing self-sacrifice the onslaught was retarded, enabling his unit to withdraw, regroup, and resecure the strongpoint. Cpl. Goodblood’s inspirational conduct and devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and are in keeping with the noble traditions of the military service.
MIYAMURA, HIROSHI H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company H, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Taejon-ni, Korea, 24th and April 25th, 1951. Entered service at: Gallup, N. Mex. Birth: Gallup, N. Mex. G.O. No.: 85, 4 November 1953. Citation: Cpl. Miyamura, a member of Company H, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. On the night of 24 April, Company H was occupying a defensive position when the enemy fanatically attacked threatening to overrun the position. Cpl. Miyamura, a machine gun squad leader, aware of the imminent danger to his men unhesitatingly jumped from his shelter wielding his bayonet in close hand-to-hand combat killing approximately ten of the enemy. Returning to his position, he administered first aid to the wounded and directed their evacuation. As another savage assault hit the line, he manned his machine gun and delivered withering fire until his ammunition was expended. He ordered the squad to withdraw while he stayed behind to render the gun inoperative. He then bayoneted his way through infiltrated enemy soldiers to a second gun emplacement and assisted in its operation. When the intensity of the attack necessitated the withdrawal of the company Cpl. Miyamura ordered his men to fall back while he remained to cover their movement. He killed more than fifty of the enemy before his ammunition was depleted and he was severely wounded. He maintained his magnificent stand despite his painful wounds, continuing to repel the attack until his position was overrun. When last seen he was fighting ferociously against an overwhelming number of enemy soldiers. Cpl. Miyamura’s indomitable heroism and consummate devotion to duty reflect the utmost glory on himself and uphold the illustrious traditions on the military service.
*GONZALES, DAVID M.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Pacoima, Calif. Birth: Pacoima, Calif. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was pinned down with his company. As enemy fire swept the area, making any movement extremely hazardous, a 500-pound bomb smashed into the company’s perimeter, burying five men with its explosion. Pfc. Gonzales, without hesitation, seized an entrenching tool and under a hail of fire crawled fifteen yards to his entombed comrades, where his commanding officer, who had also rushed forward, was beginning to dig the men out. Nearing his goal, he saw the officer struck and instantly killed by machinegun fire. Undismayed, he set to work swiftly and surely with his hands and the entrenching tool while enemy sniper and machinegun bullets struck all about him. He succeeded in digging one of the men out of the pile of rock and sand. To dig faster he stood up regardless of the greater danger from so exposing himself. He extricated a second man, and then another. As he completed the liberation of the third, he was hit and mortally wounded, but the comrades for whom he so gallantly gave his life were safely evacuated. Pfc. Gonzales’ valiant and intrepid conduct exemplifies the highest tradition of the military service.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: In Northern Po Valley, Italy, 24th- April 25th, 1945. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Birth: Texas. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He piloted a fighter-bomber aircraft in a series of low-level strafing missions, destroying fourteen grounded enemy aircraft and leading attacks which wrecked ten others during a critical period of the Allied drive in northern Italy. On the morning of 24 April, he volunteered to lead two other aircraft against the strongly defended enemy airdrome at Ghedi. Ordering his fellow pilots to remain aloft, he skimmed the ground through a deadly curtain of antiaircraft fire to reconnoiter the field, locating eight German aircraft hidden beneath heavy camouflage. He rejoined his flight, briefed them by radio, and then led them with consummate skill through the hail of enemy fire in a low-level attack, destroying five aircraft, while his flight accounted for two others. Returning to his base, he volunteered to lead three other aircraft in reconnaissance of Bergamo airfield, an enemy base near Ghedi and one known to be equally well defended. Again ordering his flight to remain out of range of antiaircraft fire, 1st Lt. Knight flew through an exceptionally intense barrage, which heavily damaged his Thunderbolt, to observe the field at minimum altitude. He discovered a squadron of enemy aircraft under heavy camouflage and led his flight to the assault. Returning alone after this strafing, he made ten deliberate passes against the field despite being hit by antiaircraft fire twice more, destroying six fully loaded enemy twin-engine aircraft and two fighters. His skillfully led attack enabled his flight to destroy four other twin-engine aircraft and a fighter plane. He then returned to his base in his seriously damaged plane. Early the next morning, when he again attacked Bergamo, he sighted an enemy plane on the runway. Again he led three other American pilots in a blistering low-level sweep through vicious antiaircraft fire that damaged his plane so severely that it was virtually nonflyable. Three of the few remaining enemy twin-engine aircraft at that base were destroyed. Realizing the critical need for aircraft in his unit, he declined to parachute to safety over friendly territory and unhesitatingly attempted to return his shattered plane to his home field. With great skill and strength, he flew homeward until caught by treacherous air conditions in the Appennines Mountains, where he crashed and was killed. The gallant action of 1st Lt. Knight eliminated the German aircraft which were poised to wreak havoc on Allied forces pressing to establish the first firm bridgehead across the Po River; his fearless daring and voluntary self-sacrifice averted possible heavy casualties among ground forces and the resultant slowing on the German drive culminated in the collapse of enemy resistance in Italy.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Indian Scouts. Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Mexico. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation: With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, 24th U.S. Infantry Indian Scouts Place and date: At Pecos River, Tex., April 25th, 1875. Entered service at. Fort Duncan, Tex. Birth: Arkansas. Date of issue: 28 May 1875. Citation. With three other men, he participated in a charge against twenty-five hostiles while on a scouting patrol.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Mississippi during attacks on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and during the taking of New Orleans, 24th-April 25th, 1862. Taking part in the actions which resulted in the damaging of the Mississippi and several casualties on it, Brennan showed skill and courage throughout the entire engagements which resulted in the taking of St. Philip and Jackson and in the surrender of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1808, Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Although severely wounded by a heavy splinter, Buck continued to perform his duty until positively ordered below. Later stealing back to his post, he steered the ship for 8 hours despite his critical condition. His bravery was typical of the type which resulted in the taking of the Forts Jackson and St. Philip and in the capture of New Orleans.
Rank and organization: Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack on Forts Jackson and St. Philip and at the taking of new Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Swept from the bridge by a shell which wounded the signal quartermaster, Flood returned to the bridge after assisting the wounded man below and taking over his duties, “Performed them with coolness, exactitude and the fidelity of a veteran seaman. His intelligence and character cannot be spoken of too warmly.”
Rank and organization: Captain of the Foretop, U.S. Navy. Born: Scotland. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Captain of foretop, and a volunteer from the Colorado, McLeod served on board the U.S.S. Pensacola during the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Acting as gun captain of the rifled howitzer aft which was much exposed, he served this piece with great ability and activity, although no officer superintended it.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Birth: Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: At the wheel on board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson, and New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Parker conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted, and the ships driven off. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons forced to surrender during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Richards served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Pensacola in the attack upon Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and at the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. Through all the din and roar of battle, he steered the ship through the narrow opening of the barricade, and his attention to orders contributed to the successful passage of the ship without once fouling the shore or the obstacles of the barricade.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1804, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon during the battle of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862; and in the engagement at Fort McAllister, 27 February 1863. Going on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon from the U.S.S. Don where his seamanlike qualities as gunner’s mate were outstanding, Shutes performed his duties with skill and courage. Showing a presence of mind and prompt action when a shot from Fort McAllister penetrated the Wissahickon below the water line and entered the powder magazine, Shutes contributed materially to the preservation of the powder and safety of the ship.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1829, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern Wright conscientiously performed his duties throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were repelled, and the ships driven off or forced to surrender. Eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and the enemy garrisons captured during this battle in which the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cayuga during the capture of Forts St. Philip and Jackson and the taking of New Orleans, 24th and April 25th, 1862. As his ship led the advance column toward the barrier and both forts opened fire simultaneously, striking the vessel from stem to stern, Young calmly manned a Parrot gun throughout the action in which attempts by three rebel steamers to butt and board were thwarted and the ships driven off or captured, eleven gunboats were successfully engaged and garrisons forced to surrender. During the battle, the Cayuga sustained forty-six hits.
“In God We Trust” and the Constitution
The argument brought forward by the anti-motto group is that it promotes a theistic religion or one that believes in a single, male diety that is followed by the main Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam). It should not be allowed because Buddhists don’t believe in a personal diety, religions that believe in two deities include Zorastrianism (Iran) and Wiccans (a Neopagan, Earth-centered religion). Hindus believe in many dieties. Due to those differences, it would appear that the motto violates the principle of separation of Church and state. Some of the groups that take offense to our national motto include agnostics (those that question whether there really is a God), atheists (Belief in no God, or no belief in God), Buddhists, Hindus, Wiccans and other neopagans.
The religiousity of the national motto has been challenged by three lawsuits and, in each case, it has been found to be constitutional. Basically, the courts have ruled that the motto does not endorse religion. The decisions from latest to earliest:
1994 -The Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. conducted a national survey which showed that “In God We Trust” was regarded as religious by an overwhelming percentage of U.S. citizens. The actual results are said to be that sixty-one percent consider “In God We Trust” religious, and 71% believe it endorses a belief in God. A majority also regard the motto as preferring religion over nonreligion. (Chamberlain Research, poll of 900 adults, conducted May 18-23, 1994). Neither the polling group nor the questions asked are available.
They initiated a lawsuit on June 8th, 1994 in Denver CO to have it removed from U.S. paper currency and coins. They also wanted it to be discontinued as the national motto. Their lawsuit was dismissed by the district Court without trial, on the grounds that “In God We Trust” is not a religious phrase! The Tenth-Circuit federal judge confirmed the dismissal, stating in part:
“…we find that a reasonable observer, aware of the purpose, context, and history of the phrase ‘In God we trust,’ would not consider its use or its reproduction on U.S. currency to be an endorsement of religion.”
1979 – “Madalyn Murray O’Hair, et al. v. W. Michael Blumenthal, Secretary of Treasury, et al.” 588 F.2d 1144 (1979) in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Ms. O’Hair is infamous for successfully challenging compulsory prayer in U.S. public schools. The United States District Court, Western District of Texas, referring to the wording of the Ninth Circuit below, ruled that:
“From this it is easy to deduce that the Court concluded that the primary purpose of the slogan was secular; it served as secular ceremonial purpose in the obviously secular function of providing a medium of exchange. As such it is equally clear that the use of the motto on the currency or otherwise does not have a primary effect of advancing religion.”
1970 – “Aronow v. United States,” 432 F.2d 242 (1970) in the United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit The court ruled that:
“It is quite obvious that the national motto and the slogan on coinage and currency ‘In God We Trust’ has nothing whatsoever to do with the establishment of religion. Its use is of patriotic or ceremonial character and bears no true resemblance to a governmental sponsorship of a religious exercise.”
This ruling was sustained by the Fifth Circuit court.
In the end, the motto is constitutional and patriotic and used for a secular ceremonial purpose. It does not “establish a religion.”
Matthew 5:44 King James Version (KJV)
44 But I say unto you, “Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you”;
“Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?”
“A good deed is never lost: he who sows courtesy reaps friendship; and he who plants kindness gathers love.”
verb intr.: To leave hurriedly.
First noticed during the Civil War in 1861. Perhaps from northern England dialect.
303 – St. George, dragon-slaying knight, died. He was made the patron saint of England in the 14th century.
1597 – William Shakespeare’s “The Merry Wives of Windsor” is first performed, with Queen Elizabeth I of England in attendance.
1635 – First public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
1662 – Connecticut was chartered as an English colony.
1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston, then establish camps around the city and begin a year long siege of British-held Boston.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Captain John Paul Jones attempted to kidnap the Earl of Selkirk, but he only got Lady Selkirk’s silverware.
1789 – President-elect George Washington moves into Franklin House, New York. This was the first executive mansion. Two days previous George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall and formerly lived at 3 Cherry Street in New York City. That area is now the New Way Deli and Public School 126.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton asked Congress for authorization to build a “system of cutters” for “securing the collection of the revenue.” The request was for ten cutters.
1856 – Free Stater J.N. Mace in Westport, Kansas shot pro-slavery Sheriff Samuel Jones in the back.
1860 – The Pony Express rider missed the boat at Benicia, Ca. Thomas Bedford, a 34-year-old stable keeper, was hired on the spot and boarded the ferry Carquinez with his horse.
1860 – Democratic convention in Charleston, SC, divided over slavery.
1861 – Civil War: Arkansas troops seized Fort Smith.
1861 – Civil War: Battle of San Antonio, TX.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Cane River, LA (Red River Expedition, Monett’s Ferry).
1865 – Civil War: Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
1865 – Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule (b.1838) was shot and killed near his home in Colorado by a soldier named Charles Squires.
1867 – William Lincoln patents the zoetrope, a machine which shows animated pictures by mounting a strip of drawings in a wheel.
1872 – Charlotte E. Ray became the first Black female lawyer.
1896 – Vitascope system of movie projection first demonstrated at Koster and Bial’s Music Hall in New York City.
1899 – In Georgia some 2000 people gathered to watch the lynching Sam Hose, a black man questionably accused of murdering a white planter and raping his wife. His ears, fingers, and genitals were cut off and his face was skinned before he was burned in kerosene soaked wood.
1900 – Hillbilly, the word, has been used in American print since April 23, 1900. On that day the New York Journal reported that “a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammelled white citizen of Alabama, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, and fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him.”
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) win their first game beating Washington Senators 7-2.
1908 – President Theodore Roosevelt signed an act creating the U.S. Army Medical Reserve Corps.Reserve officers could be ordered to active duty during time of emergency. In June 1908, the first 160 Reserve medical officers received their commissions. This number grew to about 360 by 1909, to 1,900 by 1916, and to 9,223 by 1917.
1912 – Eagle Scout Scout Rank earned by Arthur Eldred in Troop 1 in Oceanside, New York.
1915 – The A.C.A. became the National Advisory Council on Aeronautics (NACA).
1918 – USS Stewart destroys German submarine off France.
1919 – Major leagues open a reduced 140-game season. The season opened in Washington with General March, Army Chief of Staff, throwing out the first ball. Walter Johnson wins a 1-0, 13-inning duel with the Philadelphia A’s Scott Perry.
1921 – Charles Paddock set a record time in the 300-meter track event when he posted a time of 33.2 seconds.
1924 – The U.S. Senate passed the Soldiers Bonus Bill. Veterans’ advocates argued that their members deserved a cash award to balance out the difference between their modest military pay and the high wages enjoyed by civilian war workers.
1934 – In first U.S. Navy movement through Panama Canal over 100 ships went through.
1940 – The Rhythm Night Club fire (1:53:32) at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
1941 – World War II: Greek government and King George II evacuate Athens before the attacking Wehrmacht.
1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
1944 – World War II: US forces capture Hollandia, New Guinea, without a fight.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day)and “Smoke on the Water” by Bob Wills all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: Advance units of both US 5th and British 8th Armies reach the Po River in northern Italy. US 5th Army units manage to cross the river south of Mantua.
1945 – World War II: Hitler receives a message from Goering, offering to take over the leadership of the country should Hitler be unable to continue with that task while besieged in Berlin. Hitler is infuriated and orders Goering arrested.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the attacks of US 24th Corps begin to achieve some gains, notably by US 96th Division.
1945 – World War II: Units of US 37th Division reach the outskirts of Baguio.
1945 – World War II: In only U.S. use of guided missiles in WW II, 2 BAT missiles release at Balikiapan, Borneo.
1945 – World War II: The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
1947 – James Baskett(1904-1948 )was given a Special Academy Award for his part in Disney’s “Song Of The South“. He was the second Black to receive an Academy Award. Baskett was also the first African American hired by Disney. Unfortunately Baskett was unable to attend the premiere in Atlanta because he was unable to get accommodations.
1948 – Johnny Longden became the first race jockey to ride 3,000 career winners.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – First major league day game completed under lights. In a double-header, the Phillies dropped the opener 4-3. Behind the pitching of Robin Roberts, the Phillies defeated the Braves 6-5.
1951 – The Associated Press began use of a new service, teletypesetting.
1952 – New York Giant Hoyt Wilhelm wins his first relief game & hits his only homerun in 1,070 games.
1954 – Hank Aaron hits first of his 755 homers, a solo shot off Vic Raschi of St. Louis.
1954 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – Project Vanguard, earth satellite launching program, assigned to Deputy Chief Naval Operations (Air).
1956 – US Supreme Court ended race segregation on buses.
1958 – Gil Hodges hits his 300th homerun & Pee Wee Reese plays in 2,000th game.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place“by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – The first lunch counters were integrated in San Antonio, Texas.
1962 – New York Mets win their first game in team history.
1962 – Ranger 4, first US satellite to reach Moon launched from Cape Canaveral.
1963 – Jan & Dean recorded “Surf City.”
1963 – Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds got his first hit in the major leagues. It was a triple off the Pirates’ Bob Friend.
1964 – Houston’s Ken Johnson becomes the first pitcher ever to hurl a 9-inning no-hitter and lose as Cincinnati wins 1-0. Two errors in the ninth inning allows Pete Rose to score the only run.
1965 – The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. leads thousands of people on a 54 mile march from Selma to Montgomery Alabama to call for voting rights for African Americans.
1966 – “(You’re My) Soul and Inspiration” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.
1968 – The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church merged to form the United Methodist Church.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “You’ve Made Me So Very Happy” by Blood, Sweat & Tears, “It’s Your Thing” by The Isley Brothers and “Galveston” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1969 – Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for assassinating New York Senator Robert F. Kennedy. The sentence was later reduced to life imprisonment.
1971 – In the final event of Operation Dewey Canyon III, nearly 1,000 Vietnam War veterans threw their combat ribbons, helmets, and uniforms on the Capitol steps.
1975 – President Gerald Ford says the Vietnam War is finished as far as America is concerned. “Today, Americans can regain the sense of pride that existed before Vietnam. But it cannot be achieved by re-fighting a war.”
1982 – The Unabomber mailed a pipe bomb from Provo, Utah, to Pennsylvania State University. It was forwarded to Vanderbilt Univ. scientist Patrick C. Fisher.
1982 – The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that consumer prices declined the previous month (March). It was the first decline in almost 17 years.
1982 – Key West, Fla., under Mayor Dennis Wardlow declared that it was seceding from the US and would rename itself the Conch Republic. The move was in response to a state roadblock and inspection on all cars heading out of the Florida Keys and protest against what they view as an “unresponsive” central government taking action without considering all of the implications.
1983 – “Come On Eileen” by Dexy’s Midnight Runners topped the charts.
1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. (The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.)
1985 – Liberace appeared on the TV soap opera “Another World”.
1987 – Twenty-eight construction workers die when the L’Ambiance Plaza apartment building collapses while under construction in Bridgeport, Connecticut.
1988 – “Where Do Broken Hearts Go?” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1988 – Pink Floyd’s album “Dark Side of the Moon” (42:56) leaves the charts for its first time after spending a record of 741 consecutive weeks (over 14 years) on the Billboard 200.
1988 – In Martinez, CA, a drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh. More than 10,000 barrels of oil poured into the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough Marsh Complex.
1988 – Federal smoking ban during domestic airline flights of 2 hours or less.
1989 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar played his last regular season game in the NBA.
1989 – Troy Aikman of UCLA became the first player chosen in the NFL draft in New York City as he was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.
1990 – Freed American hostage Robert Polhill, released in Lebanon the day before, enjoyed his first full day of freedom in nearly 39 months.
1991 – President Bush welcomed General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the just-returned Gulf War commander, at the White House.
1991 – NASA scrubbed the launch of the space shuttle “Discovery” after a sensor on one of the main engines failed during fueling.
1995 – President Bill Clinton declares a national day of mourning for Oklahoma City bombing victims.
1996 – A New York civil-court jury ordered Bernhard Goetz to pay $43 million to Darrell Cabey. Cabey was paralyzed when he was shot in subway car in 1984.
1997 – The military confirmed that two pieces of wreckage found on a snowy Rocky Mountain peak were from the Air Force warplane that vanished on a training mission over Arizona.
1997 – An infertility doctor in California announced that a 63-year-old woman had given birth in late 1996. The child was from a donor egg. The woman is the oldest known woman to give birth.
1997 – Golfer Fuzzy Zoeller, again apologizing for racial comments about Masters winner Tiger Woods, withdrew from the Greater Greensboro Chrysler Classic.
1998 – James Earl Ray died, at age 70, while serving a life sentence for the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
1998 – Two New Jersey troopers fired 11 shots into a van carrying African American and Latino men from the Bronx. They admitted to racial profiling and pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges in 2002.
2000 – Elian Gonzalez spent a secluded Easter with his father at Andrews Air Force Base outside Washington, a day after the six-year-old boy was removed from his Miami relatives’ home in a pre-dawn raid by immigration agents.
2001 – A US robot spy plane completed the first unmanned trans-Pacific flight from California to Australia.
2002 – In California the Metrolink Train from Riverside to Orange County collided with a Burlington Northern Santa Fe freight train and two people were killed. Over 260 were injured. The freight train failed to heed line signals.
2003 – President George W. Bush signed legislation that authorized the design change of the 5-cent coin (nickel) for release in 2004. It was the first change to the coin in 65 years.
2003 – American Airlines reported a $1-billion first-quarter loss.
2004 – President George W. Bush eased sanctions against Libya in return for Moammar Gadhafi’s agreement to give up weapons of mass destruction.
2004 – In Illiopolis, Ill.,central Illinois, 4 workers were killed in an explosion at the Formosa Plastics Plant. The entire community was forced to evacuate the area.
2005 – Larry Lasater (35), Pittsburg, Ca., police officer, was shot while chasing 2 robbery suspects. Doctors declared him brain dead the next day.
2005 – The first video was uploaded to YouTube.com.
2006 – Some 10,000 people marched in San Francisco to denounce a bill in the US House of Representatives that would make illegal immigration a felony.
2006 – It was reported that Massachusetts has decided to begin requiring doctors to state the names of anyone testing positive for HIV.
2007 – Congressional Democratic leaders agreed on legislation requiring the first US combat troops to be withdrawn from Iraq by Oct. 1, 2007, with a goal of a complete pullout six months later.
2007 – A US Agriculture Department official said a virus in the Great Lakes, that has killed tens of thousands of fish in recent years, is spreading and poses a threat to inland fish farming.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that police can conduct searches and seize evidence during arrests, even it the arrests turn out to violate state law.
2008 – Officials said the US is scrapping a $20 million virtual fence, developed by Boeing Corp., on the Arizona-Mexico border because the system failed to adequately alert border patrol agents to illegal crossings.
2008 – New York’s Gov. David Paterson signed into law a $1.25 per pack tax hike on top of the state’s $1.50 per pack cigarette tax. New York City has an additional $1.50 per pack tax. By July 1 smokers will be paying an average $9.00 a pack for legal cigarettes. The taxes have encouraged major criminal smuggling.
2010 – Arizona Governor Jan Brewer signs a controversial Immigration Bill. The bill requires the police to ask people about their immigration status if officers have any reason to suspect that they are in the country illegally.
2013 – The United States stock market undergoes a flash crash of 1 percent when the twitter feed from the Associated Press news agency is hacked and erroneously states that several explosions have injured President Barack Obama.
2013 – HE’S BACK IN CLASS: The West Virginia eighth grader taken out of school last Thursday for refusing to change his NRA shirt returned to school, wearing the same shirt that got him arrested last week.
2014 – U.S. District Judge Robert Dow Jr. dismissed a complaint filed on behalf of a Chicago teacher who was suspended for bringing a household toolbox to class for a lesson about tools. In rejecting the complaint, the judge said officials at Washington Irving Elementary School correctly defined the tools as “weapons.” Chicago teacher Douglas Bartlett was suspended for four days for bringing tools to class as a visual aid.
1621 – William Penn, English admiral (d. 1670)
1791 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States. He was the only President to never marry. (d. 1868)
1813 – Stephen A. Douglas, U.S. Senator from Illinois and Presidential candidate (d. 1861)
1893 – Frank Borzage, American film director (d. 1952)
1894 – Cow Cow Davenport, American pianist (d. 1955)
1897 – Lucius Clay, American general (d. 1978)
1907 – Lee Miller, American photographer & model (d. 1977)
1908 – Myron Waldman, American animator (d. 2006)
1921 – Janet Blair, American actress (d. 2007)
1928 – Shirley Temple, American actress and politician
1932 – Jim Fixx, American athlete and writer (d. 1984)
1936 – Roy Orbison, American singer and musician (d. 1988)
1939 – Lee Majors, American actor
1942 – Sandra Dee, American actress (d. 2005)
1949 – Joyce DeWitt, American actress
1960 – Valerie Bertinelli, American actress
1972 – Sonya Smith, American actress
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander (Dental Corps), U.S. Navy. Born: 12 November 1889, Gloucester, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. Other Navy award: Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving with the 5th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps. Under heavy shellfire, on April 23rd, 1918, on the French Front, Lt. Comdr. Lyle rushed to the assistance of Cpl. Thomas Regan, who was seriously wounded, and administered such effective surgical aid while bombardment was still continuing, as to save the life of Cpl. Regan.
AYERS, JAMES F.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Collinstown, Va. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Rapid pursuit, gallantry, energy, and enterprise in an engagement with Indians.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Trumpeter, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: Gallantry in action.
GARDINER, PETER W.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date. At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd, 1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Carlisle, N.Y. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men, he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hendricks County, Ind. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
ROBBINS, MARCUS M.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Elba, Wis. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Wagoner, Troop G, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd,1882. Entered service at:——. Birth: Bavaria. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
TEA, RICHARD L.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sappa Creek, Kans., April 23rd,1875. Entered servlce at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 November 1876. Citation: With five other men he waded in mud and water up the creek to a position directly behind an entrenched Cheyenne position, who were using natural bank pits to good advantage against the main column. This surprise attack from the enemy rear broke their resistance.
WILDER, WILBER E.
INDIAN WARS CAMPAIGN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Horseshoe Canyon, N. Mex., April 23rd, 1882. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Atlas, Mich. Date of issue: 17 August 1896. Citation: Assisted, under a heavy fire, to rescue a wounded comrade.
BEEBE, WILLIAM S.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Ordnance Department, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Cane River Crossing, La., April 23rd,1864. Entered service at: Thompson, Conn. Born: 14 February 1841, Ithaca, N.Y. Date of issue: 30 June 1897. Citation: Voluntarily led a successful assault on a fortified position.
National Jelly Bean Day
“E Pluribus Unum” was the original motto of the United States. It is Latin for “One from many parts.” The picture that would be drawn by this is of a sword being wielded by a small group. In this case it would be the federal sword being wielded by a group of colonies and later states. In June of 1782 the new “Great Seal of the United States” was adopted and it included an eagle with a heart-shaped shield, holding arrows and an olive branch in its claws. The motto “E Pluribus Unum” appeared on a scroll held in its beak. That motto was also used on some federal coins in as early as 1795.
During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key, an attorney, became a party to the release of several American prisoners including one Dr. William Beanes. Dr. Beanes was a noted country doctor who was, literally, dragged out of his bed and held hostage. Several of the doctors friends asked Key if he could get Dr. Beanes released. Key got the permission of President James Madison who also sent John Stuart Skinner.He was another attorney and had become the US Prisoner Exchange Agent for the region.
Key, accompanied by Colonel Skinner, dined aboard the British ship HMS Tonnant, as the guests of three British officers: Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, Rear Admiral Sir George Cockburn, and Major General Robert Ross. Skinner and Key were there to negotiate the release of prisoners. The release was approved but Skinner, Key, and Beanes were not allowed to return to their own sloop: they had become familiar with the strength and position of the British units and with the British intent to attack Baltimore. All Key could do was watch the British attack. As the smoke cleared, one thing was very apparent, the American flag was still flying. On his way back to Baltimore he was inspired to write a poem called, “The Defense of Fort McHenry.”
This is the next major change in this history. The final stanza of that poem reads:
“And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.’
And the Star Spangled Banner in triumph shall wave
O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
In 1864, those words were shortened to “In God We Trust” and applied to a newly designed two-cent coin.
In 1956, the nation was suffering through the height of the cold war, and the McCarthy communist witch hunt. The “In God We Trust” motto then spread to more than just our coinage. It spread to our paper money and lots of other places. The change was partly motivated by a desire to differentiate between communism, which promotes Atheism, and Western capitalistic democracies, which were at least nominally Christian. The phrase “Atheistic Communists” has been repeated so many times that the public has linked Atheism with communism; the two are often considered synonymous. Many consider Atheism as unpatriotic and un-American as is communism.
The new motto was first used on paper money in 1957, when it was added to the one-dollar silver certificate. By 1966, “In God we Trust” was added to all paper money, from $1 to $100 denominations. The Freedom from Religion Foundation claimed to have been unable to find any other country in the world which has a religious motto on their money. That is, simply, untrue:
The Dutch have had a religious motto on their money for almost two centuries. It is even now included on the new two-euro coin. It says,” God zij met ons” or “God is with us.”
During the 1980’s under Brazilian president Jose Sarney, the phrase “Deus seja louvado” or God be praised” was added to their paper money.
Although not a motto , British coins have a drawing of the Queen and “Elizabeth II D.G. REG. F.D.”. This is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase, “Elizabeth II by Grace of God Defender of the Faith.”
In our states and territories we see mottos that include references to God:
Arizona is “Ditat Deus” – “God enriches”
American Samoais “Samoa, Muamua Le Atua” – “Samoa, let God be first”
Colorado is “Nil sine numine” – “Nothing without the Deity”
Connecticut is “Qui transtulit sustinet” – “He who transplanted sustains”
Florida is “In God We Trust”
Kentucky is “Deo gratiam habeamus” – “Let us be grateful to God”
Ohio is “With God, all things are possible”
South Dakota is “Under God the people rule”
This motto is under constant attack. It must be a priority to protect it from those that want to change or eliminate it.
Tomorrow, “Is it Constitutional?”
Ephesians 1: 3-5
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
“Religion is of general and public concern, and on its support depend, in great measure, the peace and good order of government, the safety and happiness of the people.”
“In times of great stress or adversity, it is always best to keep busy, to plow your anger and your energy in to something positive.”
~ Lee Iaccoca
Countermand KOWN-tuhr-mand; kown-tuhr-MAND, transitive verb:
To revoke (a former command); to cancel or rescind by giving an order contrary to one previously given.
To recall or order back by a contrary order.
A contrary order.
Revocation of a former order or command.
1145 – 19th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1526 – The first American slave revolt occurred in South Carolina.
1692 – Edward Bishop is jailed for proposing flogging as cure for witchcraft. He and and his wife were thrown into prison. His wife, Bridget, was later convicted as being a witch.
1692 -In Salem, Massachusetts, Mary Black, a slave, was convicted of sorcery and jailed after a trial.
1778 – Captain John Paul Jones of Ranger led landing party raid on Whitehaven, England.Whitehaven was an English seaport on the Irish Sea.
1790 – Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, submitted a bill to Congress to create a “system of cutters” to enforce tariff and customs laws along the nation’s coastline. Congress passed his bill on 4 August of the same year. This would be the early version of the Coast Guard.
1792 – President George Washington proclaimed American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1793 – President George Washington attends the opening of Rickett’s, first circus in US.
1836 – Texas Revolution: A day after the Battle of San Jacinto forces under Texas General Sam Houston capture Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1861 – Civil War: Robert E. Lee was named commander of Virginia forces.
1861 – Civil War: Captain Franklin Buchanan, Commandant Washington Navy Yard, submitted his resignation and was relieved by Commander John A. Dahlgren; Buchanan joined the Confederate Navy and was promoted to Admiral, CSN. on 26 August 1862.
1863 – Civil War: Grierson’s Raid begins – troops under Union Colonel Benjamin Grierson attack central Mississippi.
1864 – The U.S. Congress passes the Coinage Act which mandates that the inscription “In God We Trust” be placed on all coins minted as United States currency. 2¢ coin is the first appearance of “In God We Trust”.
1876 – First National League game. Boston defeated Philadelphia at Athletic Park 6-5. Jim O’Rourke makes the first hit and Joseph Borden, pitching under the name of Josephs, is the winning pitcher. Philadelphia Athletics Wes Fisler scores baseball’s first run.
1878 – The first Egg Roll was held on the grounds of the White House.
1889 – At high noon, thousands rush to claim land in the Land Run of 1889. Within hours the cities of Oklahoma City and Guthrie are formed with populations of at least 10,000.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The United States Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports and the USS Nashville captures a Spanish merchant ship.
1897 – New York City Jewish newspaper “Forward” began publishing.
1898 – Congress authorized creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the “Rough Riders.”
1906 – A new baseball rule put the umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
1915 – World War I: The use of poison gas in World War I escalates when chlorine gas is released as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres by the Germans.
1915 – The New York Yankees wore pinstripes and the hat-in-the-ring logo for the first time.
1930 – The United Kingdom, Japan and the United States sign the London Naval Treaty regulating submarine warfare and limiting shipbuilding.
1931 – James G. Ray landed an autogyro on the lawn of the White House.
1938 – In Virginia 45 workers were killed in a coal mine explosion at Keen Mountain in Buchanan County.
1940 – Rear Adm. Joseph Taussig testified before US Senate Naval Affairs Committee that war with Japan is inevitable.
1943 – World War II: A series of Allied attacks are launched against the Axis positions in the Tunisian hills. The US 2nd Corps, commanded by General Bradley, attacks Hill 609 in “Mousetrap Valley,” with the objective of advancing to Mateur.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s Love, Love, Love” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Skip Nelson), ‘I Love You” by Bing Crosby, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Operation Persecution initiated – Allied forces land in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area of New Guinea.
1945 – World War II: Prisoners at the Jasenovac concentration camp revolt. 520 are killed and 80 escape. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps [ spread over 93 sq mi on the banks of the Sava river.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler, learning from one of his generals that no German defense was offered to the Russian assault at Eberswalde, admits to all in his underground bunker that the war is lost and that suicide is his only recourse.
1945 – World War II: Himmler meets Count Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross and gives him a message to pass to the western Allies, offering a German surrender to the British and Americans but not to the Soviets. The message is passed to the Allies on the 24th.
1945 – World War II: In Europe, US 7th Army units cross the Danube at Dillingen and Baldingen. Units of 2nd and 4th US Corps (parts of US 5th Army) reach the Penaro River in their advance to the Po River. On the left flank Modena is taken.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese launched their spring offensive with a heavy artillery barrage northeast of Yonchon. The Battle of the Imjin River began.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Any Time” by Eddie Fisher, “Be My Life’s Companion” by The Mills Brothers and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – An atomic test conducted in Nevada was the first nuclear explosion shown on live network television.
1954 – Senator Joseph McCarthy begins hearings investigating the United States Army, which he charges with being “soft” on communism.
1956 – Elvis Presley made his Las Vegas debut at the Frontier Hotel.
1959 – The movie “Go Johnny Go” premiered.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Greenfields” by The Brothers Four, “Sweet Nothin’s” by Brenda Lee and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1962 – Jerry Lee Lewis’s 3-year-old son drowned.
1964 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair opens for its first season. New York police arrested 294 demonstrators at the opening.
1965 – Vietnam War: USCG and US Navy agree on the deployment of 82-foot patrol and 40-foot utility boats to support Operation Market Time in Vietnam.
1967 – Randy Matson set a new world record with a shot put toss of 71 feet, and 5 1/2 inches in College Station, TX.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Cry like a Baby” by The Box Tops, “Lady Madonna” by The Beatles and “Fist City” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1968 – Herb Alpert debuted “This Guy’s in Love With You” on his CBS-TV special.
1968 – Defense Secretary Clark Clifford declares that the South Vietnamese have “acquired the capacity to begin to insure their own security [and] they are going to take over more and more of the fighting.”
1969 – The first human eye transplant was performed for John Madden in Houston.
1970 – First Earth Day celebrated. President Nixon signed an executive order creating the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1970 – African American students protest at Yale University in support of the Black panthers.
1971 – Former US Navy Lieutenant John Kerry (27) testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee and talked about alleged war crimes and atrocities committed in Vietnam by US forces.
1972 – Vietnam War: Increased American bombing in Vietnam prompts antiwar protests in New York City, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Disco Lady” by Johnnie Taylor, “Let Your Love Flow” by The Bellamy Brothers, “Right Back Where We Started From” by Maxine Nightingale and “Drinkin’ My Baby (Off My Mind)” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1976 – Barbara Walters became first female nightly network news anchor.
1978 – John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd made their first appearance as The Blues Brothers on NBC’s “Saturday Night Live.”
1981 – In the largest US bank robbery, more than $3.3 million was stolen in Tucson Ariz. four men were later arrested for the robbery. The cash vault manager , Bud Grainger, was told that his wife was being held hostage at his home.
1981 – Joint Center for Political Studies reported that 2,991 Blacks held elective offices in 45 states and the District of Columbia, compared with 2,621 in April, 1973, and 1,185 in 1969. The Center reported 108 Black mayors. Michigan had the largest number of Black elected officials (194), followed by Mississippi (191).
1983 – The German magazine, Der Stern claims that Adolf Hitler’s diaries were found in wreckage in East Germany. Later found to be untrue.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Against All Odds (Take a Look at Me Now)” by Phil Collins, “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins and “The Yellow Rose” by Johnny Lee with Lane Brody all topped the charts.
1985 – Prince released the album “Around The World In a Day.” It was his first release after “Purple Rain.” No link, Prince does not want his music on YouTube.
1987 – The American Physical Society said that the “Star Wars” missile system was “highly questionable” and would take ten years to research.
1990 – Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon freed American hostage Robert Polhill after nearly 39 months of captivity.
1991 – Intel released 486SX chip.
1992 – The Supreme Court heard arguments on Pennsylvania’s restrictive abortion law. The court upheld most of the law’s provisions the following June, but also reaffirmed a woman’s basic right to an abortion.
1992 – A 6.0 Joshua Tree earthquake hit California.
1993 – The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum was dedicated in Washington, D.C., to honor the victims of Nazi extermination.
1994 – Richard M. Nixon (81), the 37th president of the United States (1969-1975), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke.
1997 – A jury of seven men and five women was chosen in Denver to hear the Oklahoma City bombing trial of Timothy McVeigh.
1998 – Disney’s Animal Kingdom opens at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, United States.
1998 – National TV Turnoff Week began.
1999 – In Kentucky an Army Black Hawk helicopter crashed during training at Fort Campbell and 7 people were killed and 4 injured.
2000 – In a pre-dawn raid, federal agents seize six-year-old Elián González from his relatives’ home in Miami, Florida. Riots erupted in Little Havana and 290 protesters were arrested.
2001 – Two spacewalking astronauts, including Canadian Chris Hadfield, installed a massive Canadian-built robot arm on the international space station.
2003 – American soldiers in Baghdad found $112 million sealed inside 7 animal kennels.
2003 – The world’s first native 64-bit x86 processor, the AMD Opteron processor, is launched.
2003 – President Bush announced he would nominate Alan Greenspan for a fifth term as Federal Reserve chairman.
2004 – Pat Tillman former safety for the Arizona Cardinals, was killed in an friendly-fire incident in Afghanistan. He had walked away from millions of dollars to join the Army Rangers and serve his country.
2004 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church is ordered to pay the largest per capita settlement in a church sexual abuse case in the United States by a jury in Marshall, Texas.
2005 – Zacarias Moussaoui pleads guilty to terror charges in U.S. federal court. He is a French citizen who was convicted of conspiring to kill citizens of the US as part of the September 11 attacks. As a result of his conviction, he is serving a life sentence without parole at the Federal ADX Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado.
2008 – A U.S. federal grand jury in Las Vegas, Nevada, indicts a man on charges of possessing the toxin ricin and on weapons charges.
2008 – Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says that former President of the United States Jimmy Carter was advised not to hold talks with Hamas.
2008 – A US district Court in Manhattan charged Ben-ami Kadish (84), a former US Army mechanical engineer, with four counts of conspiracy. He was charged of spying for Israel and sending classified documents on nuclear weapons to an employee of the Israeli consulate.
2008 – In California a grizzly bear named Rocky (5) killed trainer Stephan Miller (39) at the Randy Miller’s Predators in Action center in San Bernadino County.
2010 – President Barack Obama calls on Wall Street to join him in his efforts to reform the financial sector in a visit to Manhattan.
2010 – The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers honours The Killers for “their impact in shaping American music”.
2010 – An episode of the American television series South Park is censored after a threat of fatwā from a New York-based group over the depiction of Muhammad in a bear costume.
2012 – White House lawyers launch an internal investigation into the role its advance staff may have played in the U.S. Secret Service sex scandal in Colombia, though no evidence has been found to implicate anyone in the scandal.
2012 – Officials in Florida refuse to allow Bill Lee, the police chief who did not arrest George Zimmerman after he shot and killed unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin, to resign.
2012 – The North Carolina trial of former U.S. Senator and presidential hopeful John Edwards, concerning the use of illegal campaign donations to cover up an affair with a mistress, begins.
2013 – News Corporation agrees to pay $139 million to American shareholders due to the phone hacking scandal.
1711 – Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (d. 1779)
1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
1832 – Julius Sterling Morton, Arbor Day founder (d. 1902 )
1844 – Lewis Thornton Powell, would-be assassin of Secretary of State William H. Seward (d. 1865)
1873 – Ellen Glasgow, American author (d. 1945)
1891 – Nicola Sacco, American anarchist (d. 1927)
1892 – Vernon Johns, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
1904 – Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
1906 – Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American-born violinist (d. 1999)
1923 – Bettie Page, American model
1923 – Aaron Spelling, American television producer (d. 2006)
1926 – Charlotte Rae, American actress
1936 – Glen Campbell, American musician
1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor
1939 – Mel Carter, American singer
1946 – Steven L. Bennett, USAF Congressional Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1972)
1959 – Catherine Mary Stewart, Canadian actress
*LITTLETON, HERBERT A.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company C, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Chungchon, Korea, April 22nd, 1951. Entered service at: Blackhawk, S. Dak. Born: 1 July 1930, Mena, Ark. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio operator with an artillery forward observation team of Company C, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Standing watch when a well-concealed and numerically superior enemy force launched a violent night attack from nearby positions against his company, Pfc. Littleton quickly alerted the forward observation team and immediately moved into an advantageous position to assist in calling down artillery fire on the hostile force. When an enemy hand grenade was thrown into his vantage point shortly after the arrival of the remainder of the team, he unhesitatingly hurled himself on the deadly missile, absorbing its full, shattering impact in his body. By his prompt action and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, he saved the other members of his team from serious injury or death and enabled them to carry on the vital mission which culminated in the repulse of the hostile attack. His indomitable valor in the face of almost certain death reflects the highest credit upon Pfc. Littleton and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and Organization: Sergeant (posthumous), U.S. Army, 442nd Regimental Combat Team – Born: August 14, 1920 in Salinas, California. Citation: Private Joe Hayashi distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on April 20th and April 22nd,1945, near Tendola, Italy. On 20 April 1945, ordered to attack a strongly defended hill that commanded all approaches to the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi skillfully led his men to a point within 75 yards of enemy positions before they were detected and fired upon. After dragging his wounded comrades to safety, he returned alone and exposed himself to small arms fire in order to direct and adjust mortar fire against hostile emplacements. Boldly attacking the hill with the remaining men of his squad, he attained his objective and discovered that the mortars had neutralized three machine guns, killed twenty-seven men, and wounded many others. On 22 April 1945, attacking the village of Tendola, Private Hayashi maneuvered his squad up a steep, terraced hill to within 100 yards of the enemy. Crawling under intense fire to a hostile machine gun position, he threw a grenade, killing one enemy soldier and forcing the other members of the gun crew to surrender. Seeing four enemy machine guns delivering deadly fire upon other elements of his platoon, he threw another grenade, destroying a machine gun nest. He then crawled to the right flank of another machine gun position where he killed four enemy soldiers and forced the others to flee. Attempting to pursue the enemy, he was mortally wounded by a burst of machine pistol fire. The dauntless courage and exemplary leadership of Private Hayashi enabled his company to attain its objective. Private Hayashi’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THOMAS, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 149th Infantry, 38th Infantry Division. Place and date: Zambales Mountains Luzon, Philippine Islands, April 22nd, 1945. Entered service at: Ypsilanti, Mich. Birth. Wynne, Ark. G.O. No.: 81, 24 September 1945. Citation: He was a member of the leading squad of Company B, which was attacking along a narrow, wooded ridge. The enemy strongly entrenched in camouflaged emplacements on the hill beyond directed heavy fire and hurled explosive charges on the attacking riflemen. Pfc. Thomas, an automatic rifleman, was struck by oneof these charges, which blew off both his legs below the knees. He refused medical aid and evacuation, and continued to fire at the enemy until his weapon was put out of action by an enemy bullet. Still refusing aid, he threw his last two grenades. He destroyed three of the enemy after suffering the wounds from which he died later that day. The effective fire of Pfc. Thomas prevented the repulse of his platoon and assured the capture of the hostile position. His magnificent courage and heroic devotion to duty provided a lasting inspiration for his comrades.
The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican beachhead seaport of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. Lasting from 9–29 March 1847, it began with the first large-scale amphibious assault conducted by United States military forces, and ended with the surrender and occupation of the city. U.S. forces then marched inland to Mexico City.
ANDERSON, EDWIN A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 July 1860, Wilmington N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz,April 22nd, 1914, in command of the 2d Seaman Regiment. Marching his regiment across the open space in front of the Naval Academy and other buildings, Capt. Anderson unexpectedly met a heavy fire from riflemen, machineguns and l_pounders, which caused part of his command to break and fall back, many casualties occurring among them at the time. His indifference to the heavy fire, to which he himself was exposed at the head of his regiment, showed him to be fearless and courageous in battle.
BADGER, OSCAR CHARLES
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 June 1890, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy Award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Ens. Badger was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
BERKELEY, RANDOLPH CARTER
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 January 1875, Staunton, Va. Appointed from: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 177 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Berkeley was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage, and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of marines under his command.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1876, Evansville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 1st Seaman Regiment, Lt. Cmdr. Buchanan was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon of the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or Failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
BUTLER, SMEDLEY DARLINGTON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 30 July 1881, West Chester, Pa. Appointed from: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Maj. Butler was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
CASTLE, GUY WILKINSON STUART
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 February 1880. Appointed from: Wisconsin. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Lt. Castle was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
CATLIN, ALBERTUS WRIGHT
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1 December 1868, Gowanda, N.Y. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion, Maj. Catlin exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
COURTS, GEORGE McCALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 February 1888, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Under fire, Lt.(j.g.) Courts was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties. He had well qualified himself by thorough study during his years of duty in Mexico to deal with the conditions of this engagement, and his services were of great value. He twice volunteered and passed in an open boat through the zone of fire to convey important orders to the Chester, then under a severe fire.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Utah. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Wisconsin. Birth: Milwaukee, Wis. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Utah, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and 22 April 1914.
DYER, JESSE FARLEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 December 1877, St. Paul, Minn. Appointed from: Minnesota. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914; was in both days fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 16 October 1872, Beaufort, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Elliott was eminent and conspicuous in the efficient establishment and operation of the base hospital, and in his cool judgment and courage in supervising first aid stations on the firing line and removing the wounded.
FLETCHER, FRANK FRIDAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy. Born: 23 November 1855, Oskaloosa, lowa. Accredited to: lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Rear Adm. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was senior officer present at Vera Cruz, and the landing and the operations of the landing force were carried out under his orders and directions. In connection with these operations, he was at times on shore and under fire.
FLETCHER, FRANK JACK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: Iowa. Born: 29 April 1885, Marshalltown, lowa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. Under fire, Lt. Fletcher was eminent and conspicuous in performance of his duties. He was in charge of the Esperanze and succeeded in getting on board over 350 refugees, many of them after the conflict had commenced. Although the ship was under fire, being struck more than thirty times, he succeeded in getting all the refugees placed in safety. Lt. Fletcher was later placed in charge of the train conveying refugees under a flag of truce. This was hazardous duty, as it was believed that the track was mined, and a small error in dealing with the Mexican guard of soldiers might readily have caused a conflict, such a conflict at one time being narrowly averted. It was greatly due to his efforts in establishing friendly relations with the Mexican soldiers that so many refugees succeeded in reaching Vera Cruz from the interior.
FOSTER, PAUL FREDERICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Kansas. Birth: Wichita, Kans. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and 22 April 1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Ens. Foster was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
FRAZER, HUGH CARROLL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: West Virginia. Birth: Martinsburg, W. Va. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914. During this engagement, Ens. Frazer ran forward to rescue a wounded man, exposing himself to hostile fire and that of his own men. Having accomplished the mission, he returned at once to his position in line.
FRYER, ELI THOMPSON
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 August 1878, Hightstown, N.J. Appointed from: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. In both days’ fighting at the head of his company, Captain Fryer was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
GISBURNE, EDWARD A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Electrician Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 June 1892, Providence, R.l. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd,1914, and for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during this action.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 25 December 1872, Canada. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting, the service performed by Lt. Grady, in command of the 2d Regiment, Artillery, was eminent and conspicuous. From necessarily exposed positions, he shelled the enemy from the strongest position.
HARRISON, WILLIAM KELLY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 July 1870, Waco, Tex. Accredited to: Texas. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. During this period, Comdr. Harrison brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22d without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns with telling effect at a critical time.
HARTIGAN, CHARLES CONWAY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 September 1882, Norwich, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for the skillful handling of his company under heavy rifle and machinegun fire, for which conduct he was commended by his battalion commander.
HILL, WALTER NEWELL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 September 1881, Haverhill, Mass. Appointed from: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hill was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUGHES, JOHN ARTHUR
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 2 November 1880, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Capt. Hughes was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
HUSE, HENRY McLAREN PINCKNEY
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 8 December 1858, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Appointed from: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Under fire, Capt. Huse was eminent and conspicuous in the performance of his duties; was indefatigable in his labors of a most important character, both with the division commander in directing affairs and in his efforts on shore to get in communication with the Mexican authorities to avoid needlessly prolonging the conflict.
INGRAM, JONAS HOWARD
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 October 1886, Jeffersonville, Ind. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of two additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. During the second day’s fighting the service performed by him was eminent and conspicuous. He was conspicuous for skillful and efficient handling of the artillery and machineguns of the Arkansas battalion, for which he was specially commended in reports.
JOHNSTON, RUFUS ZENAS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 June 1874, Lincolnton, N.C. Accredited to: North Carolina. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914; was regimental adjutant, and eminent and conspicuous in his conduct. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.
LANGHORNE, CARY DeVALL
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Navy. Born: 14 May 1873, Lynchburg, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Surg. Langhorne carried a wounded man from the front of the Naval Academy while under heavy fire.
LANNON, JAMES PATRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 October 1878, Alexandria, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd,1914. Lt. Lannon assisted a wounded man under heavy fire, and after returning to his battalion was himself desperately wounded.
LOWRY, GEORGE MAUS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 & April 22nd,1914. Entered service at: Pennsylvania. Birth: Eve, Pa. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21_22 April 1914; Ens. Lowry was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company, and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 3 January 1876, Brewster, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: For heroism in leading three picket launches along Vera Cruz sea front, drawing Mexican fire and enabling cruisers to save our men on shore, April 22nd,1914. Though wounded, he gallantly remained at his post.
McDONNELL, EDWARD ORRICK
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 November 1891, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Posted on the roof of the Terminal Hotel and landing, Ens. McDonnell established a signal station there day and night, maintaining communication between troops and ships. At this exposed post he was continually under fire. One man was killed and three wounded at his side during the two days’ fighting. He showed extraordinary heroism and striking courage and maintained his station in the highest degree of efficiency. All signals got through, largely due to his heroic devotion to duty.
McNAlR, FREDERICK VALLETTE, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 March, 1882, Maryland. Appointed at large. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. McNair was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
MOFFETT, WILLIAM A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Charleston, S.C. Born: 31 October 1869, Charleston, S.C. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Comdr. Moffett brought his ship into the inner harbor during the nights of the 21st and 22nd without the assistance of a pilot or navigational lights, and was in a position on the morning of the 22nd to use his guns at a critical time with telling effect. His skill in mooring his ship at night was especially noticeable. He placed her nearest to the enemy and did most of the firing and received most of the hits.
NEVILLE, WENDELL CUSHING
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 May 1870, Portsmouth, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the 2d Regiment Marines, Lt. Col. Neville was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22d. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness, and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended, in great measure, success or failure. His responsibilities were great and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
NORDSIEK, CHARLES LUERS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 April 1896, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Nordsiek showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
REID, GEORGE CROGHAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 9 December 1876, Lorain, Ohio. Appointed from: Ohio. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the righting of both days and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. His cool judgment and courage and his skill in handling his men in encountering and overcoming the machinegun and rifle fire down Cinco de Mayo and parallel streets account for the small percentage of the losses of Marines under his command.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 19 September 1857, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. In command of the naval brigade, Capt. Rush was in both days’ fighting and almost continually under fire from soon after landing, about noon on the 21st, until we were in possession of the city, about noon of the 22nd. His duties required him to be at points of great danger in directing his officers and men, and he exhibited conspicuous courage, coolness and skill in his conduct of the fighting. Upon his courage and skill depended in great measure success or failure. His responsibilities were great, and he met them in a manner worthy of commendation.
SCHNEPEL, FRED JURGEN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 February 1892, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida, Schnepel showed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Vera Cruz, Mexico, April 22nd, 1914. Entered service at: North Carolina. Born: 28 August 1879, Tarboro, N.C. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914; was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
STICKNEY, HERMAN OSMAN
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 December 1867, Pepperell, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Comdr. Stickney covered the landing of the 21st with the guns of the Prairie, and throughout the attack and occupation, rendered important assistance to our forces on shore with his three-inch battery.
TOWNSEND, JULIUS CURTIS
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 February 1881, Athens, Mo. Entered service at: Athens, Mo. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagement of Vera Cruz, April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Townsend was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22nd and in the final occupation of the city.
WAINWRIGHT, RICHARD, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Born: 15 September 1881, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: District of Columbia. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd, 1914. Lt. Wainwright was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion; was in the fighting of both days, and exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through action. In seizing the customhouse, he encountered for many hours the heaviest and most pernicious concealed fire of the entire day, but his courage and coolness under trying conditions were marked.
WALSH, JAMES A.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 July 1897 New York, N.Y. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 101, 15 June 1914. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Florida; for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the seizure of Vera Cruz Mexico, 21 and April 22nd, 1914.
WILKINSON, THEODORE STARK, JR.
MEXICAN CAMPAIGN (VERA CRUZ)
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 December 1888, Annapolis, Md. Appointed from: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 177, 4 December 1915. Other Navy award: Distinguished Service Medal with gold stars in lieu of 2 additional DSM’s. Citation: For distinguished conduct in battle engagements of Vera Cruz, 21 and April 22nd,1914. Ens. Wilkinson was in both days’ fighting at the head of his company and was eminent and conspicuous in his conduct, leading his men with skill and courage.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 20th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., April 22nd,1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Pa., Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily served as one of the crew of a transport that passed the forts under a heavy fire.
NIBBE, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Peterel during its capture in Yazoo River, April 22nd, 1864. Standing his ground when a shot came through the stern, raking the gundeck and entering and exploding the boilers, when all the others had deserted the flag, Nibbe assisted in getting the wounded off the guard and proceeded to get ready to fire the ship despite the escaping steam from the boilers at which time he was surrounded on all sides by the rebels and forced to surrender.
VERNAY, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company B, 11th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., April 22nd, 1863. Entered service at: Lacon, Marshall County, Ill. Birth: Lacon, Ill. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Served gallantly as a volunteer with the crew of the steamer Horizon that, under a heavy fire, passed the Confederate batteries.