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Cliff Notes on Federalism
Federalism is a type of government in which the power is divided between the national government and other governmental units. It contrasts with a unitary government, in which a central authority holds the power, and a confederation, in which states, for example, are clearly dominant.
While the Constitution addressed only the relationship between the federal government and the states, the American people are under multiple jurisdictions. A person not only pays his or her federal income tax but also may pay state and city income taxes as well. Property taxes are collected by counties and are used to provide law enforcement, build new schools, and maintain local roads.
Throughout the 20th century, the power of the federal government expanded considerably through legislation and court decisions. While much recent political debate has centered on returning power to the states, the relationship between the federal government and the states has been argued over for most of the history of the United States.
The constitutional framework
Although the Constitution sets up a federal system, nowhere does it define what federalism is. However, the framers of the Constitution were determined to create a strong national government and address the shortcomings of the Articles of Confederation, which allowed the states too much power. In terms of the balance of power between the federal government and the states, the Constitution clearly favors the federal government.
The powers specifically given to the federal government are not as relevant to the expansion of its authority as the Constitution’s more general provisions; that is, Congress is to provide for the general welfare (preamble) and “. . . make all laws which shall be necessary and proper . . .” (Article I, Section 8). In the Constitution as ratified, there is no similar broad grant of powers to the states. It emphasized what states cannot do (Article I, Section 10) and gave them authority in just a few areas — namely, establishing voter qualifications and setting up the mechanics of congressional elections. This reduction in power was corrected through the Tenth Amendment, which reserved to the states or the people all powers either not specifically delegated to the national government or specifically denied to the states. The language in the general welfare and elastic clauses and the Tenth Amendment is vague enough to allow widely different interpretations. Because both federal and state governments can turn to the Constitution for support, it is not surprising that different concepts of federalism have emerged.
Dual federalism looks at the federal system as a sort of “layer cake,” with each layer of government performing the tasks that make the most sense for that level.
The initial framing and ratification of the Constitution reflected this theory. Even those people supporting a stronger national government proposed that powers in the federal government be distinct and limited, with certain tasks enumerated for the national government in the Constitution and the remaining tasks left to the state governments. Because this theory leaves each government supreme within its own sphere of operations, it is also sometimes called dual sovereignty.
One more-extreme outgrowth of this theory is the idea of states’ rights, which holds that, because the national government is not allowed to infringe on spheres left to state government, doing so violates the states’ constitutional rights (especially the Tenth Amendment, which specifically reserves undelegated powers for the states). Federal government action in those spheres represents an unlawful seizure of power by one level of government at the expense of another. This view has historically been popular in the South, where it was viewed as preventing national government interference in the region’s race relations, but it has been invoked elsewhere as well.
The problem with taking dual federalism this far is figuring out who defines where one layer ends and the next layer starts. Before the Civil War, some voices said that, to protect their rights, states could secede from the Union or declare national laws that affect them null and void — but those arguments are no longer taken seriously. Instead, the U.S. Supreme Court resolves disputes within the federal structure, and because the Court is a national institution, it rarely favors the states.
The theory of cooperative federalism emerged during the New Deal, when the power of the federal government grew in response to the Great Depression. It does not recognize a clear distinction between the functions of the states and Washington, and it emphasizes that there are many areas in which their responsibilities overlap. For example, drug enforcement involves federal agents, state troopers, and local police. The federal government supplies funds for education, but the state and local school boards choose curriculum and set qualifications for teachers. (Interestingly, attempts to set national standards for students in certain subjects have raised concerns of federal intrusion.) The notion of overlapping jurisdictions is expressed by the term marble-cake federalism.
Cooperative federalism takes a very loose view of the elastic clause that allows power to flow through federal government. It is a more accurate model of how the federal system has worked over much of U.S. history.
James 1:2-4 King James Version (KJV)
2 My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations;
3 Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh patience.
4 But let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.
“We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, while others judge us by what we have already done.”
~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
fifth column (fifth KOL-uhm) noun: A group of traitors acting in sympathy with their country’s enemies. [From Spanish quinta columna, from the column of supporters that General Mola claimed to have in Madrid while he was leading four columns of his army to invade the city during the Spanish Civil War.]
1648 – Twelve-thousand Jews were massacred. Cossack Bogdan Chmielnicki led the pogrom in quest of Ukrainian independence from the Polish nobility, who employed Jews to collect taxes.
1675 – A combined attack by the Plymouth, Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut colonies attacks the Great Swamp Fort, owned by the Narrangasetts during King Philip’s War.
1721 – Peter the Great, the czar of Russia, changed his title to emperor to be more in line with European thinking. He also founded the new Russian capital of St. Petersburg.
1772 – The first Committees of Correspondence were formed under Samuel Adams in Massachusetts.
1776 – Revolutionary War: William Demont, became the first traitor of the American Revolution when he deserted. Two weeks earlier, Demont had deserted from the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion and given British intelligence agents information about the Patriot stronghold.
1783 – General George Washington issued his “‘Farewell Address to the Army,” near Princeton, New Jersey.
1811 – Battle of Tippecanoe: Gen William Henry Harrison routed Indians. Following the signing of the Treaty of Greenville in summer 1795, relative peace prevailed between the white settlers and the natives of the Old Northwest.
1820 – The Revenue cutter Louisiana captured five pirate vessels during a cruise from Florida to Cuba.
1824 – Popular presidential vote first recorded; Jackson beats John Quincy Adams. No candidate received the majority of either the popular vote or the electoral vote. Jackson was in the clear lead with 99 electoral votes and 152,901 popular votes. Adams had 84 electoral votes and 11,023 popular votes. Crawford was a poor third when he won only 41 and Clay brought up the rear with 37. . The House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams, who chose Clay for vice president. A furious Jackson proceeded to help found the Democratic Party.
1852 – Franklin Pierce was elected US president over Gen’l. Winfield Scott, who ran as a Whig. In 1852, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution giving Scott the pay and rank of a lieutenant general. Scott was the first to hold this rank since George Washington.
1858 – In Illinois Abraham Lincoln won 4,085 more popular votes for the Senate than did Sen. Stephen Douglas; however Illinois senators were elected by the state legislatures and Douglas won reelection there by eight votes.
1861 – Union General John C. Fremont is relieved of command in the Western Department and replaced by David Hunter.
1862 – Mary Todd Lincoln corresponded with her husband, advising him of popular sentiment against General in Chief of the Federal Army George B. McClellan. Shortly after receiving this letter, Abraham Lincoln removed McClellan from his command.
1869 – Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok lost his reelection bid in Ellis County, Kan.
1871 – The “Rogues Gallery” was started, when photographs of all prisoners in Britain were first taken.
1878 – Edward Scripps (1854-1926) and John Scripps Sweeney founded the Penny Press. Ellen Scripps helped her younger half brother, Edward W. Scripps, begin his Penny Press in Cleveland, Ohio. She gave financial support and contributed articles and columns.
1880 – James A. Garfield was elected 20th president. During the Civil War, Garfield was a commander at the bloody fight at Chickamauga. The election was close, with Republican James Garfield getting 48.27% to Democrat Winfield Hancock‘s 48.25% and a difference of less than 2,000 votes! Garfield was shot by a disgruntled office seeker four months into his presidency.
1882 – Newly elected John Poe replaced Pat Garrett as sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico Territory.
1883 – Thomas Edison executed a patent application for an electrical indicator using the Edison effect lamp (U.S. Pat. 307,031).
1895 – The first gasoline-powered race in the United Statesin Chicago, IL . First prize: $2,000
1895 – In San Francisco the Chutes amusement park first opened on Haight Street, featuring the shoot-the-chutes water slide. It relocated to Fulton Street and 10th Avenue in 1902 and was extremely popular right after the 1906 earthquake and fire, because it was the only amusement park and theater that survived.
1889 – North Dakota and South Dakota became the 39th and 40th states.
1892 – Lawmen and soldiers surrounded outlaws Ned Christie and Arch Wolf near Tahlequah, Indian Country (present-day Oklahoma). It would take dynamite and a cannon to dislodge the two from their cabin.
1898 – Theodor Herzl, founder (1897) of modern political National Zionism, arrived in Jerusalem to promote his World Zionist Organization. Zionism maintains that the Jewish people constitute a nation and are entitled to a national homeland.
1917 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour expressed support for a national home for the Jews of Palestine. This became known as the Balfour Declaration.
1918 – Americans capture Buzancy. The 2nd Division marches right through the enemy positions and advances another five miles.
1920 – In the United States, KDKA of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starts broadcasting as the first commercial radio station. The first broadcast was the results of the U.S. presidential election, 1920. Warren G. Harding was elected President of the United States of America. He defeated James Cox, governor of Ohio, and his VP running mate was Franklin Delano Roosevelt (38).
1920 – In Ocoee, Fla., on election day gunfire erupted after two Black men tried to vote. By the next day a number of residents, black and white, lay dead.
1921 – Eugene O’Neill’s “Anna Christie,” premiered in New York City.
1921 – Margaret Sanger and Mary Ware Dennett formed the American Birth Control League. The organization promoted the founding of birth control clinics, primarily for the Black and Puerto Rican population, and encouraged women to control their own fertility.
1923 – US Navy aviator, H.J. Brown, set new world speed record of 259 mph in a Curtiss racer. |
1926 – Air Commerce Act was passed providing federal aid for airlines and airports.
1927 – In San Francisco Prohibition agents raided a brewery at 1407 San Bruno Ave. with nearly two-thousand gallons of beer brewing in four 500-gallon vats.
1929 – Newsreel films were shown at the Embassy Theatre in New York City. The newsreels were from Fox Movietone News and Hearst Metrotone News and the Embassy played a forty-five to fifty-minute program with fourteen showings daily.
1931 – The DuPont Company of Wilmington, DE announced the first synthetic rubber. It was known as DuPrene.
1931 – VS-14M on the USS Saratoga and VS-15M on the USS Lexington were the first Marine carrier-based squadrons.
1931 – “Myrt and Marge” was heard for the first time and on CBS radio.
1934 – Babe Ruth tours Tokyo Japan. Sixty-five thousand fans cram Jingu Stadium in Tokyo to see the first game. Ruth hits fourteen homers and his team wins all seventeen games.
1937 – “I’d Rather Be Right” opened in New York City.
1942 – World War II: Lt. General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in Gibraltar to set up an American command post for the invasion of North Africa, Operation Torch.
1942 – An amphibious aircraft foundered in rough weather, in the waters surrounding what is now the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the eastern Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Four of the crew escaped the flooding plane and were rescued by local fishermen rowing out from shore in open boats in rough seas. Five others perished, trapped inside.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the “Tokyo Express,” the flotilla of Japanese destroyers supplying their forces, begins to be very active. The American advance in the west continues slowly with some successes.
1943 – World War II: The Battle of Empress Augusta Bay in Bougainville ended in U.S. Navy victory over Japan.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Jewish ghetto of Riga, Latvia, was destroyed.
1943 – World War II: The Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain is raided by about 160 land-based aircraft of the US 5th Air Force. About 20 planes on each side. Three Japanese ships are sunk in the harbor.
1943 – On the west coast of the Trigno River in Italy, the US 5th Army continues its slow advance. Elements of the British 10th Corps reach Garigliano.
1944 – World War II: Elements of the US 5th Army take Casseta, south of Bologna.
1944 – World War II: During the day, the US 8th Air Force attacks the Leuna synthetic oil plant at Merseburg. The Americans claim 183 German fighters (including 4 jets) destroyed for the loss of 40 bombers and 28 fighters (including losses to antiaircraft defenses).
1947 – Howard Hughes proved the airworthiness of the Spruce Goose, but the aircraft never flew again. It was designed to take 700 men to war, but the war ended before the plane was completed. It was actually made from laminated birch and not spruce.
1948 – In a great upset, Harry S. Truman narrowly beat Republican challenger
Thomas E. Dewey and surprised many, including the “Chicago Tribune” editors who had prematurely printed news of Dewey’s “win”. The Tribune had published an early edition that had the headline “DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN.”
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: JackLeonard) and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War, the Chinese 124th Division withdrew into the mountains, after offering stiff resistance to troops of the 7th Marines south of the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir.
1952 – Dixie Lee Crosby (40), wife of Bing Crosby, died in Hollywood from cancer. He remarried in 1957 to Kathryn and was married for twenty years.
1954 – Strom Thurmond (1902-2003) of South Carolina became the first US senator elected by write-in vote.
1955 – Julie London’s “Cry Me a River” stayed on the pop chart for five months.
1955 – Jim Henson’s “Kermit the Frog” the first of the Muppets, was copyright registered.
1957 – The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity, and remains one of the most impressive UFO cases in American history. There were, at least, twelve active witnesses including both the police and fire chiefs.
1957 – First titanium mill opened, Toronto, Ohio. It is still operating but with a much reduced staff (2011).
1958 – “Billboard” magazine introduced a new chart.
1959 – Game show contestant Charles Van Doren admitted to a U.S. House subcommittee that he had been fed questions and answers prior to appearing on the TV show “Twenty-One.”
1960 – A British jury acquitted Penguin Books of obscenity for publishing D.H. Lawrence’s “Lady Chatterley’s Lover.”
1960 – Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy told an audience of 20,000 at the Cow Palace in Daly City, Ca., that the US should establish a Peace Corps.The idea was first floated three weeks ago at the University of Michigan.
1962 – The Elvis Presley film “Girls! Girls! Girls!” premiered.
1962 – Lt Col John H. Glenn (first American to orbit the earth) became first recipient of the Alfred A. Cunningham Trophy for outstanding Marine pilots.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts. 1963 – Kate Smith gave her first full concert to paying customers.
1963 – The Beach Boys’ “Be True To Your School” was released.
1963 – During an army coup in South Vietnam, President Ngo Dinh Diem was assassinated. He was succeeded by General Duong Van Minh.
1963 – The Cuban Adjustment Act allows 123,000 Cubans to apply for permanent residence in the U.S.
1964 – CBS purchases 80% of Yankees for $11,200,000. The network later buys the remaining 20%.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Yesterday” by The Beatles, “A Lover’s Concerto” by The Toys, “Get Off of My Cloud” by The Rolling Stones and “Hello Vietnam” by Johnny Wright all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: At 5:15 P.M., Norman Morrison, a 31-year-old Quaker, set himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam war.
1967 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and “the Wise Men” conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – “For Once in My Life” by Stevie Wonder released.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Search Turn began in Mekong Delta. The first of the SEA LORDS barrier campaigns was a five-day US and Vietnamese Navy operation
1969 – NFL record of 12 passing touchdowns, New Orleans Billy Kramer & St Louis’ Charlie Johnson pass for 6 touchdowns each in the same game.
1970 – Cleveland Cavaliers lose by biggest margin-54 pts (Philadelphia 141-87). 1972 – Construction begins on the Kingdome with a ground breaking. It was completed in 1976. It was destroyed Mar 26, 2000.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Midnight Train to Georgia” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks, “Paper Roses” by Marie Osmond and “We’re Gonna Hold On” by George Jones & Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1973 – “Barbra Streisand …and Other Musical Instruments” airs on CBS TV . This was Streisand’s fifth (and last) network television special, featuring Ray Charles and Martin Erlichman.
1974 – “You Haven’t Done Nothin‘” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1974 – George Harrison began his first tour in eight years. He was the first former Beatle to attempt a nationwide solo tour.
1974 – “So Far” (43:19), the album by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, rose to #1 in the US.
1976 – James Earl Carter was elected 39th President of the United States of America, defeating Republican incumbent Gerald R. Ford. He was the first from the Deep South since the Civil War.
1976 – Tom Tancredo was elected to Colorado’s state house as a member of a group called “The Crazies” due to their fervent opposition to taxes.
1976 – New Jersey voters approved gambling for Atlantic City.
1978 – John J. Riccardo, Chairman of Chrysler Corporation, hired Lee A. Iacocca as Chrysler President .
1979 – Joanna Chesimard (Assata Shakur), in prison serving a life sentence for the 1973 murder of a New Jersey State Trooper, escaped from the facility, after three members of the Black Liberation Army drew .45-caliber automatic pistols. Two officers were taken hostage as part of the escape and were released unharmed.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Private Eyes” by Daryl Hall & John Oates and “Never Been So Loved (In All My Life)” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan signed the bill designating a federal holiday (third Monday in January) in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
1984 – Margie Velma Barfield, a convicted murderer, became the first woman to be executed in the modern era of the death penalty, in North Carolina. She had been convicted of the poisoning death of her boyfriend.
1984 – Paul Cosner disappeared from the SF Bay Area following a planned sale of a 1980 Honda Prelude at his Marin Motors. The car was identified Jun 2, 1985 in the hands of Leonard Lake and Charles Ng. As many as 25 people were believed killed by Lake and Ng at a compound in Calaveras County, Ca.
1985 – “Part-Time Lover” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1985 – A TV soundtrack LP topped the album charts. “Miami Vice” by Jan Hammer enjoyed a run of eleven weeks. This is only the second time this has happened. 1986 – The 12-by-16-inch celluloid of a poison apple from Walt Disney’s “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”” was purchased for $30,800.
1986 – Mike Tyson (20) knocked out Trevor Berbick and won the WBC title to become the youngest heavyweight champion in history.
1986 – American hostage American Hospital Administrator David Jacobson was released after being held in Lebanon for 17 months by Shiite Muslim kidnappers. 1988 – The Morris worm, the first internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, was launched from a Cornell University student. The targets included the Pentagon, SDI research lab & 6 universities. Ultimately, the virus infected an estimated 6,000 university and military computers over the Internet. No damage was done.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Miss You Much” by Janet Jackson, “Sowing the Seeds of Love” by Tears For Fears, “Listen to Your Heart” by Roxette and “High Cotton” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1989 – Carmen Fasanella retired after 68 years and 243 days of taxicab service in Princeton, NJ.
1989 – The musical “Meet Me in St. Louis” opened. 1990 –The White House announced that President Bush planned to spend Thanksgiving with American GI’s in Saudi Arabia.
1990 – Ivana Trump filed for divorce from US millionaire Donald Trump.
1991 – “Romantic” by Karyn White topped the charts.
1992 – Magic Johnson retired from the NBA a second time, this time for good because of fear of his HIV infection.
1993 – The U.S. Senate called for full disclosure of Senator Bob Packwood’s diaries in a sexual harassment probe.
1993 – Christie Todd Whitman was elected the first woman governor of New Jersey. 1993 – Fires in Southern California pushed through areas of Los Angeles, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, burning 35,000 acres and 200 homes.
1994 – A jury in Pensacola, Fla., convicted Paul Hill of murder for the July 29 shotgun slayings of an abortion provider and his bodyguard; Hill was sentenced to death. He became the first person to be executed for killing an abortion provider when he was killed by electrocution on September 3, 2003.
1995 – The U.S. expelled Daiwa Bank Ltd. for allegedly covering up $1.1 billion in trading losses.
1995 – A man claiming to have a bomb hijacked a school bus with thirteen learning-disabled children aboard. He led authorities around Miami-area highways for an hour and a-half before being fatally shot by police.
1996 – A tentative labor contract was reached between General Motors and the United Auto Workers, averting a national strike.
1997 – A labor agreement between Amtrak and maintenance workers averted a possible national passenger rail strike.
1999 – Republicans took control of the Virginia General Assembly for the first time with 52 of 100 seats.
1999 – In Honolulu, Hawaii, Xerox repairman Byran Uyesugi (40) killed seven people at Xerox company offices.
2000 – The Alameda County DA charged 4 Oakland, Ca., police officers, known as “The Riders,” with 48 felonies that included charges of beating suspects and planting evidence. In 2003 a court acquitted the officers of misconduct charges.
2000 – International Space Station occupied by an American astronaut and two Russian cosmonauts. They became the first permanent residents of the international space station, at the start of their four-month mission.
2001 – President George W. Bush, saying the war in Afghanistan was unravelling Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network, chided critics for clamoring for more action, and said the U.S. military campaign would not pause for the Muslim holiday of Ramadan.
2001 – A US helicopter crashed due to weather in northern Afghanistan. Four crew members were injured and retrieved by another helicopter.
2001 – A 17th case of anthrax was reported in a NY Post employee.
2001 – New York City firefighters and police engaged in a scuffle as firefighters protested a limit to the number of firefighters working to retrieve their dead at the World Trade Center disaster site.
2001 – The computer-animated movie “Monsters, Inc.” opened. The film recorded the best debut ever for an animated film and the 6th best of all time.
2002 – Pres. Bush called Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein a “dangerous man” with links to terrorist networks, and said that UN inspections for weapons of mass destruction were critical.
2002 – Kuwait closed the office of Al-Jazeera, the Arab world’s most popular satellite TV network, claiming it was “not objective.”
2003 – Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs ran in the New York City Marathon. He finished in 4 hours, 14 minutes and 54 seconds. He raised $2 million dollars for children.
2003 – In Havana, Cuba, 71 American firms from 18 states and Puerto Rico opened trade fair displays under an exception in a 42-year US trade embargo.
2003 – In central Iraq insurgents shot down a US Chinook helicopter as it carried troops headed for R&R, killing 15 soldiers and wounding 21. Attacks on US troops reached 33 a day.
2004 – In US presidential elections a federal appeals court cleared the way for political parties to send in people to challenge voters’ eligibility at Ohio polling places. US Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens allowed Republicans to challenge voter qualifications at the polls in Ohio.
2004 – President George W. Bush was elected to a second term as president.
2004 – Arizona voters passed Prop. 200 aimed at cracking down on illegal immigration. It required proof of citizenship before receipt of public benefits or voting.
2005 -The Bush administration released details of its potential flu pandemic strategy, saying a pandemic that hit the United States would force cities to ration scarce drugs and vaccine and house the sick in hotels or schools if hospitals were to overflow.
2006 – In Denver, Colo., Rev. Ted Haggard, a leading evangelist and outspoken opponent of gay marriage, gave up his post as president of the National Association of Evangelicals while a church panel investigates allegations he paid a man for sex. Haggard later confessed he was guilty of sexual immorality.
2006 – NASA lost contact with the Mars Global Surveyor following a successful 10-year mapping mission.
2007 – Speaking at a graduation ceremony at Fort Jackson, S.C., President Bush said US military deaths had fallen to their lowest levels in 19 months and the Iraqi people were slowly “taking back their country” in the wake of the American troop buildup there.
2007 – Gold futures at the NY Mercantile Exchange set a contract high of $805.70, its highest level since the $873 contract high reached in January 1980.
2008 – Opus, a politically beleaguered penguin created by cartoonist Berkeley Breathed, appeared in the Sunday comics for the last time.
2008 – Paula Radcliffe defended her title at the NYC marathon to become the second woman to win the race three times.
2008 – Lewis Hamilton wins the Formula One Drivers’ Championship making him the youngest and first African-American Formula One World Champion in history.
2009 – The new US Navy assault ship New York arrived at Pier 88. The 684 foot, $1 billion ship was included 7½ tons of steel in its hull from the World Trade Center. 2009 – Traffic opened on the San Francisco Bay Bridge after six days of emergency structural repair. Engineers expected that it would be closed again in few months for a permanent fix.
2010 – BP raises the estimated cost of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico to $40 billion.
2010 – The Republican Party wins six gubernatorial elections including Pennsylvania, Michigan, Tennessee, Kansas, Oklahoma and Wyoming. They also won control of the House of Representatives with the largest turnover of seats since 1948 and the largest gain for Republicans since 1894.
2010 – The Democrats retains a clear majority in United States Senate, though the Republicans pick up seats in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Arkansas, North Dakota, Indiana and Wisconsin.
2011 – Four men are arrested in Georgia for plotting to kill government officials with explosives and the toxic substance ricin.
2012 – The New York City Marathon is canceled due to the devastation wreaked by Hurricane Sandy.
2014 – A man attacked four nurses with a metal bar in a violent rampage at St. John’s Hospital in Maplewood, Minn. early Sunday morning, then died after a struggle with police.
1734 – Daniel Boone, American frontiersman, explorer. 1755 – Marie Antoinette, queen of King Louis XVI of France. 1795 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States of America (1845-1849). 1815 – George Boole (d.1864), English-Irish mathematician and logician (Boolean algebra), was born. 1865 – Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States of America (1921-1923). 1877 – Aga Khan III, hereditary head of Ismailian Muslims, owner of five Kentucky Derby winners. 1901 – Paul Ford, actor (Phil Silvers Show), was born in Baltimore, Md. 1913 – Burt Lancaster, American Academy Award-winning actor. 1914 – Ray Walston, actor (My Favorite Martian, Damn Yankees, Picket Fences), was born in New Orleans, La. 1938 – Patrick Joseph Buchanan, American syndicated columnist and broadcaster.
VAN WINKLE, ARCHIE
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company B, 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vicinity of Sudong, Korea, November 2nd, 1950. Entered service at: Arlington, Wash. Born: 17 March 1925, Juneau, Alaska. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a platoon sergeant in Company B, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Immediately rallying the men in his area after a fanatical and numerically superior enemy force penetrated the center of the line under cover of darkness and pinned down the platoon with a devastating barrage of deadly automatic weapons and grenade fire, S/Sgt. Van Winkle boldly spearheaded a determined attack through withering fire against hostile frontal positions and, though he and all the others who charged with him were wounded, succeeded in enabling his platoon to gain the fire superiority and the opportunity to reorganize. Realizing that the left flank squad was isolated from the rest of the unit, he rushed through forty yards of fierce enemy fire to reunite his troops despite an elbow wound which rendered one of his arms totally useless. Severely wounded a second time when a direct hit in the chest from a hostile hand grenade caused serious and painful wounds, he staunchly refused evacuation and continued to shout orders and words of encouragement to his depleted and battered platoon. Finally carried from his position unconscious from shock and from loss of blood, S/Sgt. Van Winkle served to inspire all who observed him to heroic efforts in successfully repulsing the enemy attack. His superb leadership, valiant fighting spirit, and unfaltering devotion to duty in the face of heavy odds reflect the highest credit upon himself, the United States Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service.
BOLTON, CECIL H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 413th Infantry, 104th Infantry Division. Place and date: Mark River, Holland, November 2nd, 1944. Entered service at: Huntsville, Ala. Birth: Crawfordsville, Fla. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: As leader of the weapons platoon of Company E, 413th Infantry, on the night of 2 November 1944, he fought gallantly in a pitched battle which followed the crossing of the Mark River in Holland. When two machineguns pinned down his company, he tried to eliminate, with mortar fire, their grazing fire which was inflicting serious casualties and preventing the company’s advance from an area rocked by artillery shelling. In the moonlight it was impossible for him to locate accurately the enemy’s camouflaged positions; but he continued to direct fire until wounded severely in the legs and rendered unconscious by a German shell. When he recovered consciousness he instructed his unit and then crawled to the forward rifle platoon positions. Taking a two-man bazooka team on his voluntary mission, he advanced chest deep in chilling water along a canal toward one enemy machine-gun. While the bazooka team covered him, he approached alone to within fifteen yards of the hostile emplacement in a house. He charged the remaining distance and killed the two gunners with hand grenades. Returning to his men he led them through intense fire over open ground to assault the second German machine-gun. An enemy sniper who tried to block the way was dispatched, and the trio pressed on. When discovered by the machine-gun crew and subjected to direct fire, 1st Lt. Bolton killed one of the three gunners with carbine fire, and his two comrades shot the others. Continuing to disregard his wounds, he led the bazooka team toward an 88-mm. artillery piece which was having telling effect on the American ranks, and approached once more through icy canal water until he could dimly make out the gun’s silhouette. Under his fire direction, the two soldiers knocked out the enemy weapon with rockets. On the way back to his own lines he was again wounded. To prevent his men being longer subjected to deadly fire, he refused aid and ordered them back to safety, painfully crawling after them until he reached his lines, where he collapsed. 1st Lt. Bolton’s heroic assaults in the face of vicious fire, his inspiring leadership, and continued aggressiveness even through suffering from serious wounds, contributed in large measure to overcoming strong enemy resistance and made it possible for his battalion to reach its objective.
*FEMOYER, ROBERT E.
(Air Mission) WW II
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 711th Bombing Squadron, 447th Bomber Group, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Merseburg, Germany, November 2nd, 1944. Entered service at: Jacksonville, Fla. Born: 31 October 1921, Huntington, W. Va. G.O. No.: 35, 9 May 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty near Merseburg, Germany, on 2 November 1944. While on a mission, the bomber, of which 2nd Lt. Femoyer was the navigator, was struck by three enemy antiaircraft shells. The plane suffered serious damage and 2nd Lt. Femoyer was severely wounded in the side and back by shell fragments which penetrated his body. In spite of extreme pain and great loss of blood he refused an offered injection of morphine. He was determined to keep his mental faculties clear in order that he might direct his plane out of danger and so save his comrades. Not being able to arise from the floor, he asked to be propped up in order to enable him to see his charts and instruments. He successfully directed the navigation of his lone bomber for 2 1/2 hours so well it avoided enemy flak and returned to the field without further damage. Only when the plane had arrived in the safe area over the English Channel did he feel that he had accomplished his objective; then, and only then, he permitted an injection of a sedative. He died shortly after being removed from the plane. The heroism and self-sacrifice of 2nd Lt. Femoyer are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.
*WILKINS, RAYMOND H.
(Air Mission) WW II
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Near Rabaul, New Britain, November 2nd,1943. Entered service at: Portsmouth, Va. Born: 28 September 1917, Portsmouth, Va. G.O. No.: 23, 24 March 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Rabaul, New Britain, on 2 November 1943. Leading his squadron in an attack on shipping in Simpson Harbor, during which intense antiaircraft fire was expected, Maj. Wilkins briefed his squadron so that his airplane would be in the position of greatest risk. His squadron was the last of three in the group to enter the target area. Smoke from bombs dropped by preceding aircraft necessitated a last-second revision of tactics on his part, which still enabled his squadron to strike vital shipping targets, but forced it to approach through concentrated fire, and increased the danger of Maj. Wilkins’ left flank position. His airplane was hit almost immediately, the right wing damaged, and control rendered extremely difficult. Although he could have withdrawn, he held fast and led his squadron into the attack. He strafed a group of small harbor vessels, and then, at low level, attacked an enemy destroyer. His 1,000 pound bomb struck squarely amidships, causing the vessel to explode. Although antiaircraft fire from this vessel had seriously damaged his left vertical stabilizer, he refused to deviate from the course. From below-masthead height he attacked a transport of some 9,000 tons, scoring a hit which engulfed the ship in flames. Bombs expended, he began to withdraw his squadron. A heavy cruiser barred the path. Unhesitatingly, to neutralize the cruiser’s guns and attract its fire, he went in for a strafing run. His damaged stabilizer was completely shot off. To avoid swerving into his wing planes he had to turn so as to expose the belly and full wing surfaces of his plane to the enemy fire; it caught and crumpled his left wing. Now past control, the bomber crashed into the sea. In the fierce engagement Maj. Wilkins destroyed two enemy vessels, and his heroic self-sacrifice made possible the safe withdrawal of the remaining planes of his squadron.
All Saint’s Day
National Men Make Dinner Day
Give Up Your Should Day
Separation of Powers
The writers of The Federalist Papers were concerned with the potential abuse of power, and set forth their rationale for separating the powers of the various branches of government. James Madison summarizes their fear of the centralization of political power in a famous quote in Federalist Paper #47.
“No political truth is certainly of greater intrinsic value, or is stamped with the authority of more enlightened patrons of liberty, than that on which the objection is founded. The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.”
Madison quickly dismisses the idea that constitutional provisions alone will prevent an abuse of political power. He argues that mere “parchment barriers” are not adequate “against the encroaching spirit of power.”
He also believed that the legislature posed the greatest threat to the separation of powers. “The legislative department is everywhere extending the sphere of its activity and drawing all power into its impetuous vortex.” The framers therefore divided Congress into a bicameral legislature and hoped that the Senate would play a role in checking the passions of popular majorities (Federalist Paper #63).
His solution was to give each branch separate but rival powers. This prevented the possibility of concentrating power into the hands of a few. Each branch had certain checks over the other branches so there was a distribution and balance of power.
The effect of this system was to allow ambition and power to control itself. Each branch is given power, and as ambitious men and women seek to extend their sphere of influence, they provide a check on the other branch.
Madison said, “Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place. It may be a reflection on human nature that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government.” This policy of supplying “opposite and rival interests” has been known as the concept of countervailing ambitions.
In addition to this, the people were given certain means of redress. Elections and an amendment process have kept power from being concentrated in the hands of governmental officials. Each of these checks was motivated by a healthy fear of human nature. The founders believed in human responsibility and human dignity, but they did not trust human nature too much. Their solution was to separate powers and invest each branch with rival powers.
The writers of The Federalist Papers realized the futility of trying to remove passions and ambition from the population. They instead divided power and allowed “ambition to counteract ambition.” By separating various institutional power structures, they limited the expansion of power.
This not only included a horizontal distribution of powers (separation of powers), but also a vertical distribution of powers (federalism). The federal government was delegated certain powers while the rest of the powers were reserved to the states and the people.
James Madison rightly called this new government a republic which he defined as “a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of people, and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period, or during good behavior.”
He also argued that “the proposed government cannot be deemed a national one; since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only, and leaves to the several states a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects.”
Governmental power was limited by the Constitution and its interpretation was delegated to the judicial branch. As Alexander Hamilton explained, the Constitution was to be the supreme law of the land.
A constitution is, in fact, and must be regarded by the judges as, a fundamental law. It therefore belongs to them to ascertain its meaning as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body. If there should happen to be an irreconcilable variance between the two, that which has the superior obligation and validity ought, of course, to be preferred; or, in other words, the Constitution ought to be preferred to the statute, the intention of the people to the intention of their agents.
Although Hamilton referred to the judiciary as the weakest of the three branches of government, some of the critics of the Constitution warned that the Supreme Court “would be exalted above all power in the government, and subject to no control.” Unfortunately, that assessment certain has proved correct over the last few decades.
The Federalist Papers provide an overview of the political theory that undergirds the U.S. Constitution and provide important insight into the intentions of the framers in constructing a new government. As we have also seen, it shows us where the current governmental structure strays from the original intent of the framers.
The framers fashioned a government that was based upon a realistic view of human nature. The success of this government in large part is due to separating power structures because of their desire to limit the impact of human sinfulness.
1 Peter 2:9-11 King James Version (KJV)
9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light;
10 Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.
11 Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;
“I would rather regret the things that I have done than the things that I have not.”
~ Lucille Ball
debouch (di-BOUCH, di-BOOSH) verb intr.
1. To march out from a narrow or confined place into an open area.
2. To emerge or issue from a narrow area into the open.
[From French deboucher, from de- (out of) + boucher, from bouche (mouth),
from Latin bucca (mouth or cheek). The word buckle (as in a belt) derives
from the same Latin root.]
79 AD – Pompeii was buried by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.
1512 – The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo, is exhibited to the public for the first time.
1520 – The Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South America, connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, is first navigated by Ferdinand Magellan during his global circumnavigation voyage.
1604 – William Shakespeare’s tragedy “Othello” is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
1611 – William Shakespeare’s romantic comedy “The Tempest” is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
1620 – Forty–one Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts, signed a compact calling for a “body politick.”(Mayflower Compact) 102 Pilgrims stepped ashore. They called themselves Saints and the others Strangers. One passenger died during the trip and two were born. Their military commander was Miles Standish.
1683 – The British crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.
1755 – Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami: A large earthquake struck Lisbon – a great city legendary for its wealth, prosperity and sophistication. It was Sunday and the religious holiday of All Saints. Most of Lisbon’s population of 250,000 were praying in six magnificent cathedrals.Experts have estimated that the magnitude of the Great Lisbon Earthquake must have been 8.6 or even greater. The observations of the effects and the ground motions suggest a moment magnitude closer to 9.0.
1765 – The Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies goes in to effect in order to help pay for British military operations in North America. Americans, who did not elect members of Parliament, opposed the act not only because of their inability to pay the tax, but also because it violated the newly enunciated principle of “No taxation without representation.”
1769 – Sgt. Jose Francisco Ortega with his scouting party first looked upon (now) San Francisco Bay from the vicinity of Point Lobos.
1776 – Mission San Juan Capistrano was re-founded in California. Each year, the swallows of Capistrano leave their nests there around St. John’s Day (October 23) and return the following year near St. Joseph’s Day (March 19).
1783 – Continental Army dissolved and George Washington made his “Farewell Address.”
1784 – Maryland granted citizenship to Lafayette and his descendants.
1790 – Edmund Burke publishes “Reflections on the Revolution in France”, in which he predicts that the French Revolution will end in a disaster.
1800 – US President John Adams, and his wife Abigail, becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
1802 – Delegates meet at Chillicothe, Ohio to form a state constitutional convention.
1834 – The first published reference to poker as a Mississippi riverboat game.
1841 – The “Mosquito Fleet” commanded by LCDR J. T. McLaughlin, USN, carries 750 Sailors and Marines into the Everglades to fight the Seminole Indians.
1843 – Secretary of Treasury Spencer issued new “Rules and Regulations for the governing of the Revenue Cutter Service” centralizing control of cutters under Revenue Marine Bureau.
1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.
1856 – The first photography magazine, Daguerreian Journal, was published in New York City, NY.
1859 – The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse was lit for the first time. Its first-order Fresnel Lens can be seen for about 19 miles (30 kilometers), in good conditions.
1861 – Civil War: US President Abraham Lincoln appoints George McClellan as the commander of the Union Army, replacing the aged General Winfield Scott.
1864 – Money orders were sold by the U.S. Post Office as a safe way to make payments by mail.
1866 – First Civil Rights Bill passed.
1867 – “Harpers Bazaar”, an American fashion magazine first published by Hearst.
1870 – US Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.
1873 – Barbed wire manufactured. This product would transform the West.
1879 – Thomas Edison executed his first patent application for a high-resistance carbon filament (U.S. Pat. 223,898).
1894 – “Billboard Advertising” was published for the first time. It later became known as “Billboard.”
1901 – Sigma Phi Epsilon, a national men’s collegiate fraternity is established at Richmond College, in Richmond, VA.
1904 – The Army War College in Washington, DC, enrolled the first class.
1909 – In San Francisco a ban on cows went into effect, except for a narrow district that was set apart for handling cattle to be slaughtered. A new ordnance made it unlawful to keep more than two cows and provided that when two cows are kept within city limits, at least an acre of land must be provided for their pasturage.
1910 – First issue of “The Crisis” published by editor W E B Du Bois. “The Crisis” was an American monthly magazine published by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
1913 – Notre Dame upsets Army 35-13, first to use forward pass effectively.
1915 – Parris Island, SC officially becomes the Marine Corps Recruit Depot.
1917 – First US soldiers were killed in combat in WW I.
1918 – Fourth Marine Brigade participated in action at Meuse-Argonne. Americans and French advance between Aisne and Meuse in Argonne Forest.
1918 – The worst rapid transit accident in US history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with 97 deaths and 200 injuries. A dispatcher, filling in for striking motormen, loses control while entering the tunnel at Malbone Street (Empire Boulevard)
1924 – First US NHL franchise, Boston Bruins debut. They defeated the Montreal Maroons at home 2-1.
1924 – The 118th Observation Squadron, an element of the 43rd Division receives federal recognition on this date. the unit was mobilized in February 1941 and flew antisubmarine patrols off the coasts of South Carolina until it deployed to India in 1943.
1924 – Bill Tilghman (b.1854), legendary Oklahoma marshal, was gunned down by a drunk in Cromwell, Oklahoma, while trying to arrest Wiley Lynn, a corrupt prohibition officer.
1931 – Dupont introduced synthetic rubber.
1932 – Wernher von Braun named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program.
1936 – Mussolini describes alliance between Italy & Germany as an “axis.”
1936 – Rodeo Cowboys Association founded.
1937 – “Hilltop House” first aired on CBS Radio.
1937 – “Terry and the Pirates” debuted on NBC Radio.
1938 – “Seabiscuit” defeats “War Admiral” in an upset victory during a match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.
1939 – First jet plane, Heinkel He 178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry.
1939 – The first rabbit born after artificial insemination is exhibited to the world.
1939 -The largest private building project, Rockefeller Center, ever undertaken in modern times was completed on November 1, 1939. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. drove in the final (silver) rivet into 10 Rockefeller Plaza.
1940 – “A Night in the Tropics” was released. It was the first movie for Abbott and Costello.
1940 – First US air raid shelter was made in Fleetwood, PA by Howard Moyer Grounder.
1940 – The Iceland skating rink opened in Berkeley, CA, with an appearance by Sonya Henie, the former Olympic champion and Hollywood actress.
1941 – Japanese marine staff officers Suzuki and Maejima arrived in Pearl Harbor. The Japanese attack is only thirty-seven days away.
1941 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Executive Order 8929 transferred the Coast Guard to Navy Department control. His announcement that the U.S. Coast Guard will now be under the direction of the U.S. Navy is a transition of authority usually reserved only for wartime.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, two Marine regiments begin an attack west across the Matanikau River.
1943 – World War II: The 3rd Marine Division, land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.
1943 – World War II: In support of the landings on Bougainville, U.S. aircraft carrier forces attack the huge Japanese base at Rabaul.
1943 – President Roosevelt orders the Solid Fuels Administration, headed by Harold L. Ickes, to take over the operation of coal mines. There are 530,000 miners on strike at this time.
1944 – World War II: The first of some 9000 paper balloons, carrying bombs intended to be dropped over North American land, are released near Tokyo.
1944 – The US B-29 Superfortress “Tokyo Rose” of the Third Photo Reconnaissance Squadron makes the first American flight over Tokyo since 1942.
1944 – Gen. Patton greeted the 761st Tank Battalion, an all African-American unit, near Nancy, France.
1944 – “Harvey” opened in New York City. It was a comedy by Mary Coyle Chase about a man and his invisible friend, a 6-foot-tall rabbit.
1945 – John H. Johnson published the first issue of Ebony magazine.
1946 – NY Knicks first basketball game beat Toronto Huskies 68-66.
1947 – Eddy Arnold’s “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” hit #1.
1947 – The famous racehorse “Man o’ War” died.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “Hair of Gold, Eyes of Blue” by Gordon MacRae and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long, Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – A Lockheed P-38L Lightning, NX26297 flown by a Bolivian Air Force pilot, collides in midair with Eastern Airlines Flight 537, a Douglas DC-4 airliner, N88727, on its final approach to National Airport. Among the dead were Congressman George J. Bates and former Congressman Michael J. Kennedy.
1949 – Authority to reestablish the Women’s Reserve of the Coast Guard Reserves (SPARS), approved by the President on 4 August 1949 became effective.
1950 – Korean War: The 24th Infantry Division’s 21st Infantry Regiment achieved the northernmost progress of any U.S. ground unit in Eighth Army as it captured the village of Chonggo-do only 18 miles from Sinuiju on the Yalu River.
1950 – Korean War: The 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, began movement from the port of Hamung on the east coast to the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir 56 miles to the northeast.
1950 – Korean War : The 8th Cavalry Regiment of the 1st Cavalry Division became the first U.S. unit to engage the Chinese in major ground combat when its 3rd Battalion was overrun at Unsan and suffered 600 killed or captured out of a strength 800.
1950 – PRESIDENTIAL ASSASSINATION: Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.
1950 – Pope Pius XII claims Papal Infallibility when he formally defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.
1950 – Charles Cooper was the first Black player drafted in the NBA. He went to the Celtics. The second was Earl Lloyd of the Washington Capitols. He was the first to play in an NBA game, one day ahead of Cooper. The first Black player to sign an NBA contract was neither Cooper nor Lloyd. That distinction went to Harold Hunter. He, however, never played in the NBA. The Capitols cut him in training camp in 1950.
1951 – The first atomic explosion, witnessed by troops, was at Yucca Flat, Nevada. Members of the 1st Battalion, 188th Airborne Infantry Regiment from Ft. Campbell, Kentucky, were the first unwitting test participants to be sent to that facility by the Atomic Energy Commission and The Department of Defense in a series of nuclear tests, code named “Buster-Jangle.”
1951 – Johnny Mercer’s “Top Banana,” premiered in New York City.
1951 – A new US federal law took effect that required bookies, lottery operators and punchboard dealers to purchase a $50 gambling stamp.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1952 – Operation Ivy – The United States successfully detonates the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed “Mike” [“M” for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The explosion had a yield of 10 megatons.
1954 – The US Senate admonished Joseph McCarthy for his slander campaign.
1955 – A time bomb aboard a United Airlines DC-6B explodes. The aircraft crashes near Longmont, Colorado, killing 44 people.
1956 – Walter Brattain, John Bardeen and William Shockley were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for the invention of the transistor.
1956 – The 3d Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment helped evacuate Americans from Alexandria, Egypt.
1957 – The Mackinac Bridge, the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan’s two peninsulas.
1958 – “It’s All In The Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.
1959 – First NHL goalie to wear a hockey mask (Jacques Plante).
1960 – While campaigning for President of the United States, John F. Kennedy announces his idea of the Peace Corps.
1962 – “The Lucy Show” premiered.
1962 – Cuban missile crisis ended. JFK said USSR was dismantling missile bases.
1963 – The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Love” by The Supremes, “Last Kiss” by J. Frank Wilson & The Cavaliers, “Let It Be Me” by Betty Everett & Jerry Butler and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1964 – The Dave Clark Five performed “Glad All Over” on “The Ed Sullivan Show.”
1964 – George Blanda of Houston throws NFL-record 37 passes in 68 attempts.
1964 – Kansas City Chief Len Dawson passes for 6 touchdowns vs Denver (49-39).
1964 – Vietnam War: The Vietcong assaulted the Bien Hoa airport at Saigon.
1966 – “Apple Jacks” cereal was trademark registered.
1966 – NFL awards New Orleans its 16th franchise today, All Saints Day.
1966 – William Dana in the X-15 qualified for astronaut’s wings by piloting the craft to 306,900 feet (more than 58 miles).
1968 – George Harrison released the soundtrack “Wonderwall.” He was the first Beatle to release a solo album. Full album (45:43)
1968 – The current movie rating system of G, M, R, X followed by PG-13 and now NC-17, went into effect.
1969 – “Suspicious Minds” by Elvis Presley topped the Billboard charts.
1969 – Beatles’ “Abbey Road,” album goes #1 & stays #1 for 11 weeks.
1970 – First All-New York regular season game, Giants-Jets, Giants win 22-10.
1971 – Eisenhower dollar put into circulation. The Eisenhower Dollar was minted from 1971 to 1978. The obverse honors President Dwight D. Eisenhower, while the reverse pays tribute to the first moon landing depicting the official Apollo 11 insignia. The design was the work of Chief Engraver Frank Gasparro.
1973 – Leon Jaworski was appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor in the Watergate Scandal by Acting Attorney General Robert H. Bork.
1975 – “Island Girl” by Elton John topped the charts.
1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini urged all Iranians to demonstrate on November 4 and to expand their attacks against the U.S. and Israel. On that day, Iranian militants seized the U.S .Embassy in Tehran and took 63 Americans hostage.
1979 – Beginning of retirement of Polaris A-3 program begins with removal of missiles from USS Abraham Lincoln. Last Polaris missile removed in February 1982.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand, “He’s So Shy” by Pointer Sisters, “Real Love” by The Doobie Brothers and “Theme from The Dukes of Hazzard (Good Ol’ Boys)” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1981 – First Class Mail raised from 18 to 20¢.
1983 – IBM released PC DOS version 2.1.
1983 – Three-hundred Marines of the 22d Marine Amphibious Unit staged an amphibious and helicopter landing on the island of Carriacou, 15 miles northeast of Grenada, in a search for Cuban military installations or personnel.
1984 – The largest marijuana bust to date in West Coast history took place November 1 as the cutter Clover nabbed the 63-foot yacht Arrikis 150 miles southwest of San Diego. The yacht was loaded with 13 tons of marijuana.
1986 – “True Colors” by Cyndi Lauper topped the charts.
1987 – New York Jets retire Don Maynard’s #13.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins, “Kokomo” by The Beach Boys, “Wild, Wild West” by The Escape Club and “Gonna Take a Lot of River” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1990 – A New York City civil jury awards Sandra Miller only $100 for battery, after an incident in which pro boxer Mike Tyson allegedly seized her breasts and insulted her; the jury found Tyson’s behavior “not outrageous”.
1991 – Clarence Thomas took his place as the newest justice on the US Supreme Court.
1992 – The space shuttle Columbia landed at Cape Canaveral, Fla., ending a 10-day mission that included the deployment of an Italian satellite.
1993 – The space shuttle Columbia landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, ending a two-week mission.
1994 – The Senate Intelligence Committee released a report saying CIA Director R. James Woolsey’s response to the Aldrich Ames spy case was “seriously inadequate.”
1994 – The Chicago Bulls retired Michael Jordan’s uniform (No. 23) and put it on display at the United Center.
1994 – In Cherry Hill, Pa., Len Jenoff and Paul Daniels clubbed to death Carol Neulander (52), the wife of Rabbi Fred J. Neulander (53), under a contract from Rabbi Neulander.
1995 – The US House voted to ban so-called “partial birth” abortions by a vote of 288-to-139.
1996 – Accused of peddling access to the Oval Office, President Clinton demanded an end to what he called the “escalating arms race” for political money. Bob Dole countered with his own solutions to “a growing scandal” of Democratic financial sins.
1997 – Iraq announced that American weapons inspectors working with the UN would not be allowed to resume work on Nov 3.
1998 – Weekend rain caused severe flooding in central Kansas and Oklahoma. The Whitewater and Walnut Rivers topped a 35-foot levee.
1998 – Steve Young and Jerry Rice connected for their 80th career touchdown – NFL record.
1998 – Iridium inaugurated the first handheld, global satellite phone and paging system.
1999 – In Panama the US handed over Howard Air Force Base, Fort Kobbe and the Farfan residential zone.
2001 – Anthrax spores were found in four mailrooms in Rockville, Md., a postal facility in Kansas City, three new locations in a Manhattan processing center and a sixth postal facility in Florida.
2001 – A New York state cell phone law went into effect. It required motorists to use hand-free systems for use while driving.
2003 – Democratic presidential candidate Howard Dean stirred controversy within his party by telling the Des Moines Register he wanted to be “the candidate for guys with Confederate flags in their pickup trucks.”
2004 -Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court William H. Rehnquist (80), who has been undergoing radiation and chemotherapy treatments for thyroid cancer, announces he will delay his return to the courtroom on the advice of his doctors.
2005 – Champion race horse “Best Mate” suffers a heart attack and dies while racing in front of a live television audience.
2005 – The U.S. Senate enters a rare closed session to discuss the Plame affair and intelligence in the Iraq disarmament crisis.
2005 – President Bush outlined a $7.1 billion strategy to prepare for the danger of a pandemic influenza outbreak, saying he wanted to stockpile enough vaccine to protect 20 million Americans against the current strain of bird flu.
2005 – The US Postal Rate Commission approved a 2-cent increase effective Jan 2006.
2005 – Colorado residents voted to suspend their Taxpayer’s Bill of Rights and gave up more than $3 billion in tax refunds to help the state deal with a recession.
2006 – In Lawrenceville, Ga., Khalid Adem (30), an Ethiopian immigrant, was convicted of genital mutilation of his two-year-old daughter. He was sentenced to ten years in prison.
2006 – White House Press Secretary Tony Snow said in a statement that “We are therefore increasingly concerned by mounting evidence that the Syrian and Iranian governments, Hezbollah, and their Lebanese allies are preparing plans to topple Lebanon’s democratically elected government.”
2007 – A defiant Democratic-controlled Congress voted to provide health insurance to an additional four million lower-income children; President Bush vowed swiftly to cast his second straight veto on the issue.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunges over 360 points, or 2.6%, in its worst daily loss since February 27.
2007 – A federal jury convicted Vic Kohring, a former Alaska lawmaker, of corruption charges involving tax protections sought by oil companies as part of plans for a multibillion-dollar natural gas pipeline.
2007 – Retired Air Force Brigadier Gen. Paul Tibbets (92), who’d piloted the B-29 bomber Enola Gay that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, died in Columbus, Ohio.
2008 – A gunman fatally shot Cincinnati minister Rev. Donald Fairbanks Sr. and wounded a church deacon just after the two men arrived at a northern Kentucky church to attend a funeral.
2009 – Sister Marguerite Bartz (64) was found dead on the Indian reservation of Navaho, NM. On Nov 6 Reehahlio Carroll (18) was charged with premeditated killing in her slaying.
2009 – Republican Party candidate Dede Scozzafava, who withdrew her bid for New York’s 23rd Congressional District in the House of Representatives endorses the Democratic challenger.
2010 – An examiner appointed by the Delaware Bankruptcy court says that there is no value left in the estate of defunct bank Washington Mutual for the stockholders to receive anything.
2011 – President Barack Obama, makes Fort Monroe in Hampton, Virginia, a National Monument.
2011 – The FBI and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission launch an investigation into MF Global after $600 million of customers’ money went missing.
2011 – Over 1.5 million people are still without power and four states declare a state of emergency after a nor’easter hits the Eastern US.
2012 – President Obama signed major civil rights legislation , making it a federal hate crime to assault people based on sexual orientation, gender and gender identity. The new measure expands the the scope of a 1968 law that applies to people attacked because of their race, religion or national origin. The U.S. Justice Department will have expanded authority to prosecute such crimes when local authorities don’t.
2013 – Obama uses executive order in sweeping takeover of nation’s climate change policies in an attempt to streamline sustainability initiatives – and potentially skirt legislative oversight and push a federal agenda on states.
1871 – Stephen Crane, American writer (d. 1900) Author- The Red Badge of Courage (1895), a powerful tale of the American Civil War.
1880 – Grantland Rice, American sports writer (d. 1954)
1880 – Alfred Wegener, German meteorologist and geophysicist (d. 1930) He was a German interdisciplinary scientist and meteorologist, who became famous for his theory of continental drift.
1929 – Betsy Palmer, American actress
1937 – Bill Anderson, American country music singer and songwriter
1940 – Barry Sadler, American singer (d. 1989) Sadler served as a Green Beret medic and Staff Sergeant in the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War.
1949 – Michael D. Griffin, NASA chief administrator
ROGERS, CHARLES CALVIN
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S . Army, 1st Battalion, 5th Artillery, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Fishhook, near Cambodian border, Republic of Vietnam, November 1st, 1968. Entered service at: Institute, W Va. Born: 6 September 1929, Claremont, W Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Lt. Col. Rogers, Field Artillery, distinguished himself in action while serving as commanding officer, 1st Battalion, during the defense of a forward fire support base. In the early morning hours, the fire support base was subjected to a concentrated bombardment of heavy mortar, rocket and rocket propelled grenade fire. Simultaneously the position was struck by a human wave ground assault, led by sappers who breached the defensive barriers with bangalore torpedoes and penetrated the defensive perimeter. Lt. Col. Rogers with complete disregard for his safety moved through the hail of fragments from bursting enemy rounds to the embattled area. He aggressively rallied the dazed artillery crewmen to man their howitzers and he directed their fire on the assaulting enemy. Although knocked to the ground and wounded by an exploding round, Lt. Col. Rogers sprang to his feet and led a small counterattack force against an enemy element that had penetrated the howitzer positions. Although painfully wounded a second time during the assault, Lt. Col. Rogers pressed the attack killing several of the enemy and driving the remainder from the positions. Refusing medical treatment, Lt. Col. Rogers reestablished and reinforced the defensive positions. As a second human wave attack was launched against another sector of the perimeter, Lt. Col. Rogers directed artillery fire on the assaulting enemy and led a second counterattack against the charging forces. His valorous example rallied the beleaguered defenders to repulse and defeat the enemy onslaught. Lt. Col. Rogers moved from position to position through the heavy enemy fire, giving encouragement and direction to his men. At dawn the determined enemy launched a third assault against the fire base in an attempt to overrun the position. Lt. Col. Rogers moved to the threatened area and directed lethal fire on the enemy forces. Seeing a howitzer inoperative due to casualties, Lt. Col. Rogers joined the surviving members of the crew to return the howitzer to action. While directing the position defense, Lt. Col. Rogers was seriously wounded by fragments from a heavy mortar round which exploded on the parapet of the gun position. Although too severely wounded to physically lead the defenders, Lt. Col. Rogers continued to give encouragement and direction to his men in the defeating and repelling of the enemy attack. Lt. Col. Rogers’ dauntless courage and heroism inspired the defenders of the fire support base to the heights of valor to defeat a determined and numerically superior enemy force. His relentless spirit of aggressiveness in action are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
KAPAUN, EMIL JOSEPH
Rank: Captain (Chaplain), Organization: U.S. Army, 3d Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment 1st Cavalry Division, Born: April 20, 1916 Pilsen, Kansas, Deceased: Yes He died as a prisoner of war in the Korean War. (05/23/1951) Entered Service At: Kansas Date of Issue: 04/11/2013, Accredited: Kansas Place / Date: Unsan, Korea, November 1st and 2nd, 1950 Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3d Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy at Unsan, Korea, from November 1-2, 1950. On November 1, as Chinese Communist Forces viciously attacked friendly elements, Chaplain Kapaun calmly walked through withering enemy fire in order to provide comfort and medical aid to his comrades and rescue friendly wounded from no-man’s land. Though the Americans successfully repelled the assault, they found themselves surrounded by the enemy. Facing annihilation, the able-bodied men were ordered to evacuate. However, Chaplain Kapaun, fully aware of his certain capture, elected to stay behind with the wounded. After the enemy succeeded in breaking through the defense in the early morning hours of November 2, Chaplain Kapaun continually made rounds, as hand-to-hand combat ensued. As Chinese Communist Forces approached the American position, Chaplain Kapaun noticed an injured Chinese officer amongst the wounded and convinced him to negotiate the safe surrender of the American Forces. Shortly after his capture, Chaplain Kapaun, with complete disregard for his personal safety and unwavering resolve, bravely pushed aside an enemy soldier preparing to execute Sergeant First Class Herbert A. Miller. Not only did Chaplain Kapaun’s gallantry save the life of Sergeant Miller, but also his unparalleled courage and leadership inspired all those present, including those who might have otherwise fled in panic, to remain and fight the enemy until captured. Chaplain Kapaun’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, the 3d Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment, the 1st Cavalry Division, and the United States Army. President Barack Obama presented the Medal of Honor to Kapaun’s nephew at the White House on April 11, 2013.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, First Battalion, Fifth Marines, First Marine Division. Place and date: Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands November 1st, 1942 . Entered service at:Brooklyn,New York. Date and place of birth: 16 November 1920, Brooklyn, New York. For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company D, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands, in action against the enemy Japanese forces on 1 November 1942. Serving as a leader of a machine gun section, Corporal Casamento directed his unit to advance along a ridge near the Matanikau River where they engaged the enemy. He positioned his section to provide covering fire for two flanking units and to provide direct support for the main force of his company which was behind him. During the course of this engagement, all members of his section were either killed or severely wounded and he himself suffered multiple, grievous wounds. Nonetheless, Corporal Casamento continued to provide critical supporting fire for the attack and in defense of his position. Following the loss of all effective personnel, he set up, loaded, and manned his unit’s machine gun tenaciously holding the enemy forces at bay. Corporal Casamento single-handedly engaged and destroyed one machine gun emplacement to his front and took under fire the other emplacement on the flank. Despite the heat and ferocity of the engagement, he continued to man his weapon and repeatedly repulsed multiple assaults by the enemy forces, thereby protecting the flanks of the adjoining companies and holding his position until the arrival of his main attacking force. Corporal Casamento’s courageous fighting spirit, heroic conduct, and unwavering dedication to duty reflected great credit upon himself and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
FORREST, ARTHUR J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 354th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Remonville, France, November 1st, 1918. Entered service at: Hannibal, Mo . Birth: St. Louis, Mo. G.O. No.: 50, W.D., 1919. Citation: When the advance of his company was stopped by bursts of fire from a nest of six enemy machineguns, without being discovered, he worked his way single-handed to a point within fifty yards of the machinegun nest. Charging, single-handed, he drove out the enemy in disorder, thereby protecting the advance platoon from annihilating fire, and permitting the resumption of the advance of his company.
FURLONG, HAROLD A.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 353d Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Bantheville, France, November 1st, 1918. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Birth: Pontiac, Mich. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Immediately after the opening of the attack in the Bois-de-Bantheville, when his company was held up by severe machinegun fire from the front, which killed his company commander and several soldiers, 1st. Lt. Furlong moved out in advance of the line with great courage and coolness, crossing an open space several hundred yards wide. Taking up a position behind the line of the machineguns, he closed in on them, one at a time, killing a number of the enemy with his rifle, putting four machinegun nests out of action, and driving twenty German prisoners into our lines.
SIEGEL, JOHN OTTO
Rank and organization Boatswain’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 21 April 1890, Milwaukee, Wis. Accredited to: New Jersey. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while serving on board the Mohawk in performing a rescue mission aboard the schooner Hjeltenaes which was in flames on November 1st, 1918. Going aboard the blazing vessel, Siegel rescued two men from the crew’s quarters and went back the third time. Immediately after he had entered the crew’s quarters, a steam pipe over the door burst, making it impossible for him to escape. Siegel was overcome with smoke and fell to the deck, being finally rescued by some of the crew of the Mohawk who carried him out and rendered first aid.
*HANSON, ROBERT MURRAY
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 4 February 1920, Lucknow, India. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty as fighter pilot attached to Marine Fighting Squadron 215 in action against enemy Japanese forces at Bougainville Island, November 1st,1943; and New Britain Island, January 24th, 1944. Undeterred by fierce opposition, and fearless in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Hanson fought the Japanese boldly and with daring aggressiveness. On 1 November, while flying cover for our landing operations at Empress Augusta Bay, he dauntlessly attacked six enemy torpedo bombers, forcing them to jettison their bombs and destroying one Japanese plane during the action. Cut off from his division while deep in enemy territory during a high cover flight over Simpson Harbor on 24 January, 1st Lt. Hanson waged a lone and gallant battle against hostile interceptors as they were orbiting to attack our bombers and, striking with devastating fury, brought down four Zeroes and probably a fifth. Handling his plane superbly in both pursuit and attack measures, he was a master of individual air combat, accounting for a total of twenty-five Japanese aircraft in this theater of war. His great personal valor and invincible fighting spirit were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*OWENS, ROBERT ALLEN
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 13 September 1920, Greenville, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with a marine division, in action against enemy Japanese forces during extremely hazardous landing operations at Cape Torokina, Bougainville, Solomon Islands, on November 1st,1943. Forced to pass within disastrous range of a strongly protected, well-camouflaged Japanese 75-mm. regimental gun strategically located on the beach, our landing units were suffering heavy losses in casualties and boats while attempting to approach the beach, and the success of the operations was seriously threatened. Observing the ineffectiveness of marine rifle and grenade attacks against the incessant, devastating fire of the enemy weapon and aware of the urgent need for prompt action, Sgt. Owens unhesitatingly determined to charge the gun bunker from the front and, calling on four of his comrades to assist him, carefully placed them to cover the fire of the two adjacent hostile bunkers. Choosing a moment that provided a fair opportunity for passing these bunkers, he immediately charged into the mouth of the steadily firing cannon and entered the emplacement through the fire port, driving the guncrew out of the rear door and insuring their destruction before he himself was wounded. Indomitable and aggressive in the face of almost certain death, Sgt. Owens silenced a powerful gun which was of inestimable value to the Japanese defense and, by his brilliant initiative and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice, contributed immeasurably to the success of the vital landing operations. His valiant conduct throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Sunset Pass, Ariz., November 1st, 1874. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: St. Louis, Mo. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Bravery in rescuing Lt. King, 5th U.S. Cavalry, from Indians.
ALL HALLOWS EVE (Hallow ‘even)
National Caramel Apple Day
Halloween’s origins date back to the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-in).
The Celts, who lived 2,000 years ago in the area that is now Ireland, the United Kingdom, and northernFrance, celebrated their new year on November 1. This day marked the end of summer and the harvest and the beginning of the dark, cold winter, a time of year that was often associated with human death. Celts believed that on the night before the new year, the boundary between the worlds of the living and the dead became blurred. On the night of October 31, they celebrated Samhain, when it was believed that the ghosts of the dead returned to earth. In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the other worldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future. For a people entirely dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecies were an important source of comfort and direction during the long, dark winter.
To commemorate the event, Druids built huge sacred bonfires, where the people gathered to burn crops and animals as sacrifices to the Celtic deities. During the celebration, the Celts wore costumes, typically consisting of animal heads and skins, and attempted to tell each other’s fortunes. When the celebration was over, they re-lit their hearth fires, which they had extinguished earlier that evening, from the sacred bonfire to help protect them during the coming winter.
By A.D. 43, Romans had conquered the majority of Celtic territory. In the course of the four hundred years that they ruled the Celtic lands, two festivals of Roman origin were combined with the traditional Celtic celebration of Samhain.
The first was Feralia, a day in late October when the Romans traditionally commemorated the passing of the dead. The second was a day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees. The symbol of Pomona is the apple and the incorporation of this celebration into Samhain probably explains the tradition of “bobbing” for apples that is practiced today on Halloween.
By the 800s, the influence of Christianity had spread into Celtic lands. In the seventh century, Pope Boniface IV designated November 1st All Saints’ Day, a time to honor saints and martyrs. It is widely believed today that the pope was attempting to replace the Celtic festival of the dead with a related, but church-sanctioned holiday. The celebration was also called All-hallows or All-hallowmas (from Middle English Alholowmesse meaning All Saints’ Day) and the night before it, the night of Samhain, began to be called All-hallows Eve and, eventually, Halloween. Even later, in A.D. 1000, the church would make November 2 All Souls’ Day, a day to honor the dead. It was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels, and devils. Together, the three celebrations, the eve of All Saints’, All Saints’, and All Souls’, were called Hallowmas.
Hebrews 10:19-23 King James Version (KJV)
19 Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus,
20 By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh;
21 And having an high priest over the house of God;
22 Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.
23 Let us hold fast the profession of our faith without wavering; (for he is faithful that promised;)
From ghoulies and ghosties
And long-leggedy beasties
And things that go bump in the night,
Good Lord, deliver us!
prestidigitation pres-tuh-dij-uh-TAY-shuhn, noun:
Skill in or performance of tricks; sleight of hand.
Prestidigitation was adopted from French, from preste, “nimble, quick” (from Italian presto, from Late Latin praestus, “ready at hand”) + Latin digitus, “finger.” One skilled in sleight of hand is a prestidigitator.
445 BC – Ezra reads the Book of the Law to the Israelites in Jerusalem (see Nehemiah 9:1, NLTse).
475 – Romulus Augustus was proclaimed Roman Emperor.
1517 – Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg and starts the Protestant Reformation. Christianity was for all time changed by one man’s confrontation with authority.
1541 – “The Last Judgement” by Michelangelo on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel at Rome was officially unveiled. It is one of the largest paintings in the world.
1780 – The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario.
1803 – Congress ratified the Louisiana Purchase, adding territory which will eventually become 13 states.
1831 – Nat Turner, rebel slave, was caught by Mr. Benjamin Phipps and locked up in Jerusalem, Va.
1837 – The collision of river boats Monmouth & Trement on Mississippi left 300 dead.
1838 – A mob of about 200 attacked a Mormon camp in Missouri, killing 20 men, women and children.
1846 – Heavy snows trapped the Donner party in the eastern Sierras near what is now Truckee.
1858 – The “Jeanie Johnston”, a triple-masted barque, sank in the middle of the Atlantic with a load of timber. The crew was rescued by a Dutch ship. She was built in Quebec City for the Donovan family of Tralee. She was the best known of the “famine ships” that carried Irish refugees to the New World during the potato famine and returned with timber and food.
1861 – Civil War: Citing failing health, Union General Winfield Scott resigns as Commander of the United States Army. The hero of the Mexican War recognized early in the Civil War that his health and advancing years were a liability in the daunting task of directing the Federal war effort.
1864 – Nevada is admitted as the 36th state. This was to bolster the amount of possible Republican votes for Abraham Lincoln.
1868 – Postmaster General Alexander Williams Randall approved a standard uniform for postal carriers.
1892 – Arthur Conan Doyle publishes “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.”
1902 – The first telegraph cable across the Pacific Ocean was completed.
1903 – John Barrymore makes his stage debut in “Magda”.
1906 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Caesar & Cleopatra,” premiered in New York City.
1911 – . Prof. John J. Montgomery (b.1858) died when his glider crashed on his 56th flight at the Evergreen College campus south of San Jose.
1917 – World War I: Battle of Beersheba – “last successful cavalry charge in history.”
1918 – In the worst global epidemic of the century, influenza (an acute, contagious respiratory viral infection) had been spreading around the world since May. Before it ended in 1919 some 20 million people were killed worldwide, about twice as many as World War I, with about 500-600,000 of them in the US. October was the deadliest month and about 195,000 died with 21,000 dead the first week.
1918 – Egon Schiele (28), Viennese artist, died in the flu epidemic. He produced some 3,000 drawings and 300 paintings in about 12 years.
1922 – Mussolini was made prime minister of Italy. He centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler’s Germany.
1925 – Contract bridge was introduced by Harold Stirling Vanderbilt on board the S.S. Finland in the Panama Canal.
1926 – Magician Harry Houdini dies of gangrene and peritonitis that developed after his appendix ruptured.
1929 – Launching of Goodyear ZRS-4 Zeppelin in Akron, Ohio.
1930 – William ‘Count’ Basie sang with Bennie Moten’s orchestra, “Somebody Stole My Gal“, on Victor.
1936 – The Literary Digest published a poll that predicted that Alfred Landon, the governor of Kansas, would win over President Roosevelt with 57% of the popular vote.
1938 – Great Depression: In an effort to try restore investor confidence, the New York Stock Exchange unveils a fifteen-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.
1940 – World War II: Battle of Britain ends – The United Kingdom prevents Germany from invading Great Britain.
1940 _ World War II: Holocaust: This was the deadline for Warsaw Jews to move into the Warsaw Ghetto.
1941 – After 14 years of work, drilling is completed on Mount Rushmore.
1941 – World War II: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 United States Navy sailors. The U.S. was not yet in the war.
1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams takes a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1942 – CBS debuted “Thanks to the Yanks”, starring Bob Hawk.
1943 – World War II: LT Hugh D. O’Neill of VF(N)-75 destroys a Japanese aircraft during night attack off Vella Lavella in first kill by a radar-equipped night fighter of the Pacific Fleet.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Near You” by The Francis Craig Orchestra (vocal: Bob Lamm), “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe, “I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1948 – Adventures of Sam Spade – Halloween (28:50)
1950 – Earl Lloyd became the first Black to play in the NBA when he took the floor for the Washington Capitols.
1950 – Pope Pius XII witnesses the “Miracle of the Sun” while at the Vatican.
1950 – Korean War: The Chinese launched a strong attack on Eighth Army at Unsan.
1951 – Eighteen of the 67 Air Guard squadrons mobilized in 1950-1951 during the Korean War are returned to state control on this date. Only one of the 18, the 116th Fighter Squadron from Moses Lake Air Force Base, WA, served overseas during this period.
1952 – The U.S. exploded its first hydrogen bomb, at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
1953 – NBC televised “Carmen” on “Opera Theatre”.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.
1955 – Lewis B. “Chesty” Puller, who earned five Navy Crosses (and 1 Army Distinguished Service Cross), retired as a Lieutenant General. See October 30, Chosin Reservoir 1950.
1956 – First American to land an airplane at South Pole-Rear Admiral GJ Dufek. The aircraft was the Que Sera Sera, an LC-47 transport plane. He was the first American to set foot on there, the first man since Scott to stand at the Pole.
1956 – USS Burdo (APD-133) and USS Harlan R. Dickson (DD-708) evacuate 166 persons from Haifa, Israel due to the fighting between Egypt and Israel.
1956 – Brooklyn, NY ends streetcar service.
1959 – Lee Harvey Oswald, a former U.S. Marine from Texas, announced in Moscow that he would never return to the United States.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1961 – In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin’s body is removed from Lenin’s Tomb.
1961 – End of Lighter than Air aircraft in the U.S. Navy with decommissioning of Fleet Airship Wing One and ZP-1 and ZP-3, the last operating units in LTA branch of Naval Aviation, at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1961 – A US Federal judge ruled that Birmingham, Alabama, laws against integrated playing fields were illegal.
1962 – Bobby Pickett (1938-2007) made a one-time hit with “Monster Mash,” as it reached # 1 on Halloween.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & The Fireballs, “Be My Baby” by The Ronettes, “Deep Purple” by Nino Tempo & April Stevens and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1963 – J. Edgar Hoover’s last meeting with President John F Kennedy.
1963 – Indiana State Fair Coliseum (now Pepsi Coliseum) explosion in Indianapolis kills seventy-four people during an ice skating show. The mammoth explosion injured 400. A faulty propane tank connection in a concession stand was blamed.
1964 – “Baby Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1964 – Barbra Streisand’s “People,” album goes #1 for 5 weeks.
1968 – Vietnam War October surprise:Citing progress with the Paris peace talks, President Lyndon B. Johnson announces to the nation that he has ordered a complete cessation of “all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam” effective November 1.
1968 – Milwaukee Bucks win their first game beating Detroit 138-118.
1969 – Wal-Mart Discount City stores were incorporated as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Maggie May/Reason to Believe” by Rod Stewart, “Gypsys, Tramps & Thieves” by Cher, “Theme from Shaft” by Isaac Hayes and “How Can I Unlove You” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1971 – Vietnam War: Saigon began the release of 1,938 Hanoi POW’s.
1972 – Curtis Mayfield received a gold record for “Freddie’s Dead“.
1973 – Tom Seaver wins the National League Cy Young Award, the first time the honor has gone to a player with fewer than 20 wins. Seaver was 19-10 and led the league in ERA (2.08) and strikeouts (251).
1974 – Laura Aime disappeared. She was the third Utah victim of serial killer Ted Bundy.
1979 – The US Archeological Resources Protection Act, on behalf of endangered antiquities, became law.
1980 – Julian Nott sets world hot-air balloon altitude record (55,141 ft).
1981 – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross topped the charts.
1984 – “Caribbean Queen” became a gold record for Billy Ocean.
1984 – The tanker Puerto Rican exploded outside of San Francisco Bay. Coast Guard units responded. Puerto Rican arrived in San Francisco Bay on October 25.
1984 – Sherry Gordon and her 9-year-old cousin, Theresa Hall were sexually assaulted and murdered in Decatur, IL. It would not be until 2009 when DNA evidence found the killer. Melvin Johnson was the killer but Johnson died of stomach cancer in Texas in October 2003 unpunished.
1987 – First jockey to win nine races in one day (Chris Antley at Belmont).
1988 – Presidential candidate (and VP) George H.W. Bush dressed as himself at the Halloween Party. He wore a Bush mask and everything.
1991 – During an extremely severe winter storm, Coast Guard Cutter Tamaroa rescued four of five Air National Guard crewmen from an H-60 that had ditched south of Long Island because it an out of fuel.
1992 – The Roman Catholic Church formally rehabilitated Galileo Galilei after 359 years, who was forced by the Inquisition in 1633 to recant his assertion that the Earth orbits the Sun.
1992 – In Liberia, it was announced that five American nuns had been killed near Monrovia. Rebels loyal to Charles Taylor were blamed for the murders.
1993 – In Oregon seven men robbed the Oki Semiconductor facility in Portland of microchips valued at several million dollars. There were convicted in 2001 and four of the men were sentenced to prison terms in 2002.
1994 – Sixty-eight people were killed when an American Eagle ATR-72, plunged into a northern Indiana farm. The flight originated in Indianapolis enroute to Chicago.
1996 – A grand jury indicted a number of corrupt officials in Kansas City, Missouri. As members of the Port Authority charged with assigning licenses to riverboat gambling establishments, they accepted a $250,000 bribe in 1993 from Hilton Hotels Corp.
1997 – 19-year-old British au pair Louise Woodward, convicted by a Cambridge, Massachusetts, jury of second-degree murder the day before, is sentenced to life in prison. She was released after her sentence was reduced to manslaughter.
1997 – The US announced a plan to increase spending over the next decade to $1 billion per year to clear the world of land mines that threaten civilian populations by 2010.
1997 – The FBI began an investigation into the use of pepper spray by law authorities in Humboldt County, California, after a video tape showed the spray applied directly to the eyes of protestors.
1998 – Iraq disarmament crisis begins when Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.
1998 – The US and Israel signed a strategic cooperation agreement to protect the Jewish state from ballistic missiles. The Arrow “antitactical ballistic missile” program is one of the centerpieces of the U.S.-Israel strategic relationship.
1998 – Abe Hirschfeld, New York real estate magnate, handed Paula Jones a $1 million check to cash for settlement of the sexual harassment case against President Clinton.
1999 – EgyptAir Flight 990 crashed off the coast of Nantucket, MA, killing all 217 people aboard. Captains Ahmed al-Habashy and Raouf Noureldin were at the controls. Relief pilot Gamil al-Batouti (59), the father of five, was suspected to have caused the crash.
1999 – Bryan White sang the National Anthem at the Adelphia Coliseum in Nashville prior to the game between the Tennessee Titans and the St. Louis Rams.
2000 – The last Multics machine was shut down. Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was an extraordinarily influential early time-sharing operating system.
2000 – American astronaut Bill Shepherd and two Russian cosmonauts rocketed into orbit aboard a Soyuz rocket on a quest to become the first residents of the international space station.
2001 – Microsoft and the U.S. Justice Department reached a tentative agreement to settle the historic antitrust case against the software giant.
2001 – Attorney Gen. John Ashcroft announced plans to block hostile foreigners from entering the US.
2001 – Former Symbionese Liberation Army fugitive Sara Jane Olson pleaded guilty to two felony accounts in Los Angeles to the attempted murder of police officers from activities with the Symbionese Liberation Army in 1975. She was later sentenced to twenty years to life in prison.
2001 – Kathy Nguyen (61), a New York City hospital worker, died of anthrax. She was the fourth person to perish in a spreading wave of bioterrorism. The source of infection remained a mystery.
2001 – The US Commerce Dept. reported a 3rd quarter 0.4% annualized fall in the GDP. The decline marked an end to 33 straight quarters of economic growth.
2002 – Authorities charged the two Washington sniper suspects John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo with murder in a Louisiana attack that came just two days after a similar slaying in Alabama.
2002 – A federal grand jury in Houston formally indicted former Enron Corp. chief financial officer Andrew Fastow on 78 counts of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy and obstruction of justice related to the collapse of his ex-employer.
2003 – In California lawyer Gerald Curry was shot five times by William Strier outside a courthouse in San Fernando Valley. The shooting was caught on videotape by crews covering actor Robert Blake’s murder case in Van Nuys.
2003 – A bankruptcy court approves MCI’s reorganization plans, essentially clearing the telecommunications company to exit bankruptcy.
2003 – Bethany Hamilton, teen surfing star, lost her left arm in a shark attack off Kauai, Hawaii.
2004 – A section of the Berlin Wall is re-erected at the former Checkpoint Charlie as a memorial to the 1,065 people who were killed trying to escape from East Germany.
2005 – President George W. Bush nominates Appeals court judge Samuel Alito to join the Supreme Court of the United States. Ready-to-rumble Democrats warned that Alito may be an extremist who would curb abortion rights.
2006 – NASA is expected to announce whether or not there will be a space shuttle mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope. If the decision is made to fly the mission, designated STS-125, the crew will also be announced. It did fly on May 11, 2009 on the Atlantis.
2006 – Bechtel Corp.’s last government contract in Iraq expired. During its three years of work there fifty-two employees were killed.
2006 – In Roanoke, Virginia, Sheriff Frank Cassell and 12 of his uniformed employees were indicted in a racketeering case that claims drugs seized from criminals were being resold, sometimes out of a sergeant’s home.
2006 – In Reno, Nev., a fire at the Mizpah Hotel killed 12 people. Valerie Moore (47), a casino cook, was arrested the next day for starting the fire.
2006 – A fifth firefighter dies as a result of injuries obtained fighting the Esperanza Fire near Palm Springs, California started by arson.
2007 – Pres. Bush signed into law a measure barring states from levying taxes on Internet access through 2014.
2007 – In California Orange County Sheriff Michael S. Carona faced arraignment on seven counts, including conspiracy, mail fraud and witness tampering.
2007 – Physicists at UC Berkeley said they had produced the world’s smallest radio out of a single carbon nanotube, 10,000 times thinner than human hair. They had it play “Layla” by Derek and the Dominos and said it could also function as a transmitter.
2007 – Los Angeles authorities reveals that a boy playing with matches caused one of the Los Angeles fires.
2008 – J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. launched an a plan to modify the terms of $70 billion in mortgages for borrowers who were either behind on their payments or soon could be. As many as 400,000 borrowers could be moved into lower rate mortgages.
2008 – Airship Ventures began operating zeppelin flights from Moffett field in Mountain View, Ca. Passenger tickets were set at $495 per person for one hour and $950 for 2 hours.
2009 – In Seattle, Wa., gunfire on a police patrol car killed police officer Timothy Brenton (39). He became the first city police officer killed in the line of duty since 2006.
2009 – In Mendota, Ca., searchers found the body of Alex Mercado (4) stuffed into a clothes dryer. Raul Renato Castro (14) later told investigators that he drowned his neighbor in a bathtub and then hid the body in a dryer because the child was going to reveal that the teen had molested him.
2009 – In Canada 2 men sought by the FBI and linked to a Detroit Muslim leader killed by US authorities were arrested in Windsor, Ontario. Mohammad Al-Sahli (33) and Yassir Ali Kahn (30) were wanted by the FBI for conspiracy to commit federal crimes.
2010 – The US, UK, France and Germany ban all air freight from Yemen at their respective countries’ airports following the discovery of two explosive packages.
2010 – A United States military commission sentences Guantanamo Bay detainee Omar Khadr to eight more years in prison after pleading guilty to the murder of an American soldier in 2002.
2011 – A jury in the state of Arizona convicts Mark Goodeau on all charges related to the Phoenix Baseline Killer murders.
2012 – The death toll in Hurricane Sandy rises to over 60 in the US Mid-Atlantic while electric power for millions is still out, and mass transportation is crippled.
2012 – Former Penn State assistant coach Jerry Sandusky is transferred to State Correctional Institution – Greene in Franklin Township, Pennsylvania, to serve his 30-to-60-year sentence on child sexual abuse charges.
2014 – Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo crashes in new setback for commercial spaceflight. There was one death and one major injury in the crash of the rocket plane in the Mojave Desert.
2015 – An enormous, 350 lb inflatable pumpkin broke free from a Halloween display in Arizona, damaging street lights and causing vehicles to come to a screeching halt. It crossed multiple lanes of traffic for a quarter-mile before landing in a neighborhood park.
1795 – John Keats, English poet.
1860 – Juliette Low, American, founder of the Girl Scouts.
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, first constitutional president of the Republic of China and army general.
1912 – Dale Evans (Frances Butts), American singer-songwriter, actress, wife of Roy Rogers.
1931 – Dan Rather, former American TV journalist.
1936 – Michael Landon, American TV actor, producer and director.
*PITTS, RILEY L
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Ap Dong, Republic of Vietnam, October 31st, 1967. Entered service at: Wichita, Kans. Born: 15 October 1937, Fallis, Okla. Citation: Distinguishing himself by exceptional heroism while serving as company commander during an airmobile assault. Immediately after his company landed in the area, several Viet Cong opened fire with automatic weapons. Despite the enemy fire, Capt. Pitts forcefully led an assault which overran the enemy positions. Shortly thereafter, Capt. Pitts was ordered to move his unit to the north to reinforce another company heavily engaged against a strong enemy force. As Capt. Pitts’ company moved forward to engage the enemy, intense fire was received from three directions, including fire from four enemy bunkers, two of which were within fifteen meters of Capt. Pitts’ position. The severity of the incoming fire prevented Capt. Pitts from maneuvering his company. His rifle fire proving ineffective against the enemy due to the dense jungle foliage, he picked up an M-79 grenade launcher and began pinpointing the targets. Seizing a Chinese Communist grenade which had been taken from a captured Viet Cong’s web gear, Capt. Pitts lobbed the grenade at a bunker to his front, but it hit the dense jungle foliage and rebounded. Without hesitation, Capt. Pitts threw himself on top of the grenade which, fortunately, failed to explode. Capt. Pitts then directed the repositioning of the company to permit friendly artillery to be fired. Upon completion of the artillery fire mission, Capt. Pitts again led his men toward the enemy positions, personally killing at least one more Viet Cong. The jungle growth still prevented effective fire to be placed on the enemy bunkers. Capt. Pitts, displaying complete disregard for his life and personal safety, quickly moved to a position which permitted him to place effective fire on the enemy. He maintained a continuous fire, pinpointing the enemy’s fortified positions, while at the same time directing and urging his men forward, until he was mortally wounded. Capt. Pitts’ conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the Armed Forces of his country.
THORNTON, MICHAEL EDWIN
Rank and organization: Petty Officer, U.S. Navy, Navy Advisory Group. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, October 31st, 1972. Entered service at: Spartanburg, S.C. Born: 23 March 1949, Greenville, S.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while participating in a daring operation against enemy forces. PO Thornton, as Assistant U.S. Navy Advisor, along with a U.S. Navy lieutenant serving as Senior Advisor, accompanied a three-man Vietnamese Navy SEAL patrol on an intelligence gathering and prisoner capture operation against an enemy-occupied naval river base. Launched from a Vietnamese Navy junk in a rubber boat, the patrol reached land and was continuing on foot toward its objective when it suddenly came under heavy fire from a numerically superior force. The patrol called in naval gunfire support and then engaged the enemy in a fierce firefight, accounting for many enemy casualties before moving back to the waterline to prevent encirclement. Upon learning that the Senior Advisor had been hit by enemy fire and was believed to be dead, PO Thornton returned through a hail of fire to the lieutenant’s last position; quickly disposed of two enemy soldiers about to overrun the position, and succeeded in removing the seriously wounded and unconscious Senior Naval Advisor to the water’s edge. He then inflated the lieutenant’s lifejacket and towed him seaward for approximately two hours until picked up by support craft. By his extraordinary courage and perseverance, PO Thornton was directly responsible for saving the life of his superior officer and enabling the safe extraction of all patrol members, thereby upholding the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
WILLIAMS, JAMES E.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate First Class (PO1c.), U.S. Navy, River Section 531, My Tho, RVN, Place and date: Mekong River, Republic of Vietnam, October 31st, 1966. Entered service at: Columbia, S.C. Born: 13 June 1930, Rock Hill, S.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. PO1c. Williams was serving as Boat Captain and Patrol Officer aboard River Patrol Boat (PBR) 105 accompanied by another patrol boat when the patrol was suddenly taken under fire by two enemy sampans. PO1c. Williams immediately ordered the fire returned, killing the crew of one enemy boat and causing the other sampan to take refuge in a nearby river inlet. Pursuing the fleeing sampan, the U.S. patrol encountered a heavy volume of small-arms fire from enemy forces, at close range, occupying well-concealed positions along the river bank. Maneuvering through this fire, the patrol confronted a numerically superior enemy force aboard two enemy junks and eight sampans augmented by heavy automatic weapons fire from ashore. In the savage battle that ensued, PO1c. Williams, with utter disregard for his safety exposed himself to the withering hail of enemy fire to direct counter-fire and inspire the actions of his patrol. Recognizing the overwhelming strength of the enemy force, PO1c. Williams deployed his patrol to await the arrival of armed helicopters. In the course of his movement his discovered an even larger concentration of enemy boats. Not waiting for the arrival of the armed helicopters, he displayed great initiative and boldly led the patrol through the intense enemy fire and damaged or destroyed fifty enemy sampans and seven junks. This phase of the action completed, and with the arrival of the armed helicopters, PO1c. Williams directed the attack on the remaining enemy force. Now virtually dark, and although PO1c. Williams was aware that his boats would become even better targets, he ordered the patrol boats’ search lights turned on to better illuminate
the area and moved the patrol perilously close to shore to press the attack. Despite a waning supply of ammunition the patrol successfully engaged the enemy ashore and completed the rout of the enemy force. Under the leadership of PO 1 c. Williams, who demonstrated unusual professional skill and indomitable courage throughout the three-hour battle, the patrol accounted for the destruction or loss of sixty-five enemy boats and inflicted numerous casualties on the enemy personnel. His extraordinary heroism and exemplary fighting spirit in the face of grave risks inspired the efforts of his men to defeat a larger enemy force, and are in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
BUTTON, WILLIAM ROBERT
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 3 December 1895, St. Louis, Mo. G.O. No.: 536, 10 June 1920. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in actual conflict with the enemy near Grande Riviere, Republic of Haiti, on the night of October 31st – November 1st, 1919, resulting in the death of Charlemagne Peralte, the supreme bandit chief in the Republic of Haiti, and the killing, capture and dispersal of about 1,200 of his outlaw followers. Cpl. William R. Button not only distinguished himself by his excellent judgment and leadership but also unhesitatingly exposed himself to great personal danger when the slightest error would have forfeited not only his life but the lives of the detachments of Gendarmerie under his command. The successful termination of his mission will undoubtedly prove of untold value to the Republic of Haiti.
HANNEKEN, HERMAN HENRY
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Near Grande Riviere, Republic of Haiti, October 31st,- November 1st 1919. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 23 June 1893, St. Louis, Mo. G.O. No.: 536, 10 June 1920. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross with one gold star, Silver Star, Legion of Merit. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in actual conflict with the enemy near Grande Riviere, Republic of Haiti, on the night of 31 October-1 November 1919, resulting in the death of Charlemagne Peralte, the supreme bandit chief in the Republic of Haiti, and the killing, capture, and dispersal of about 1,200 of his outlaw followers. 2d Lt. Hanneken not only distinguished himself by his excellent judgment and leadership but also unhesitatingly exposed himself to great personal danger when the slightest error would have forfeited not only his life but the lives of the detachments of gendarmerie under his command. The successful termination of his mission will undoubtedly prove of untold value to the Republic of Haiti.
BARGER, CHARLES D.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, October 31st, 1918. Entered service at: Stotts City, Mo. Birth: Mount Vernon, Mo. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Learning that two daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Barger and another stretcher bearer upon their own initiative made two trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued two wounded officers.
At this time there was little need for medics because the Army had decided to move the hospital up to the lines. There was still a need for these “stretcher-bearers” to go out into the combat areas to bring in the wounded.
FUNK, JESSE N.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company L, 354th Infantry, 89th Division. Place and date: Near Bois-deBantheville, France, October 31st, 1918. Entered service at. Calhan, Colo. Born: 20 August 1888, New Hampton, Mo. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Learning that two daylight patrols had been caught out in No Man’s Land and were unable to return, Pfc. Funk and another stretcher bearer, upon their own initiative, made two trips 500 yards beyond our lines, under constant machinegun fire, and rescued two wounded officers.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1860, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Essex, Millmore rescued from drowning John W. Powers, ordinary seaman, serving on the same vessel with him, at Monrovia, Liberia, October 31st, 1877.
Rank and organization: First Class Fireman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859, London, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For rescuing from drowning John W. Powers, ordinary seaman on board the U.S.S. Essex, at Monrovia, Liberia, October 31st, 1877.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1846, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Tacony during the taking of Plymouth, N.C., October 31st, 1864. Carrying out his duties faithfully during the capture of Plymouth, Brutsche distinguished himself by a display of coolness when he participated in landing and spiking a 9-inch gun while under a devastating fire from enemy musketry.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Commodore Hull at the capture of Plymouth, October 31st, 1864. Painfully wounded by a shell which killed the man at his side, Colbert, as captain of the forward pivot gun, remained at his post until the end of the action, braving the heavy enemy fire and appearing as cool as if at mere target practice.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.. 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Tacony during the taking of Plymouth, N.C., October 31st, 1864. Carrying out his duties faithfully during the capture of Plymouth, Graham distinguished himself by a display of coolness when he participated in landing and spiking a 9-inch gun while under a devastating fire from enemy musketry.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Tacony during the taking of Plymouth, N.C., October 31st,1864. Carrying out his duties faithfully during the capture of Plymouth, Howard distinguished himself by a display of coolness when he participated in landing and spiking a nine-inch gun while under a devastating fire from enemy musketry.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, England. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as quarter gunner on board the U.S.S. Tacony during the taking of Plymouth, N.C., October 31st, 1864. Carrying out his duties faithfully during the capture of Plymouth, Tallentine distinguished himself by a display of coolness when he participated in landing and spiking a nine-inch gun while under devastating fire from enemy musketry. Tallentine later gave his life while courageously engaged in storming Fort Fisher, 15 January 1865.
National Pajama Month
National Candy Corn Day
The Federalist Papers Summary
The Federalist Papers is a treatise on free government in peace and security. It is the outstanding American contribution to the literature on constitutional democracy and federalism, a classic of Western political thought. It is, by far, the most authoritative text concerning the interpretation of the American Constitution and an insight into the framer’s intent in the constitution.
Although Hamilton carefully outlined the contents of the Federalist papers at the end of the first essay, in reality, he strayed a bit from his original proposition. In the end, the work of primarily Madison and Hamilton can be divided into two principle parts; the first discussing the defects of the present government, the Articles of Confederation , and the second discussing the new constitutions different components, the legislature, executive, and judicial branches.
The Federalist was written in order to secure the ratification of a constitution providing for a more perfect union. Throughout the papers, the idea of the more perfect Union occupies a front stage. On first glance, this might be the primary purpose of the papers but indeed, the Federalist Papers are concerned with much more. “Union” and the “safety and welfare of the parts of which it is composed” are depicted as inseparable, and the Union appears as a means to achieve the safety and welfare of its parts. In general, then, the Federalists discuses federalism as a means to achieve free government in peace and security as well as the nonexistence of federalism under the Articles of Confederation and its achievement under the Constitution.
The federalists deal with not only the practical, but also the theoretical, something that distinguishes this from other works. In a letter to his nephew Thomas Mann Randolph, Thomas Jefferson distinguished the federalist from the theoretical writings of Locke when he writes, after discussing Locke’s philosophy: “Descending from theory to practice, there can be no better book than The Federalist.” The authors, however, never considered their work a mere treatise on governmental practice. In their essays, a distinction between theory and practice is often drawn. “Theoretical reasoning must be qualified by the lessons of practice,” Madison writes, and he also states that the Philadelphia Convention “must have been compelled to sacrifice theoretical prosperity to the force of extraneous consideration.”
Five basic themes can be discerned from the words of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, including federalism, checks and balances, separated powers, pluralism, and representation. Although they deal with different parts of the government, as noted above, these themes are fairly consistent throughout the papers. Much has been written concerning the dual nature of the federalist, because they were written by multiple authors in a short amount of time. It is true, Madison later became the great state rights’ defenders while Hamilton his principle opponent, but for the most part these essays are coherent, showing all sides of the proposed constitution.
1 John 3:1-3 King James Version (KJV)
3 Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not.
2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.
3 And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.
“All things are difficult before they are easy.”
peremptory puh-REMP-tuh-ree, adjective:
1. Precluding or putting an end to all debate or action.
2. Not allowing contradiction or refusal; absolute; decisive; conclusive; final.
3. Expressive of urgency or command.
4. Offensively self-assured or given to exercising usually unwarranted power; dictatorial; dogmatic.
Peremptory comes from Latin peremptorius, “destructive,” from peremptus, past participle of perimere, “to take thoroughly, to do away with, to destroy; hence, to thwart, to frustrate,” from per-, “thoroughly” + emere, “to take, to obtain.”
1485 – The Yeomen of the Guard were established by King Henry VII of England.
1503 – Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
1650 – The Quakers (or the Society of Friends) came into existence when George Fox, the founder, told a court magistrate to ‘”quake and tremble at the word of God.”
1768 – First Methodist church in US was initiated at Wesley Chapel, New York City.
1775 – Congress authorizes two more vessel to the two authorized on 13 October, The vessels are for the defense of the United Colonies, one to carry twenty guns, the other thirty-six, and increasing the membership of the Marine Committee to eleven…
1775 – Fr. Lasuen founded Mission San Juan Capistrano, but the site was abandoned after eight days when they received word of an attack at the San Diego Mission.
1799 – William Balch becomes Navy’s first commissioned Chaplain.
1831 – In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave revolt in United States history.
1838 – Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio became the first U.S. college to admit female students.
1862 – Dr. Richard Gatling patented a machine gun. The Gatling Gun consisted of six barrels mounted in a revolving frame. A later version with ten barrels, fired 320 rounds a minute.
1864 – Helena, Montana is founded after four prospectors discover gold at “Last Chance Gulch.”
1866 – Jesse James gang robbed a bank in Lexington, Missouri, of $2000.
1871 – Philadelphia beat Chicago to win National Association baseball pennant.
1873 – P.T. Barnum’s circus, “Greatest Show on Earth,” debuted in New York City.
1875 – Missouri’s Constitution was ratified, ending the state’s history of division.
1888 – John J. Loud patented a ballpoint pen.
1893 – The U.S. Senate gave final approval to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890.
1894 – The time clock was patented by Daniel M. Cooper of Rochester, NY.
1905 – George Bernard Shaw’s “Mrs. Warren’s Profession,” premiered in New York City.
1919 – Baseball league presidents call for abolishment of the spitball.
1922 – Mussolini sent his black shirts into Rome and formed a government. The Fascist takeover was almost without bloodshed.
1925 – Scottish inventor John Baird made the first televised transmission of a moving object.
1929 – John D. Rockefeller tries to help stem the massive sell-off at the NYSE.
1935 – The US Army Air Corps held a competition to see which company would build the country’s next-generation of long-range bombers. Boeing’s “flying fortress” crashed shortly after takeoff and Martin and Douglas won by default.
1938 – A radio play entitled “The War of the Worlds” and starring Orson Welles aired. It was a hoax portraying a Martian invasion. It was done in a news format and many people panicked, believing the portrayal to be true. In spite of pre-broadcast announcements that the production was fiction, about a million Americans readied their guns for battle, fled and prayed for deliverance from what they believed was a real threat.
1939 – German U boat failed in an attack of English battleship Nelson with Winston Churchill, Dudley Pound and Charles Forbes aboard.
1939 – European WW II: Holocaust – USSR and Germany agreed on partitioning Poland. Hitler deported Jews.
1940 – Cole Porter musical “Panama Hattie,” premiered in New York City.
1941 – “Blossoms” recorded by bandleader Tony Pastor.
1941 – World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: Anne Frank is deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
1944 – World War II: On land around the Leyte Gulf, troops of US 7th Infantry Division (part of US 24th Corps) take Dagami. As sea, two carriers are badly damaged by Kamikaze attacks as the ships of US Task Force 38 begin to withdraw toward Ulithi.
1944 – Martha Graham’s ballet “Appalachian Spring” premiered at the Library of Congress.
1945 – Shoe rationing was ended by the U.S. government. On September 15, much of the rationing finally came to an end — first, rationing of gasoline and fuel oil ended, and so did those 35 m.p.h. speed limits; then on October 30, came the end of shoe rationing.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Five Minutes More” by Frank Sinatra, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Rumors are Flying” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes) and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: The First Marine Division was ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area.
1950 – General Douglas McArthur ordered a combined Marine and Army outfit to cross the 38th parallel and “mop up” remaining North Korean soldiers. 12,000 Marines found themselves surrounded by eight Chinese divisions. The Marines lost 4,000 men and the Chinese lost 37,500. It was at this battle when Colonel Chesty Puller, USMC said. ”They’re on our left, they’re on our right, they’re in front of us, they’re behind us…they can’t get away this time.”
1952 – Dr. Albert Schweitzer receives a Nobel Peace Prize for his humanitarian work.
1952 – Clarence Birdseye sold the first frozen pea package.
1953 – General George C. Marshall was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his contributions to the economic rehabilitation of Europe after WWII, the so-called “Marshall Plan”.
1953 – US President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves the top secret document National Security Council Paper No. 162/2, which states that the United States’ arsenal of nuclear weapons must be maintained and expanded to counter the communist threat.
1953 – The first publicly announced experimental TV broadcast of a network program in compatible color was presented by NBC: St. George and the Dragon, starring Burr Tillstrom’s Kukla, Fran and Ollie.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey There” by Rosemary Clooney, “Shake, Rattle and Roll” by Bill Haley & His Comets, “Smile” by Nat King Cole and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1954 – US Armed Forces ended segregation of races.
1958 – “Concentration” suddenly replaces “Twenty-One” because of the quiz show scandals of the time. Jack Barry was brought over from the “Twenty-One” set to host “Concentration” for its four-week nighttime run.
1960 – Michael Woodruff performs the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.
1961 – Soviet Union tested a hydrogen bomb.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Monster Mash” by Bobby “Boris” Picket, “He’s a Rebel” by The Crystals, “Only Love Can Break a Heart” by Gene Pitney and “Mama Sang a Song” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1964 – Roy Orbison went gold with his hit single, “Oh, Pretty Woman.”
1965 – Vietnam War: Just miles from Da Nang, United States Marines repel an intense attack by wave after wave of Viet Cong forces, killing fifty-six guerrillas. Among the dead, a sketch of Marine positions was found on the body of a 13-year-old Vietnamese boy who sold drinks to the Marines the day before.
1965 – “Yesterday” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – The Zodiac Killer kills his first victim, 18-year old Cheri Jo Bates, in Riverside, California.
1968 – Luis W. Alvarez (1911-1988) of UC Berkeley won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the bubble chamber.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Be There” by The Jackson 5, “We’ve Only Just Begun” by Carpenters, “Fire and Rain” by James Taylor and “Run, Woman, Run” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1970 – Vietnam War: Fighting in the five northern-most provinces of Vietnam comes to a virtual halt as the worst monsoon rains in six years strikes the region. The resultant floods killed 293 people and left more than 200,000 homeless.
1971 – “Maggie May” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1972 – President Richard Nixon approved legislation to increase Social Security spending by $5.3 billion.
1972 – In Illinois, forty-five people were killed and 332 people were injured when two trains collided on Chicago’s south side. Illinois Central Gulf train 416, made up of newly purchased Highliners, overshot the 27th Street Station on what is now the Metra Electric Line.
1973 – John Lennon released the album “Mind Games.”
1974 – Muhammad Ali and George Foreman held their “Rumble In the Jungle” (1:05:05) boxing match in Zaire. Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire, to regain his world heavyweight title, that was taken from him for refusing military service.
1975 – John Bucyk, Boston, became the seventh NHL player to score 500 goals.
1975 – NY Daily News runs headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead.” This dealt with the bankruptcy of New York City government and the refusal of President Gerald Ford to give financial assistance to the city.
1975 – Martha Moxley, 15-years-old, was bludgeoned to death with a golf club in Greenwich, Conn., on Halloween eve. The last person to see her was 17-year-old Michael Skakel, a nephew of Ethel Kennedy. In 2002 a jury found Skakel guilty of murder. He was sentenced 20 years to life in prison.
1976 – “If You Leave Me Now” by Chicago topped the charts.
1976 – Jane Pauley becomes news co-anchor of the Today Show.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hot Child in the City” by Nick Gilder, “You Needed Me” by Anne Murray, “Reminiscing” by Little River Band and “Let’s Take the Long Way Around the World” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1978 – Ariel Glenn, at that time known by the name Laura Nickel, was a high school student when she (with Curt Noll) made the international news by finding the 25th Mersenne prime in 1978 (using a local university’s mainframe computer. As a result of this discovery, 221700*(221701-1) was shown to be a perfect number.
1979 – President Carter announced his choice of federal appeals judge Shirley Hufstedler to head the newly created Department of Education.
1980 – New Jersey Democrat Senator Harrison Williams (d.2001 at 81) was indicted in the Abscam sting operation and later convicted.
1982 – “Who Can It Be Now?” by Men At Work topped the charts.
1984 – Linda Ronstadt made her operatic debut in “La Boheme” in New York City, NY.
1984 – Barry Manilow opened at Radio City Music Hall in New York. The shows sold out for $1.9 million. Manilow beat the previous record by $100,000 that was held by Diana Ross.
1985 – Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for mission STS-61-A, its final successful mission. One of the witnesses to the launch was schoolteacher Christa McAuliffe.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “True Colors” by Cyndi Lauper, “Typical Male” by Tina Turner and “I Didn’t Mean to Turn You On” by Robert Palmer all topped the charts.
1986 – “Discover” magazine reported that almost 43 million tons of dust settle on the United States each year.
1988 – Sun Myung Moon, head of the Unification Church, conducted the marriage of 6,516 couples in Seoul.
1990 – The Iraqi News Agency quoted Saddam Hussein as saying Iraq was making final preparations for war, and that he expected an attack by the United States and its allies within days.
1990 – In the Persian Gulf, ten American sailors died when a steam pipe ruptured aboard the USS “Iwo Jima”.
1990 – In Saudi Arabia, a Marine was killed in an accident while driving in the desert.
1991 – BET Holdings Inc., became the first African-American company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
1993 – Meat Loaf’s “Bat Out of Hell II – Back Into Hell” was the #1 album in the US.
1993 – Martin Fettman, America’s first veterinarian in space, performed the world’s first animal dissections in space, while aboard the space shuttle Columbia.
1994 – The National Museum of American Indian opened in New York City.
1995 – David Bowie, Tom Donahue, Gladys Knight & The Pips, Pete Seeger, Jefferson Airplane, Little Willie John, Pink Floyd, The Shirelles and The Velvet Underground are inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall Of Fame.
1997 – British nanny Louise Woodward was found guilty of the murder of baby Matthew Eappen by a court in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The judge, Hiller B. Zobel, later reduced the verdict to manslaughter and set Woodward free.
1997 – The play revival “The Cherry Orchard” opened.
1997 – In Livermore, CA., a shutdown began of the “plutonium building” at the National Laboratory due to safety violations.
1997 – The U.S. Senate passed the “La Cienega” bill. The bill closed a loophole in the 1909 copyright act that put most pre-1978 music copyrights in jeopardy.
1998 – Four abortion clinics in three states, Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee, received letters claiming to contain anthrax bacteria. The letters were tested and found to be free of anthrax.
2000 – Steve Allen, TV entertainer, died at his home in Encino, CA at age 78. He was the creator of the “Tonight Show,” had recorded 49 albums, wrote 53 books and starred in and appeared in numerous TV shows.
2001 – George W. Bush throws out the first pitch at Game 3 of the World Series at Yankee Stadium, in what was intended to be a defiant gesture, coming just weeks after the Sept. 11 attacks.
2001 – Michael Jordan returned to the NBA with the Washington Wizards after a 3 1/2 year retirement. The Wizards lost 93-91 to the New York Knicks.
2001 – NASA’s 2001 Mars Odyssey snapped its first picture of Mars, one week after the spacecraft safely arrived in orbit around the Red Planet.
2001 – Ford Motor Co. chairman William Clay Ford Jr. took over as chief executive after the ouster of Jacques Nasser.
2002 – U.S. President George W. Bush signed an act that renamed the Oakwood Postal Station in Los Angeles the Nat King Cole Post Office.
2002 – Allied warplanes bombed Iraqi defense systems in the northern no-fly zone over Iraq after being fired upon during routine patrols.
2002 – In Minnesota Walter Mondale took the ballot place of the late Senator Wellstone. Mondale ended up losing to Republican Norm Coleman.
2003 – The US Senate passed legislation allowing thinning of forests across the West.
2003 – A multistory parking garage under construction at the Tropicana Casino & Resort in Atlantic City, NJ, collapsed, killing four construction workers and injuring twenty-two others.
2004 – Eight American Marines were killed in fighting west of Baghdad. A car bomb killed at least seven people in attack on an Arab television network in Baghdad. Iraqi troops fired wildly on civilian vehicles, killing at least fourtee people.
2005 – The body of Rosa Parks arrived at the U.S. Capitol, where the civil rights pioneer became the first woman to lie in honor in the Rotunda; President Bush and congressional leaders paused to lay wreaths by her casket.
2005 – Microsoft Corp. founder Bill Gates pledged $258.3 million for research and development to combat malaria, including new cash to test the world’s first vaccine against the mosquito-borne disease.
2005 – In Madison, Wisconsin, police used pepper spray to break up rowdy Halloween celebrations. Over 400 arrests were made mostly for alcohol-related offenses.
2007 – In California Orange County Sheriff Michael S. Carona was indicted on seven counts, including conspiracy, mail fraud and witness tampering, according to a sweeping indictment unsealed a day earlier.
2007 – The San Francisco Bay area’s largest earthquake in nearly two decades rattled homes and nerves. The magnitude-5.6 temblor on the Calaveras Fault caused no serious damage or injuries.
2007 – NASA said US astronomers have discovered the biggest black hole orbiting a star 1.8 million light-years (6 trillion x 1.8 million) from Earth in the constellation Cassiopeia, with a record-setting mass of 24 to 33 times that of our Sun.
2007 – It was reported that a floating mass of trash some 1,000 miles west of SF and 1,000 miles north of Hawaii covered an area about the size of Texas with an estimated mass of three million tons, mostly made up of plastic chips.
2008 – In California Randall Cover (46), a former city of Sonoma Water Department supervisor, was indicted by a federal grand jury in San Francisco for receiving $102,795 in kickbacks from Underground Express.
2008 – In Iowa US federal agents arrested Sholom Rubashkin, a former senior executive of the Agriprocessors, a kosher meatpacking plant in Postville, for employing illegal immigrants for commercial gain and helping them secure fake documents.
2008 – Just prior to the elections, Senator Barak Obama said, ” “We are five days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America”. Few thought about what his actual modus operandi might be.
2009 – NASA reveals that a partial parachute failure resulted in damage to the Ares I-X test booster upon splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean following its test flight on Wednesday.
2009 – Pres. Obama announced an end to a two-decade ban on people with HIV from entering the country.
2009 – US banking regulators closed nine banks in California, Illinois, Texas and Arizona. They were all divisions of privately held FBOP Corp. based in Oak Park, Ill.
2009 – In the San Francisco Bay the tanker Dubai Star began leaking fuel oil after a tank overflowed during refueling. Coast Guard officials later estimated that some 400-800 gallons of toxic oil leaked into the SF Bay killing at least 37 birds along the Alameda coastline.
2010 – The United States searches on Saturday for the people behind the attempts to send mail bombs to Chicago synagogues.
2010 – 18-year old Alexandria Mills from the USA wins the 60th edition of the Miss World pageant in China.
2011 – A US drone attack kills six militants in Pakistan’s North Waziristan region.
2012 – The Walt Disney Company purchases Lucasfilm Ltd. from George Lucas for US$4.05 billion. Included in the deal are the rights to the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy makes landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey, with widespread flooding and at least 29 deaths in the Northeastern United States.
2012 – A suburban Chicago woman, Elzbieta Plackowska, 40, of Naperville, Illinois, is held without bail after allegedly fatally stabbing her 7-year-old son, Justin, Tuesday night 100 times, and then killing a 5-year-old girl, Olivia Dworakowski, who she had been babysitting and who had witnessed the homicide.
2013 – The Boston Red Sox win the 2013 World Series defeating the St. Louis Cardinals in game 6 with a score of 6-1. This is the first series to be won in Boston by the Red Sox since 1918.
2014 – A Beechcraft King Air B200 crashes into a FlightSafety International building in Wichita, Kansas – there are four dead.
2015 – One construction worker dies and at least one more is under the rubble from the collapse of a building being demolished to make way for a Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide luxury boutique hotel in New York City.
2015 – Storms hit Texas causing at least two deaths with one person reported missing. Rivers overflowed as more than a foot of rain fell in some areas while tornadoes ripped through buildings outside San Antonio.
1735 – John Adams, 2nd President of the United States of America (1797-1801).
1872 – Emily Post (Price), American etiquette expert.
1885 – Ezra Pound, American poet.
1893 – Charles Atlas, American bodybuilder.
1896 – Ruth Gordon (Jones), American actress.
1945 – Henry Winkler, American actor and director.
ROSS, WILBURN K.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 350th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Jacques, France, October 30th, 1944. Entered service at: Strunk, Ky. Birth: Strunk, Ky. G.O. No.: 30, 14 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty near St. Jacques, France. At 11:30 a.m. on 30 October 1944, after his company had lost fifty-five out of eighty-eight men in an attack on an entrenched. full-strength German company of elite mountain troops, Pvt. Ross placed his light machinegun ten yards in advance of the foremost supporting riflemen in order to absorb the initial impact of an enemy counterattack. With machinegun and small-arms fire striking the earth near him, he fired with deadly effect on the assaulting force and repelled it. Despite the hail of automatic fire and the explosion of rifle grenades within a stone’s throw of his position, he continued to man his machinegun alone, holding off six more German attacks. When the eighth assault was launched, most of his supporting riflemen were out of ammunition. They took positions in echelon behind Pvt. Ross and crawled up, during the attack, to extract a few rounds of ammunition from his machinegun ammunition belt. Pvt. Ross fought on virtually without assistance and, despite the fact that enemy grenadiers crawled to within four yards of his position in an effort to kill him with hand grenades, he again directed accurate and deadly fire on the hostile force and hurled it back. After expending his last rounds, Pvt. Ross was advised to withdraw to the company command post, together with eight surviving riflemen, but, as more ammunition was expected, he declined to do so. The Germans launched their last all-out attack, converging their fire on Pvt. Ross in a desperate attempt to destroy the machinegun which stood between them and a decisive breakthrough. As his supporting riflemen fixed bayonets for a last-ditch stand, fresh ammunition arrived and was brought to Pvt. Ross just as the advance assault elements were about to swarm over his position. He opened murderous fire on the oncoming enemy; killed forty and wounded ten of the attacking force; broke the assault single-handedly, and forced the Germans to withdraw. Having killed or wounded at least fifty-eight Germans in more than five hours of continuous combat and saved the remnants of his company from destruction, Pvt. Ross remained at his post that night and the following day for a total of thirty-six hours. His actions throughout this engagement were an inspiration to his comrades and maintained the high traditions of the military service.
History of the Internet
The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it.
Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line’s circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet.
The Internet, then known as ARPANET, was brought online in 1969 under a contract let by the renamed Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) which initially connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US (UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, UCSB, and the University of Utah). The contract was carried out by BBN of Cambridge, MA under Bob Kahn and went online in December 1969. By June 1970, MIT, Harvard, BBN, and Systems Development Corp (SDC) in Santa Monica, Cal. were added. By January 1971, Stanford, MIT’s Lincoln Labs, Carnegie-Mellon, and Case-Western Reserve U were added. In months to come, NASA/Ames, Mitre, Burroughs, RAND, and the U of Illinois plugged in. After that, there were far too many to keep listing here.
Charley Kline at UCLA sent the first packets on ARPANet as he tried to connect to Stanford Research Institute on Oct 29, 1969. The system crashed as he reached the G in LOGIN!
The Internet was designed in part to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the sites were destroyed by nuclear attack. If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes.
The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.
E-mail was adapted for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972. He picked the @ symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link the username and address. The telnet protocol, enabling logging on to a remote computer, was published as a Request for Comments (RFC) in 1972. RFC’s are a means of sharing developmental work throughout community. The ftp protocol, enabling file transfers between Internet sites, was published as an RFC in 1973, and from then on RFC’s were available electronically to anyone who had use of the ftp protocol.
Libraries began automating and networking their catalogs in the late 1960s independent from ARPA. The visionary Frederick G. Kilgour of the Ohio College Library Center (now OCLC, Inc.) led networking of Ohio libraries during the ’60s and ’70s. In the mid 1970s more regional consortia from New England, the Southwest states, and the Middle Atlantic states, etc., joined with Ohio to form a national, later international, network. Automated catalogs, not very user-friendly at first, became available to the world, first through telnet or the awkward IBM variant TN3270 and only many years later, through the web.
The Internet matured in the 70’s as a result of the TCP/IP architecture first proposed by Bob Kahn at BBN and further developed by Kahn and Vint Cerf at Stanford and others throughout the 70’s. It was adopted by the Defense Department in 1980 replacing the earlier Network Control Protocol (NCP) and universally adopted by 1983.
In 1986, the National Science Foundation funded NSFNet as a cross country 56 Kbps backbone for the Internet. They maintained their sponsorship for nearly a decade, setting rules for its non-commercial government and research uses.
As the commands for e-mail, FTP, and telnet were standardized, it became a lot easier for non-technical people to learn to use the nets. It was not easy by today’s standards by any means, but it did open up use of the Internet to many more people in universities in particular. Other departments besides the libraries, computer, physics, and engineering departments found ways to make good use of the nets–to communicate with colleagues around the world and to share files and resources.
While the number of sites on the Internet was small, it was fairly easy to keep track of the resources of interest that were available. But as more and more universities and organizations–and their libraries– connected, the Internet became harder and harder to track. There was more and more need for tools to index the resources that were available.
The first effort, other than library catalogs, to index the Internet was created in 1989, as Peter Deutsch and his crew at McGill University in Montreal, created an archiver for ftp sites, which they named Archie. This software would periodically reach out to all known openly available ftp sites, list their files, and build a searchable index of the software. The commands to search Archie were unix commands, and it took some knowledge of unix to use it to its full capability.
In 1991, the first really friendly interface to the Internet was developed at the University of Minnesota. The University wanted to develop a simple menu system to access files and information on campus through their local network. A debate followed between mainframe adherents and those who believed in smaller systems with client-server architecture. The mainframe adherents “won” the debate initially, but since the client-server advocates said they could put up a prototype very quickly, they were given the go-ahead to do a demonstration system. The demonstration system was called a gopher after the U of Minnesota mascot–the golden gopher. The gopher proved to be very prolific, and within a few years there were over 10,000 gophers around the world. It takes no knowledge of unix or computer architecture to use. In a gopher system, you type or click on a number to select the menu selection you want.
Gopher’s usability was enhanced much more when the University of Nevada at Reno developed the VERONICA searchable index of gopher menus. It was purported to be an acronym for Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives. A spider crawled gopher menus around the world, collecting links and retrieving them for the index. It was so popular that it was very hard to connect to, even though a number of other VERONICA sites were developed to ease the load. Similar indexing software was developed for single sites, called JUGHEAD (Jonzy’s Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display).
The development in 1993 of the graphical browser Mosaic by Marc Andreessen and his team at the National Center For Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) gave the protocol its big boost. Later, Andreessen moved to become the brains behind Netscape Corp., which produced the most successful graphical type of browser and server until Microsoft declared war and developed its MicroSoft Internet Explorer.
And the beat goes on…. And the beat goes on
Ephesians 3:17-21 King James Version (KJV)
17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,
18 May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height;
19 And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.
20 Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us,
21 Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end. Amen.
“During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet”
arcane ar-KAYN, adjective:
Understood or known by only a few.
Arcane comes from Latin arcanus, “shut, closed, secret,” from arca, “chest, box.”
1618 – English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.
1652 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony proclaimed itself to be an independent commonwealth.
1682 – William Penn lands in what will become Pennsylvania. The Ship Welcome arrived at the mouth of the Delaware River (New Castle) on October 27and on the 29th anchoried at Chester, Pennsylvania. William Penn and friends then went to Philadelphia.
1792 – Mt. Hood (Oregon) is named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.
1811 – The first Ohio River steamboat left Pittsburgh for New Orleans.
1814 – The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, was launched in New York City. Because of the prompt end of the war, Demologos never saw action, and no other ship like her was built.
1835 – In New York City Tammany Hall radicals lit candles with the new self-igniting friction matches, known as loco-focos, and continued to nominate their own ticket and formulate their program.
1847 – US Marines help take a Mexican schooner in the Gulf of Mexico.
1863 – Sixteen countries meeting in Geneva agree to form the International Red Cross.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie – Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward-off a Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1864 – African-American abolitionist Sojourner Truth is quoted as saying of President Lincoln: “I never was treated by anyone with more kindness and cordiality than were shown to me by that great and good man.”
1864 – Civil War: Union forces under the command of Major General Benjamin Butler attacked the Richmond defenses along Darbytown Road.
1872 – J.S. Risdon patented a metal windmill.
1877 – In San Francisco the Jesuits paid $200,000 for lot 74 of the Western Addition, a block of land bordered by Van Ness, Hayes, Franklin and Grove Streets. Construction of a new church, campus and residence buildings lasted from 1878-1880 and cost $323,763.
1881 – The Judge (US magazine) first published. It was a weekly magazine published in the US from 1881 to 1947. It was strongly aligned with the Republican Party.
1886 – The ticker-tape parade is invented in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
1894 – The opera “Rob Roy” opened at the Herald Square Theater, NYC. The old Waldorf Hotel was near Herald Square and soon produced the Rob Roy drink, Scotch whisky and sweet vermouth.
1901 – In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
1901 – Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of US President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution. Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot McKinley on September 6 during a public reception at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, N.Y. Despite early hopes of recovery, McKinley died September 14, in Buffalo.
1904 – First intercity trucking service (Colorado City & Snyder, Texas) was established.
1921 – The Link River Dam, a part of the Klamath Reclamation Project, is completed.
1923 – “Runnin’ Wild” (25:18) (introducing the Charleston) opens on Broadway. The Charleston is a dance named for the city of Charleston, South Carolina. The rhythm was popularized in the United States of America by a 1923 tune called The Charleston by composer/pianist James P. Johnson
1927 – In Fresno, Ca., Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig led an exhibition baseball game as part of an 18-state tour to promote major league baseball.
1929 – The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of ’29 or Black Tuesday, ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 11.7%. “Black Tuesday” was the worst day of the market crash as panicked survivors dumped 16 million shares on the market.
1930 – The tune, “It Must Be True,” was recorded on Victor by Bing Crosby.
1940 – First peacetime military draft in US history. It came with the Selective Service Act of 1940, which established the Selective Service System as an independent agency. The first draft number ever picked for World War II was 158, picked by a blindfolded Henry L. Stimson out of a goldfish bowl.
1942 – Alaskan highway completed. At mile 1202, Beaver Creek , the final connection was completed here when the 97th Engineers met the 18th Engineers. Road conditions along the Alcan were horrific; 90 degree turns and 25 percent grades were not uncommon.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold a public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis murdered some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, the Japanese, stung by their heavy losses begin withdrawals from the coast to the west of the American beachhead. The Americans begin preparing to occupy this area.
1943 – World War II: Three Allied officers escaped the German camp Stalag Luft 3.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, elements of US 24th Corps capture Abuyag, south of Dulag, while Catmon Hill is cleared and the advance to Dagami continues.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Buy That Dream” by The Pied Pipers, “That’s for Me” by Dick Haymes, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer and “With Tears in My Eyes” by Wesley Tuttle all topped the charts.
1945 – First ball point pen goes on sale, 57 years after it was patented. They went on sale at Gimbels Department Store in New York at the price of $12.50 each.
1945 – A.B. (“Happy”) Chandler, resigned as a US Senator. He remained as baseball commissioner.
1946 – “Sky King” (26:22) debuts on CBS radio. “Sky King” starred Jack Lester, then Earl Nightingale, and finally, Roy Engel, as Sky.
1947 – A forest fire at Concord, N.H. was drenched with rain produced by seeding cumulus clouds with dry ice, the first such event in the U.S.
1947 – Former first lady Frances Cleveland Preston died in Baltimore at age 83.
1949 – “That Lucky Old Sam” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.
1949 – Alonzo G. Moron of the Virgin Islands became the first Black president of Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia.
1950 – Korean War: The X Corps advance in the northeast was slowed by determined resistance by communist forces. First Marine Division units were attacked at Kojo.
1952 – Korean War: Eight Navy Aircraft from VF-54 struck the city of Kapsan in North Korea.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “You, You, You” by The Ames Brothers, “No Other Love” by Perry Como, “Oh” by Pee Wee Hunt and “I Forgot More Than You’ll Ever Know” by The Davis Sisters all topped the charts.
1953 – A British airliner with eleven passengers and eight crew crashed into Kings Mountain, 10 miles west of Redwood City, CA, and all aboard were killed. William Kapell (b.1922), genius pianist, died in the crash.
1955 – Warner Brothers copyright registered “A Rebel without a Cause.”
1955 – “Autumn Leaves” by Roger Williams topped the charts.
1956 – Maria Callas made her Metropolitan Opera debut in “Norma.”
1956 – John Cameron Swayze and “The Camel News Caravan” replaced by Huntley-Brinkley.
1957 – “Oh Boy!” by Buddy Holly & the Crickets was released.
1957 – Israel’s prime minister David Ben Gurion and five of his ministers are injured as a hand grenade is tossed into Israel’s parliament, the Knesset.
1959 – The first corporation to use closed-circuit television was General Mills of Minneapolis, MN, beaming simultaneous meetings in seven cities.
1960 – A chartered C-46 carrying Cal State’s football team crashed and sixteen people were killed.
1960 – In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight. He beats Tunney Hunsaker in six rounds.
1960 – “I Want To Be Wanted” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.
1964 – A collection of irreplaceable gems, including the 565 carat (113 g) Star of India, is stolen by a group of thieves including Jack Murphy from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The uninsured Star of India was recovered in a locker in a Miami bus station.
1966 – “96 Tears” by ? & the Mysterians topped the charts.
1967 – The musical “Hair” opened off Broadway.
1967 – In Oakland, CA, police made a traffic stop on Black Panther leader Huey Newton. In a gun battle Newton was wounded and police officer John Frey was killed.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by The Temptations, “Hot Fun in the Summertime” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Suspicious Minds” by Elvis Presley and “The Ways to Love a Man” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1969 – Researchers sent the first inter-node message between two sites on ARPAnet. The first e-mail message crossed the Arpanet as a team under Professor Leonard Kleinrock of UCLA communicated with a team under Douglas Englebart at Stanford.
1969 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered an immediate end to all school segregation.
1970 – Neil Diamond received a gold record for “Cracklin’ Rosie.”
1971 – Vietnam War: The total number of U.S. troops remaining in Vietnam drops to 196,700 – the lowest level since January 1966.
1973 – O.J. Simpson, of the Buffalo Bills, set two NFL records. He carried the ball 39 times and he ran 157 yards putting him over 1,000 yards at the seventh game of the season.
1974 – U.S. President Gerald Ford signed a new law forbidding discrimination in credit applications on the basis of sex or marital status.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Light Up My Life” by Debby Boone, “Nobody Does It Better” by Carly Simon, “That’s Rock ’n’ Roll” by Shaun Cassidy and “Heaven’s Just a Sin Away” by The Kendalls all topped the charts.
1977 – “Bat Out Of Hell” by Meatloaf was released to radio.
1978 – The US Women’s Army Corp (WAC) was deactivated.
1979 – On the 50th anniversary of the great stock market crash, anti-nuclear protesters tried but failed to shut down the New York Stock Exchange.
1979 – The miniseries “Freedom Road” premiered. It was based on a 1944 novel by Howard Fast. It starred Muhammad Ali and Kris Kristofferson.
1980 – USS Parsons (DDG-33) rescues 110 Vietnamese refugees 330 miles south of Saigon.
1981 – Loretta Lynn received a gold record for her album, “Greatest Hits, Vol. 2”.
1983 – “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton topped the charts.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston, “Part-Time Lover” by Stevie Wonder, “Miami Vice Theme” by Jan Hammer and “Touch a Hand, Make a Friend” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1987 – Thomas Hearns wins unprecedented fourth different weight boxing title.
1987 – Following the confirmation defeat of Robert H. Bork to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, President Reagan announced his choice of Douglas H. Ginsburg, a nomination that fell apart over revelations of Ginsburg’s past marijuana use.
1988 – In Japan, the Sega Megadrive is released for the first time.
1988 – Jim Elliott (US) begins 24-hr paced outdoor race for 548.9 miles.
1988 – “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1989 – After years of delays, the 63rd Street Tunnel opens for service, the first expansion of the New York City subway system since 1967.
1989 – Angelo Mercurio (1936-2006), an FBI informant, attended a Mafia induction ceremony at a suburban Boston home. His evidence helped bring down the crime family led by Raymond “Junior” Patriarca.
1990 – The Byrds, LaVern Baker, John Lee Hooker, The Impressions, Wilson Pickett, Jimmy Reed and Ike & Tina Turner were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
1991 – The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1992 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Depo Provera for use as a contraceptive in the United States.
1993 – A group of U.S. athletes were attacked by skinheads in Germany. A group of about 15 skinheads appeared at a discotheque and began shouting racist insults at an American athlete, Robert Pipkins of Staten Island, who is black. When a white teammate went to help him, the skinheads beat him.
1994 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Francisco Martin Duran (26), dressed in a trench coat, went up to the fence overlooking the north lawn of the White House and fired 29 rounds from a 7.62x39mm SKS semi-automatic rifle at a group of men in dark business suits on the White House lawn. He was later convicted of trying to kill US President Bill Clinton. As of 2013, Duran is serving his sentence at the medium-security Federal Correctional Institution at Florence Federal Correctional Complex in Florence, Colorado. The Bureau of Prisons projects his release date to be the year 2029.
1995 – Jerry Rice of the San Francisco 49ers became the NFL’s career leader in receiving yards with 14,040 yards.
1996 – An auction was held to sell the artwork that had been stolen by the Nazis during the German occupation of Austria during World War II.
1996 – James Edward Day (1914-1996), retired US postmaster general, died. He launched the ZIP Code system.
1997 – Iraq barred US personnel from being included in UN inspection teams of weapons programs– a move that outraged chief weapons inspector Richard Butler and prompted him to suspend inspections.
1998 – Space Shuttle Discovery blasts-off with 77-year old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space. He became the first American to orbit Earth on February 20, 1962.
1998 – Hurricane Mitch, the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history, made landfall in Honduras.
1998 – James Orr was sentenced to three years probation and ordered to do 100 hours of community service for slamming Farrah Fawcett’s head to the ground and choking her during a fight.
1998 – The oldest known copy of Archimedes’ work sold for $2 million at a New York auction.
1999 – In Cleveland, Ohio, four white 9th grade students at South High, ages 14-15, were arrested for planning a Columbine-styled racial massacre.
1999 – Some 3,000 people attended a memorial service in Orlando, Florida, for golfer Payne Stewart, who was killed along with five other people in the crash of their Learjet.
2000 – The wounded destroyer USS Cole departed Aden, Yemen, towed by tugboats to a Norwegian heavy-lift ship to be taken home to repair the gaping hole in its side; seventeen sailors were killed in a suicide bombing attack on Oct. 12.
2001 – KTLA broadcasted the first coast to coast HDTV network telecast.
2001 – President Bush said that he has created a task force to recommend sweeping changes on immigration laws to keep out terrorists and deport those already here.
2001 – ANTHRAX SCARE: A hospital worker in NY and a woman who handled mail in New Jersey were found to have anthrax. Since Oct 4 a total of thirty-seven people have tested positive for exposure and fifteen have contracted the disease.
2002 – Christina Aguilera’s album “Stripped” (1:14:05) was released.
2002 – The federal government filed charges against Washington sniper suspect John Allen Muhammad under a 1946 extortion law that could bring the death penalty, accusing him of a murderous plot to get $10 million.
2002 – In San Francisco the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals said the federal government cannot punish California doctors who recommend marijuana use to their patients.
2002 – A Minneapolis memorial service for the late Sen. Paul Wellstone turned into a virtual political rally as friends and relatives urged Minnesotans to honor his memory by putting a Democrat in his seat.
2002 – More than 200 illegal Haitian migrants jumped overboard and rushed onto a major Miami highway, bringing attention to the plight of a people desperate to escape the unending violence created by Haiti’s politics and poverty.
2003 – A powerful geomagnetic storm walloped the Earth, knocking out some airline communications but apparently causing no large power outages or other major problems.
2004 – The Arabic news network Al Jazeera broadcasts an excerpt from a video of Osama bin Laden in which the terrorist leader first admits direct responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks and references the 2004 U.S. presidential election.
2005 – In Aliso Viejo, CA a 19-year-old in a black cape and a paintball mask went on a shooting rampage in his upscale Southern California neighborhood, killing a man and his daughter before committing suicide.
2007 – Police in riot gear cleared several large crowds gathered around Fenway Park in the early morning after the Red Sox won their second World Series title in four years.
2007 – Oil prices closed at a record $93.53 per barrel on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
2008 – The Philadelphia Phillies won the baseball World Series over the Tampa Bay Rays 4-3 with the conclusion of Game 5, which had been stopped by rain two days earlier.
2008 – Marc M. Keyser (66) was arrested at his home in Sacramento for sending hoax anthrax threats by mail to media outlets.
2009 – A US Coast Guard airplane on a nighttime search for a boater collided with one of four Marine Corps helicopters flying in formation to a military training island off Southern California. All seven people aboard the Coast Guard plane and the two-person crew of the Marine Corps AH-1W Super Cobra helicopter were missing.
2010 – An American judge has ruled that a six year old may be sued for negligence after crashing into an elderly woman while riding a bicycle at age four.
2011 – At least twelve Americans were killed when a Taliban suicide car bomber attacked an armored shuttle bus in Kabul, Afghanistan. The bombing was the single deadliest assault on Americans in the capital since the war began.
2012 – As Hurricane Sandy continues toward the east coast, the HMS Bounty, a replica of the real one, sank in 18′ to 20′ waves and 40 mile per hour winds. Fourteen of sixteen crew and passengers are rescued with two missing.
2012 – Washington D.C. public schools close in advance of Hurricane Sandy.
2012 – A North Texas congregation is reeling after an attacker rammed a car into a church wall, chased the pastor, Rev. Danny Kirk Sr., founding pastor of the Greater Sweethome MIssionary Baptist Church. When police arrived they had to use a Taser to subdue the man, handcuffed him, and locked him in their patrol car. Sadly it was too late for Kirk who had already died.
2012 – San Francisco Giants win World Series with four-game sweep over Detroit Tigers.
2013 – The Texas Legislative Medal of Honor was posthumously awarded to Audie Murphy, the most decorated combat soldier of WW II and Medal of Honor Recipient (January 26).
2013 – OBAMACARE: The White House once again postpones opening day of the small business marketplace, to late November 2013.
2014 – San Francisco Giants defeat the Kansas City Royals 3-2 to win their third World Series Championship in five years. Three days after throwing 117 pitches in a four-hit shutout to win Game 5, Bumgarner threw 68 more and dropped his record-low career Series ERA to 0.25. He joined Arizona ace Randy Johnson (2001) as the only pitchers in the expansion era to win three games in one Series.
2015 – A California state bill was just signed in to law by Gov. Jerry Brown, that will register and allow illegal aliens to vote in US Elections. The New Motor Voter Act (A.B.1461) that is now law in California, automatically registers residents of California to vote at the DMV.
1740 – James Boswell, Scottish biographer (notably of Samuel Johnson) and diarist.
1891 – Fanny Brice (Borach), American actress and comedienne.
1921 – Bill Mauldin – WW II War correspondent and artist.
1944 – Denny Laine (Moody Blues, Wings)
1947 – Richard Dreyfuss, American actor
1948 – Kate Jackson, American actress
1971 – Winona Ryder , Country- Western singer
CAPTAIN HUMBERT R. VERSACE
Beginning of time period
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Captain Humbert R. Versace distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period of October 29th, 1963 to 26 September 1965, while serving as S-2 Advisor, Military Assistance Advisory Group, Detachment 52, Ca Mau, Republic of Vietnam. While accompanying a Civilian Irregular Defense Group patrol engaged in combat operations in Thoi Binh District, An Xuyen Province, Captain Versace and the patrol came under sudden and intense mortar, automatic weapons, and small arms fire from elements of a heavily armed enemy battalion. As the battle raged, Captain Versace, although severely wounded in the knee and back by hostile fire, fought valiantly and continued to engage enemy targets. Weakened by his wounds and fatigued by the fierce firefight, Captain Versace stubbornly resisted capture by the over-powering Viet Cong force with the last full measure of his strength and ammunition. Taken prisoner by the Viet Cong, he exemplified the tenets of the Code of Conduct from the time he entered into Prisoner of War status. Captain Versace assumed command of his fellow American soldiers, scorned the enemy’s exhaustive interrogation and indoctrination efforts, and made three unsuccessful attempts to escape, despite his weakened condition which was brought about by his wounds and the extreme privation and hardships he was forced to endure. During his captivity, Captain Versace was segregated in an isolated prisoner of war cage, manacled in irons for prolonged periods of time, and placed on extremely reduced ration. The enemy was unable to break his indomitable will, his faith in God, and his trust in the United States of America. Captain Versace, an American fighting man who epitomized the principles of his country and the Code of Conduct, was executed by the Viet Cong on 26 September 1965. Captain Versace’s gallant actions in close contact with an enemy force and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect the utmost credit upon himself and the United States Army.
HAJIRO, BARNEY F.
Rank and organization: Private, 442nd Regimental Combat Team, United States Army Place and date: October 29th, 1944, on hill 617 in the vicinity of Biffontaine, France . Entered service at: CA Birth: Hawaii September 16, 1916 Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: Private Barney F. Hajiro distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 19, 22, and 29 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres and Biffontaine, eastern France. Private Hajiro, while acting as a sentry on top of an embankment on 19 October 1944, in the vicinity of Bruyeres, France, rendered assistance to allied troops attacking a house 200 yards away by exposing himself to enemy fire and directing fire at an enemy strong point. He assisted the unit on his right by firing his automatic rifle and killing or wounding two enemy snipers. On 22 October 1944, he and one comrade took up an outpost security position about 50 yards to the right front of their platoon, concealed themselves, and ambushed an 18-man, heavily armed, enemy patrol, killing two, wounding one, and taking the remainder as prisoners. On 29 October 1944, in a wooded area in the vicinity of Biffontaine, France, Private Hajiro initiated an attack up the slope of a hill referred to as “Suicide Hill” by running forward approximately 100 yards under fire. He then advanced ahead of his comrades about 10 yards, drawing fire and spotting camouflaged machine gun nests. He fearlessly met fire with fire and single-handedly destroyed two machine gun nests and killed two enemy snipers. As a result of Private Hajiro’s heroic actions, the attack was successful. Private Hajiro’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*OKUBO, JAMES K.
Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, 442nd Regimental Combat Team, United States Army. Place and date: Foret Domaniale de Champ, near Biffontaine, eastern France October 28th and October 29th, to November 4th, 1944 Entered service at: Annacortes, WA Birth: May 30, 1920 Annacortes, WA Date of issue: June 21, 2000
Technician Fifth Grade James K. Okubo distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action. On 28 October, under strong enemy fire coming from behind mine fields and roadblocks, Technician Fifth Grade Okubo, a medic, crawled 150 yards to within forty yards of the enemy lines. Two grenades were thrown at him while he left his last covered position to carry back wounded comrades. Under constant barrages of enemy small arms and machine gun fire, he treated 17 men on 28 October and 8 more men on 29 October. On 4 November, Technician Fifth Grade Okubo ran seventy-five yards under grazing machine gun fire and, while exposed to hostile fire directed at him, evacuated and treated a seriously wounded crewman from a burning tank, who otherwise would have died. Technician Fifth Grade James K. Okubo’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
SAKATO, GEORGE T.
Rank and organization: Private, 442nd Regimental Combat Team, United States Army Place and date: October 29th, 1944, on hill 617 in the vicinity of Biffontaine, France . Entered service at: CA Birth: Colton, CA February 19, 1921 Date of issue: June 21, 2000 – Citation: Private George T. Sakato distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on After his platoon had virtually destroyed two enemy defense lines, during which he personally killed five enemy soldiers and captured four, his unit was pinned down by heavy enemy fire. Disregarding the enemy fire, Private Sakato made a one-man rush that encouraged his platoon to charge and destroy the enemy strongpoint. While his platoon was reorganizing, he proved to be the inspiration of his squad in halting a counter-attack on the left flank during which his squad leader was killed. Taking charge of the squad, he continued his relentless tactics, using an enemy rifle and P-38 pistol to stop an organized enemy attack. During this entire action, he killed 12 and wounded two, personally captured four and assisted his platoon in taking 34 prisoners. By continuously ignoring enemy fire, and by his gallant courage and fighting spirit, he turned impending defeat into victory and helped his platoon complete its mission. Private Sakato’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
MATHEWS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Labo, Luzon, Philippine Islands, October 29th, 1899. Entered service at: Worcester, Mass. Birth: Worcester, Mass. Date of issue: 14 March 1902. Citation: While in attendance upon the wounded and under a severe fire from the enemy, seized a carbine and beat off an attack upon wounded officers and men under his charge.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Chiricahua Mountains, Ariz., October 29th, 1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Columbus, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 February 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.
National Roller Skating Month
National Chocolates Day
It all started with ears, Chester Greenwood’s ears. Chester’s ears got cold. They got so cold something had to be done. That something was an invention by a fifteen-year-old boy that would support him for the rest of his life. The invention? Earmuffs. Later, when Chester Greenwood had become a legend, newspaper writers started the story that his ears turned weird colors in the cold.
According to The Wall Street Journal, “Chester Greenwood’s ears were so sensitive that they turned chalky white, beet red, and deep blue (in that order) when the mercury dipped.” Talk to the Greenwood descendants and the facts of the matter are different. What was wrong with Chester’s ears? “Just cold,” says grandson George Greenwood. “Big and cold.”
The neighbors in Farmington, Maine, had always been impressed by Chester’s drive and initiative. As one of six kids in a farm family on the back Falls Road struggling to make ends meet, Chester did his best to help out. The family kept several laying hens, and Chester walked an eight-mile route from house to house selling eggs. Sometimes he sold fudge or other candies such as peppermints and drop sweets that he himself had made.
But for all Chester’s industry, the flash of inspiration for his famous kid invention came to him at a moment when he had decided to relax and have some fun. One day in the winter of 1873, Chester walked to nearby Abbot Pond to try out a pair of new skates. The nip in the air sent him racing home. He found “Gram” in the farmhouse kitchen and asked her to help him fashion something to shield his ears. Chester’s ears itched fiercely at the touch of wool, so the everyday muffler most kids wrapped about their heads was out of the question.
The Greenwood Champion Ear Protector, as he later called the device, didn’t take much time to put together. Chester supplied the idea and the material; his grandmother’s fingers contributed the sewing skill. It was breathtakingly simple. The muff required bending some wire, cutting soft insulating material, and then sewing a few stitches.
To shield his ears, Chester decided on a combination of beaver fur on the outside and black velvet for the surface against the ear. For the headband, he chose a soft wire known as farm wire, a precursor of baling wire. Some accounts say the contraption was then attached to his cap. The Ear Protector proved an instant hit. All over Farmington and in the surrounding community, kids started to pester their parents and grandparents to make the thing.
Despite his friends’ enthusiasm, Chester wasn’t satisfied. The first model didn’t work so well. “The ears flapped too much,” according to his granddaughter Jackie. Like many inventions, the Greenwood earmuff was a great idea that needed some refinements. The first step was a change in materials. Chester decided to try flat spring steel, three-eighths of an inch wide, for the band. Two improvements resulted: the new band enabled him to attach a tiny hinge to each ear flap so the muff could fit snugly against his ears. And the springy steel allowed him, when he was finished using the muff, to coil it flat and stuff the contraption in his pocket.
The result? Greenwood had an invention that took on a life of its own. Everyone, not ‘just kids or people allergic to wool, had to have the Ear Protector. In the beginning, the popular muff sold in one style. “Like Henry Ford’s auto, the Ear Protector came in any color you wanted as long as it was black,” says grandson George. Chester seemed pretty satisfied with it. “I believe perfection has been reached,” he stated in advertising his earmuff.
On March 13, 1877, the United States Patent Office awarded him patent #188,292. Greenwood was just eighteen years old at the time. Soon after, he established a factory in a brick building in West Farmington, a place he called The Shop. Later, Chester expanded to Front Street in downtown Farmington and had more than twenty full time employees turning out Ear Protectors on the second floor. In 1883, his factory was producing 30,000 muffs a year, and by 1936 the annual output had risen to 400,000.
When he died in 1937 at the age of seventy-nine, Greenwood was a Maine celebrity. In addition to running the muff business, Greenwood had been granted more than 130 patents. They included improvements on the spark plug, a decoy mouse trap called the Mechanical Cat, Chester’s version of the shock absorber, a hook for pulling doughnuts from boiling oil, the Rubberless Rubber Band, and the Greenwood Tempered Steel Rake.
Curiously, even after Greenwood automated most of “The Shop”, his muff business could not do without hands that could sew. There was only one way to attach fabric to the hinged flap, the way Gram had done it in the farm kitchen when they made the first model. Women and men in the area took the piecework home, and it spread as a cottage industry, an industry whose labor force is made up of people working at home. Chester’s kid invention, in its heyday, “supported half of Franklin County,” according to one resident.
Philippians 3:7-9 King James Version (KJV)
7 But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ.
8 Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ,
9 And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
“To live is to choose. But to choose well, you must know who you are and what you stand for, where you want to go and why you want to get there.”
~ Kofi Annan
surcease SUR-sees; sur-SEES, noun:
Surcease comes from Old French sursis, past participle of surseoir, “to refrain,” from Latin supersedere, “to sit above, to sit out,” from super, “above” + sedere, “to sit.”
Cessation; stop; end.
1492 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba.
1636 – A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate.
1646 – The first Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
1664 – The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot later to be known as the Royal Marines is established.
1701 – William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania’s constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
1776 – Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains – British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans. The Battle was a battle in the New York and New Jersey campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
1790 – New York gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
1793 – Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin. The patent was granted on March 14, 1794, but was not validated until 1807. Whitney’s patent was assigned patent number 72X.
1802 – The 34-gun Spanish frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico [Puerto Rico], ran into a storm off the coast of Virginia. Captain Don Juan Ignacio Bustillo perished along with 413 men, women and children and an estimated half-billion dollars in treasure. To date (2015) the Juno has not been found.
1818 – Abigail Adams, wife of former Pres. John Adams, died. In 1975 some 200 letters of Abigail Adams were published as “The Book of Abigail and John.”
1831 – English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday demonstrated the first dynamo.
1858 – Rowland Hussey Macy opened his first New York store at Sixth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan.
1864 – Civil War: Second Battle of Fair Oaks ends – Union Army forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, Virginia. It cost the Union 1554 casualties.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie, TN. A Confederate attack was scheduled for 10:00 pm, confusion delayed it till midnight. Surprised by the attack, Geary’s Union division, at Wauhatchie Station, formed into a V-shaped battle line. Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard with two XI Army Corps divisions were sent to Wauhatchie Station as reinforcements. As more and more Union troops arrived, the Confederates fell back to Lookout Mountain.
1864 – Civil War: Steamer General Thomas and gunboat Stone River destroy Confederate batteries on Tennessee River near Decatur, Alabama.
1868 – Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, the electric vote recorder.
1886 – The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France designed by sculptor Frederic Bartholdi, was dedicated in New York Harbor by President Grover Cleveland. It was originally named “Liberty Enlightening the World.” The statue weighs 225 tons and is 152 feet tall.
1901 – Race riots, sparked by Booker T. Washington’s visit to the White House, killed thirty-four.
1904 – A new investigation method known as fingerprints was tried for the first time in the US. The use of fingerprints began in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas, and the St. Louis Police with the help of a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been on duty at the St. Louis World’s Fair Exposition guarding the British Display.
1913 – The “Krazy Kat” comic strip by George Herriman debuted as a daily comic strip in the New York Evening Journal.
1914 – The single largest one-day decline in terms of percentage by the Dow Jones Industrial Average in recorded stock market history.
1914 – George Eastman, of Eastman Kodak Company, announced the introduction of a color photographic process.
1918 – World War I: The “Great War” was reaching its climax as Allied forces all along the Western Front continue launching attacks against the German “Hindenburg Line”.
1919 – The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act (National Prohibition Enforcement Act ) over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January.
1922 – March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government with the assistance of the Catholic Church; pope Pius XI declares that “Mussolini is a man sent by divine providence.”
1922 – First coast-to-coast radio broadcast of a football game WEAF in New York. Princeton played against the University of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago, Illinois. Final score Princeton 21, Chicago 18.
1929 – Universal Pictures joined with Transcontinental Air Transport to offer moving pictures for air passengers bound for California.
1929 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 12.8% to 260.64.
1934 – In Redwood City, Ca., a crowd of 20,000 people gathered at the temporary Pulgas Water Temple to witness the first Sierra water begin to empty into Crystal Springs Lake.
1934 – Brooklyn & Pittsburgh play a penalty free NFL game.
1936 – US President Franklin Roosevelt rededicates the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: In Kaunas, Lithuania: German SS arrange the massacre of more than 9,000 Jews of Kaunas ghetto. All Jews, men, women, children at 6 am, assembled on the big Demokratu square to be shot and buried later into gigantic ditches.
1942 – The Alaska Highway is completed. The purpose of the highway is to connect the contiguous United States to Alaska through Canada. It begins at the junction with several Canadian highways in Dawson Creek, British Columbia, and runs to Delta Junction, Alaska, via Whitehorse, Yukon. It is now 1,387 miles long and is completely paved.
1942 – World War II: The 6th day of the battle at El Alamein. It was a British offensive under Montgomery.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: 2,000 Jewish children and 6,000 Jewish adults from Cracow are deported by Germans to Belzec death camp.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: SS directive orders all Jewish children’s mittens and stockings to be sent from the death camps to the SS families.
1943 – The German U-220 sank in the North Atlantic, in position 48.53N, 33.30W by depth charges from two Avenger and Wildcat aircraft of the American escort carrier USS Block Island. 56 dead (all hands lost).
1943 – The Philadelphia Experiment supposedly occurred. The Philadelphia Experiment allegedly was a secret experiment conducted by the U.S. Navy at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on or before October 28, 1943, which went horribly awry. It is also called Project Rainbow (a codename shared by an acknowledged radar stealth technology tested on the Lockheed U-2 (Sweetman 2001). No connection has been proved between these two projects).
1943 – World War II:The US 2nd Marine Parachute Battalion is landed by sea at Voza on Choiseul Island (Operation Blissful). They engage Japanese forces. This is a diversion from the intended attack on Bougainville.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Dance with the Dolly” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: Al Jennings), “The Trolley Song” by Judy Garland and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flew from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Truk.
1944 – World War II: On Leyte, attacks by US 24th Corps around Dagami make slow progress and suffer heavy losses.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The last Nazi transport of Jews to the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau was sent from Theresienstadt.
1948 – Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1949 – Helen Eugenie Moore Anderson was sworn in as the U.S. ambassador to Denmark, becoming the first female American ambassador.
1950 – “All My Love” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1950 – The Jack Benny Show, starring Jack Benny, premieres (it ran for 15 years).
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here” by Eddie Fisher, “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1954 – Ernest Hemingway received news that he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Poor health prevented him from going to Stockholm to receive it.
1955 – A local Lubbock, TX native opens for Marty Robbins and Elvis Presley. In the audience was a youngster by the name of Scott Davis. He would later become a superstar. We know him as Mac Davis. The kid who opened the concert? Buddy Holly.
1956 – Elvis Presley’s song “Love Me Tender” became the No. 1 Billboard Pop Hit. He became the first artist to follow himself into the No. 1 position. The song “Don’t Be Cruel/Hound Dog” had been the No. 1 song for 11 weeks.
1959 – The Buffalo Bills enter the American Football League.
1961 – “Runaround Sue” by Dion topped the charts.
1962 – An 11,000-man 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade left Camp Pendleton by sea for the Caribbean during the Cuban Missile Crisis. One week earlier, the entire 189,000-man Marine Corps had been put on alert and elements of the 1st and 2d Marine Divisions were sent to Guantanamo Bay to reinforce the defenders of the U.S. Naval Base.
1962 – Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
1963 – New York DJ “Murray the K” played “She Loves You” by the Beatles. The Beatles did not become popular in America until February 1964. This is believed to be the first time a Beatle song was played in the U.S.
1963 – In New York City the demolition of Penn Station, completed in 1910, began.
1965 – In St. Louis, Missouri, the 630-foot-tall parabolic (catenarian) steel Gateway Arch is completed. as part of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial .
1965 – Pope Paul VI issued a decree absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
1965 – The studio recording of “My World Is Empty Without You” was made by the Supremes.
1965 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong commandos damage and destroy a number of allied aircraft in two separate raids on U.S. air bases, including Chu Lai, on the coast of the South China Sea in Quang Tin Province, I Corps.
1967 – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu topped the charts.
1968 – In San Francisco the first eviction notices were served to the 196 tenants of the International Hotel. This led to a 9-year struggle that resulted in their forced eviction on Aug 4, 1977.
1970 – Land speed record set by Gary Gabelich in a rocket powered automobile called the Blue Flame.
1972 – “My Ding-a-Ling” by Chuck Berry topped the charts.
1973 – Elmore Smith of the Lakers blocks 17 shots in a game (NBA record).
1974 – A US law banned discrimination of sex or marital status in credit application.
1974 – Missionaries Mark Fischer (19) of Milwaukee, Wis., and Gary Darley (20) of Simi Valley, Calif., disappeared in Austin, Texas. Their bodies were never found. The man convicted of their murders was never brought to justice and died in Britain in 2003.
1976 – John D. Ehrlichman, former domestic policy adviser of President Nixon and convicted Watergate felon, arrives at the Swift Trail Camp minimum-security facility in southeastern Arizona near Safford.
1978 – “Hot Child in the City” by Nick Gilder topped the charts.
1980 – President Carter and Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan faced off in a nationally broadcast, 90-minute debate in Cleveland. Moderator – Howard K. Smith.
1981 – World Series: Los Angeles Dodgers (4) vs New York Yankees (2).
1981 – The US Senate voted for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia.
1983 – US forces led by Vice Adm. Joseph Metcalf III took control of Grenada 3 days after invading the island. Nineteen Americans died along with forty-five Grenadans.
1983 – The U.S. vetoed a U.N. Security Council resolution “deeply deploring” the ongoing U.S.-led invasion of Grenada.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder, “Caribbean Queen (No More Love on the Run)” by Billy Ocean, “Hard Habit to Break” by Chicago and “If You’re Gonna Play in Texas (You Gotta Have a Fiddle in the Band)” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – The New York City Marathon was marred by its first fatality when a French runner who collapsed and died.
1985 – John A. Walker Jr. and his son, Michael Lance Walker, pled guilty to charges of spying for the Soviet Union.
1986 – The centennial of the Statue of Liberty’s dedication is celebrated in New York Harbor.
1987 – During a debate in Houston that included the six Republican presidential contenders, Vice President George Bush (former WW II pilot) argued that as President Reagan’s “co-pilot,” he knew how to “land the plane in a storm.”
1989 – “Miss You Much” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1989 – World Series: Oakland Athletics (4) vs San Francisco Giants (0). This was the “earthquake” Series.
1991 – Thousands of Haitian migrants began fleeing their homeland after the overthrow of Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, prompting one of the largest Search and Rescue operations in Coast Guard history. In the first 30 days of the operation, Coast Guard forces rescued more than 6,300 men, women, and children who left Haiti in grossly overloaded and unseaworthy vessels.
1991 – The combination of storms that would become the “Perfect Storm” formed. The storm was blamed for 13 deaths and over $200 million in damages, including those to Bush’s vacation home.
1991 – The Andrea Gail, a 72-foot swordfish boat from Gloucester, Mass., disappeared off the coast of Nova Scotia. Six fishermen were lost. This incident was the subject of the movie, “The Perfect Storm.”
1992 – The US Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) was enacted. It banned betting on sports with exemptions to Delaware, Nevada, Oregon and Montana.
1995 – World Series: Atlanta Braves (4) vs Cleveland Indians (2).
1995 – An 18-wheel truck plunged over an embankment outside Washington DC and spilled 100 gallons of sulfuric acid onto I-95. The driver, Tom Billings, had fallen asleep.
1995 – The US Senate approved a GOP package of spending slashes and tax reductions, 52-to-47.
1996 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained a record 337.17 points (or 5%). Just yesterday the Dow had dropped 554.26 points (or 7%).
1996 – Richard Jewell, cleared of committing the Olympic park bombing, held a news conference in Atlanta in which he thanked his mother for standing by him and lashed out at reporters and investigators who had depicted him as the bomber.
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains a record 337.17 points to close at 7,498.32.
1997 – The NBA announced that two women were selected to serve as referees. This was the first time that women would work as officials in any all-male American professional sport.
1999 – Two Navy Blue Angel aviators, Kieron O’Connor (35) and Kevin Colling (32), were killed when their F/A-18 Hornet crashed during a training flight near Moody Air Force Base in Georgia. Twenty-three pilots have died at shows or training since the group was formed in 1946.
2001 – The Centers for Disease Control reported a thirteenth case of anthrax in a New Jersey postal worker. Spores were found at the mail center in Landover, Md.
2001 – In California Jeffrey Fontana (24), a rookie police officer, was shot and killed during an apparent traffic stop in San Jose’s Almaden Valley neighborhood.
2002 – The families of people killed in the Sept. 11 terrorist attack gathered in New York for a memorial service filled with prayer and song.
2002 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Arizona Robert Flores (41), a failing nursing student, shot and killed 3 professors and then himself at the College of Nursing in Tucson.
2002 – In Jordan an assassin pumped eight shots into Laurence Foley (62), an employee of the U.S. Agency for International Development, outside his home in the first known killing of a Western envoy in Amman.
2003 – The US Senate approved Utah’s Gov. Mike Leavitt as head of the EPA.
2003 – The seven astronauts who died in the February 1 Columbia shuttle disaster were honored with the unveiling of their names carved into the national Space Mirror Memorial.
2003 – Wells Fargo announced a new Identity Theft Assistance Center.
2003 – Southern California fires covered 600,000 acres. The death toll climbed to 20. Some 11,467 firefighters covered the blazes.
2003 – In Iraq 2 American soldiers were killed when their Abrams battle tank was damaged by resistance fighters 45 miles north of Baghdad. Total US deaths reach 115 and surpassed the 114 killed during the initial war Mar 20-May 1.
2004 – Fox News Channel’s Bill O’Reilly (55) settled a harassment lawsuit brought by Andrea Mackris (33), a former Fox producer, who accused him of graphically discussing sex with her.
2004 – The US law Check 21, that allowed banks to transfer facsimiles of checks electronically, was scheduled to take effect.
2004 – Boston Red Sox fans turned out by the tens of thousands near historic Fenway Park to celebrate their World Series champion team, the city’s first since 1918.
2005 – US prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald released a 22-page indictment with five charges against I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby Jr. He resigned the next day and was conicted on 4 of 5 charges. Libby is the highest-ranking White House official convicted in a government scandal since John Poindexter, the national security adviser to President Ronald Reagan in the Iran-Contra Affair.
2005 – US Ambassador Thomas Schieffer said the US plans to reduce the number of American troops in Okinawa and the rest of Japan.
2005 – Delta Air Lines, in bankruptcy since Sep 14, said that it will discontinue its 2-year-old, low-cost carrier Song and will absorb the unit into its regular operations.
2006 – David M. Walker, the comptroller general of the United States, warned that if the US government conducts business as usual over the next few decades, a national debt that is already $8.5 trillion could reach $46 trillion or more, adjusted for inflation.
2006 – In Jerseyville, Ill., a teenager carrying a Bible and shouting “I want Jesus” was shot twice with a police stun gun and died the next day at a St. Louis hospital.
2007 – In Denver the Boston Red Sox swept to their second World Series title in four years with a 4-3 win over the Colorado Rockies in Game 4.
2007 – A beach house erupted into a storm of fire and smoke in Ocean Isle Beach, N.C. Six of the seven students killed attended the University of South Carolina.
2007 – The USS Porter, a guided missile destroyer, fired on and destroyed two pirate boats tied to the Golden Nori, a hijacked Japanese-flagged chemical tanker. The ship was carrying a load of benzene off the coast of Somalia.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 889.35 to 9,065.12, its second biggest gain in the Dow’s history.
2008 – In Anaheim, CA, a newlywed, killed by police after he stepped outside his home to confront suspected burglars, was shot in a case of mistaken identity.
2009 – President Barack Obama signed a defense bill into law containing a new provision to pay Taliban fighters who renounce the insurgency.
2009 – US federal agents in Dearborn, Michigan, arrested several members of a radical Sunni Islam group on charges that included conspiracy to sell stolen goods and the illegal possession and sale of firearms.
2009 – NASA launched its 327-foot Ares I-X, its new prototype moon rocket, skyward from Cape Canaveral on a suborbital test flight.
2010 – Michael Jackson’s “THIS IS IT” opened in theaters.
2010 – Verizon will pay a $25 million settlement to the U.S. Treasury for overcharging 15 million cellphone customers.
2010 – Sandy Alderson is chosen as the new general manager of the New York Mets.
2011 – NASA launches its NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite to send back data on weather and climate conditions.
2011 – The Obama administration orders an independent review of Department of Energy “clean-energy” loans following the bankruptcy of Solyndra.
2011 – A Glendale, AZ police officer was shot tonight and died in the hospital overnight. Officer Brad Jones, 27, was shot at an apartment complex near 75th and Glendale avenues while accompanying a probation officer to a meeting with a convict. It was during this meeting that the probationer pulled out a gun and began firing, striking the police officer at least once before fleeing in his vehicle.
2012 – The East Coast of the United States prepares for Hurricane Sandy, which has killed at least 67 people and caused widespread damage in the Caribbean.
2012 – The SpaceX Dragon capsule on a re-supply mission to the International Space Station returns to Earth.
2012 – In Major League Baseball, the San Francisco Giants defeat the Detroit Tigers in game four of the 2012 World Series. Pablo Sandoval is named World Series MVP.
2014 – Residents of Pahoa, Hawaii, begin evacuating ahead of an impending lava flow from the Kīlauea volcano.
2014 – An unmanned Antares rocket carrying NASA’s Cygnus CRS Orb-3 resupply mission to the International Space Station explodes seconds after taking off from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in Virginia. The loss includes five thousand pounds of cargo.
1467 – Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch author and scholar.
1846 – Georges August Escoffier, French culinary artist and author.
1875 – Gilbert Grosvenor, American geographer, credited with transforming “National Geographic” into a renowned magazine.
1907 – Edith Head, American costume designer.
1914 – Jonas Salk, American medical researcher and inventor of polio vaccine.
1955 – William Gates, American computing entrepreneur, chairman and CEO of Microsoft Corporation.
BURKE, LLOYD L.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company G, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Near Chong-dong, Korea, October 28th, 1951. Entered service at: Stuttgart, Ark. Born: 29 September 1924, Tichnor, Ark. G.O. No.: 43. Citation: 1st Lt. Burke, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. Intense enemy fire had pinned down leading elements of his company committed to secure commanding ground when 1st Lt. Burke left the command post to rally and urge the men to follow him toward three bunkers impeding the advance. Dashing to an exposed vantage point he threw several grenades at the bunkers, then, returning for an Ml rifle and adapter, he made a lone assault, wiping out the position and killing the crew. Closing on the center bunker he lobbed grenades through the opening and, with his pistol, killed three of its occupants attempting to surround him. Ordering his men forward he charged the third emplacement, catching several grenades in midair and hurling them back at the enemy. Inspired by his display of valor his men stormed forward, overran the hostile position, but were again pinned down by increased fire. Securing a light machine gun and three boxes of ammunition, 1st Lt. Burke dashed through the impact area to an open knoll, set up his gun and poured a crippling fire into the ranks of the enemy, killing approximately seventy-five. Although wounded, he ordered more ammunition, reloading and destroying two mortar emplacements and a machine gun position with his accurate fire. Cradling the weapon in his arms he then led his men forward, killing some twenty-five more of the retreating enemy and securing the objective. 1st Lt. Burke’s heroic action and daring exploits inspired his small force of thirty-five troops. His unflinching courage and outstanding leadership reflect the highest credit upon himself, the infantry, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near St. Die, France, October 28th, 1944. Entered service at:Port Arthur,Tex. Birth:Port Arthur, Tex. G.O. No.: 20,29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on28 October 1944, nearSt. Die,France. When his company was stopped in its effort to drive through theMortagneForest to reopen the supply line to the isolated third battalion, S/Sgt. Adams braved the concentrated fire of machineguns in a lone assault on a force of German troops. Although his company had progressed less than ten yards and had lost three killed and six wounded, S/Sgt. Adams charged forward dodging from tree to tree firing a borrowed BAR from the hip. Despite intense machinegun fire which the enemy directed at him and rifle grenades which struck the trees over his head showering him with broken twigs and branches, S/Sgt. Adams made his way to within ten yards of the closest machinegun and killed the gunner with a hand grenade. An enemy soldier threw hand grenades at him from a position only ten yards distant; however, S/Sgt. Adams dispatched him with a single burst of BAR fire. Charging into the vortex of the enemy fire, he killed another machinegunner at fifteen yards range with a hand grenade and forced the surrender of two supporting infantrymen. Although the remainder of the German group concentrated the full force of its automatic weapons fire in a desperate effort to knock him out, he proceeded through the woods to find and exterminate five more of the enemy. Finally, when the third German machinegun opened up on him at a range of twenty yards, S/Sgt. Adams killed the gunner with BAR fire. In the course of the action, he personally killed nine Germans, eliminated three enemy machineguns, vanquished a specialized force which was armed with automatic weapons and grenade launchers, cleared the woods of hostile elements, and reopened the severed supply lines to the assault companies of his battalion.
*BROSTROM, LEONARD C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company F, 17th Infantry, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Dagami, Leyte, Philippine Islands, October 28th, 1944. Entered service at: Preston, Idaho. Birth: Preston, Idaho. G.O. No.: 104, 15 November 1945. Citation: He was a rifleman with an assault platoon which ran into powerful resistance near Dagami, Leyte, Philippine Islands, on 28 October 1944. From pillboxes, trenches, and spider holes, so well camouflaged that they could be detected at no more than twenty yards, the enemy poured machinegun and rifle fire, causing severe casualties in the platoon. Realizing that a key pillbox in the center of the strong point would have to be knocked out if the company were to advance, Pfc. Bostrom, without orders and completely ignoring his own safety, ran forward to attack the pillbox with grenades. He immediately became the prime target for all the riflemen in the area, as he rushed to the rear of the pillbox and tossed grenades through the entrance. Six enemy soldiers left a trench in a bayonet charge against the heroic American, but he killed one and drove the others off with rifle fire. As he threw more grenades from his completely exposed position he was wounded several times in the abdomen and knocked to the ground. Although suffering intense pain and rapidly weakening from loss of blood, he slowly rose to his feet and once more hurled his deadly missiles at the pillbox. As he collapsed, the enemy began fleeing from the fortification and were killed by riflemen of his platoon. Pfc. Brostrom died while being carried from the battlefield, but his intrepidity and unhesitating willingness to sacrifice himself in a one-man attack against overwhelming odds enabled his company to reorganize against attack, and annihilate the entire enemy position.
*OKUBO, JAMES K.
Rank and organization: Technician Fifth Grade, 442nd Regimental Combat Team, United States Army. Place and date: Foret Domaniale de Champ, near Biffontaine, eastern France October 28th and October 29th to November 4th, 1944 Entered service at: Annacortes, WA Birth: May 30, 1920 Annacortes, WA Date of issue: June 21, 2000 Citation: Technician Fifth Grade James K. Okubo distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action on 28 and 29 October and 4 November 1944, in the Foret Domaniale de Champ, near Biffontaine, eastern France. On 28 October, under strong enemy fire coming from behind mine fields and roadblocks, Technician Fifth Grade Okubo, a medic, crawled 150 yards to within 40 yards of the enemy lines. Two grenades were thrown at him while he left his last covered position to carry back wounded comrades. Under constant barrages of enemy small arms and machine gun fire, he treated 17 men on 28 October and 8 more men on 29 October. On 4 November, Technician Fifth Grade Okubo ran 75 yards under grazing machine gun fire and, while exposed to hostile fire directed at him, evacuated and treated a seriously wounded crewman from a burning tank, who otherwise would have died. Technician Fifth Grade James K. Okubo’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.
*THORSON, JOHN F.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 17th Infantry, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Dagami, Leyte, Philippine Islands, October 28th, 1944. Entered service at: Armstrong, lowa Birth: Armstrong, lowa. G.O. No.: 58, 19 July 1945. Citation: He was an automatic rifleman on 28 October 1944, in the attack on Dagami Leyte, Philippine Islands. A heavily fortified enemy position consisting of pillboxes and supporting trenches held up the advance of his company. His platoon was ordered to out-flank and neutralize the strongpoint. Voluntarily moving well out in front of his group, Pvt. Thorson came upon an enemy fire trench defended by several hostile riflemen and, disregarding the intense fire directed at him, attacked single-handed He was seriously wounded and fell about six yards from the trench. Just as the remaining twenty members of the platoon reached him, one of the enemy threw a grenade into their midst. Shouting a warning and making a final effort, Pvt. Thorson rolled onto the grenade and smothered the explosion with his body. He was instantly killed, but his magnificent courage and supreme self-sacrifice prevented the injury and possible death of his comrades, and remain with them as a lasting inspiration.
INTERIM 1920 – 1940
Rank and organization: Torpedoman Second Class, U.S. Navy. Place and Date: On board the U.S. submarine 0-5, October 28th, 1923 Born: 14 October, 1900, Putnam, Conn. Accredited to: Vermont. G.O. No.: 125, 20 February 1924. Citation: For heroism and devotion to duty while serving on board the U.S. submarine 0-5 at the time of the sinking of that vessel. On the morning of 28 October 1923, the 0-5 collided with the steamship Abangarez and sank in less than a minute. When the collision occurred, Breault was in the torpedo room. Upon reaching the hatch, he saw that the boat was rapidly sinking. Instead of jumping overboard to save his own life, he returned to the torpedo room to the rescue of a shipmate whom he knew was trapped in the boat, closing the torpedo room hatch on himself. Breault and Brown remained trapped in this compartment until rescued by the salvage party thirty-one hours later. (Medal presented by President Coolidge at the White House on 8 March 1924.)
ALBEE, GEORGE E.
INDIAN WARS PERIOD
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 41st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Brazos River, Tex., October 28th, 1869. Entered service at:Owatonna,Minn. Birth:Lisbon,N.H. Date of issue:18 January 1894. Citation: Attacked with two men a force of eleven Indians, drove them from the hills, and reconnoitered the country beyond.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 109th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wauhatchie, Tenn., October 28th, 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born. 9 November 1832, Bridgeton, N.J. Date of issue: 17 January 1894. Citation: Gallantry in action manifesting throughout the engagement coolness, zeal, judgment, and courage. His horse was shot from under him and he was hit by four enemy bullets.
Eat Better and Eat Together Month
Make A Difference Day, Navy Day and Cranky Co-Workers Day
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest. It’s orbit around the sun is 92,957,130 miles. This number is also used to reflect the astronomical term of 1.00 AU. Interestingly, the distance from the earth to the sun is approximately the same distance. The earth’s orbit is elliptical and averages about 93,000,000 miles. The earth’s diameter is approximately 25,000. Its diameter is 7926 miles.
Earth is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and Germanic. In Roman Mythology, the goddess of the Earth was Tellus which means the fertile soil and in Greek it is Gaia, terra mater – “Mother Earth”. It was not until the time of Copernicus (the sixteenth century) that it was understood that the Earth is another planet.
The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties (depths in km): The crust is approximately 25 miles deep. Most of what we know about the interior is theoretical. The Upper Mantle is between 25 and 250 miles. The next level is called the transition region and it is between 250 and 400 miles. The lower mantle measures from 400 to 1675 miles. The Next layer is called the D” layer and it is fairly thin covering a depth from 1675 miles to 1800 miles and then comes the Outer Core which measures 1800 miles to 3200 miles. The final part is the Inner Core. This level is the solid core and measures from 3200 miles to 3965 miles. This core is not attached to the mantle.
As this shows crust varies considerably in thickness; it is thinner under the oceans, thicker under the continents. The inner core and crust are solid; the outer core and mantle layers are plastic or semi-fluid. The various layers are separated by discontinuities which are evident in seismic data; the best known of these is the Mohorovicic discontinuity between the crust and upper mantle.
The core is probably composed mostly of iron (or nickel/iron) though it is possible that some lighter elements may be present, too. Temperatures at the center of the core may be as high as 13,0000 Fahrenheit, hotter than the surface of the Sun. The lower mantle is probably mostly silicon, magnesium and oxygen with some iron, calcium and aluminum. The upper mantle is mostly olivene and pyroxene (iron/magnesium silicates), calcium and aluminum. We know most of this only from seismic techniques; samples from the upper mantle arrive at the surface as lava from volcanoes but the majority of the Earth is inaccessible. The crust is primarily quartz (silicon dioxide) and other silicates like feldspar.
Taken as a whole, the Earth’s chemical composition (by mass) is 34.6% Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickel, 1.9% Sulfur and .05% Titanium.
The Earth is the densest major body in the solar system. The other terrestrial planets probably have similar structures and compositions with some differences: the Moon has at most a small core; Mercury has an extra large core (relative to its diameter); the mantles of Mars and the Moon are much thicker; the Moon and Mercury may not have chemically distinct crusts; Earth may be the only one with distinct inner and outer cores. Note, however, that our knowledge of planetary interiors is mostly theoretical even for the Earth.
Based on evolutionary theory, the Earth’s surface is very young. In the relatively short (by astronomical standards) period of 500,000,000 years or so erosion and tectonic processes destroy and recreate most of the Earth’s surface and thereby eliminate almost all traces of earlier geologic surface history (such as impact craters). Thus the very early history of the Earth has mostly been erased. The Earth is 4.5 to 4.6 billion years old, but the oldest known rocks are about 4 billion years old and rocks older than 3 billion years are rare. The oldest fossils of living organisms are less than 3.9 billion years old. There is no record of the critical period when life was first getting started.
Genesis 1:1 King James Version (KJV)
1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
“It’s not hard to make decisions when you know what your values are.”
~ Roy Disney
verisimilitude ver-uh-suh-MIL-uh-tood; -tyood, noun:
1.The appearance of truth; the quality of seeming to be true.
2. Something that has the appearance of being true or real.
Verisimilitude comes from Latin verisimilitudo, from verisimilis, from verus, “true” + similis, “like, resembling, similar.” The adjective form is verisimilar.
312 – Prior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ. He became emperor of the West and an advocate of Christianity.
1659 – William Robinson and Marmaduke Stevenson, two Quakers who came from England in 1656 to escape religious persecution, are executed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony for their religious beliefs.
1682 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1775 – John Adams was successful in persuading the Continental Congress to fit out “with all possible despatch” two vessels to be used to capture British shipping.
1787 – The Independent Journal and The New York Packet newspapers published the first of 77 essays explaining the new Constitution and urging its ratification, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay and later combined as “The Federalist Papers.” There were a total of 85.
1795 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S. It gave navigation rights on the Mississippi River to the United States.
1810 – President James Madison ordered the annexation of the western part of West Florida. Settlers there had rebelled against Spanish authority.
1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state.
1858 – RH Macy & Co opens first store, (6th Ave-NYC) Gross receipts $1106. It was Macy’s eighth business venture, the other seven failed.
1862 – Civil War: A Confederate force was routed at the Battle of Labadieville, near Bayou Lafourche in Louisiana.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Hatcher’s Run (Burgess Mill) Union troops are turned back when they try to cut the last railroad supplying the Confederate force in Petersburg, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: LT William Cushing, USN, sinks Confederate ram Albemarle with a spar torpedo attached to the bow of his launch.
1871 – Boss Tweed, Democratic leader of Tammany Hall, arrested after NY Times exposed his corruption. Tweed defrauded the city by having contractors present excessive bills for work performed- typically ranging from 15 to 65 percent more than the project actually cost. This extra money was divided among Tweed and his subordinates.
1873 – A De Kalb, Illinois, farmer named Joseph Glidden submits an application to the U.S. Patent Office for his clever new design for a fencing wire with sharp barbs, an invention that will forever change the face of the American West.
1878 – The Manhattan Savings Bank in New York City was robbed of over $3,000,000. The robbery was credited to George “Western” Leslie even though there was not enough evidence to convict him. His two associates were convicted.
1891 – D. B. Downing, inventor, was awarded a patent for the street letter box or mailbox.
1893 – Hurricane hit the US coast between Savannah, Ga., and Charleston, SC.
1904 – First New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes biggest in United States of America, and one of the biggest in world. It ran from the Brooklyn Bridge uptown to Broadway at 145th Street with a fare of one nickel.
1906 – The first authenticated pass completion in a pro game is recorded when George (Peggy) Parratt of Massillon threw a completion to Dan (Bullet) Riley in a victory over a combined Benwood-Moundsville team, according to the NFL.
1907 – Union Station in Washington, D.C., opened.
1913 – Pres. Wilson said US will never attack another country.
1916 – First published reference to “jazz” appears (Variety).
1917 – Jascha Heifetz made his debut at Carnegie Hall in New York City.
1917 – Twenty thousand women marched in a suffrage parade in New York.
1918 – World War I: French 4th Army to the west of the US 1st Army catches up to American front line. This is made possible by the success of two U.S. divisions, the 2nd and 36th, successfully capturing Blanc Mont Ridge in the Champagne and pursuing the enemy to the River Aisne.
1919 – The Axeman of New Orleans claimed last victim. The Axeman was a serial killer active in New Orleans, Louisiana (and surrounding communities, including Gretna, Louisiana), from May 1918 to October 1919. The murderer’s identity remains unknown to this day.(2014)
1922 – Navy League of U.S. sponsors first annual celebration of Navy Day to focus public attention on the importance of the U.S. Navy.
1925 – Inventor Fred Waller of New York was awarded a patent for water skis. He marketed it as “Dolphin Akwa-Skees.”
1927 – The first newsreel Fox Movie-tone News, featuring sound, was released in New York.
1936 – Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
1938 – DuPont announces its new synthetic fiber will be called “nylon.”
1940 – The 1939 New York World’s Fair officially closed.
1941 – The Chicago Daily Tribune dismissed the possibility of war with Japan, editorializing, “She cannot attack us. That is a military impossibility. Even our base at Hawaii is beyond the effective striking power of her fleet.”
1941 – In a broadcast to the nation on Navy Day, President Franklin Roosevelt declared: “America has been attacked, the shooting has started.” He did not ask for full-scale war yet, realizing that many Americans were not yet ready for such a step.
1941 – “Everything I Love”, by Buddy Clark, was recorded on the Okeh label.
1941 – World WarII: Holocaust: Nazis directed the evacuation of the gypsy ghetto in Belgrade.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Starachowice, Poland, Nazi soldiers separated out weak Jews from the strong. The strong were sent to work and the weak were sent to the extermination camp at Treblinka.
1942 – World War II: At Guadalcanal, the Japanese halt the offensive. They have suffered 3500 casualties with entire units being destroyed. Both sides are exhaustive by the heavy day and night fighting, but the initiative has passed to the Americans.
1943 – World War II: First women Marines report for duty on West Coast, Camp Pendleton.
1944 – World War II: On land, the US 7th Division (part of US 24th Corps) captures Buri Airfield. Meanwhile, the Tacloban airstrip, on Leyte, becomes operational.
1946 – First commercially-sponsored television program airs (Geographically Speaking, sponsored by Bristol-Myers). It ran until December 1, 1946.
1946 – Bozo the Clown was created as a character by Alan W. Livingston and was released as a trademark for Capitol Records. It was produced for a children’s storytelling record-album and illustrative read-along book set and the first of its kind was titled Bozo at the Circus.
1947 – “This is Nora Drake” premiered on NBC radio. Nora Drake was a career-oriented professional who could have had her pick of many eligible bachelors. She had the misfortune to fall in love with Dr. Ken Martinson, who — in a moment of haste — put her aside to marry nurse Peggy King.
1947 – “You Bet Your Life“, with Groucho Marx, premieres on ABC radio. The show was transferred to TV on NBC in 1950 and lasted until 1961.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “I Get Ideas” by Tony Martin, “The World is Waiting for the Sunrise” by Les Paul & Mary Ford and “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: The 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing recorded its 50,000th combat sortie of the war.
1954 – President Eisenhower offered aid to S. Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem.
1954 – Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
1954 – Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio divorce after DiMaggio allegedly struck Monroe following the filming of her famous “skirt scene” in The Seven-Year Itch. The scene, showing Monroe laughing as a blast of air lifts her skirt, infuriated DiMaggio, who felt it was exhibitionist.
1954 – Disneyland, Walt Disney’s first television series, premieres on ABC. The one-hour show, introduced by Tinkerbell, presented a rotating selection of cartoons, dramas, movies, and other entertainment.
1956 – “Ain’t Got No Home” by Clarence Henry was released. It was his first hit.
1961 – The first Saturn launch vehicle made an unmanned flight test from Cape Canaveral.
1961 – The USS Constellation, a Kitty Hawk-class supercarrier, was commissioned with Captain T. J. Walker in command.
1962 – “Monster Mash” by Bobby Pickett & the Crypt Kickers topped the charts .
1962 – Major Rudolph Anderson of the US Air Force became the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane was shot down in Cuba by a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile.
1962 – Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union finally result in a plan to end the two-week-old Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey. It was later learned that JFK had secretly offered this option to Khrushchev.
1964 – “Come See About Me” was released by the Supremes.
1964 – Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as “A Time for Choosing“.
1964 – Singers Sonny and Cher wed. Cher wore bell-bottoms.
1966 – Women Marines serve in WestPac – first time west of Hawaii.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Sir with Love” by Lulu, “How Can I Be Sure” by The Young Rascals, “Expressway to Your Heart” by Soul Survivors and “I Don’t Wanna Play House” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1970 – The US Controlled Substance Act became effective. It classified marijuana, heroin and LSD as “schedule I,” drugs with no accepted medical use.
1972 – The US Noise Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-574, allowed states or US territories to set noise-control laws.
1972 – Federal legislation established the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in the Bay Area of San Francisco. The park was expanded from 870 acres in 1948 to 6,300 acres by 1972.
1973 – “Midnight Train to Georgia” by Gladys Knight & the Pips topped the charts.
1973 – The Canyon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite strikes in Fremont County, Colorado.
1974 – Karen Silkwood dies in a vehicle accident on the way to a meeting with a reporter concerning atomic leaks by Kerr- McGee.
1974 – ABC is credited with the first televised showing of the box office hit, “The Poseidon Adventure“.
1979 – “Rise” by Herb Alpert topped the charts.
1981 – The National Labor Relations Board withdrew recognition of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for an illegal strike by its members.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler, “Islands in the Stream” by Kenny Rogers & Dolly Parton, “All Night Long (All Night)” by Lionel Richie and “Lady Down on Love” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – Washington State’s Rueben Mayes sets college football record of 357 yards rushing in a single game. That record remains the Pacific Ten Conference record. He is 14th in All-Conference yardage with 3519 yards.
1984 – Mrs. Barbara Lehman, sponsor, broke the champagne bottle on the bow of the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) during the christening ceremony at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company.
1984 – “I Just Called to Say I Love You” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1985 – World Series: Kansas City Royals (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (3)
1985 – Billy Martin was fired by Yankees for the 4th time.
1985 – In the movie “Back to the Future”, this is the date that the time machine was set for the return of the DeLorean. The train used to launch the car was successful and the car landed on the bridge over “Eastwood Ravine” at 11:00 a.m.
1985 – Hurricane Juan ravaged US Gulf states and east coast and 49 died.
1986 – World Series: New York Mets (4) vs Boston Red Sox (3).
1986 – The US Congress gave new life to the 1863 False Claims Act when it promised big payouts for citizens who blew the whistle on firms that defrauded the government.
1988 – Ronald Reagan decides to tear down the new U.S. Embassy in Moscow because of Soviet listening devices in the building structure.
1989 – After a 10 day delay due to the Loma Prieta earthquake, World Series game 3 is played in San Francisco. The Oakland A’s defeated the San Francisco Giants, 13-7.
1990 – “Black Cat” by Janet Jackson topped the charts.
1990 – Death claimed bandleader Xavier Cugat at age 90.
1990 -Elliott Roosevelt (80), son of FDR, died.
1990 – The US Senate gave final legislative approval to a record package of taxes and spending cuts, hours after the House approved the plan.
1991 – The Minnesota Twins won the World Series, beating the Atlanta Braves 1-0 in the bottom of the 10th inning in the seventh and deciding game.
1992 – US Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmate Terry M. Helvey for being gay. The national debate about gays in the military started resulting in the “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton presented Congress with the administration’s new plan for healthcare reform in a ceremony at the Capitol.
1993 – Brush fires raged across Southern California, destroying several hundred homes.
1994 – The U.S. Justice Department announces that the U.S. prison population has topped one million for the first time in American history. The figure–1,012,851 men and women were in state and federal prisons–did not even include local prisons, where an estimated 500,000 prisoners were held, usually for short periods.
1994 -First trip to Syria by an American president in 20 years, Pres. Clinton met with Syrian President Hafez Assad before heading to Jerusalem to meet with Israeli officials.
1995 – Gloria Estefan becomes the only pop artist to receive a call from the Pope to perform.
1995 – MASS SHOOTING: William Kreutzer, US Army sergeant, opened fire on a field of 1300 soldiers. He killed a fellow 82nd Airborne soldier, Major Stephen Badger and wounded several others. Defense lawyers in 1996 pleaded that he suffered from depression. He was convicted of pre-meditated murder on 6/11/96. The next day he was sentenced to death.
1997 – Stock markets around the world crash because of fears of a global economic meltdown. The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummets 554.26 points to 7,161.15. For the first time, the New York Stock Exchange activated their “circuit breakers” twice during the day eventually making the controversial move of closing the Exchange early. Finally the stock market shut down for the first time since the 1981 assassination attempt on President Reagan.
1997 – The crew of the Coast Guard Cutter Baranof confiscated two .50-caliber sniper rifles, ammunition and other military supplies that were allegedly to be used in an assassination attempt against Cuban President Fidel Castro. Four Cuban exiles were arrested for illegal possession of firearms after the 46-foot La Esperanza was ordered into Aguadilla, Puerto Rico,
1997 – The U.S. released a redesigned $50 bill.
1997 – Intel Corp bought the chip manufacturing operations of Digital Equipment for $700 million.
1997 – Microsoft argued it should be “free from government interference.”
1998 – The reunion episode “CHiPs ’99” aired for the first time on the cable network TNT.
1998 – Pres. Clinton signed the Curt Flood Act to override the 1922 Supreme Court ruling that exempted baseball from antitrust laws. The new act revoked the exemption only for labor relations.
1999 – The New York Yankees won their second straight World Series sweep, defeating the Atlanta Braves in game four.
1999 – The US federal budget surplus was put at $122.7 billion in 1998, marking the first back-to-back surpluses since the 1950’s.
1999 – The Clinton administration authorized the first direct military training for opponents of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
2001 – The Arizona Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees in game one of the World Series, 9-1.
2001 – In Washington, the search for deadly anthrax widened to thousands of businesses and 30 mail distribution centers.
2001 – Brian Robinson (40) of San Jose became the 1st person to hike the 3 major National Scenic Trails, 7,400 miles in 22 states, in a calendar year.
2002 – World Series: Anaheim Angels (4) vs San Francisco Giants (3). This was Anaheim’s first World Series.
2002 – Emmitt Smith (Dallas Cowboys) became the all-time leading rusher in the NFL when he extended his career yardage to 16,743. He achieved the record in his 193rd game. He also scored his 150th career touchdown. The previous record was held by the late Walter Payton.
2003 – A new US stamp was dedicated to Theodore Geisel, creator of Dr. Seuss.
2003 – As many as 40 civilians and U.S. soldiers were killed in a flurry of terrorist bombings in Baghdad. Among the targets was the headquarters of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
2003 – Bank of America Corp. announced it had agreed to buy FleetBoston Financial Corp. The deal created the second largest banking company in the U.S.
2004 – World Series: Boston Red Sox (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (0). This was winning their first championship since 1918. It was viewed as the breaking of the Curse of the Bambino and it was a sweep!!!
2005 – New York City’s subway system marked its 100th anniversary.
2005 – Pres. Bush visited Florida and took a look at the damage from Hurricane Wilma as the death toll rose to 14. Some 2 million homes and businesses were still without power.
2005 – Exxon Mobil Corp., the world’s largest publicly traded oil company, said high oil and natural-gas prices helped its third-quarter profit surge almost 75 percent to $9.92 billion, the largest quarterly profit for a U.S. company ever.
2006 – In Missouri the St Louis Cardinals won the World Series by beating the Detroit Tigers 4-2 in game 5, claiming their first MLB crown in 24 years.
2006 – The old US Mint in San Francisco held a ceremonial minting of silver coins. A portion of the proceeds of sales from silver dollars and $5 gold pieces will help turn the 132-year-old structure into a history museum.
2006 – In Sacramento, Ca., Deputy Jeffrey Mitchell (38) was shot and killed following an early morning traffic stop. A van matching the one he stopped was found that evening in the Consumnes River with two dead occupants.
2007 – Despite significant dissent among some of its workers, United Auto Workers members narrowly passed a four-year contract agreement with Chrysler LLC.
2007 – The Bush administration and NY state cut a deal to create a new generation of super-secure driver’s licenses, which would also allow illegal immigrants to get a version.
2008 – Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska has been convicted of lying about free home renovations and other gifts he received from a wealthy oil contractor. The Senate’s longest-serving Republican, Mr. Stevens was found guilty on all seven counts of making false statements on Senate financial documents.
2008 – World Series: Philadelphia Phillies (4) vs Tampa Bay Rays (1).
2008 – An FBI spokesman said 642 arrests in 29 cities were made last week during a 3-day sting operation, Operation Cross Country II, focusing on people who forced teens into prostitution. 100 adults were arrested in the San Francisco Bay Area.
2009 – The NY Times reported that the brother of Afghan President Hamid Karzai has been getting regular payments from the Central Intelligence Agency.
2009-A jury in the British Virgin Islands convicted dive shop owner David Swain of drowning his wife, Shelley Tyre (46) during a 1999 scuba-diving trip in what prosecutors called a near perfect murder.
2010 – US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, Congo DRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Obama officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
2010 – Wells Fargo admits it made mistakes in 55,000 real estate foreclosure cases.
2010 – Judge Kimba Wood of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York shuts down filesharing service LimeWire.
2011 – The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Texas Rangers 10-9 in the 11th Inning of Game 6 of the World Series. The win forces Game 7, also to occur in St. Louis.
2012 – Senior Secret Service agent Rafael Prieto (48) committed suicide. It was the result of the prostitution scandal in April involving thirteen Secret Service agents and officers during a presidential trip to Colombia.
2015 – Northrop Grumman, the developer of the Air Force’s current bomber, the B-2, beats out the Boeing-Lockheed Martin team and is awarded the Pentagon contract to build a fleet of stealth planes known as the Long Range Strike Bomber (LRS-B).
1728 – James Cook, British sea captain and explorer.
1811 – Isaac Singer, American inventor of the sewing machine.
1854 – William Alexander Smith, founded the Boys’ Brigade an interdenominational Christian youth organization.
1858 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States of America (1901-1909).
1872 – Emily Post, American author famous for writing on etiquette. (d. 1960)
1914 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet.
1920 – Nanette Fabray, American actress, singer, and dancer.
1922 – Ruby Dee , is an American actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist, activist, and widow of actor Ossie Davis.
1925 – Warren Christopher, American politician and diplomat, 63rd United States Secretary of State (d. 2011)
1926 – H. R. Haldeman, American diplomat, 4th White House Chief of Staff (d. 1993)
1932 – Dolores Moore (d.2000) was an infielder who played from 1953 through 1954 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League.
O’BRIEN, GEORGE H., JR.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Company H, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, October 27th, 1952. Entered service at: Big Spring, Tex. Born: 10 September 1926, Fort Worth, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a rifle platoon commander of Company H, in action against enemy aggressor forces. With his platoon subjected to an intense mortar and artillery bombardment while preparing to assault a vitally important hill position on the main line of resistance which had been overrun by a numerically superior enemy force on the preceding night, 2d Lt. O’Brien leaped from his trench when the attack signal was given and, shouting for his men to follow, raced across an exposed saddle and up the enemy-held hill through a virtual hail of deadly small-arms, artillery, and mortar fire. Although shot through the arm and thrown to the ground by hostile automatic-weapons fire as he neared the well-entrenched enemy position, he bravely regained his feet, waved his men onward, and continued to spearhead the assault, pausing only long enough to go to the aid of a wounded marine. Encountering the enemy at close range, he proceeded to hurl handgrenades into the bunkers and, utilizing his carbine to best advantage in savage hand-to-hand combat, succeeded in killing at least three of the enemy. Struck down by the concussion of grenades on three occasions during the subsequent action, he steadfastly refused to be evacuated for medical treatment and continued to lead his platoon in the assault for a period of nearly 4 hours, repeatedly encouraging his men and maintaining superb direction of the unit. With the attack halted he set up a defense with his remaining forces to prepare for a counterattack, personally checking each position, attending to the wounded and expediting their evacuation. When a relief of the position was effected by another unit, he remained to cover the withdrawal and to assure that no wounded were left behind. By his exceptionally daring and forceful leadership in the face of overwhelming odds, 2d Lt. O’Brien served as a constant source of inspiration to all who observed him and was greatly instrumental in the recapture of a strategic position on the main line of resistance. His indomitable determination and valiant fighting spirit reflect the highest credit upon himself and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
COOLIDGE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: East of Belmont sur Buttant, France, October 27th, 1944. Entered service at: Signal Mountain, Tenn. Birth: Signal Mountain, Tenn. G.O. No.: 53, July 1945. Citation: Leading a section of heavy machineguns supported by one platoon of Company K, he took a position near Hill 623, east of Belmont sur Buttant, France, on 24 October 1944, with the mission of covering the right flank of the 3d Battalion and supporting its action. T/Sgt. Coolidge went forward with a sergeant of Company K to reconnoiter positions for coordinating the fires of the light and heavy machine-guns. They ran into an enemy force in the woods estimated to be an infantry company. T/Sgt. Coolidge, attempting to bluff the Germans by a show of assurance and boldness called upon them to surrender, whereupon the enemy opened fire. With his carbine, T/Sgt. Coolidge wounded two of them. There being no officer present with the force, T/Sgt. Coolidge at once assumed command. Many of the men were replacements recently arrived; this was their first experience under fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge, unmindful of the enemy fire delivered at close range, walked along the position, calming and encouraging his men and directing their fire. The attack was thrown back. Through 25 and 26 October the enemy launched repeated attacks against the position of this combat group but each was repulsed due to T/Sgt. Coolidge’s able leadership. On 27 October, German infantry, supported by 2 tanks, made a determined attack on the position. The area was swept by enemy small arms, machinegun, and tank fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge armed himself with a bazooka and advanced to within 25 yards of the tanks. His bazooka failed to function and he threw it aside. Securing all the hand grenades he could carry, he crawled forward and inflicted heavy casualties on the advancing enemy. Finally it became apparent that the enemy, in greatly superior force, supported by tanks, would overrun the position. T/Sgt. Coolidge, displaying great coolness and courage, directed and conducted an orderly withdrawal, being himself the last to leave the position. As a result of T/Sgt. Coolidge’s heroic and superior leadership, the mission of this combat group was accomplished throughout foiur days of continuous fighting against numerically superior enemy troops in rain and cold and amid dense woods.
*OLSON, ARLO L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 1 5th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Crossing of the Volturno River, Italy, October 27th, 1943. Entered service at: Toronto, S. Dak. Birth: Greenville, lowa. G.O. No.: 71, 31 August 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 13 October 1943, when the drive across the Volturno River began, Capt. Olson and his company spearheaded the advance of the regiment through thirty miles of mountainous enemy territory in thirteen days. Placing himself at the head of his men, Capt. Olson waded into the chest-deep water of the raging Volturno River and despite pointblank machine-gun fire aimed directly at him made his way to the opposite bank and threw two hand-grenades into the gun position, killing the crew. When an enemy machine-gun 150 yards distant opened fire on his company, Capt. Olson advanced upon the position in a slow, deliberate walk. Although 5five German soldiers threw hand-grenades at him from a range of five yards, Capt. Olson dispatched them all, picked up a machine pistol and continued toward the enemy. Advancing to within fifteen yards of the position he shot it out with the foe, killing nine and seizing the post. Throughout the next thirteen days Capt. Olson led combat patrols, acted as company No. 1 scout and maintained unbroken contact with the enemy. On 27 October 1943, Capt. Olson conducted a platoon in attack on a strongpoint, crawling to within twenty-five yards of the enemy and then charging the position. Despite continuous machine-gun fire which barely missed him, Capt. Olson made his way to the gun and killed the crew with his pistol. When the men saw their leader make this desperate attack they followed him and overran the position. Continuing the advance, Capt. Olson led his company to the next objective at the summit of Monte San Nicola. Although the company to his right was forced to take cover from the furious automatic and small arms fire, which was directed upon him and his men with equal intensity, Capt. Olson waved his company into a skirmish line and despite the fire of a machinegun which singled him out as its sole target led the assault which drove the enemy away. While making a reconnaissance for defensive positions, Capt. Olson was fatally wounded. Ignoring his severe pain, this intrepid officer completed his reconnaissance, Supervised the location of his men in the best defense positions, refused medical aid until all of his men had been cared for, and died as he was being carried down the mountain.
*PERKINS, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 101st Infantry, 26th Division. Place and date: At Belieu Bois, France, October 27th,1918. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 34, W.D. 1919. Citation: He, voluntarily and alone, crawled to a German “pill box” machinegun emplacement, from which grenades were being thrown at his platoon. Awaiting his opportunity, when the door was again opened and another grenade thrown, he threw a bomb inside, bursting the door open, and then, drawing his trench knife, rushed into the emplacement. In a hand-to-hand struggle he killed or wounded several of the occupants and captured about twenty-five prisoners, at the same time silencing seven machineguns.
BONNAFFON, SYLVESTER, JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company G, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth:——. Date of issue: 29 September 1893. Citation: Checked the rout and rallied the troops of his command in the face of a terrible fire of musketry; was severely wounded.
BROWN, JEREMIAH Z.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 148th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Rimmersburg, Pa. Birth: Clarion County, Pa. Date of issue: 22 June 1896. Citation: With 100 selected volunteers, assaulted and captured the works of the enemy, together with a number of officers and men.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Connecticut. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Denning served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
EMBLER, ANDREW H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 59th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Boydton Plank Road, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: New York. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 19 October 1893. Citation: Charged at the head of two regiments, which drove the enemy’s main body, gained the crest of the hill near the Burgess house and forced a barricade on the Boydton road.
GEORGE, DANIEL G.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. (Real name is William Smith. ) Born: 1840, Plaistow, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: George served on board U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Hamilton served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Harley served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th,1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
HOUGHTON, EDWARD J.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Mobile, Ala. Accredited to: Alabama. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Houghton served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
KING, ROBERT H.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Place: Plymouth, N.C. Born: 1845, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: King served on board the U.S. Picket Boat No. 1, in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and then made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
MURPHY, DANIEL J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Lowell, Mass. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 47th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).
NOLAN, JOHN J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 8th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Georgia Landing, La., October 27th,1862. Entered service at: Nashua, N.H. Born: 24 June 1844, Ireland. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Although prostrated by a cannon shot, refused to give up the flag which he was carrying as color bearer of his regiment and continued to carry it at the head of the regiment throughout the engagement.
ORR, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 187th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Bennington, N.Y. Birth: Holland, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: This soldier and two others, voluntarily and under fire, rescued several wounded and helpless soldiers.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 7th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Jonesville, Mich. Born: 9 August 1842, Niagara County, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 26th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.), while outside his lines far from his comrades.
SMITH, JOSEPH S.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel and Commissary of Subsistence, 2d Army Corps. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Wiscasset, Maine. Date of issue: 25 May 1892. Citation: Led a part of a brigade, saved two pieces of artillery, captured a flag, and secured a number of prisoners.
THAXTER, SIDNEY W.
Rank and organization: Major, 1st Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Bangor Maine. Birth: Bangor, Maine. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily remained and participated in the battle with conspicuous gallantry, although his term of service had expired and he had been ordered home to be mustered out.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Wilkes served on board U.S. Picket Boat No. 1 in action, October 27th, 1864, against the Confederate Ram, Albemarle, which had resisted repeated attacks by our steamers and had kept a large force of vessels employed in watching her. The picket boat, equipped with a spar torpedo, succeeded in passing the enemy pickets within twenty yards without being discovered and them made for the Albemarle under a full head of steam. Immediately taken under fire by the ram, the small boat plunged on, jumped the log boom which encircled the target and exploded its torpedo under the port bow of the ram. The picket boat was destroyed by enemy fire and almost the entire crew taken prisoner or lost.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 1st U.S. Sharpshooters. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., October 27th, 1864. Entered service at: Ionia, Mich. Birth: lonia, Mich. Date of issue: 29 January 1896. Citation: Went to the assistance of a wounded and overpowered comrade, and in a hand-to-hand encounter effected his rescue.
National Caramel Month
National Massage Therapy Week
Carmels. You know those little squares of delectable candy, nuggets of pure enjoyment wrapped in cellophane. M-m-m-m-m!!!!!!! It is absolutely wonderful on popcorn, in candy bars, in ice cream and you can put it into coffee to make it taste better too!
It is difficult to know when humans first craved the sugar that ultimately gave us these delectable morsels. We do not know when people started eating sugar in its various forms to give them that extra bit of energy and satisfied their sweet tooth cravings. Many believe that the earliest sweet treat was honey—simple to acquire and needs no processing. One of the early bible references of what could be “a candy” is described in the account of the meeting with Joseph before he identified himself to his brothers. In preparation for the meeting . Genesis 43:11 “ And their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Take some of the best fruits of the land in your vessels and carry down a present for the man—a little balm and a little honey, spices and myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds.” The Arabs and the Chinese also prepared candies the same way by dipping fruits and nuts in honey.
By the early nineteenth century, Americans used sugar beet juice to make new candies. Still, hard candies were the primary confections. By the mid-1800s, there were nearly 400 American candy manufacturers that were producing primarily the hard candies often sold in general stores—they were cheap to make, easy to transport, and did not spoil easily. Caramels were made at small confectioneries and were not mass produced at first. Milton Hershey began his chocolate empire not with chocolate, but with caramel.
The best caramels are sweet and just a bit chewy. Caramel manufacturers use the term “short” to characterize a caramel that is too soft (perhaps too moist) or “long” for a caramel that is quite chewy. Caramels are similar to other candies in that the basis for candy is generally sugar, com syrup, and water. Caramels are different in that they also contain milk and fat. Hard candies are plastic or malleable at high temperature, but glass-like (clear and easily cracked) when cooled, caramels are plastic at both high temperature and room temperature. Caramels are softer because they have been cooked to a lower temperature than hard candies (to approximately 245°F [118°C], or the firm ball stage) and contain more moisture. Because of this soft texture, caramel may be extruded at lower temperatures, inserted into a mold, and put into a variety of other candies or candy bars to add flavor, binding, and texture.
What makes a caramel a caramel? The action of the heat on the milk solids, in conjunction with the sugar ingredients, imparts a typical caramel flavor to these sweets. Essentially, the entire batch of candy undergoes a chemical reaction referred to by chemists as the Maillard reaction. In a conventional caramelization process, the sugar syrups are cooked to the proper moisture level, added to the fat and milk, heated, and then allowed to caramelize (develop the characteristic flavor and brown color) in a browning kettle. The confectioner can watch the chemical reaction take place in the kettle as the batch turns from a milky white color to rich brown. The nose can smell the slight burning of the milk solids, too—and a pleasant odor it is. If cooked even further, to about 290°F (143°C), the mixture essentially becomes toffee, a hard-crack caramelized candy.
There is no question that chocolate is a wonderful ingredient in candies, but what would a Snickers bar, a caramel apple, or Milk Duds be without caramel? If not used in a bar, the caramel batch may be poured into a pan, scored, and cut apart in squares for plain consumption. Vanilla caramels, the type most frequently eaten, are flavored with vanilla; chocolate caramels have a bit of chocolate added to the batch, turning it a deep brown color. However, maple caramels, those with molasses and brown sugar, and cream caramels are other delicious varieties.
The good news is that the confectioneries are making a come-back. They will be making smaller batches and all sorts of gourmet treats and flavors. Watch for them close to you!!!
Yield: about 60 caramels
Prep and cook time: 1 hour (not including time to cut and wrap caramels, save extra time for that)
1 cup butter, unsalted
1 cup light corn syrup (11.5 oz)
1 14-oz. can sweetened condensed milk (or substitute two cups half and half or light cream. For shorter cooking time use sweetened condensed milk .
2 1/4 cup brown sugar (14.5 oz.)
1 tsp. vanilla
heavy, 3-qt. sauce pan, or 6-qt. if doubling the recipe, which I always do (having a heavy pan is important, if your pan is too thin it can heat the caramel unevenly and make it separate)
parchment paper (how I love parchment paper, i’ve never found anything that sticks to this stuff)
8×8 or 9×9 pan (or large jelly-roll cookie sheet if doubling recipe)
wax paper for wrapping caramels
- Every time before using a candy thermometer, clip a candy thermometer onto a pan full of cold water and bring it to a boil (make sure the thermometer is not touching the bottom of the pan). I cheat on a lot of things, but I never cheat on this. Boiling water should read 212°. Once the water is boiling, make note of any difference in your reading, and adjust your reading accordingly when you make the candy (for example, if thermometer reads 210° in boiling water instead of 212°, then take caramel off at 242° instead of 244°).
- Line pan with parchment paper, even up the sides. Prepare any apples, pretzels, or other things you’ll be dipping. Chop any nuts or prepare any candy you’ll be sprinkling on top.
- Cut butter into smaller, even sized cubes for even melting. Melt over low in sauce pan.
- Carefully add sugar by pouring it into the center of the pan. If any sugar crystals stick to side of pan, push them down with a damp pastry brush so they do not crystallize the entire batch and make you want to cry. Stir slowly until well combined with melted butter.
- Add and mix in corn syrup and sweetened condensed milk (or cream).
- Cook and stir on medium for one minute, then to med.-high until boiling. You want to change temperatures slowly so you don’t shock the candy. Once boiling, clip on your candy thermometer (again, don’t let it touch the bottom of the pan). By the time your caramel is boiling, if you have been stirring well, you should have the butter fully blended into the caramel mixture, not separated.
- Reduce heat to about medium, adjusting so that you keep a moderate, steady boil. Stir frequently. I’m serious about the stirring. If you let your caramel go too long without stirring, you’ll end up with a separated, greasy batch of caramel. No good.
- Temperature does not raise at a steady rate, so watch thermometer closely. If you have any doubts about the accuracy of your thermometer, periodically do a test by dropping a little in cold water. When your thermometer reaches thread stage (230–233°), take out any caramel that you would like to use as dip. When thermometer reaches late soft ball stage (234–240°), dip in a few apples for caramel apples. To keep your caramel from slipping and sliding, make sure you have washed your apple thoroughly in very warm water. This both slightly cooks the skin of your apple and removes all the wax from the apple. The wax is part of what makes the caramel slide off. Also, your technique of using slightly cool caramel is actually what most of the pros do!”
- When thermometer reaches 244°, remove caramel from heat (this is low firm ball stage; reaching this stage from boiling takes me about 30 minutes with sweetened condensed milk and longer with cream, though I have had a reader reach it in less time, so watch closely).
- Stir in vanilla. If dipping, start immediately. If making caramels, pour the caramel into the prepared pan. Either way, take care not to burn yourself, this stuff is so so hot.
- Allow to cool for several hours and use a butter knife or kitchen shears to cut pieces (UPDATE: a clever reader suggested a pizza cutter, another preferred preferred her trusty Santou knife, lightly buttered, thanks Susan!). Wrap in wax paper. Or to save on cutting time, just leave the whole batch out on the counter with a knife next to it and watch it gradually disappear.
And, for handy reference, here is the candy temperature list:
I Corinthians 16:13-14
13 Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit you like men, be strong.
14 Let all your things be done with charity.
“It’s simply a matter of doing what you do best and not worrying about what the other fellow is going to do.”
~ John R. Amos
pejorative pih-JOR-uh-tiv, adjective:
1. Tending to make or become worse.
2. Tending to disparage or belittle.
3. A belittling or disparaging word or expression.
Pejorative is derived from the past participle of Late Latin pejorare, “to make worse, to become worse,” from Latin pejor, “worse”.
1407 – Mobs attacked the Jewish community of Cracow.
1492 – Columbus’ fleet anchored on Ragged Island Range, Bahamas.
1492 – Lead pencils were first used.
1682 – William Penn accepted the area around Delaware River from Duke of York.
1749 – The Georgia Colony reversed itself and ruled slavery to be legal.
1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns. It had declared its opposition to the Coercive Acts, British measures and called for civil disobedience.
1774 – Minutemen were selected in the American colonies. The terms militia and minutemen are sometimes used interchangeably, but there was a difference between them.
1776 – Exactly one month to the day after being named an agent of a diplomatic commission by the Continental Congress, Benjamin Franklin sets sail from Philadelphia for France, with which he was to negotiate and secure a formal alliance and treaty.
1787 – “Federalist Papers,” a series of articles written under the pen name of Publius by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, were published and called for ratification of Constitution.
1795 – Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo) between Spain and US was signed.Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession).
1813 – Invading Canada from Lake Champlain, American General Wayne Hampton advanced down the Chateaugay River against defenses established by General Sir George Prevost..
1825 – The Erie Canal opens – passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie. It was the first major man-made waterway in America.
1858 – The rotary motion-washing machine was patented by Hamilton E. Smith of Pittsburgh, PA.
1861 – Telegraph service inaugurated in US (end of Pony Express.)
1863 – The Football Association is formed .
1864 – Civil War: “Bloody Bill” Anderson, Confederate guerilla, is killed. He was a notorious Confederate guerrilla leader and was killed in Missouri in an ambush.
1876 – President Grant sent federal troops to SC. The soldiers assigned to South Carolina belonged to the 7th Cavalry, Lt. Col. (Brevet Maj. Gen.) George Armstrong Custer’s regiment, which had recently fought the Cheyennes on the Great Plains.
1881 – Wyatt Earp, his two brothers and “Doc” Holliday showed up at the OK Corral in Tombstone, Arizona, to disarm the Clanton and McLaury boys, who were in violation of a ban on carrying guns in the city limits. The Earp brothers facedoff against the Clanton-McLaury gang. Billy Clanton and Tom and Frank McLowery were killed; Earp’s brothers were wounded. This was the notorious “Shootout at the OK Corral.”
1889 – Marine Barracks was established at Naval Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1900 – After four years of work the first section of the New York subway opened.
1911 – World Series: Philadelphia Athletics (4) vs New York Giants (2).
1912 – By an executive order Delaware was represented by the first star and Delaware was represented by the top stripe of the American flag. Delaware was the first of the 13 colonies to ratify the Constitution, on Dec. 7, 1787.
1916 – Margaret Sanger was arrested for obscenity (advocating birth control).
1917 – WW I: Battle of Caporetto: Italy suffers a catastrophic defeat at the hands of Germany and Austria during the First World War.
1921 – In first successful test, a compressed air, turntable catapult, launches an N-9 seaplane. This type of catapult was later installed on battleships, replacing turret-mounted platforms for launching aircraft.
1922 – LCDR Godfrey Chevalier makes first landing aboard a carrier (USS Langley) while underway off Cape Henry, Virginia.
1928 – “Peter Pan” by James Barrie was copyright registered.
1928 – The Pickwick Stage System filed documents to form a passenger airplane service connecting SF, San Diego and Chicago. It planned to use a fleet of tri-motored, 12 passenger Bach monoplanes.
1934 – Cole Porter recorded his own composition titled, “You’re the Top”.
1935 – 12-year-old Judy Garland performed on Wallace Berry’s radio show on NBC Radio Network. Judy sang “Broadway Rhythm” and was a hit. She came back two weeks later to sing “Zing! Went The Strings Of My Heart.”
1936 – At Boulder Dam the first of the five power units to be installed under the initial plan went into operation.
1938 – Du Pont named its new synthetic fiber “nylon.”
1939-World War II: Holocaust: Polish Jews were forced into obligatory work service.
1940 – ParaMarines organize at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Two Marine parachute operations were planned during the war in the Pacific, but were both cancelled.
1940 – The P-51 Mustang makes it maiden flight.
1941 – US savings bonds went on sale.
1942 – World War II: In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands during the Guadalcanal Campaign, the U.S. aircraft carrier Hornet. is heavily damaged and will sink tomorrow. In addition, the USS South Dakota shot down a record 32 enemy planes in the same battle.
1942 – On the second day in the Battle of Henderson Field. Mitchell Paige (1918-2003), US Marine platoon sergeant, held his position against Japanese forces at Guadalcanal as all his men were killed or wounded, until reinforcements arrived. He received a battlefield commission and later a Medal of Honor.
1944 – US 7th Army continues to fight for St. Die.
1944 – On land, elements of US 24th Corps unsuccessfully attack Japanese positions on Catmon Hill, north of Dulag.
1944 – The Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world’s largest sea engagement. Japan lost 26 capital ships.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf ends. The battle was won by American forces and brought the end of the Pacific phase of World War II into sight.
1944 – Special Task Air Group One makes last attack in month long demonstration of TDR drone missile against Japanese shipping and islands in the Pacific. Of forty-six missiles fired, twenty-nine reached their target areas.
1944 – Future Vice-president, and later, President Harry Truman publicly denies ever having been a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
1948 – Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania. This was the worst recorded industrial air pollution accident in US history. The Donora incident, which killed twenty and left hundreds seriously injured and dying, was caused by fluoride emissions from the Donora Zinc Works and steel plants owned by the US Steel
1949 – President Truman signed a measure raising the minimum wage from 40 cents to 75 cents an hour.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Goodnight Irene” by The Weavers, “All My Love” by Patti Page, “Harbor Lights” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Tony Alamo) and “I’m Moving On” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1951 – Rocky Marciano defeats Joe Louis at Madison Square Garden.
1952 – NBC-TV premiered “Victory at Sea”.
1954 – Chevrolet introduced the V-8 engine.
1955 – Rebel Without a Cause, starring James Dean, opens. Dean, age 24, had died after a car accident several weeks earlier. Although Dean appeared in only three movies during his brief career, he made a deep impression on American audiences.
1955 – “The Village Voice” was first published. “The Village Voice” is a free weekly newspaper in New York City featuring investigative articles, analysis of current affairs and culture, arts reviews and events listings for New York City.
1957 – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – Pan American Airways makes the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York to Paris. On the very first flight, which made a stopover in Newfoundland, there were 111 passengers, the largest number ever to board a single regularly scheduled flight. Coach fares were $272, about the same as one would expect to pay for a piston-engine flight across the Atlantic.
1962 – JFK warned Russia that the US would not allow Soviet missiles to remain in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev sent note to JFK offering to withdraw his missiles from Cuba if US closed its bases in Turkey. The offer was rejected.
1963 – “Sugar Shack” by Jimmy Gilmer & the Fireballs topped the charts.
1963 – USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619) launches first Polaris A-3 missile from a submerged submarine, off Cape Canaveral, Florida.
1965 – The Beatles are appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBEs).
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by Four Tops, “96 Tears” by ?(Question Mark) & The Mysterians, “Walk Away Renee” by The Left Banke and “Open Up Your Heart” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1966 – A fire breaks out on board the 42,000-ton U.S. aircraft carrier Oriskany in the Gulf of Tonkin. The accident occurred when a locker filled with night illumination magnesium flares burst into flame. The fire spread quickly through most of the ship, resulting in 35 officers and eight enlisted men killed and a further 16 injured.
1967 – The Shah of Iran crowned himself and his Queen after 26 years on the Peacock Throne.
1968 – “Hey Jude” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – Illinois state and the city of Chicago recognized Jean Baptiste Pointe de Sable (1745-1818), a Haitian-born sea captain, as the founder of Chicago.
1970 – “Doonesbury” comic strip debuts in 28 newspapers.
1970 – President Nixon signed Executive Order 11566 ordered the establishment of the Consumer Information Center (CIC).
1970 – Congress passed Public Law 91-508, the US Bank Secrecy Act, which required that banks maintain records of wire transfers of more than $3000 and report cash transactions of more than $10,000.
1971 – Memphis minister Al Green earns a gold record for “Tired of Being Alone“.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Then Came You” by Dionne Warwicke & Spinners, “You Haven’t Done Nothin” by Stevie Wonder, “You Ain’t Seen Nothing Yet/Free Wheelin’” by Bachman-Turner Overdrive and “I See the Want to in Your Eyes” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1977 – The experimental space shuttle Enterprise successfully landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.
1978 – President Carter signed the Ethics in Government Act. It provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law in 1987.
1982 – Steve Carlton became first pitcher to win 4 Cy Young awards. He joins Walter Johnson and Willie Mays as the only players to be voted MVP or Cy Young winner 10 or more years apart.
1984 – “Baby Fae” receives a heart transplant from a baboon Dr. Leonard L. Bailey performed the first baboon-to-human heart transplant, replacing a 14-day-old infant girl’s defective heart with a healthy, walnut-sized heart of a young baboon at Loma Linda University Medical Center in California. “Baby Fae” lived for twenty-one days with this animal heart.
1985 – “Saving All My Love for You” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 8%. In Miami, an investor who had suffered heavy stock market losses shot and killed a brokerage manager and wounded his personal broker, then turned the gun on himself.
1989 – Washington, D.C. attorney Paul Tagliabue was tapped by NFL team owners to be the league’s new commissioner, succeeding Pete Rozelle.
1990 – The U.S. State Department issued a warning that terrorists could be planning an attack on a passenger ship or aircraft. This came just five years after the Achille Lauro.
1990 – Wayne Gretzky became the first NHL player to reach 2,000 points.
1991 – Former Washington Mayor Marion Barry arrived at a federal correctional institution in Petersburg, VA, to begin serving a six-month sentence for cocaine possession.
1992 – General Motors Corp. Chairman Robert Stempel resigned after the company recorded its highest losses in history.
1993 – Deborah Gore Dean was convicted of 12 felony counts of defrauding the U.S. government and lying to the U.S. Congress. Dean was a central figure in the Reagan-era HUD scandal.
1994 – Jordan and Israel sign a peace treaty.
1995 – The US House passed, 227-to-203, a Republican balanced-budget bill that would shrink the federal government, cut taxes and return power to the states.
1996 – In the US baseball World Series the NY Yankees won their first World Series since 1978, defeating the Atlanta Braves 3-2 in game six.
1996 – Federal prosecutors cleared Richard Jewell as a suspect in the Olympic park bombing.
1997 – Basketball player Charles Barkley is charged with aggravated battery and resisting arrest after throwing Jorge Lugo through a plate glass window in a dance club in Orlando, Florida.
1997 – The Florida Marlins became the youngest franchise to win the World Series with a 3-2 victory in the eleventh inning over the Cleveland Indians in the seventh and final game.
2000 – The successor to the highly successful PlayStation, the PlayStation 2 was released.
2000 –World Series: New York Yankees (4) vs New York Mets (1).
2001 – President George W. Bush signs the Patriot Act, an anti-terrorism law drawn up in response to the attacks on the Pentagon and World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The USA Patriot Act included Section 215 that gave the FBI authority to obtain library and bookstore records without evidence of wrongdoing. It allowed the government to detain aliens without public acknowledgement.
2001 – It was announced that Fort Worth’s Lockheed Martin won a defense contract for $200 billion over 40 years. The contract, for the “joint strike fighter,” was the largest defense contract in history.
2001 – Anthrax was found in the offices of 3 lawmakers in the Longworth House Office building on Capitol Hill. The Supreme Court was shut down to test for anthrax spores.
2003 – U.S. Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz escaped a rocket attack on a heavily guarded Baghdad hotel.
2003 – Flames stoked by powerful winds raced through parts of Southern California, torching more than 208,000 acres, destroying 500 homes and causing at least eleven deaths. A major radar facility was forced to close and many flights in the area were cancelled.
2004 – AT&T Wireless is officially acquired by Cingular Wireless.
2004 – Spacecraft Cassini flew within 745 miles of Titan providing scientists with new images of the Saturn largest moon.
2004 – Low cost airline ATA filed for bankruptcy.
2005 – World Series: Chicago White Sox (4) vs Houston Astros (0). The Chicago White Sox defeat the Houston Astros in the World Series to win their first championship since 1917 .
2005 – The US accepted a Japanese proposal for the relocation of a US air station on Okinawa.
2005 – In Florida the death toll from Hurricane Wilma rose to 10. Officials estimated agriculture damage at $1 billion.
2005 – Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ignited international outrage when he said Israel should be wiped off the map.
2006 – U.S. President George Bush signed a bill authorizing construction of nearly 700 miles of fencing on the U.S. border with Mexico to better control illegal immigration.
2006 – The Esperanza Fire was a wind-driven arson-caused wildfire that was started in a river wash near Cabazon, California, west of Palm Springs, California. By the third day it had burned over 61 square miles. Five firefighters were killed defending a vacant, partially-built home that was destroyed by the fire: Jason McKay, Jess McLean, Daniel Hoover-Najera, Mark Loutzenhiser, and Pablo Cerda.
2006 – A big snowstorm in Colorado dumped 20 inches cutting power to thousands.
2006 – In Hoxie, Kansas, Sheridan County sheriff James Johnson (54) was shot and killed as he interviewed Steven Paul Reitcheck (36) about possible commitment to a mental health facility. A deputy then shot and killed Reitcheck.
2007 – A federal jury in Kansas City, Mo., decided that Lisa Montgomery, convicted of killing expectant mother Bobbie Jo Stinnett and cutting the baby from her womb, should receive the death penalty.
2007 – Thousands of southern Californians returned to their neighborhoods as wildfires charred some 800 square miles. At least seven people had died in the fires including four in a migrant camp. Seven other deaths were reported from various causes following evacuation.
2008 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: At the University of Central Arkansas in Conway a shooting left two students dead and a third person wounded.
2009 – In Afghanistan, A UH-1 and an AH-1 Cobra helicopter collided in flight before sunrise over the southern province of Helmand, killing four American troops. Another helicopter went down in the west of the country after leaving the scene of a firefight, killing ten Americans, including seven service members and three Drug Enforcement Administration agents.
2010 – BMW is recalling 150,000 vehicles in the U.S. due to potential fuel pump failure.
2010 – The United States has fallen to a new low of 22nd place in Transparency International’s rating of the least corrupt nations, noting various financial scandals and a lack of regulation leading to power being bought.
2011 – In California, Oakland police disperse Occupy Oakland protesters, using tear gas and rubber bullets and making numerous arrests.
2011 – The United Nations states that the world population will reach seven billion people by October 31, 2011.
2013 – The city council of Dearborn, Michigan voted 4-3 to became the first US city to officially implement all aspects of Sharia Law. The new law could see citizens stoned for adultery or having a limb amputated for theft. Lesser offenses, such as drinking alcohol or abortion, could result in flogging and/or caning. In addition, the law imposes harsh laws with regards to women and allows for child marriage. (Before It’s News 10/29/2013)
1803 – Joseph Hansom, British architect and inventor of a low enclosed horse-drawn coach, which was called the Hansom cab.
1854 – Charles Post, American cereal entrepreneur.
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian Communist leader.
1901 – Mahalia Jackson, American gospel singer.
1916 – François Mitterrand, French statesman.
1919 – Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran.
1946 – TV personality Pat Sajak (Wheel of Fortune)
1947 – U.S. Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., wife of former U.S. President Bill Clinton
1945 – Actress Jaclyn Smith
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Battery F, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, October 26th, 1952. Entered service at: East Lansing, Mich. Born: 29 October 1929, Hartford, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an artillery forward observer of Battery F, in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26 October 1952. When his observation post in an extremely critical and vital sector of the main line of resistance was subjected to a sudden and fanatical attack by hostile forces, supported by a devastating barrage of artillery and mortar fire which completely severed communication lines connecting the outpost with friendly firing batteries, 2d Lt. Skinner, in a determined effort to hold his position, immediately organized and directed the surviving personnel in the defense of the outpost, continuing to call down fire on the enemy by means of radio alone until his equipment became damaged beyond repair. Undaunted by the intense hostile barrage and the rapidly-closing attackers, he twice left the protection of his bunker in order to direct accurate machine gun fire and to replenish the depleted supply of ammunition and grenades. Although painfully wounded on each occasion, he steadfastly refused medical aid until the rest of the men received treatment. As the ground attack reached its climax, he gallantly directed the final defense until the meager supply of ammunition was exhausted and the position overrun. During the three hours that the outpost was occupied by the enemy, several grenades were thrown into the bunker which served as protection for 2d Lt. Skinner and his remaining comrades. Realizing that there was no chance for other than passive resistance, he directed his men to feign death even though the hostile troops entered the bunker and searched their persons. Later, when an enemy grenade was thrown between him and 2 other survivors, he immediately threw himself on the deadly missile in an effort to protect the others, absorbing the full force of the explosion and sacrificing his life for his comrades. By his indomitable fighting spirit, superb leadership, and great personal valor in the face of tremendous odds, 2d Lt. Skinner served to inspire his fellow marines in their heroic stand against the enemy and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Major, 308th Bombardment Group, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over South China Sea, October 26th, 1944. Entered service at: San Angelo, Tex. Birth: Fort Worth, Tex. G.O. No.: 14, 4 February 1946. Citation: He piloted a B-24 bomber in a one-plane strike against a Japanese convoy in the South China Sea on the night of 26 October 1944. Taking the enemy force of twelve ships escorted by at least two destroyers by surprise, he made one bombing run at 600 feet, scoring a near miss on one warship and escaping without drawing fire. He circled. and fully realizing that the convoy was thoroughly alerted and would meet his next attack with a barrage of antiaircraft fire, began a second low-level run which culminated in two direct hits on a large tanker. A hail of steel from Japanese guns, riddled the bomber, knocking out two engines, damaging a third, crippling the hydraulic system, puncturing one gasoline tank, ripping uncounted holes in the aircraft, and wounding the copilot; but by magnificent display of flying skill, Maj. Carswell controlled the plane’s plunge toward the sea and carefully forced it into a halting climb in the direction of the China shore. On reaching land, where it would have been possible to abandon the staggering bomber, one of the crew discovered that his parachute had been ripped by flak and rendered useless; the pilot, hoping to cross mountainous terrain and reach a base. He continued onward until the third engine failed. He ordered the crew to bail out while he struggled to maintain altitude. and, refusing to save himself, chose to remain with his comrade and attempt a crash landing. He died when the airplane struck a mountainside and burned. With consummate gallantry and intrepidity, Maj. Carswell gave his life in a supreme effort to save all members of his crew. His sacrifice, far beyond that required of him, was in keeping with the traditional bravery of America’s war heroes.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division. Place and date: At Grand-Pre, France, October 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Harrison, N.J. Born: S August 1895, Newark, N.J. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.
Rank and organization: Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 29 April 1877, Washington, D.C. Appointed from: District of Columbia. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle at the junction of the Cadacan and Sohoton Rivers, Samar, Philippine Islands, 17 November 1901. In command of the columns upon their uniting ashore in the Sohoton Region, Col. Porter (then Capt. ) made a surprise attack on the fortified cliffs and completely routed the enemy, killing 30 and capturing and destroying the powder magazine, 40 lantacas (guns), rice, food and cuartels. Due to his courage, intelligence, discrimination and zeal, he successfully led his men up the cliffs by means of bamboo ladders to a height of 200 feet. The cliffs were of soft stone of volcanic origin, in the nature of pumice and were honeycombed with caves. Tons of rocks were suspended in platforms held in position by vines and cables (known as bejuco) in readiness to be precipitated upon people below. After driving the insurgents from their position which was almost impregnable, being covered with numerous trails lined with poisoned spears, pits, etc., Col. Porter led his men across the river, scaled the cliffs on the opposite side, and destroyed the camps there. He and the men under his command overcame incredible difficulties and dangers in destroying positions which, according to reports from old prisoners, had taken 3 years to perfect, were held as a final rallying post, and were never before penetrated by white troops. Col. Porter also rendered distinguished public service in the presence of the enemy at Quinapundan River, Samar, Philippine Islands, on 26 October 1901.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1852, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Supply, Flannagan rescued from drowning David Walsh, seaman, of Le Havre, France, October 26th, 1878.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born. 1853 Montreal, Canada. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Second award. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Kearsarge, at Hampton Roads, Va., October 26th, 1881, Sweeney jumped overboard and assisted in saving from drowning a shipmate who had fallen overboard into a strongly running tide.
Halloween Safety Tips
Never, ever go into a strangers house or even ring their door for treats unless your parents are with you and say that it’s okay. There are some people in life that aren’t very nice to kids and you have to be careful. Always make sure that your mom or dad is within sight when you go out trick-or-treating.
Be careful when you cross a street. Make sure to look in both directions and make sure that there are no cars coming. If you have a little brother or sister with you, take their hand and help them get across the street, too. If the street has a stop light, wait until the cross walk light tells you that it’s okay to cross now, but still check before you cross, look both ways.
If you are an older kid or young teen, and going out with friends, make sure that your parents know where you are going and who you are going with. This may seem like a pain but they are your parents and they love you. They just want you to be safe.
If you can drive and are taking a bunch of friends to a party, make sure that you have enough gas to get there. It is best to have at least a half a tank. You don’t want to run out on a dark street, all alone, or run into any kind of street blockage without enough to go around the obstacle.
If your parents give you a curfew, be home when they say. It builds trust between you and them and they are doing it for your own safety. If you are going to be late, call them and let them know. Have a mutual code word so that they can know, in casual conversation, whether you are okay of not.
Vandalism is never cool! Throwing eggs at cars and houses is not cool. Someone has to clean it up and it could be you, if you get caught. You can also be arrested and punished as a juvenile. So, don’t think that it’s fun only if you can get away with it. It’s never the right thing to do! Think about how you would feel if someone did that to your house and how bad it would make you feel. Be the strong one in the group.
Hurting animals is never acceptable behavior! Some people use Halloween as an excuse to hurt cats and that is just wrong! Not only is it illegal in most places to hurt or torture animals and punishable by law, you should never hurt a helpless living thing.
Parents of trick-or-treating kids can get so caught up in the fun themselves that they might forget some simple safety ideas that could keep everyone out of trouble. Having a fun and safe Halloween will make it all worthwhile! Kids love Halloween! They get to dress up and get free candy! What a perfect holiday! Give your kids some precious Halloween memories that they’ll have for life.
If you take your kids to a sponsored event, like a safe Halloween thrown by your church or community center, make sure to keep an eye on them at al times. Even though it seems less dangerous, you are still in a strange environment full of people that you may or may not know. All it takes is a minute with your back turned to find your child gone.
Cell phones are everywhere now! Everyone seems to have one, they can be so
affordable. Make sure that your child has a pre-programmed cell phone with him/her if they go out on Halloween night! Make sure that all important numbers are already there and ready for use.
Parents of trick-or-treating kids can get so caught up in the fun themselves that they might forget some simple safety ideas that could keep everyone out of trouble. Having a fun and safe Halloween will make it all worthwhile.
1 Corinthians 13:12 King James Version (KJV)
12 For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.
“The supreme accomplishment is to blur the line between work and play.”
~ Arnold J. Toynbee
boodle (BOOD-l) noun
An illegal payment, as in graft.
To take money dishonestly, especially from graft.
[From Dutch boedel (property).]
2137 B.C. – Chinese Royal astronomers, Ho and Hsi, were executed after not predicting a solar eclipse that caused panic in the streets of China.
1415 – An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had outnumbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle.
1621 – Gov. Bradford of US Plymouth colony disallowed sport on Christmas Day.
1760 – George III becomes King of Great Britain. He was the king throughout the American Revolution.
1764 – John Adams, future US president, wed Abigail Smith. He called her “a constant feast.” Their marriage lasted 54 years.
1671 – Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus, one of Saturn’s moons. Iapetus is the third largest and one of the stranger of the 18 moons of Saturn.
1812 – The U.S. frigate United States captured the British vessel Macedonian during the War of 1812.
1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
1825 – The Erie Canal, America’s first man-made waterway, was opened, linking the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River.
1854 – The Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade).
1864 – Civil War: Skirmishes took place at Mine Creek, KS. About six miles south of Trading Post, where the Marais de Cygnes engagement had occurred, the brigades of Col. Frederick W. Benteen and Col. John F. Phillips, of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton’s Provisional Cavalry Division, overtook the Confederates as they were crossing Mine Creek.
1865 – The U.S.S. Republic was carrying 59 passengers and 20,000 $20 gold coins from New York to New Orleans when it sank in a hurricane off Savannah, Ga. All the passengers boarded life boats and got off alive. In 2003 explorers found the ship.
1870 – First U.S. trademark is awarded — to the Averill Chemical Paint Company of New York City. It was later declared unconstitutional and annulled.
1870 – The Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Md., opened and a horse named Preakness won the first stakes race on the program. 3 years later Pimlico honored that horse by naming a race for him.
1875 – Tchaikovsky’s First Piano Concerto premiered in Boston.
1892 – Bridle bit was invented by Brown, L. F. Patent No. 484,994
1906 – US inventor Lee de Forest patented the “Audion,” a 3-diode amplification valve which proved a pioneering development in radio and broadcasting.
1917 – The Bolshevik Revolution commences (according to the Julian calendar, which Russia used at the time of the Revolution. On the Gregorian calendar, the date was November 7).
1918 – The Canadian steamship Princess Sophia hit the reef off the coast of Alaska. Nearly 400 people died.
1923 – The Teapot Dome scandal came to public attention as Senator Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, subcommittee chairman, revealed the findings of the past 18 months of investigation. His case would result in the conviction of Harry F. Sinclair of Mammoth Oil, and later Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall, the first cabinet member in American history to go to jail.
1924 – Airship, USS Shenandoah (ZR-1), completes round trip transcontinental cruise that began on 7 October.
1929 – Former US Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall was convicted of accepting a $100,000 bribe in connection with the Elk Hills Naval Oil Reserve in California. This conviction was in addition to the one he received for accepting kickbacks in conjunction with the Wyoming Teapot Dome Scandal.
1930 – First football game in Atlantic City Convention Center.
1930 – First scheduled transcontinental air service began.
1931 – The George Washington Bridge, linking New York City and New Jersey, opened to traffic. It was completed at a cost of $59 million and 12 lives. The US Post Office featured a commemorative stamp. It was described as the most beautiful bridge in the world.
1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1937 – Radio’s “Stella Dallas” made her debut on the NBC Red network.
1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people”, warning that it leads down a “primrose path to hell”.
1939 – George Kaufman and Moss Hart’s “Man Who Came to Dinner,” premiered in New York City.
1940 – “Cabin in the Sky” opened for the first of 156 shows. “Taking a Chance on Love” is the one big hit that came from the musical.
1940 – Col. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (1877-1970), commander of the 369th Infantry of New York, was promoted to brigadier general. In 1955 his son became the first black brigadier general in the Air Force.
1940 – Committee on the Participation of Negroes in the National Defense Program met with President Roosevelt.
1940 – National Newspaper Publishers Association founded.
1940 – Spingarn Medal presented to Dr. Louis T. Wright for his civil rights leadership and his contributions as a surgeon.
1941- World War II: Holocaust: sixteen-thousand Jews were massacred in Odessa, Ukraine.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal began.
1943 – Benny Carter and his orchestra recorded “Poinciana.”
1944 – World War II: The USS Tang under Richard O’Kane (the top American submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship’s own malfunctioning torpedo.
1944 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets. Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao.
1944 – World War II: In eastern France near Bruyeres Sgt. Clyde Lee Choate (d.2001 at 81) destroyed a German Mark IV tank with two bazooka shots while under heavy fire. Choate later received the Medal of Honor and served in the Illinois Legislature (1947-1967).
1945 – World War II: Japanese surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
1945 – World War II: The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan’s surrender to the Allies.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “That Lucky Old Sun” by Frankie Laine, “Someday” by Vaughn Monroe and “Slipping Around” by Margaret Whiting & Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: U.N. forces approached to within 34 miles of the Yalu River, the Chinese Manchurian border, as the Chinese Communist Forces launched their First Phase Offensive around this date.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: The 7th Infantry Division battled the Chinese near Kumwha and suffered 2,000 casualties during the Battle of Sniper Ridge.
1954 – President Eisenhower conducted the first televised Cabinet meeting.
1955 – The microwave oven was introduced in Mansfield, Ohio at the corporate headquarters of the Tappan Company. The manufacturer put a $1,200 price tag the new stove that could cook eggs in 22 seconds, bacon in 90 seconds.
1957 – The movie musical “Pal Joey,” starring Frank Sinatra, Rita Hayworth and Kim Novak, was released.
1957 – Mob boss Albert Anastasia, the “Lord High Executioner” of “Murder Inc.,” was shot to death in a barber shop inside the Park Sheraton Hotel in New York.
1958 – U.S. Marines withdrew from Beirut, Lebanon. They had been sent in on July 25, 1958, to protect the nation’s pro-Western government.
1958 – “It’s All In The Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.
1960 – First atomic reactor for research & development, Richland WA.
1960 – The Bulova Watch Company introduced its high-tech Accutron electronic wrist watch.
1960 – Cuba nationalized all remaining US businesses.
1962 – Author John Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for Literature “for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.”
1962 – Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba.
1964 – The Rolling Stones were introduced to American audiences on “The Ed Sullivan Show” on CBS-TV.
1964 – Minnesota Viking Jim Marshall runs 66 yards in the wrong direction for a safety. He scooped up a fumble against the 49ers, carried it 66 yards into the end zone and then jubilantly tossed the ball toward the stands. Trouble was, it was the wrong end zone.
1964 – China detonates its first nuclear device.
1966 – Operation Sea Dragon logistics interdiction began. North Vietnamese regulars and Viet Cong guerrillas were not exempt from this time-honored adage.
1969 – “I Can’t Get Next to You” by the Temptations topped the charts.
1970 – George Blanda replaced Daryle Lamonica, the Oakland Raiders injured quarterback. Blanda tossed three touchdown passes (19, 43 and 44 yards), taking the Raiders to an easy victory over the Pittsburgh Steelers, 31-14.
1971 – The United Nations admitted China as a member, ousting the Nationalist Chinese government of Taiwan.
1971 – The TV show “The Electric Company” premiered providing an advance for children raised on Sesame Street.
1971 – Roy Disney dedicates Walt Disney World.
1972 – The Washington Post reports that White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman was the fifth person to control a secret cash fund designed to finance illegal political sabotage and espionage during the 1972 presidential election campaign (see also Watergate scandal) .
1972 – The first female FBI agents were hired.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Angie” by The Rolling Stones, “Midnight Train to Georgia” by Gladys Knight & The Pips, “Keep on Truckin’” by Eddie Kendricks and “Ridin’ My Thumb to Mexico” by Johnny Rodriguez all topped the charts.
1973 – President Nixon put U.S. troops on high alert for just under a week to show the Soviet Union that America would not allow it to send forces to aid Arab states fighting Israel. The Yom Kippur War ends.
1974 – The single, “Skin Tight“, by The Ohio Players, went gold.
1974 – US Air Force fired its first ICBM. The Space and Missile Systems Organization (SAMSO) successfully launched a Minuteman I from a C-5A cargo aircraft.
1975 – “Bad Blood” by Neil Sedaka topped the charts.
1976 – Gov. Wallace of Alabama granted full pardon to Clarence Norris, the last known survivor of nine Scottsboro Boys who were convicted in a 1931 rape.
1979 – In Michigan US District Court Judge John Feikens, in Glover v. Johnson, ruled in favor granting women prisoners a constitutional right to court access and to parity in educational and vocational training.
1980 – “Woman in Love” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross, “Start Me Up” by The Rolling Stones, “Step by Step” by Eddie Rabbitt and “Never Been So Loved (In All My Life)” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1983 – Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters were executed in a coup d’état. Approximately 1,800 US Marines and Army Rangers, assisted by 300 soldiers from six Caribbean nations, invaded this island at the order of President Reagan, who said the action was needed to protect US citizens there.
1984 – John Cougar Mellencamp reached the two-million-dollar sales mark with his album, “Uh-Huh” (1:15:51). Also, country group Alabama went to the three-million-dollar mark with two albums this day: “Feels So Right” (9 Videos) and “Mountain Music“. (39:36)
1986 – Michael Sergio parachuted into Shea Stadium during game 6 of the World Series. In December he was fined $500 and sentenced to 100 hours of community service.
1986 – The New York Mets defeat the Boston Red Sox due to Bill Buckner’s famous error in Game 6 of the World Series and go on to win the championship two days later.
1987 – World Series: Minnesota Twins (4) vs St. Louis Cardinals (3) It was the first World Series win for Minnesota.
1988 – First lady Nancy Reagan, addressing a U.N. committee, said the United States was responsible for its own drug problem, and charged that every American drug user was “an accomplice to every criminal act” committed by drug barons.
1988 – Two units of the Ku Klux Klan and eleven individuals are ordered to pay $ 1 million to African Americans who were attacked during a brotherhood rally in Forsythe County, GA .
1988 – ABC News reports on potbellied pygmy porkers’ popularity as pets.
1990 – James ‘Buster’ Douglas, who had knocked out the undefeated Mike Tyson on Feb. 10, 1990 to win the world heavyweight title, was floored by Evander Holyfield in the third round this day in Las Vegas.
1993 – Colonel Irene Trowell-Harris, from the New York Air National Guard, is promoted to Brigadier General on this date; thus becoming the National Guard’s first African American woman to hold general officer rank.
1994 – Susan Smith reported to police in Union, S.C., that her two young boys had been taken in a carjacking. Nine days later, she confessed she had rolled her car into a lake, drowning the children.
1995 – “Victor/Victoria,” opened at Marquis Theater NYC for 738 performances.
1995 – John J. Sweeney was elected AFL-CIO president. He soon pledged to his 13 million members “We will not be a rubber stamp of the Democrats.”
1995 – A commuter train slammed into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
1997 – The Million Woman March was in Philadelphia to revitalize black families and communities drew an estimated 300,000 to one million people.
1998 – Thousands came to Oklahoma City for the ground-breaking ceremony of a memorial to the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building.
1999 – Intel introduced its code-named Coppermine chip as the new Pentium III with speeds up to 500 megahertz.
1999 – Payne Stewart (42), a professional golfer, was killed with two agents and two pilots when their Lear Jet crashed near Mina, South Dakota. The plane had flown for hours on autopilot before it crashed.
2001 – Windows XP is officially released.
2001 – A State Dept. mail worker in Virginia was diagnosed with the inhalational form of anthrax.
2001 – The U.S. Senate, by a 90-1 vote, approved a final package of anti-terror reforms designed to help law enforcement monitor and detain suspected terrorists.
2001 – The Ford Motor Co. reached a settlement that would cost as much as $2.7 billion to replace a $4 ignition device prone to cause stalling.
2001 – Operation Green Quest was the name given to a Treasury Dept. led task force headed by the Customs Service to crack down on financial sponsors of terrorism.
2002 – Democratic U.S. Sen. Paul Wellstone of Minnesota and seven others were killed in the crash of a small plane near the Eveleth-Virginia Municipal Airport, about 180 miles northeast of Minneapolis.
2002 – In Utah two F-16 fighter jets collided during training and one pilot survived. The second pilot’s body was found Oct 26.
2003 – The Old Fire was a wildfire in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. It was one of at least a dozen wildfires burning around Southern California at this time (which included the Cedar Fire, the second largest fire in California history and the largest since 1900 [The Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 is the largest]).
2003 – World Series: Florida Marlins (4) vs New York Yankees (2).
2003 – In Afghanistan CIA officers William Carlson, 43, of Southern Pines, N.C., and Christopher Glenn Mueller, 32, of San Diego were ambushed and killed near the village in Shkin in Paktika province while tracking terrorists.
2003 – Florida State’s Bobby Bowden became the winningest coach in major college football history with his 339th victory as the Seminoles beat Wake Forest 48-24.
2004 – Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington awakens, with a minor eruption of steam, smoke, and ash.
2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8th.
2004 – The Georgia Supreme Court unanimously threw out the state’s hate crimes law, calling it overbroad and “unconstitutionally vague.” BTW, “hate speech” is a violation of the first amendment.
2005 – In the World Series, the Chicago White Sox and the Houston Astros began playing Game 3, which turned into a 14-inning marathon that did not end until well after midnight with Chicago winning 7-5.
2005 – The US State Dept. said all US passports will be implanted with computer chips starting in Oct 2006.
2006 – A US federal judge ruled that Indiana’s do-not-call list applies to political telemarketers in a House race.
2006 – New Jersey’s Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples deserve the same privileges as heterosexuals, but left it up to lawmakers to define marriage.
2006 – Florida executed Danny Rolling (52), an infamous serial killer. He was executed for butchering five college students in Gainesville in 1990.
2007 – The US government issued a flurry of product-safety recalls affecting hundreds of thousands of Chinese-made children’s toys and jewelry amid fresh concerns about lead paint.
2007 – The death toll from the California wildfires of October 2007 rises to 12 as four bodies are discovered near the Mexican border.
2007 – The United States imposes economic sanctions against the Iranian Revolutionary Guard for its support of terrorism.
2008 – Anne Pressly (26), an Arkansas KATV anchorwoman, died in Little Rock several days after she didn’t answer her wake-up call and was found brutally beaten in her home.
2009 – The New York Yankees, baseball’s biggest spenders, finally cashed in with their first pennant in six years, beating the Los Angeles Angels 5-2 in Game 6 of the AL championship series behind the savvy pitching of Andy Pettitte.
2009 – In California a fire broke out in the Santa Cruz Mountains between Morgan Hill and Sant Cruz. The Loma Fire covered 485 acres and was only 20% contained. The Loma Fire was fully contained on Oct 27.
2010 – Sony stops selling the original cassette Walkman.
2010 – The trial of the alleged killer of Chandra Levy, Ingmar Guandique of El Salvador, begins in Washington D.C.
2011 – Police arrest seventy-five people outside Oakland City Hall in California while clearing the campsite of the Occupy Oakland protest.
2011 – The last of the United States’ nine-megaton B53 warheads, formerly the most powerful nuclear weapons in the country’s nuclear arsenal, is disassembled near Amarillo, Texas, having been in service since 1962.
2012 – Hurricane Sandy heads towards The Bahamas after making landfall in Cuba and Jamaica.
2012 – A New York Police Department officer, 6-year employee Gilberto Valle III along with an unnamed co-conspirator, is charged with allegedly conspiring to cross state lines and kidnap, torture, cook, and eat women (at least 100 names and pictures, some with physical descriptions, were found on his computer).
2013 – The U.S. Navy has announced that it has turned over its decommissioned carrier, the USS Forrestal, for scrap. The Navy’s first super-carrier launched in 1954 and was in service for an eventful 4 decades, was sold to All Star Metals for one cent.
1825 – Johann Strauss, Viennese composer.
1838 – Georges Bizet, French composer.
1881 – Pablo Picasso, Spanish-born Cubist painter and sculptor.
1888 – Richard Byrd, American polar explorer and first to reach North Pole.
1892 – Leo G. Carroll, American actor. He was best known as the frustrated banker haunted by the ghosts of George and Marion Kerby (sometimes erroneously spelled “Kirby”), in the 1950s television series Topper (1953–1956)
1912 – Minnie Pearl, American comedienne.
1940 – Basketball coach Bobby Knight
1941 – Ann Tyler, American author.
1941 – Pop singer Helen Reddy
GIUNTA, SALVATORE A
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Lunga Area. Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on October 24th and October 25th, 1942. Born: 4 November 1916, Buffalo, N.Y. Accredited to: New Jersey. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry in action against enemy Japanese forces, above and beyond the call of duty, while serving with the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. While the enemy was hammering at the Marines’ defensive positions, Sgt. Basilone, in charge of two sections of heavy machineguns, fought valiantly to check the savage and determined assault. In a fierce frontal attack with the Japanese blasting his guns with grenades and mortar fire, one of Sgt. Basilone’s sections, with its guncrews, was put out of action, leaving only two men able to carry on. Moving an extra gun into position, he placed it in action, then, under continual fire, repaired another and personally manned it, gallantly holding his line until replacements arrived. A little later, with ammunition critically low and the supply lines cut off, Sgt. Basilone, at great risk of his life and in the face of continued enemy attack, battled his way through hostile lines with urgently needed shells for his gunners, thereby contributing in large measure to the virtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment. His great personal valor and courageous initiative were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
CHOATE, CLYDE L.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Bruyeres, France, October 25th, 1944. Entered service at: Anna, IL . Born: 28 June 1920, West Frankfurt, IL. G.O. No.: 75, 5 September 1945. Citation: He commanded a tank destroyer near Bruyeres, France, on 25 October 1944. Our infantry occupied a position on a wooded hill when, at dusk, an enemy Mark IV tank and a company of infantry attacked, threatening to overrun the American position and capture a command post 400 yards to the rear. S/Sgt. Choate’s tank destroyer, the only weapon available to oppose the German armor, was set afire by two hits. Ordering his men to abandon the destroyer, S/Sgt. Choate reached comparative safety. He returned to the burning destroyer to search for comrades possibly trapped in the vehicle risking instant death in an explosion which was imminent and braving enemy fire which ripped his jacket and tore the helmet from his head. Completing the search and seeing the tank and its supporting infantry overrunning our infantry in their shallow foxholes, he secured a bazooka and ran after the tank, dodging from tree to tree and passing through the enemy’s loose skirmish line. He fired a rocket from a distance of twenty yards, immobilizing the tank but leaving it able to spray the area with cannon and machine gun fire. Running back to our infantry through vicious fire, he secured another rocket, and, advancing against a hail of machine gun and small-arms fire reached a position ten yards from the tank. His second shot shattered the turret. With his pistol he killed two of the crew as they emerged from the tank; and then running to the crippled Mark IV while enemy infantry sniped at him, he dropped a grenade inside the tank and completed its destruction. With their armor gone, the enemy infantry became disorganized and was driven back. S/Sgt. Choate’s great daring in assaulting an enemy tank single-handed, his determination to follow the vehicle after it had passed his position, and his skill and crushing thoroughness in the attack prevented the enemy from capturing a battalion command post and turned a probable defeat into a tactical success.
*EVANS, ERNEST EDWIN
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 August 1908, Pawnee, Okla. Accredited to: Oklahoma. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Bronze Star Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Johnston in action against major units of the enemy Japanese fleet during the battle off Samar on October 25th, 1944. The first to lay a smokescreen and to open fire as an enemy task force, vastly superior in number, firepower and armor, rapidly approached. Comdr. Evans gallantly diverted the powerful blasts of hostile guns from the lightly armed and armored carriers under his protection, launching the first torpedo attack when the Johnston came under straddling Japanese shellfire. Undaunted by damage sustained under the terrific volume of fire, he unhesitatingly joined others of his group to provide fire support during subsequent torpedo attacks against the Japanese and, outshooting and outmaneuvering the enemy as he consistently interposed his vessel between the hostile fleet units and our carriers despite the crippling loss of engine power and communications with steering aft, shifted command to the fantail, shouted steering orders through an open hatch to men turning the rudder by hand and battled furiously until the Johnston, burning and shuddering from a mortal blow, lay dead in the water after three hours of fierce combat. Seriously wounded early in the engagement, Comdr. Evans, by his indomitable courage and brilliant professional skill, aided materially in turning back the enemy during a critical phase of the action. His valiant fighting spirit throughout this historic battle will venture as an inspiration to all who served with him.
YOUNG, CAVALRY M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 3d lowa Cavalry. Place and date: At Osage, Kans., October 25th,1864. Entered service at: Hopeville, Clark County, lowa. Birth: Washington County, Ohio. Date of issue: 4 April 1865. Citation: Gallantry in capturing Confederate Gen. Cabell.
Spinach Lovers Month
Tony Bennett Day
Black Thursday 1929
The Roaring Twenties, the decade that led up to the Great Crash or the Wall Street Crash of 1929,was a time of wealth and excess. The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity, a break with traditions. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, moving pictures and radio continued an upward spiral. Despite the dangers of speculation, many believed that the stock market would continue to rise indefinitely. The market had been on a six-year run that saw the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) increase in value fivefold peaking at 381.17 on September 3, 1929. Shortly before the crash, economist Irving Fisher famously proclaimed, “Stock prices have reached what looks like a permanently high plateau.” The optimism and financial gains of the great bull market were shaken on “Black Thursday”, October 24, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) abruptly fell.
In the days leading up to the crash the market was severely unstable. Periods of selling and high volumes of trading were interspersed with brief periods of rising prices and recovery. Economist and author Jude Wanniski later correlated these swings with the prospects for passage of the Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act, which was then being debated in Congress. This was supposed to protect domestic markets but, in the end, it only made matters worse and lengthened the Depression.
On October 24 (“Black Thursday”), the market lost 11% of its value at the opening bell on very heavy trading. Several leading Wall Street bankers met to find a solution to the panic and chaos on the trading floor. The meeting included Thomas W. Lamont, acting head of Morgan Bank; Albert Wiggin, head of the Chase National Bank; and Charles E. Mitchell, president of the National City Bank of New York. They chose Richard Whitney, vice president of the Exchange, to act on their behalf. With the bankers’ financial resources behind him, Whitney placed a bid to purchase a large block of shares in U.S. Steel at a price well above the current market. As traders watched, Whitney then placed similar bids on other “blue chip” stocks. This tactic was similar to one that ended the Panic of 1907. It succeeded in halting the slide. The Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered, closing with it down only 6.38 points for the day; however, unlike 1907, the respite was only temporary.
This was but the beginning of a very bad time in American History
Romans 8:38-39 King James Version (KJV)
38 For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come,
39 Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
“Meticulous planning will enable everything a person does to appear spontaneous.”
erudite AIR-yuh-dyt; -uh-dyt, adjective:
Characterized by extensive reading or knowledge; learned.
Erudite comes from Latin eruditus, from e-, “out of, from” + rudis, “rough, untaught,” which is also the source of English rude. Hence one who is erudite has been brought out of a rough, untaught, rude state.
1537 – Jane Seymour, the third wife of England’s King Henry VIII, died after giving birth to Prince Edward. Prince Edward became King Edward VI.
1648 – The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years’ War. The Holy Roman Empire was effectively destroyed.
1836 – Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts, received the first U.S. patent for the phosphorous friction safety match.
1851 – William Lassell discovered Ariel and Umbriel, satellites of Uranus.
1861 – The first transcontinental telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express. The first telegram was transmitted from California Chief Justice Stephen Field to U.S. President Abraham Lincoln in Washington.
1861 – Civil War: West Virginia seceded from Virginia. Residents of thirty-nine counties in western Virginia approved the formation of a new Unionist state.
1863 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant arrived in Chattanooga, Tennessee to find the Union Army there starving.
1871 – Anti-Chinese rioting took place in Los Angeles. A mob in Los Angeles hanged sixteen Chinese men and one woman.
1897 – “The New York Journal American” carries the “The Yellow Kid” comic strip. The Yellow Kid was the name of a lead comic strip character that ran from 1895 to 1898.
1901 – Annie Edson Taylor, a 43-year-old widow, became the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel. She made the attempt for the cash award offered, which she put toward the loan on her Texas ranch. The barrel was four and a half feet high and three feet across. She also wore a leather harness and soft cushions were on the inside of the barrel to protect her during her fall. She fell 175 feet. She survived the fall.
1903 – First trotter to run a mile under 2 minutes (Lou Dillon 1:58.1)
1915 – The Marine Corps Recruit Depot was moved from Norfolk, VA and established at Parris Island, South Carolina.
1916 – Industrialist Henry Ford awarded equal pay to women. Ford helped lead American war production with the gigantic facility at Willow Run. Ford mass produced the B-24 Liberator military aircraft from this facility.
1929 – “Black Thursday”, the first day of the stock market crash which began the Great Depression.. In the U.S., investors dumped more than thirteen million shares on the stock market.
1929 – “The Rudy Vallee Show” debuted on NBC radio. The show quickly became a top-rated program, second only to Amos ‘n’ Andy. It introduced to the listening publc such future stars as Eddie Cantor, Kate Smith, Milton Berle and Alice Faye.
1931 – The upper level of the George Washington Bridge opened for traffic between New York and New Jersey.
1931 – Al (Alphonse) Capone, prohibition era Chicago gangster, was sentenced to eleven years in prison for tax evasion.
1938 – The Fair Labor Standards Act became law, establishing the 40-hour work week effective Oct 24, 1940. The Act forbade child labor in factories.
1938 – The minimum wage was set at $.25 per hour. The 1938 Act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
1939 – Benny Goodman records “Let’s Dance.”
1939 – The minimum wage was raised to $.30 per hour.
1939 – Nylon stockings went on sale in the U.S. for the first time to employees at DuPont’s Wilmington, Delaware nylon factory.
1939 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazis required Jews to wear star of David.
1940 – Just a year before Pearl Harbor, Japan eliminated US terms (strike, play ball) from baseball.
1940 – The 40-hour workweek went into effect under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
1940 – World War II: Holocaust: Protestant churches [in Germany] protested against the dismissal of Jewish civil servants.
1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, heavy fighting continues as the Japanese offensive gains some success with the secondary operations infiltrating the left flank of the U.S. positions.
1943 – World War II: Allied aircraft raid Rabaul, New Britain Island, for a second time in two days. One Japanese destroyer and five merchant ships have been sunk in the raids.
1943 – World War II: Elements of the US 5th Army capture Sant’Angelo, Italy. The 34th Division moved up through the mist on this morning and entered the walled and narrow streets without resistance.
1944 – World War II: On land, elements of US First Cavalry land on Samar.
1944 – World War II: The aircraft carrier USS Princeton was sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The US Destroyer Johnson DD-557 sank as well. Survivors were rescued four days later.
1944 – World War II: “Ace of Aces” David McCampbell and one other fighter faced 60 planes approaching US forces. He shot down 9 “Zekes” and with his comrade managed to scatter the remaining 51 planes at the battle of Leyte Gulf. (See Medal of Honor below)
1944 – World War II: US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea sank the 65,000 ton Musashi battleship.
1944 – World War II: US submarines sank the Japanese merchant ship Arisan Maru. No one knew but the ship carried 1,800 American POWs and 1,792 of them died.
1944 – Hitler informs his generals of his intention to launch a surprise counteroffensive against the weakly held Ardennes area of the Allied line.
1944 – World War II: The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku is heavily damaged and will sink on October 25th. She was the sixth and last of the aircraft carriers involved at Pearl Harbor.
1945 – U.S. Secretary of State James Byrnes announced the U.N. charter was in effect. Establishment of the United Nations came less than two months after the end of World War II. The United Nations was created to prevent future wars. Unfortunately, from the time its charter was drafted in the Garden Room of San Francisco’s Fairmont Hotel, there have been over 100 million casualties in nearly 150 wars worldwide.
1945 – Pierre Laval of France and Vidkum Abraham Quisling of Norway were executed. The two men were recognized as the two most prominent collaborators of the Nazis.
1945 – The minimum wage was set at $.40 per hour. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
1947 – Walt Disney testifies to the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent), “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long, Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The term “cold war” was used for the first time. It was in a speech by Bernard Baruch before the Senate War Investigating Committee.
1951 – Dr. Albert W. Bellamy, chief of Radiological Services for the California State Civil Defense, held a press conference to assure state residents that there would be no ill effects from the atomic test explosions near Las Vegas.
1951 – Korean War: The largest air battle of the war occurs as 150 MiGs attack a formation of B-29s escorted by 55 F-84 Thunderjets.
1953 – “St. George and the Dragonet” by Stan Freberg topped the charts.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honky Tonk (Parts 1 & 2)” by Bill Doggett, “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley, “The Green Door” by Jim Lowe and “Hound Dog/Don’t Be Cruel” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1957 – Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam.
1957 -The USAF starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program.
1958 – USS Kleinsmith (APD-134) evacuates U.S. nationals from Nicaro, Cuba. She rescued fifty-six U.S. citizens and three foreign nationals at Nicaro, Cuba, where they were endangered by military operations between the Cuban Army and the Castro rebels.
1959 – Wilt ‘The Stilt’ Chamberlain launched a pro basketball record streak. Not only did he play in 799 consecutive games; he didn’t foul out in one of them.
1959 – “Mack the Knife” by Bobby Darin topped the charts.
1960 – “I Want to Be Wanted” by Brenda Lee topped the charts.
1960 – All remaining American-owned property in Cuba was nationalized. The process of nationalizing all U.S. and foreign-owned property in Cuban had begun on August 6, 1960.
1962 – James Brown recorded “Live at the Apollo, Volume I.”
1962 – The U.S. blockade of Cuba began under a proclamation signed by President Kennedy.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “Do Wah Diddy Diddy” by Manfred Mann, “Last Kiss” by J. Frank Wilson & The Cavaliers, “We’ll Sing in the Sunshine” by Gale Garnett and “I Don’t Care (Just as Long as You Love Me)” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – NASA test pilot Bill Dana flew the final flight of this North American X-15 rocket-propelled research aircraft. It was its 199th flight. In the course of this program, the X-15s spent eighteen hours flying above Mach 1, twelve hours above Mach 2, almost nine hours above Mach 3, almost six hours above Mach 4, one hour above Mach 5 and a few short minutes above Mach 6. The X-15 was celebrated by the scientific community as the most successful research aircraft of all time.
1969 – Richard Burton bought his wife Elizabeth Taylor a 69-carat Cartier diamond ring for $1.5 million. Burton presented the ring to Taylor several days later. (Today – 2011 – this would be worth $8.92 million on the Consumer Price Index.)
1970 – President Richard Nixon asked radio broadcasters to screen songs containing lyrics that promoted drug use.
1970 – Nancy Walker creates Ida Morgenstein role on Mary Tyler Moore Show.
1970 – “I’ll Be There” by the Jackson 5 topped the charts.
1971 – Texas Stadium opens-Cowboys beat Patriots 44-21.
1973 – Art Garfunkel received his first gold album of his solo career for “Angel Clare.”
1973 – On the NJ Turnpike heavy fog caused collisions killing eleven people.
1973 – Yom Kippur War ends.
1973 – John Lennon sued the US government to admit FBI was tapping his phone.
1977 – Veterans Day is observed on the fourth Monday in October for the seventh and last time. (The holiday is once again observed on November 11 beginning the following year.)
1978 – President Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control from commercial aviation and expose the passenger airline industry to market forces.
1979 – Guinness Book of Records presents Paul McCartney with a rhodium disc for selling over 200 million albums.
1980 – David H. Barnett, former CIA agent, pled guilty to spying for the Soviet Union from 1976-1979 while based in Indonesia. He admitted to exposing the identities of 30 US agents.
1980 – The US Court of Appeals in San Francisco ruled that the US Navy has the right to discharge personnel for homosexual conduct.
1980 – The merchant freighter USS Poet departed Philadelphia bound for Port Said, Egypt, with a crew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it was never heard from again. In its marine casualty report, the Coast Guard reported that the “precise time and location of the vessel’s loss are unknown and cannot be determined. The Board determined that the Poet was most likely lost during the period when it encountered the most severe weather conditions between the morning of 25 October and the evening of 26 October.”
1981 – “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do)” by Christopher Cross topped the charts.
1984 – FBI arrested eleven alleged chiefs of the Colombo crime family on charges of racketeering in New York City.
1986 – Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed down by a British court, for the attempted bombing on an El Al flight at Heathrow. After the verdict, the United Kingdom breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, claiming that Hindawi was helped by Syrian officials.
1987 – “Bad” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovy Kind of Love” by Phil Collins, “What’s on Your Mind (Pure Energy)” by Information Society, “Wild, Wild West” by The Escape Club and “Gonna Take a Lot of River” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1989 – Hank Ballard, Bobby Darin, the Four Tops, the Four Seasons, Holland-Dozier-Holland, the Kinks, Carole King and Gerry Goffin, the Platters, the Who, Simon & Garfunkel were inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame.
1990 – The Senate failed to override President Bush’s veto of a major civil rights bill by a vote of 66-to-34, one vote short of the two-thirds majority needed.
1991 – President Bush used a speech in Washington to blast Congress as a “privileged class of rulers.”
1992 – World Series: Toronto Blue Jays (4) vs Atlanta Braves (2). First non-US team to win.
1994 – The Clinton administration announced that the U.S. budget deficit had fallen to $203 billion in the just-completed fiscal year.
1995 – In Cleveland, OH, Chrissie Hynde (Pretenders) sang the national anthem in Game 3 of the World Series.
1995 – New York City declared October 24th Tony Bennett Day.
1995 – “It’s A Mystery” was released by Bob Segar & the Silver Bullet Band. It was their first studio release in four years.
1995 – United Nations marked its 50th anniversary with the largest gathering of world leaders in history.
1996 – In St. Petersburg, Fla., a riot ensued when a white police officer fatally shot a black man during a traffic stop. Some 200 people raged over a 25 sq. block area where at least 17 fires were set.
1997 – In Arlington, VA, former NBC sportscaster Marv Albert was spared a jail sentence after a courtroom apology to the woman he’d bitten during a sexual encounter.
1997 – The US stock market Dow Jones average dropped 132.36 points following the 187 point drop on Oct 23.
1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission.
1998 – A natural gas well exploded in Bryceland, La., and killed 7 workers.
1998 – “The First Night” by Monica topped the charts.
1999 – Pat Buchanan and Donald Trump announced that they would seek the Reform Party nomination for president.
2000 – The space shuttle Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base following the 100th shuttle flight and work on the International Space Station.
2001 – US jets attacked frontline Taliban positions for a fourth day.
2001 – The US government arranged to buy 100 million Cipro tablets from Bayer for 95 cents each. The tablets were for anthrax. Cost was $95 million dollars for a three-year shelf life.
2001 – The U.S. House of Representatives approved legislation that gave police the power to secretly search homes, tap all of a person’s telephone conversation and track people’s use of the Internet. This was a clear violation of the Fourth Amendment.
2001 – The U.S. stamp “United We Stand” was dedicated.
2001 – NASA’s 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft successfully entered orbit around Mars.
2001 – A blizzard hit North Dakota and Minnesota. The ten inches of snow broke a 1926 Grand Forks record. The blizzard killed six people in the Midwest with four dead in North Dakota car crashes.
2002 – Police arrest John Allen Muhammad (41), an Army veteran who recently converted to Islam, and John Lee Malvo (17) near Frederick, Maryland, in connection with the sniper shootings that left ten dead and three wounded.
2002 – Microsoft Corp. and Walt Disney Co. announced the release of an upgraded MSN Internet service with Disney content.
2003 – California won its first anti-spam judgment when a court fined PW Marketing of Los Angeles County, $2 million for sending out millions of unsolicited e-mails telling people how to spam.
2003 – Concorde makes its last commercial flight, bringing the era of airliner supersonic transport to a close, at least for the time being.
2003 – Tiger Woods matched the 55-year-old standard set by Byron Nelson by making the cut in his 113th consecutive PGA Tour event. Se Ri Pak became the first woman to make the two-round cut in a men’s golf tournament since Babe Zaharias in 1945.
2004 – Arizona’s Emmitt Smith broke Walter Payton’s NFL record for 100-yard games rushing with his 78th.
2004 – A plane owned by Hendrick Motorsports crashed in thick fog en route to a NASCAR race in Martinsville, Va., killing all 10 people aboard, including the son, brother and two nieces of owner Rick Hendrick.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma roared into Florida, packing 125 mph winds and lashing rain, inflicting heavy damage to beaches and buildings. Ten deaths were reported and some 2.5 million South Floridians were without power.
2005 – U.S. President George Bush nominated Ben Bernanke, his chief economic adviser, to replace Alan Greenspan as Federal Reserve Board chairman.
2006 – Ohio executed Jeffrey Lundgren (56), a religious cult leader, for the 1989 murder of a family of five followers who were taken one at a time to a barn, bound and shot to death. The youngest was a girl just 7 years old. Lundgren argued at his trial in 1990 that he was prophet of God and therefore not deserving of the death penalty.
2007 – Strong and gusty winds fanning 15 large wildfires in Southern California began to ease after 656 square miles and at least 1,500 homes had been charred.
2007 – Microsoft secured a deal to buy 1.6% of Facebook, a social networking site, for $240 million.
2008 – In Tennessee a sport utility vehicle carrying four cheerleaders collided with an oncoming car on a wet, foggy highway in Scott County, northwest of Knoxville. Three cheerleaders were killed and a fourth died the next day. A passenger in the car also was killed.
2009 – City and state officials in Los Angeles dedicated the new ten -story, $437 million police headquarters.
2010 – Actor Randy Quaid and his wife seek asylum in Canada to avoid prosecution in the United States, claiming they are being “persecuted”.
2010 – The San Francisco Giants beat the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League Championship Series, advancing to the World Series.
2011 – Julian Assange’s whistleblowing website Wikileaks announces that it will stop publishing classified files and will instead focus on fundraising, after a “financial blockade” by numerous American companies reportedly destroys 95% of the site’s revenue.
2012 – The upcoming presidential elections will be observed by election monitors from countries that have their own issues with democracy.
2012 – A former maintenance worker at Creflo Dollar’s World Changers Church International in the Atlanta suburb of College Park, Georgia fatally shot a 39-year-old church volunteer.
2012 – MASS SHOOTING: Three people are shot dead, two are critically wounded, and a gunman is at large after shootings at two locations in the Los Angeles suburb of Downey, California: a business next to a Coca-Cola plant, and a residence.
2014 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: fifteen-year-old freshman student Jaylen Fryberg shot five other students at Marysville Pilchuck High School in Marysville, Washington, fatally wounding four, before fatally shooting himself. Fryberg’s father, Raymond Fryberg, was arrested the following year for illegally purchasing and owning the gun used in the shooting, among other firearms.
2015 – Actress Maureen O’Hara dies in her sleep at her Boise, Idaho, home. “She passed peacefully surrounded by her loving family as they celebrated her life listening to music from her favorite movie, “The Quiet Man.”
2015 – A driver, arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence (DUI), plows into the Oklahoma State Homecoming parade in Stillwater, Oklahoma, killing four people and injuring 34 with eight in critical condition.
1632 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch microscope pioneer.
1788 – Poet Sarah Joseph Hale was born. She wrote the poem “Mary Had A Little Lamb.”
1904 – Moss Hart, American playwright and director.
1926 – Y.A. Tittle, pro football Hall-of-Famer.
1936 – David Nelson, American actor, director, producer. He was the elder son of bandleader/TV actor Ozzie Nelson and singer Harriet Hilliard.
1939 – F. Murray Abraham, American actor.
1961 – Mary Bono, U.S. Congresswoman from California
COOLIDGE, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 141st Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: East of Belmont sur Buttant, France, October 24th to 27th, 1944. Entered service at: Signal Mountain, Tenn. Birth: Signal Mountain, Tenn. G.O. No.: 53, July 1945. Citation: Leading a section of heavy machineguns supported by one platoon of Company K, he took a position near Hill 623, east of Belmont sur Buttant, France, on 24 October 1944, with the mission of covering the right flank of the Third Battalion and supporting its action. T/Sgt. Coolidge went forward with a sergeant of Company K to reconnoiter positions for coordinating the fires of the light and heavy machineguns. They ran into an enemy force in the woods estimated to be an infantry company. T/Sgt. Coolidge, attempting to bluff the Germans by a show of assurance and boldness called upon them to surrender, whereupon the enemy opened fire. With his carbine, T/Sgt. Coolidge wounded two of them. There being no officer present with the force, T/Sgt. Coolidge at once assumed command. Many of the men were replacements recently arrived; this was their first experience under fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge, unmindful of the enemy fire delivered at close range, walked along the position, calming and encouraging his men and directing their fire. The attack was thrown back. Through 25 and 26 October the enemy launched repeated attacks against the position of this combat group but each was repulsed due to T/Sgt. Coolidge’s able leadership. On 27 October, German infantry, supported by two tanks, made a determined attack on the position. The area was swept by enemy small arms, machinegun, and tank fire. T/Sgt. Coolidge armed himself with a bazooka and advanced to within twenty-five yards of the tanks. His bazooka failed to function and he threw it aside. Securing all the hand grenades he could carry, he crawled forward and inflicted heavy casualties on the advancing enemy. Finally it became apparent that the enemy, in greatly superior force, supported by tanks, would overrun the position. T/Sgt. Coolidge, displaying great coolness and courage, directed and conducted an orderly withdrawal, being himself the last to leave the position. As a result of T/Sgt. Coolidge’s heroic and superior leadership, the mission of this combat group was accomplished throughout four days of continuous fighting against numerically superior enemy troops in rain and cold and amid dense woods.
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Air Group 15. Place and date: First and second battles of the Philippine Sea, 19 June 1944. Entered service at: Florida. Born: 16 January 1 910, Bessemer, Ala. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with 2 Gold Stars, Air Medal. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commander, Air Group 15, during combat against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the first and second battles of the Philippine Sea. An inspiring leader, fighting boldly in the face of terrific odds, Comdr. McCampbell led his fighter planes against a force of 80 Japanese carrier-based aircraft bearing down on our fleet on 19 June 1944. Striking fiercely in valiant defense of our surface force, he personally destroyed 7 hostile planes during this single engagement in which the outnumbering attack force was utterly routed and virtually annihilated. During a major fleet engagement with the enemy on October 24th, Comdr. McCampbell, assisted by but l plane, intercepted and daringly attacked a formation of 60 hostile land-based craft approaching our forces. Fighting desperately but with superb skill against such overwhelming airpower, he shot down 9 Japanese planes and, completely disorganizing the enemy group, forced the remainder to abandon the attack before a single aircraft could reach the fleet. His great personal valor and indomitable spirit of aggression under extremely perilous combat conditions reflect the highest credit upon Comdr. McCampbell and the U.S. Naval Service.
O’KANE, RICHARD HETHERINGTON
Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, commanding U.S.S. Tang. Place and date: Vicinity Philippine Islands, October 23rd and October 24th, 1944. Entered service at: New Hampshire. Born: 2 February 1911, Dover, N.H. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Tang operating against 2 enemy Japanese convoys on 23 and 24 October 1944, during her fifth and last war patrol. Boldly maneuvering on the surface into the midst of a heavily escorted convoy, Comdr. O’Kane stood in the fusillade of bullets and shells from all directions to launch smashing hits on 3 tankers, coolly swung his ship to fire at a freighter and, in a split-second decision, shot out of the path of an onrushing transport, missing it by inches. Boxed in by blazing tankers, a freighter, transport, and several destroyers, he blasted two of the targets with his remaining torpedoes and, with pyrotechnics bursting on all sides, cleared the area. Twenty-four hours later, he again made contact with a heavily escorted convoy steaming to support the Leyte campaign with reinforcements and supplies and with crated planes piled high on each unit. In defiance of the enemy’s relentless fire, he closed the concentration of ship and in quick succession sent two torpedoes each into the first and second transports and an adjacent tanker, finding his mark with each torpedo in a series of violent explosions at less than l,000-yard range. With ships bearing down from all sides, he charged the enemy at high speed, exploding the tanker in a burst of flame, smashing the transport dead in the water, and blasting the destroyer with a mighty roar which rocked the Tang from stem to stern. Expending his last two torpedoes into the remnants of a once powerful convoy before his own ship went down, Comdr. O’Kane, aided by his gallant command, achieved an illustrious record of heroism in combat, enhancing the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
DALY, DANIEL JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: Glen Cove, Long Island, N.Y., 11 November 1873. Accredited to: New York. Other Navy awards: Second Medal of Honor, Navy Cross. Citation: Serving with the 15th Company of Marines on 22 October 1915, G/Sgt. Daly was one of the company to leave Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of October 24th, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position, which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fre from the Cacos. At daybreak the Marines, in three squads, advanced in three different directions, surprising and scattering the Cacos in all directions. G/Sgt. Daly fought with exceptional gallantry against heavy odds throughout this action.
OSTERMANN, EDWARD ALBERT
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 15th Company of Marines (mounted). Place and date: Vicinity Fort Liberte, Haiti, October 24th, 1915. Entered service at: Ohio. Born: 1883, Columbus, Ohio. Citation: In company with members of the 15th Company of Marines, all mounted, 1st Lt. Ostermann left Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of 24 October 1915, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position, which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fire from the Cacos. At daybreak, 1st Lt. Ostermann, in command of one of the three squads which advanced in three different directions, led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding in the capture of Fort Dipitie.
UPSHUR, WILLIAM PETERKIN
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 28 October 1881, Richmond, Va. Appointed from: Virginia. Citation: In company with members of the 15th Company of Marines, all mounted, Capt. Upshur left Fort Liberte, Haiti, for a six-day reconnaissance. After dark on the evening of October 24th, 1915, while crossing the river in a deep ravine, the detachment was suddenly fired upon from three sides by about 400 Cacos concealed in bushes about 100 yards from the fort. The Marine detachment fought its way forward to a good position which it maintained during the night, although subjected to a continuous fire from the Cacos. At daybreak, Capt. Upshur, in command of one of the three squads which advanced in three different directions led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding in the capture of Fort Dipitie.