Unerased History – January 4th

Posted by Wayne Church on January 4, 2015 in 01- January, Blog by month |
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Trivia Day

National Spaghetti Day



Vertical Envelopment

In 1946 U.S. Marine General Roy S. Geiger observed the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll and instantly recognized that atomic bombs could render amphibious landings difficult because of the dense concentrations of troops, ships and material at the beachhead. The Commandant of the Marine Corps convened a special board, the Hogaboom Board, that recommended that the USMC develop transport helicopters in order to allow a more diffuse attack on enemy shores. It also recommended that the USMC stand up an experimental helicopter squadron and HMX-1 was commissioned in 1947 with Sikorsky HO3S-1s. In 1948 the Marine Corps Schools came out with Amphibious Operations—Employment of Helicopters (Tentative), or Phib-31, which was the first manual for airmobile operations. The Marines used the term vertical envelopment instead of air mobility or air assault. HMX-1 performed its first vertical envelopment from the deck of an aircraft carrier in an exercise in 1949.

After the start of the Korean War, four HMX-1 helicopters were attached to VMO-6 and sent to the Pusan Perimeter in 1950. They were used for battlefield observation and control as well as medical evacuation and the rescue of fliers. During the Battle of Chosin Reservoir they were used for liaison between the different Marine units strung along the western edge of the Chosin Reservoir. The Marines began commissioning transport helicopter squadrons flying Sikorsky HRS-1s in 1951. After moving to Korea, these units began performing aerial resupply and aerial assault. HMR-161 transported over 200 Marines and 18,000 pounds of cargo in the first combat helicopter air assault in history in Operation Summit in September 1951. The first battalion-sized combat helicopter air assault was that of the 3rd Battalion 7th Marines in October 1951 in Operation Bumblebee.

In addition, the U.S. Army had their first combat test of the Piasecki H-21 helicopter in Korea. It was unofficially called the “Flying Banana” because of its banana-like appearance.




Matthew 19:26 

“But Jesus looked at them and said to them, ‘With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.’”



John Adams“[N]o part of the property of any individual can, with justice, be taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent, or that of the representative body of the people. In fine, the people of this commonwealth are not controllable by any other laws than those to which their constitutional representative body have given their consent.”

–John Adams, Thoughts on Government, 1776


Whether it’s praise, love, criticism, money, time, power, punishment, space, sorrow, laughter, need, pain, or pleasure… the more of it that you

give, the more of it you will receive.”

~ Mike Dooley


inkhorn INK-horn, adjective:

1. Affectedly or ostentatiously learned; pedantic.
2. A small bottle of horn or other material formerly used for holding ink.

derives from the name for the container formerly used (beginning in the 14th century) for holding ink, originally made from a real horn. Hence it came to refer to words that were being used by learned writers and scholars but which were unknown or rare in ordinary speech.


1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.

1493 – Columbus left new world on return from first voyage.

1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent is held (it opened on December 13, 1545).
1619 – Thirty-eight colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).

1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks made the first observation of a transit of Venus. (November 24 under the Julian calendar.)

1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).

1777 – Prince Hall, founder of the first African-American Masonic lodge petitioned the Massachusetts legislature for fund to return to Africa. The plan is the first recorded effort by African-Americans to return to their homeland.

1780 – A snowstorm hits Washington’s army at Morristown, New Jersey.

1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.

1791 – The first issue of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.

1847 – Samuel Colt rescues the future of his faltering gun company by winning a contract to provide the U.S. government with 1,000 of his .44 caliber revolvers.

1850The first American ice-skating club was organized in Philadelphia, PA.

1861 – Civil War: Forty Marines left Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. to garrison Ft. Washington.

1863 – Four-wheeled roller skates patented by James Plimpton.

1863 – Civil War: Union General Henry Halleck, by direction of President Abraham Lincoln, orders General Ulysses Grant to revoke his infamous General Order No. 11 that expelled Jews from his operational area.

1863 – Civil War: Blockading ship USS Quaker City captures the sloop Mercury carrying dispatches emphasizing desperate plight of the South.

1864 – Civil War:  Sherman’s March to the Sea – At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying a wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta (Union forces did suffer more than three times the Confederate casualties, however).

1865 – Civil War: A landing party under Acting Master James C. Tole from U.S.S. Don captured several torpedoes and powder on the right bank of the Rappahannock River about six miles from its mouth.

1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange movement).

1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).

1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.

1881 – The Los Angeles Times is first published.

1885 – Dr. William West Grant of Davenport, Iowa, performed what is believed to be the first successful appendectomy in the U.S. His patient was 22-year-old Mary Gartside, on whom he performed surgery by opening her abdomen and removing a perforated appendix. She recovered and lived until 1919, when she died from an unrelated illness.

1896 – Utah is admitted into the Union as the 45th state. The capital: Salt Lake City; bird: seagull; flower: sego lily; nickname: Beehive State. The entrance of Utah into the Union followed the Mormon’s abandonment of polygamy.

1902The French offered to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the U.S. After some political shenanigans a route through Panama was selected instead.

1906 – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, was founded at Cornell University.

1910 – Commissioning of USS Michigan (BB-27), the first U.S. dreadnought battleship.

1912 – Smallest earth-moon distance this century, 75,157 miles center-to-center.

1914 – “Mona Lisa” was returned to the Louvre Museum after it was stolen.

1918 – US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.

1920 – First black baseball league, National Negro Baseball League organized.

1921 – The Virginia Rappe manslaughter trial against Roscoe ‘Fatty’ Arbuckle ends in a hung jury.

1921 – Congress overrode President Wilson’s veto, reactivating the War Finance Corps to aid struggling farmers.

1923 – WEAF and WNAC conducted the first wired simulcast. The audio connection was made by telephone, and the show ran about 5 minutes.

1928 – The “Dodge Victory Hour” debuted with Al Jolson in New Orleans, Fred Stone in Chicago and Paul Whiteman in New York and Will Rogers from his home in Beverly Hills. The cost to produce this one show was $67,600.

1928 – Marines participated in the Battle of Quilali during the occupation of Nicaragua.

1932 – NBC Red debuted “The Carnation Contented Hour”. The show was as a showcase for top singers and musicians.

1935 – Bob Hope became the Master of Ceremonies of the radio series, “Intimate Revue”, sponsored by Bromo Seltzer with Jane Froman, James Melton and the Al Goodman Orchestra.

1936 – The first pop music chart based on national sales was published by “Billboard” in its first music hit parade. The first Music Popularity Chart was calculated in July 1940.

1943 – Joseph Stalin appears as Time’s 1942 “Man of the Year.”

1943 – World War II: US Task Force 67, commanded by Admiral Ainsworth, bombards the Japanese base at Munda, on New Georgia. This escalates the final evacuation of the Japanese from Guadalcanal.

1944 – World War II: U.S. aircraft begin dropping supplies to guerrilla forces throughout Western Europe.

1943 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.

1945 – By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).

1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dance Ballerina Dance” by Vaughn Monroe, “How Soon by Jack Owens, “Serenade of the Bells” by  The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell) and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – RCA Victor announced that it would manufacture long-playing (LP) records.

1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.

1953 – Korean War: Fifth Air Force mounted a 124-plane strike against the Huichon supply center.

1953 – Tufted plastic carpeting was introduced by Barwick Mills. The new carpet was said to be mothproof and stain resistant.

1954 – Elvis Presley strolled into the Memphis Recording Service and put $4 on the counter. He recorded “Casual Love Affair” and “I’ll Never Stand in Your Way.

1956 – During a Carl Perkins recording session also involving Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley visits the studio and jams with Perkins and Lewis extensively with the tape recorders rolling. (Cash reportedly participates briefly in the jam before leaving the studio with his wife and daughter.) The four men become known as the Million Dollar Quartet (1:08:42), and the complete tape from this legendary session is eventually released on compact disc (CD) in 1987.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – Memories are Made of This by Dean Martin,The Great Pretender” by The Platters, “Band of Gold” by Don Cherry and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.

1957 – “Collier’s” magazine was published for the last time. The periodical was published for 69 years.

1957 – Elvis Presley reports to Kennedy Veterans Hospital, Memphis, TN,  for an Army pre-induction physical.

1958 – “April Love” by Pat Boone topped the charts.

1958 – Sir Edmund Hillary reaches South Pole overland.

1958 – Sputnik 1 reenters atmosphere & burns up.

1959 – Luna 1 (Mechta), a Soviet craft,  becomes first craft to leave Earth’s gravity.

1959 – A monkey returns to Earth safely, after being launched 55 miles high into outer space by the United States space program.

1960 – “El Paso” by Marty Robbins topped the charts.

1962 – First automated (unmanned) subway train (New York City NY).

1962 – Gene McDaniels recorded “Point of No Return“.

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “There! I’ve Said It Again” by Bobby Vinton, “Louie Louie by The Kingsmen, “Forget Him” by Bobby Rydell and “Love’s Gonna Live Here by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1965 – LBJ’s Great Society” State of the Union Address.

1965 – The Fender Guitar Company was sold to CBS for $13 million.

1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in their sleep during a raid by 14 Chicago police officers.

1969 – Surfer Greg Noll rides a 65-foot high wave off the North Shore of Oahu, still the highest ocean surfing ever recorded.

1969 – I Heard it Through the Grapevine by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.

1971 – The Montreux Casino in Switzerland is set ablaze by someone wielding a flare gun during a Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water“.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Brand New Key” by Melanie, “American Pie” by Don McLean, “An Old Fashioned Love Song” by Three Dog Night and “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin’” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1974 – President Richard Nixon refuses to hand over tape recordings and documents that had been subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee. Marking the beginning of the end of his Presidency.

1975 – “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by Elton John topped the charts.

1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein becomes San Francisco, California’s first woman mayor (she served until January 8, 1988).

1979 – Ohio officials approve an out-of-court settlement awarding $675,000 to the victims and families in the 1970 shootings at Kent State University, in which four students were killed and nine wounded by National Guard troops.

1980 – President Carter announces US boycott of Moscow Olympics.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Escape (The Pina Colada Song)” by Rupert Holmes,Please Don’t Go” by  K.C. & The Sunshine Band, “Send One Your Love” by Stevie Wonder and “Happy Birthday Darlin” by Conway Twitty topped the charts.

1980 – The rock group Led Zeppelin formally announces its breakup.

1984 – Hezbollah militants hijack a Kuwait Airlines plane, killing four passengers.

1985 – Congressman William H. Gray is elected chairman of the House Budget Committee, the highest congressional post held by an African American.

1986 – “Say You, Say Me” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.

1987 – An Amtrak train bound from Washington to Boston collided with Conrail engines approaching from a side track, 16 people were killed.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Faith” by George Michael, “So Emotional” by Whitney Houston, “Got My Mind Set on You” by George Harrison and Somewhere Tonight” by Highway 101 all topped the charts.

1989 – Aircraft (VF-32) from USS John F. Kennedy shoot down two hostile Libyan MIG’s over the Mediterranean.

1991 – Journalist Terry Anderson is released after 7 years in captivity as a hostage in Beirut. He was the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon.

1991 – US airline Pan Am ends operations.

1991 – Marines evacuated 260 U.S. and foreign citizens from the American Embassy, Mogadishu, Somalia, during Operation Eastern Exit.

1992 – Somali Civil War: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia, east Africa.

1995 – Rep. Newt Gingrich (R-GA) was formally elected Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. He was the first Republican to hold the post in 40 years and the first Georgia Speaker in over 100 years.

1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.

1999 – Minnesota inaugurated pro wrestler Jesse Ventura as its 38th governor.

2001 – Lisa Beamer, wife of Todd Beamer, through the Todd M. Beamer Foundation, registers the trademark “Let’s Roll” with the United States Patent and Trademark Office less than three months after his death in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States.

2002 – The US Postal Service announced an increase in 1st class stamps to 37 cents from 34 to take place June 30.

2002 – US Army Special Forces Sgt. Ross Chapman (31) was killed by enemy fire near Khost, Afghanistan. He became the first US soldier to die there by enemy fire.

2002 – Antonio Todde, an Italian shepherd listed by Guinness as the world’s oldest man, died just shy of his 113th birthday. “Just love your brother and drink a good glass of red wine every day.”

2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protest for democracy and call on the government to allow universal and equal suffrage.

2005 – The 109th US Congress convened and took up tsunami aid. The Republican edge was 55 to 45.

2005 – Wade Boggs was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, and Ryne Sandberg made it with just six votes to spare on his third try.

2006 – The US Supreme Court allowed federal prosecutors to take custody of “enemy combatant” Jose Padilla so he could face criminal charges.

2006 – In a triple-overtime game that began Jan. 3 and finished after midnight, No. 3 Penn State beat No. 22 Florida State 26-23 in the Orange Bowl.

2006 – Nancy Pelosi became Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. She was the first woman to hold the position.

2007 – The 110th Congress convened with Democrats in control of both the House and Senate for the first time in a dozen years.

2008 – Flights were grounded and trucks overturned in Northern California as wind gusted to 80 mph during the second wave of the arctic storm that has sent trees crashing onto houses, cars and roads.

2009 – New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson withdraws his nomination to be the next United States Secretary of Commerce because of an ongoing federal investigation into possible pay-to-play politics.

2010 – NASA’s Kepler telescope detects its first five extrasolar planets. The discovery of extrasolar planets has intensified interest in the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

2010 – A gunman opens fire in the lobby of the Lloyd D. George Federal District Courthouse in Las Vegas, Nevada, containing the offices of Senators Harry Reid and John Ensign. A court security officer was killed and a U.S. Marshal injured before the assailant was shot dead.

2011 –  White House announces that President Obama will appoint Richard Cordray as head of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau while Congress is out of town.This is an act that is in total and utter disregard of the U.S. Constitution.

2012 – Republican primary candidate and former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney wins the 2012 Iowa Caucus, with candidate and former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum behind by eight votes; Congressman Ron Paul had a strong showing in third place. After her poor showing during the Iowa caucus, presidential candidate Michele Bachmann ends her campaign.

2013 – U.S. Rep. Jose Serrano, D-N.Y., and a supporter of President Obama, has introduced House Joint Resolution 15 to repeal the 22nd Amendment and thus abolish presidential term limits. It was assigned to committee.

2014 – The New Orleans Saints win a playoff game on the road for the first time…EVER. The score was Saints 26, Philadelphia Eagles 24. Shayne Graham hit the winning field goal as time expired.

2015 –  The State of Connecticut has sent out gun confiscation letters. The letters tell gun owners of now-illegal assault weapons and large capacity ammunition magazines to relinquish the arms to the police or make them permanently inoperable. A clear violation of the Second Amendment.


1585 – John Cotton, American Puritan leader (d. 1652)
1643 – Sir Isaac Newton, English scientist.
1785 – Jacob Ludwig Grimm, German librarian; author, with his brother, of fairy tales.
1809 – Louis Braille, French, inventor of reading system for the blind.
1813 – Sir Isaac Pitman, English educator and inventor of shorthand.
1838 – Charles Sherwood Stratton, “General Tom Thumb,” American entertainer with PT Barnum.
1840 – Crazy Horse, Oglala Sioux chief (d. 1877)
1895 – Leroy Randle Grumman, American aeronautical engineer and founder of Grumman Aircraft.
1912 – Pappy Boyington, American pilot. WW II Hero and Medal of Honor Recipient (d. 1988)
1939 – Dyan Cannon (born Samile Diane Friesen), American film and television actress.
1941 – Maureen Reagan, daughter of Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman; step-daughter of Nancy Reagan.
1944 – Dennis Wilson, American musician (The Beach Boys) (d. 1983)
1973 – Tyra Banks, American supermodel




Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 513th Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Flamierge, Belgium, January 4th,  1945. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Berlin, Germany. G.O. No.: 25, 9 June 1950. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty at Flamierge, Belgium, on 4 January 1945, when his company was pinned down by enemy artillery, mortar, and small arms fire, two hostile tanks attacked the unit, inflicting heavy. casualties. S/Sgt. Jachman, seeing the desperate plight of his comrades, left his place of cover and with total disregard for his own safety dashed across open ground through a hail of fire and seizing a bazooka from a fallen comrade advanced on the tanks, which concentrated their fire on him. Firing the weapon alone, he damaged one and forced both to retire. S/Sgt. Jachman’s heroic action, in which he suffered fatal wounds, disrupted the entire enemy attack, reflecting the highest credit upon himself and the parachute infantry.


INTERIM 1901-1911


Rank and organization: Chief Electrician, U.S. Navy. Born: 24 February 1883, South Bethlehem, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 58, 2 March 1910. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Birmingham, for extraordinary heroism, rescuing G.H. Kephart seaman, from drowning at Hampton Roads, Va., January 4th,  1945. 1910.


MANNING, HENRY J.State of Connecticut
INTERIM 1871-1898


Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1859, New Haven, Conn. Accredited to: Connecticut. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire, off Newport, R.I., January 4th,  1945. 1882. Jumping overboard, Manning endeavored to rescue Jabez Smith, second class musician, from drowning.


INTERIM 1871-1898


Rank and organization: Ship’s Printer, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S. Training Ship New Hampshire off Coasters Harbor Island, near Newport, R.l., January 4th,  1945.  1882, and endeavoring to rescue Jabez Smith, second class musician, from drowning.




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Unerased History – January 3rd

Posted by Wayne Church on January 3, 2015 in 01- January, Blog by month |
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National Chocolate Covered Cherry Day
J.R.R. Tolkien Day

Congressional Seats taken

Under the terms of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, congressional terms begin at noon on January 3 of every odd-numbered year. As such all members of the U.S. House of Representatives and one-third of all U.S. Senators are sworn in on January 3 every two years. A Congress lasts until January 3rd of the next odd-numbered year. Therefore the 112th Congress will begin on January 3, 2011 and end on January 3, 2013. The Twentieth Amendment became effective in January 1934, during the 73rd Congress. Thus the first session of the 73rd Congress convened in March 1933, but the second session convened in January 1934.

House of Representatives have no assigned seating except that Democrats sit on the left from the rear and the Republicans on the right. The Senate does have assigned seating and it can be located by clicking here.



Psalm 37:39 

“But the salvation of the righteous is from the LORD; He is their strength in time of trouble.”



thomas_paine“[W]e still find the greedy hand of government thrusting itself into every corner and crevice of industry, and grasping the spoil of the multitude. Invention is continually exercised, to furnish new pretenses for revenues and taxation. It watches prosperity as its prey and permits none to escape without tribute.”

–Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, 1791



It must be borne in mind that the tragedy of life doesn’t lie in not reaching your goal. The tragedy lies in having no goal to reach. It isn’t a calamity to die with dreams unfulfilled, but it is a calamity not to dream. It is not a disaster to be unable to capture your ideal, but it is a disaster to have no ideal to capture. It is not a disgrace not to reach the stars, but it is a disgrace to have no stars to reach for. Not failure, but low aim is a sin.”

~ Benjamin E. Mayes



exegesis ek-suh-JEE-sis, noun;
plural exegeses -seez:
Exposition; explanation; especially, a critical explanation of a text.


Exegesis comes from Greek, from exegeisthai, “to explain, to interpret,” from ex-, “out of” + hegeisthai, “to lead, to guide.” Thus an exegesis is, at root, “a leading or guiding out of” a complexity.


1431 – Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon.

1496 – Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine.

1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.

1749 – Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont.

1777 – American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.

1823 – Stephen F. Austin received a grant from the Mexican government and began colonization in the region of the Brazos River in Texas.

1825 – Rensselaer School, the first engineering college in the U.S. is opened in Troy, New York. It is now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

1834 – The government of Mexico imprisons Stephen F. Austin (Texas Hero) in Mexico City.

1840- First deep sea sounding. At latitude 27 degrees, 26 minutes S. and longitude 17 degrees, 29 minutes W, soundings of two thousand four hundred and twenty-five fathoms of line were obtained.

1847 – General Winfield Scott, who has taken command of the Gulf expedition in Mexico, orders 9000 men from General Taylor’s force to assault Vera Cruz.

1848 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Republic of Liberia. Liberia, which means “Land of the Free,” was founded as an independent nation for free-born and formerly enslaved Blacks.

1861 – Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States.

1861 – Civil War: The state of Georgia takes over Federal Fort Pulaski. It will return to Federal hands in April of 1862.

1870 – Brooklyn Bridge construction begins; completed May 24, 1883

1871 – Henry W. Bradley of Binghamton, NY patents oleomargarine.

1872 – First patent list (The Official Gazette of the United States Patent and Trademark Office) issued by US Patent Office.

1876 – First free kindergarten in US opens in Florence, MA.

1888 – The 91 cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time.

1888 – First wax drinking straw patented, by Marvin C Stone in Washington, DC.

1899 – The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in The New York Times.

1903 – South Dakota’s Wind Cave National Park was established.

1904 – Marines from the USS Dixie arrive in Panama. President Theodore Roosevelt dispatched Secretary of War William Howard Taft to Panama in November 1904. His visit resulted in a compromise agreement, whereby the United States retained control of the ports of Ancón and Cristóbal, but their facilities might be used by any ships entering Panama City and Colón.

1911 – US postal savings bank inaugurated.

1920 – WW I: The last of the U.S. troops depart France.

1920 – The Boston Red Sox sell Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees for a sum of $125,000 and a loan of more than $300,000.

1922 – First living President identified on a US coin. President Calvin Coolidge appeared on the front of the 1926 Sesquicentennial of American Independence.

1924 – English explorer Howard Carter discovers the sarcophagus of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, near Luxor, Egypt.

1925 – Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

1933 – Marines pulled out of Nicaragua. 5th Marine Regiment departs.

1938 – The March of Dimes is established by Franklin D. Roosevelt to fight polio. It accomplished its mission within 20 years.

1938 – “Woman in White” is first broadcast on the NBC Red network. The program remains on the radio for the next ten years. It was one of the first to feature real doctors and nurses in leading roles.

1939 – Tennis legend Don Budge played a pro tennis match, his first in Madison Square Garden, NY, before 16,725 spectators. Budge was touring the country as the top U.S. tennis player, having won the grand slam of tennis (Australian, French and U.S. Opens and Wimbledon) the year before.

1940 – The “Southland Shuffle” was recorded on Bluebird Records by Charlie Barnet and his orchestra. A young trumpet player named Billy May was featured.

1943 – First missing persons telecast (New York City, NY)

1943 – World War II: A US B-17 bomber was downed over France following a bombing run over a German submarine base in southern France. John Roten, navigator, was the only survivor. Roten spent 28 months as a POW.

1944 – CDR Frank Erickson flies plasma in a Coast Guard HNS-1 helicopter from Brooklyn to a hospital in Sandy Hook, NJ in the first recorded mission of mercy conducted by a rotary wing aircraft.

1944 – World War II: Top Marine ace Major “Pappy” Boyington captured after shooting down 28 aircraft. He was shot down over the island of Rabaul and was captured by a Japanese submarine. He spent the remaining balance of the War as a prisoner. Watch a 1957 “To Tell The Truth” to see, “Will the Real Pappy Boyington, please stand up!!

1945 – World War II: Admiral Chester W Nimitz is placed in command of all U.S. Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself.

1945 – World War II: VMF-124 and VMF-213 from the USS Essex struck Formosa and the Ryukyu Islands in the first Marine land strike off a carrier. In the two-day attack against Formosa the Marines destroyed 100 aircraft with loss of only 22 aircraft.

1947 – Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Old Lamplighter” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams), “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.

1951 – Korean War: As massive numbers of Chinese troops crossed the frozen Han River east and west of Seoul, the Eighth Army began evacuating the South Korean capital.

1952 – Dragnet is first broadcast on NBC-TV. The last episode played September 10, 1970.
1953 – Frances Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress.

1953 – “I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus” by Jimmy Boyd topped the charts.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “Let Me Go, Lover” by Joan Weber, “The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane” by The Ames Brothers and “More and More” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.

1957 – Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch.

1958 – The Air Force forms two squadrons of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) armed with medium-range ballistic missiles.

1959 – Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state. The capital – Juneau; State bird – willow ptarmigan; State flower – forget-me-not and its nickname is The Last Frontier.

1959 – “Chipmunk Song” by David Seville and the Chipmunks topped the charts.

1961 – The United States severs diplomatic relations with Cuba. President was Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1961 – The SL-1, a government-run nuclear reactor near Idaho Falls, Idaho, leaks radiation, killing three workers.

1962 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Telstar” by The Tornadoes, “Bobby’s Girl” by Marcie Blane,Go Away Little Girl” by  Steve Lawrence and “Don’t Let Me Crossover” by Carl Butler & Pearl (Dee Jones) all topped the charts.

1964 – Jack Paar Show, shows a clip of the Beatles singing “She Loves You.” This became the first Beatles US TV show appearance.

1964 – Barry Goldwater announced that he was a candidate for the U.S. Presidency. Later that year he lost.  Lyndon B. Johnson: 43,126,506; Goldwater: 27,176,799.

1966 – The Psychedelic Shop, the world’s first Head shop, opened on Haight Street near Ashbury in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco.

1967 –  Jack Ruby, the man who shot accused presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, dies of cancer in a Dallas hospital.

1967 – Patent for an apparatus for solar cooling and heating a house was received by Harry Thomason.

1969 – Thirty thousand copies of the John Lennon, Yoko Ono album, “Two Virgins”, were confiscated by police in Newark, New Jersey. The nude photo of John and Yoko on the cover violated pornography laws in the state.

1970 – “Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head” by B. J. Thomas topped the charts.

1971 – “My Sweet Lord/Isn’t It a Pity” by George Harrison, “Knock Three Times” by Dawn and “Black Magic Woman” by Santana and “Rose Garden” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.

1973 – Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) sells the New York Yankees for $10 million to a 12-person syndicate led by George Steinbrenner.

1976 – “Saturday Night” by the Bay City Rollers topped the charts.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Le Freak” by Chic, “Too Much Heaven” by Bee Gees, “My Life by Billy Joel and “The Gambler” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.

1980 – Gold hits record $634 an ounce.

1981 – John Lennon’s “(Just Like) Starting Over” and the album “Double Fantasy” topped the pop music charts just weeks after the death of the former Beatle.

1983 – Tony Dorsett of the Dallas Cowboys makes the longest run from scrimmage (99 yards) in NFL history.

1984 – A woman died at Disneyland after falling from a ride. She had apparently unfastened her seatbelt while on the Matterhorn bobsled.

1986 – President Ronald Reagan orders economic sanctions against Libya in retaliation for its involvement in terrorist attacks in Rome and Vienna.

1987 – Aretha Franklin becomes the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Walk Like an Egyptian” by the  Bangles, “Everybody Have Fun Tonight” by Wang Chung, “Notorious” by Duran Duran and “Mind Your Own Business” by Hank Williams, Jr. all topped the charts.

1988 – Margaret Thatcher becomes the longest-serving British Prime Minister in the 20th Century.

1990 – Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces.

1991 – Hockey Hall of Famer Wayne Gretzky scores his 700th goal.

1991 – Gulf War: The British government announces the expulsion of 75 Iraqis from the country.

1993 – In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

1993 – The NFL Comeback Game was played. In an AFC Wild Card game, the Buffalo Bills comeback from a 35-3 deficit against the Houston Oilers and win the game in overtime 41-38, the largest comeback in NFL history.

1995 – The U.S. Postal Service raised the price of the first-class stamp to 32 cents.

1999 – The Mars Polar Lander launches.

1999 – Israel detains, later to expel, 14 members of Concerned Christians. Between 60 and 80 members of the group disappeared from their homes and jobs in Colorado in October 1998 and were the subject of a search. On January 3, 1999, they gained notoriety when they were arrested and deported from Israel as part of an Israeli effort to protect the Al-Aqsa mosque from extremist Christian groups, codenamed “Operation Walk on Water”.

1999 – Chicago dug out from their biggest snowstorm in more than 30 years. Diggers measured 22 inches at O’Hare International Airport.

2000 – The last “Peanuts” comic strip is created by Charles Schulz.

2003 – Ohio State University becomes the first NCAA Division I football team to complete a season 14-0 by winning the Tostitos Fiesta Bowl over the University of Miami 31-24, and is crowned BCS National Champion.

2003 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Boutwell departed Alameda in preparation for supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom. She began operations in the Arabian Gulf on 14 February 2003.

2003 – US warplanes hit an al Qaeda compound in the Khost region south of Tora Bora and Islamic fighters near Baghran were reported to be in negotiations.

2004 – The NASA spacecraft Spirit landed on Mars at the Gusev Crater. It was the 4th successful US landing on Mars.

2005 – President Bush tapped his father, former President Bush, and former President Clinton to help raise tsunami relief funds.

2005 – Heavy snow shut down a major highway north of Los Angeles and slowed post-holiday travel in the Sierra Nevada as Californians grappled with a 2nd week of stormy weather.

2006 – Jack Abramoff, the US lobbyist who spawned a congressional corruption scandal, pleaded guilty to three felonies and pledged to cooperate in a criminal probe edging closer to former House Majority Leader Tom DeLay.

2006 – The Committee to Protect Journalists reported that forty-seven journalists were killed in 2005, and that more than three-quarters were murdered to silence their criticism of punish them for their work. Iraq accounted for twenty-two of the deaths.

2007 – The Dow Jones closed at 12,621.77, The GDP for the previous quarter was 3.5%, The Unemployment rate was 4.6%, President George Bush’s Economic policies set a record of 52 straight months of JOB GROWTH!

2007 – Representative Barney Frank took over the House Financial Services Committee and Senator Chris Dodd took over the Senate Banking Committee. The economic meltdown that happened 15 months later was in

2007 – Iraq arrested three men who were present at Saddam Hussein’s execution, including the person believed to have recorded the event on a cell phone camera.

2010 – The U.S. and Britain close their embassies in the capital of Yemen because of continuing threats from Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

2010 – President Barack Obama ends a 22-year-old immigration ban preventing those with HIV/AIDS from entering the United States. He said this could “encourage people to get tested and get treatment.”

2011 – Investments in Facebook totaling US$500 million lead to speculation that its value could be as high as US$50 billion.

2011 –  Republican U.S. Representative Darrell Issa calls for Attorney General Eric Holder to resign over lack of progress in prosecuting Julian Assange, and plans are announced of holding a congressional inquiry into Wikileaks and Assange.

2011 – Scientists are investigating the sudden dieoff of over 5,000 Red-winged Blackbirds in Beebe, Arkansas, United States, on New Year’s Eve.

2012 –  Voters in Iowa go to the polls for electoral caucuses, with Mitt Romney defeating Rick Santorum by eight votes in the Republican Party contest, and Ron Paul following in third place.

2013 – Ted Cruz has been sworn in as U.S. senator form Texas and says his first order of business will be introducing a bill he knows will never pass. Cruz is a Cuban-American and former state solicitor general. He is the first Hispanic to represent Texas in the Senate. He has pledged that his first bill would seek to repeal “every syllable of every word” of the Obama administration’s health care reform law.

2013 – Congressman Ron Paul, Texas, has introduced H.R. 1146, The American Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2009. H.R. 1146 would get the United States completely out of the United Nations.

2014 – The Ft. Wayne Women’s Health Center in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, is the first surgical abortion clinic to officially shut down in 2014 following a record-breaking year where 87 surgical abortion clinics permanently closed.


106 B.C.E. – (Marcus Tullius) Cicero, Roman statesman.
1624 – William Tucker, the first Black believed to have had his birth recorded in the New World.
1760 – John Storm, American Revolutionary soldier (d. 1835) He is most well known for being one of less than 90 dragoons that fought under Colonel William Washington during the Battle of Cowpens in the American Revolutionary War. Dragoons commanded huge power upon the battlefield at the time because of their ability to incite fear within the enemy infantry. “The shock of a cavalry charge often proved decisive in gaining a victory.”
1793 – Lucretia Coffin Mott, American women’s rights advocate and founder of the first Women’s Rights Convention.
1892 – J.R.R. Tolkien, British writer best known as the author of the high fantasy classic works The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.
1909 – Victor Borge, Danish entertainer (d. 2000) was a humorist, entertainer and world-class pianist affectionately known as the Clown Prince of Denmark and the Great Dane.
1945 – Stephen Stills, American singer and songwriter.
1956 – Mel Gibson, is an American-born, Australian-raised actor, film director, film producer and screenwriter. In 2004, he directed and produced The Passion of the Christ, a controversial but hugely successful film that portrayed the last hours of the life of Jesus Christ.



Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Squadron 214. Place and date: Central Solomons area, from 12 September 1943 to January 3rd, 1944. Entered service at: Washington. Born: 4 December 1912, Coeur D’Alene, Idaho. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and valiant devotion to duty as commanding officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 214 in action against enemy Japanese forces in the Central Solomons area from 12 September 1943 to 3 January 1944. Consistently outnumbered throughout successive hazardous flights over heavily defended hostile territory, Maj. Boyington struck at the enemy with daring and courageous persistence, leading his squadron into combat with devastating results to Japanese shipping, shore installations, and aerial forces. Resolute in his efforts to inflict crippling damage on the enemy, Maj. Boyington led a formation of twenty-four fighters over Kahili on 17 October and, persistently circling the airdrome where sixty hostile aircraft were grounded, boldly challenged the Japanese to send up planes. Under his brilliant command, our fighters shot down 20 enemy craft in the ensuing action without the loss of a single ship. A superb airman and determined fighter against overwhelming odds, Maj. Boyington personally destroyed twenty-six of the many Japanese planes shot down by his squadron and, by his forceful leadership, developed the combat readiness in his command which was a distinctive factor in the Allied aerial achievements in this vitally strategic area.




Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Battery C, 499th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, 14th Armored Division. Place and date. Philippsbourg, France, January 3rd,  1945. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 27 June 1899, Longview, Tex. G.O. No.: 79, 14 September 1945. Citation: At Phillippsbourg, France, he was cut off from his artillery unit by an enemy armored infantry attack. Coming upon a friendly infantry company withdrawing under the vicious onslaught, he noticed two German tanks and approximately seventy-five supporting foot soldiers advancing down the main street of the village. Seizing a rocket launcher, he advanced under intense small-arms and cannon fire to meet the tanks and, standing in the middle of the road, fired at them, destroying one and disabling the second. From a nearby half-track he then dismounted a machinegun, placed it in the open street and fired into the enemy infantrymen, killing or wounding a great number and breaking up the attack. In the American counterattack which followed, two supporting tanks were disabled by an enemy antitank gun. Firing a light machinegun from the hip, Pfc. Turner held off the enemy so that the crews of the disabled vehicles could extricate themselves. He ran through a hail of fire to one of the tanks which had burst into flames and attempted to rescue a man who had been unable to escape; but an explosion of the tank’s ammunition frustrated his effort and wounded him painfully. Refusing to be evacuated, he remained with the infantry until the following day, driving off an enemy patrol with serious casualties, assisting in capturing a hostile strong point, and voluntarily and fearlessly driving a truck through heavy enemy fire to deliver wounded men to the rear aid station. The great courage displayed by Pfc. Turner and his magnificently heroic initiative contributed materially to the defense of the French town and inspired the troops about him.



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Unerased History – January 2nd

Posted by Wayne Church on January 2, 2015 in 01- January, Blog by month |
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Boo Boo Bear’s Birthday
(Yogi Bear’s Friend)

Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy Day
National Science Fiction Day
National Cream Puff Day

Teapot Dome Scandal

Albert Fall

In 1922, Albert B. Fall, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, leased, without competitive bidding, the Teapot Dome fields to Harry F. Sinclair, an oil operator, and the field at Elk Hills, California, to Edward L. Doheny.

He had received bribes or no interest loans from those two which brought indictments for conspiracy and accepting bribes for Fall. He was convicted of accepting bribes and sentenced to one year in prison and fined $100,000.

The Teapot Dome Scandal is an event in US history that has lost its prominence over time. Incidents such as World War II are significant enough that they remain with us for decades, the Teapot Dome Scandal is one of those occurrences that gets pushed out of mind until it is remembered in a solitary paragraph here or there.

The scandal itself had a huge impact at the time. The large amount of media attention that it generated “made it the first true symbol of government corruption in America.”  The “Teapot Dome” referred to an area in Wyoming where oil fields were located. Oil fields in Elk Hills and Buena Vista Hills, in California, were also involved in the scandal. These oil fields were designated as reserves for the U.S. Navy, and were stored on public land. There had been turmoil regarding the oil in the first place, as many politicians and oil corporations “opposed the restrictions placed on the oil fields, claiming that the reserves were unnecessary and that American oil companies could provide for the Navy.”

A particularly prominent opponent of the reserves was Senator Albert B. Fall. A Republican from New Mexico, he and his allies convinced President Harding to appoint him as Secretary of the Interior in 1921. It was then that the Teapot Dome Scandal started.

The oil reserves had been under the care of Edwin C. Denby, who was the Secretary of the Navy at the time. Once Senator Fall was named Secretary of the Interior, he persuaded Denby to hand the reserves over to his department. Fall leased the rights to the reserves to Harry Sinclair, the owner of Mammoth Oil. He did this completely legally, due to the General Leasing Act passed in 1920. He also leased the Elk Hills reserves to Edward L. Doheny, from Pan American Petroleum. He did this “in exchange for personal loans at no interest.”  That was illegal.

In addition to the interest-free loans from Doheny, Senator Fall received gifts totaling nearly $404,000 from both men. This too was illegal; up until then it had been completely legitimate. It is possible that he would have been able to get away with it, but his sudden improvement in his wayof life got a lot of peoples attention. Where had he acquired this sudden, large amount of wealth?

In April of 1922, the Wall Street Journal exposed him. The next day, April 15th, Senator John Kendrick, a Democrat from Wyoming, “introduced a resolution that set in motion one of the most significant investigations in Senate history.” (U.S. Senate, 1) Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin directed the Senate Committee on Public Lands to lead the investigation.

La Follette chose Democrat Thomas J. Walsh, the panel’s “most junior minority member”, to lead the investigation. The Republicans approved of this choice, because they knew that the investigation would be a long string of unanswered questions and dead-ends. Meanwhile, the scandal was fading from the media. People were moving on with other issues.

While Fall stepped backward, covering his tracks as he went. Walsh uncovered the dealings that Fall had made with Denby, Doheny and Sinclair-but realized that they were legal. Fall destroyed all of the incriminating records, and it seemed like he would get away free. Everything was accounted for, though there was a giant problem: Where did Fall get his fortune? It was here that Walsh discovered Fall’s shady dealings; specifically, the $100,000 interest-free loan from Doheny.

A series of lawsuits were brought against Fall and other defendants that had been implicated in the scandal. The Supreme Court, in 1927, ruled that the oil fields had been leased illegally. The reserves were then handed back over to the Navy.

Senator Fall was found guilty of bribery and sentenced to pay $100,000, along with having to serve a one-year prison sentence, in 1929. He was the “first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for his actions in office.” Harry Sinclair refused to cooperate with federal officials, and was fined $100,000 when he was charged with contempt. He also served a prison sentence. Edward Doheny was acquitted.

The effect on the population of the country was tremendous. Big-business Republicans were voted out of office during the Depression-era elections, though, both sides of the political spectrum were affected by the scandal; citizens’ trust in politics was starting to waver. Amazingly, President Coolidge (President Harding had died, so Coolidge had taken over at this point) received little damage to his reputation as a result of the scandal. He was able to minimize attachment to it, and handle it discreetly.

This was the start of a new era of politics-an era of “dirty” politics in which there were more corrupt men in office than honest. It is no wonder that around this time, people started becoming more apathetic towards politics, and we are still feeling the apathy today.


Psalm 27:1 

“The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the strength of my life; of whom shall I be afraid?”



“A free people ought not only to be armed and disciplined but they should have sufficient arms and ammunition to maintain a status of independence from any who might attempt to abuse them, which would include their own government.”

George Washington.


Don’t be afraid if things seem difficult in the beginning. That’s only the initial impression. The important thing is not to retreat; you have to master yourself.”

 ~Olga Korbut


regent (REE-juhnt) adjective
One who rules for a limited period, on behalf of a king or queen who
is a minor, absent, or ill.

[From Latin regent-, present participle of regere (to rule). Ultimately
from the Indo-European reg- (to move in a straight line, to lead or rule)
that is also the source of regime, direct, rectangle, erect, rectum,
alert, source, and surge.]


1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution.

1800 – Free Black community of Philadelphia PA petitions Congress to abolish slavery.

1811 – Senator Timothy Pickering, a Federalist from Massachusetts, became the first senator to be censured. Pickering was accused of violating congressional law by publicly revealing secret documents communicated by the president to the Senate. He did it in an effort to prove President James Madison had acted unconstitutionally in seizing part of West Florida from Spain.

1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is formed.

1832 – First Curling club in US (Orchard Lake Curling Club) opens.

1837 – The first National Negro Catholic Congress is held in Washington. D. C.

1839 –  French pioneering photographer Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the moon. Unfortunately it was lost when on 8 Mar 1839, a fire burned his laboratory to the ground.

1842 – First US wire suspension bridge for general traffic opens in Fairmount, PA.

1859 – Erastus Beadle published “The Dime Book of Practical Etiquette.”

1860 – The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at a meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris. Vulcan was the name given to a small planet proposed to exist in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun in a 19th-century hypothesis. This hypothesis has now been rendered obsolete by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

1861 – Civil War: The USS Brooklyn is readied at Norfolk to aid Fort Sumter.

1861 – Civil War: Colonel Charles Stone is put in charge of organizing the Washington D.C. militia.

1863 – Civil War: The Battle of Stones River concludes when the Union troops of William Rosecrans defeat Confederates under Braxton Bragg at Murfeesboro, TN.

1870 – Construction began on the Brooklyn Bridge to cross the East River, New York City with a single span, a breadth of 1,600 feet navigable water.

1872 – Brigham Young is arrested for bigamy due to having 25 wives.

1882 – John D. Rockefeller unites his oil holdings into the Standard Oil trust.

1890 – Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer for the White House.

1890 – Record 19’2″ alligator shot in Louisiana by E A McIlhenny.

1893 – Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America introduces railroad chronometers.

1893 – First US commemoratives & first US stamp to picture a woman issued. The stamps were the 1 cent “Columbus in sight of land” and the 5 cent “Columbus soliciting aid of Isabella.” The first stamp to include a portrait of a woman was the 1902 Martha Washington eight-cent stamp.

1900 – John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.

1900 – The Chicago Canal opened.

1904 – U.S. Marines are sent to Santo Domingo to aid the government against rebel forces.

1906 – W H Carrier patents air conditioner.

1910 – First junior high schools in US open in Berkeley, CA. McKinley School housed seventh and eighth grade students.

1911 – Brooklyn Dodgers president Charles Ebbets announces purchase of grounds to build a new concrete-and-steel stadium to seat 30,000.

1920 – The Palmer Raids begin in the United States. The Palmer Raids were a series of controversial raids by the U.S. Justice and Immigration Departments from 1918 to 1921 on the radical left in the United States. The raids are named for Alexander Mitchell Palmer, United States Attorney General under Woodrow Wilson.

1921 – Religious services were broadcast on radio for the first time. KDKA in Pittsburgh aired the regular Sunday service of the city’s Calgary Episcopal Church.

1923 – U.S. Interior Secretary Albert Fall resigns due to the Teapot Dome scandal. Teapot Dome is a reference to an oil field on public land in Wyoming, so named because of a rock resembling a teapot overlooking the field. It is also a phrase commonly applied to the scandal that rocked the administration of President Warren G. Harding.

1929 – Canada and the United States agree on a plan to preserve Niagara Falls.

1933 - US troops leave Nicaragua.

1935 – Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.

1936 – First electron tube to enable night vision described, St Louis MO.

1939 – Time Magazine named chancellor Adolf Hitler its “Man of the Year. ”

1941 – The Andrews Sisters recorded “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy.

1941 – World War II: German bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.

1941 – World War II: The U.S. government announces its Liberty ship program with a stated goal of building 200 freighters. Over 2,700 ships will eventually be constructed by the end of the war.

1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces.

1942 – World War II: The United States Navy opens a blimp base at Lakehurst, New Jersey. It was opened with Navy Airship Patrol Group 1 and Air Ship Squadron 12.

1943 – World War II: US troops on Guadalcanal launch another assault up Mount Austen. Some progress is made but the Gifu strongpoint remains in Japanese control.

1945 – An American Sikorsky helicopter is used in convoy escort duties for the first time.

1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “It Might as Well Be Spring” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers) and “Silver Dew on the Blue Grass Tonight” by  Bob Wills all top the charts.

1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín became the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.

1951 – Korean War: C-47 dropped flares to illuminate B-26 and F-82 night attacks on enemy forces for the first time.

1953 – NBC-TV presented the “The Life of Riley.

1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh! My Pa-Paby Eddie Fisher, “Changing Partners” by Patti Page, “Stranger in Paradise” by Tony Bennett and “Let Me Be the One” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.

1957 – The San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange and Los Angeles Oil Exchange merge.

1957 – Gene Fullmer defeated Sugar Ray Robinson to earn the world middleweight boxing title. He is a former American middleweight boxer and world champion.

1959 – The first artificial satellite to orbit the sun, Luna 1, is launched by the U.S.S.R.

1959 – CBS radio cancels four soap operas. “Our Gal Sunday”, “This is Nora Drake”, “Backstage Wife” and “Road of Life” were all cut.

1960 – Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.

1960 – “Why” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.

1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” by The Tokens, “Run to Him” by Bobby Vee and “The Twist” by Chubby Checker and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.

1963 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong shoot down five U.S. helicopters in the Mekong Delta. 30 Americans are reported dead.

1965 – The New York Jets sign University of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for a reported $400,000.

1965 – Voter registration drive, led by Martin Luther King Jr., started in Selma, Alabama.

1965 – “I Feel Fine” by the Beatles topped the charts.

1966 – Vietnam: American G.I.s move into the Mekong Delta for the first time.

1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. Air Force F-4 Phantom jets down seven communist MiG-21s over North Vietnam.

1968 – Dr. Christian Barnard (d. 2001) performed the first successful heart transplant. Dr. Barnard’s first heart transplant patient, Louis Washkansky, lived only 18 days. His second, Dr. Philip Blaiberg, lived more than 19 months.

1969 – Vietnam: Operation Barrier Reef began in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Someday We’ll Be Together” by Diana Ross & The Supremes and “Raindrops Keep Fallin’ on My Head” by B.J. Thomas, “Holly Holy” by Neil Diamond and “(I’m So) Afraid of Losing You Again” by Charley Pride topped the charts.

1971 – “My Sweet Lord” by George Harrison topped the charts.

1971 – The tobacco industry was banned from buying advertisements on television and radio.

1974 – Richard Nixon signs a bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995.

1975 – Kenneth C. Brugger discovered the long-unknown winter destination of the monarch butterfly in the mountains of Mexico. Within the territory of only 200 square meters, there are around 20 million butterflies. The area was cold and covered with oyamel trees and pine trees, a few kilometers from rural towns.

1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Deep is Your Love” by Bee Gees, “(Every Time I Turn Around) Back in Love Again” by L.T.D., “Baby Come Back” by Player and “Here You Come Again” by Dolly Parton all  topped the charts.

1982 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John and “Faith” by George Michael topped the charts.

1983 – The smash musical, “Annie“, closed on Broadway after 2,377 performances.

1985 – The Rebels of UNLV beat Utah State in three overtime periods. The final score of 142-140 set a new NCAA record for total points in a basketball game (282). The game took over three hours to play.

1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Say You, Say Me” by Lionel Richie, “Party All the Time” by Eddie Murphy, “Alive & Kicking” by Simple Minds and “Have Mercy” by The Judds all topped the charts.

1987 – The most-watched college football game was played . Joe Paterno’s Nittany Lions of Penn State defeated the Miami Hurricanes, 14-10, at the Fiesta Bowl in Tempe, Arizona. The game was so popular that it beat “Dallas” and “Falcon Crest” in the TV ratings.

1989 – PTL founders Jim and Tammy Faye Bakker returned to the television pulpit for the first time in two years, broadcasting from a borrowed house in Pineville, N.C.

1990 – David Norman Dinkins began his first working day as mayor of New York City with a 7:00 a.m. appearance on NBC-TV’s ‘Today’ show. He was the the first African-American mayor of America’s largest City.

1990 -The Dow Jones Industrial Average ended the day above 2,800 for the first time, at 2,810.15.

1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC, becoming the first African-American woman to lead a city of that size and importance.

1994 – The new Republican mayor of New York City, Rudolph Giuliani, delivered his inaugural address in which he called for unity while promising to crack down on crime and tackle the city’s budget problems.

1995 – Most distant galaxy yet discovered found by scientists using Keck telescope in Hawaii (estimated 15 billion light years away).

1996 – Former Interior Secretary James Watt pleaded guilty to one misdemeanor count of attempting to sway a grand jury investigating 1980s influence-peddling at the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

1997 –  In Las Vegas the New York New York casino-hotel hosted a private party prior to opening to the public at 12:35 a.m.

1997 – In the US Northwest a week of heavy rain and melting snow caused many rivers to overflow. Downtown Reno was under water and casinos closed and visitors were trapped in Yosemite National Park. Highway 50 to Lake Tahoe was closed and expected to be out for a month.

1997 – Letter bombs began arriving into the US from Egypt. Four were addressed to the Washington bureau of Al-Hayat, an Arab language daily. Others went to Leavenworth, Kansas. They contained the plastic explosive Semtex.

1998 – The defense in the Terry Nichols trial rested its case in the penalty phase after calling nine witnesses who pleaded for his life.

1999 – A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches  of snow at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches  at Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths are reported.

2000 – Elmo Russell Zumwalt Jr., former US Navy commander, died at age 79. He and his son authored “My Father, My Son” in 1986.

2002 – Troops of the 101st Airborne Division begin to replace Marines that have been in Kandahar, Afghanistan since November of 2001.

2002 – The #5 Florida Gators beat #6 Maryland 56-23 in the Orange Bowl.

2003 – United States Army division commanders began a war game at US V Corps headquarters at Heidelberg, Germany, called VICTORY SCRIMMAGE.

2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that it will return to Earth two years later.

2004 – US Army Captain Kimberly Hampton is killed from hostile fire in Iraq. She is the first female helicopter killed in the line of duty and the first female killed in the war from South Carolina.

2004 – U.S. Representative Ralph Hall from Texas files for reelection and switches parties from Democrat to Republican.

2004 – No leap second is added this year. This is the fifth year in a row without a leap-second after 28 years of adding leap-seconds to compensate for the slowing of the Earth’s rotation.

2005 – The death toll from the Dec 26 Tsunami was expected to hit 150,000.

2005 – In El Dorada, Ark., firefighters evacuated hundreds of residents as they fought a blaze in a hazardous waste warehouse.

2005 – The Washington Post and Reuters report that the US government is preparing to keep suspected terrorists in detention without charge for life.

2006 – In the Fiesta Bowl, #4 Ohio State beat #5 Notre Dame 34-20 .

2006 – An explosion in a coal mine leads to the death of 12 of 13 miners in the Sago Mine disaster in West Virginia.

2006 –  Independence Air, formerly known as Atlantic Coast Airlines, said it will shut down on Jan 5. The DC based carrier only began operations Jun 16, 2004.

2006 – Police are investigating the New Year’s Day murder of Bryan Harvey, who with his wife and two young daughters were found dead with their throats slashed in the basement of their South Side Richmond, Virginia, home, which was then set afire. Harvey was former singer and guitarist of 1980s band “House of Freaks.”

2007 – New York City commuter Wesley Autrey Sr. saved a 19-year-old student who had fallen onto subway tracks by leaping down and pulling the teen and himself into the trough between the tracks as a train passed over them.

2007 – Seven policemen charged in a deadly Danziger Bridge shooting in the chaotic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina turn themselves in at a New Orleans city jail.

2007 – Former US President Gerald Ford’s state funeral takes place at the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C. His casket is later moved to his hometown Grand Rapids, Michigan for burial on Wednesday January 3, 2007.

2008 –  Gold prices swept to a record high of $861.10 above the key $850-an-ounce mark, driven by surging oil, a weaker dollar and simmering geopolitical tensions.

2011 – President Barack Obama signs the 9/11 health bill into law to cover the cost of medical care for rescue workers and others sickened by toxic fumes and dust after the 2001 attack on the World Trade Center.

2012 – Mount Rainier National Park  Washington State is closed as police conduct a manhunt for a man who shot dead a park ranger on New Year’s Day; the gunman, Benjamin Barnes, is eventually found dead.

2013 – President Barack Obama signs the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, intended to prevent the “fiscal cliff”.

2014 – Obamacare started yesterday promising health insurance all Americans. In actuality its left more Americans without coverage than before the law was passed. More than 4.7 million Americans had their health insurance canceled as a result of many of the thousand-plus-page law’s new rules but the Department of Health and Human Services confirmed Tuesday that between federal and state exchanges, just 2 million Americans have signed up for the coverage resulting in a net loss of almost 3 million  insurance plans.



1647 – Nathaniel Bacon, English-born American colonist (d. 1676)
1920 – Isaac Asimov, Russian-born American science fiction writer, author of almost 500 books.
1936 – Roger Miller, American singer, songwriter, and musician.
1938 – David Bailey, English photographer
1939 – Jim Bakker, Former American televangelist.
1942 – Dennis Hastert, 59th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
1968 – Cuba Gooding Jr., American actor





Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Changbong-ni, Korea, January 2nd, 1951. Entered service at: Indianola, Iowa. Born: 7 October 1926, Indianola, Iowa. G.O. No.: 13, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sfc. Edwards, Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon, while assisting in the defense of a strategic hill, was forced out of its position and came under vicious raking fire from an enemy machine gun set up on adjacent high ground, Sfc. Edwards individually charged the hostile emplacement, throwing grenades as he advanced. The enemy withdrew but returned to deliver devastating fire when he had expended his ammunition. Securing a fresh supply of grenades, he again charged the emplacement, neutralized the weapon and killed the crew, but was forced back by hostile small-arms fire. When the enemy emplaced another machine gun and resumed fire, Sfc. Edwards again renewed his supply of grenades, rushed a third time through a vicious hail of fire, silenced this second gun and annihilated its crew. In this third daring assault he was mortally wounded but his indomitable courage and successful action enabled his platoon to regain and hold the vital strongpoint. Sfc. Edwards’ consummate valor and gallant self-sacrifice reflect the utmost glory upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the infantry and military service.




Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Clear Creek, Ariz., January 2nd, 1873. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.




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Unerased History – January 1st

Posted by Wayne Church on January 1, 2015 in 01- January, Blog by month |
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Happy New Years



New Years Day

Julian Day 1 was 4713 BC, no particular event was recorded, but it became Julian day number 1 as a result of John W. F. Herschel’s establishing a useful time system for astronomy by adopting the initial epoch of Joseph Justus Scaliger‘s cycle of 7980 years. This is useful for astronomers’ calculations of the dates of eclipses. For this purpose, the Julian day number of a day is defined as the number of days since noon GMT on 1 Jan 4713 B.C. in the Proleptic Julian Calendar, and each Julian day number runs from noon to noon.«

January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both  the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Here a calendar year refers to the order in which the months are displayed, January to December. The first day of the medieval Julian year was usually a day other than January 1. This day was adopted as the first day of the Julian year by some European countries between 1522 and 1579 (that is, before the creation of the Gregorian calendar in 1582). The British Empire (including its American colonies) did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752. This change can lead to dating confusion between Old Style and New Style dates. The Gregorian calendar as promulgated in 1582 did not specify that January 1 was to be either New Year’s Day or the first day of its numbered year. Although England began its numbered year on March 25 (Lady Day) between the thirteenth century and 1752, January 1 was called New Year’s Day, which was a holiday when gifts were exchanged. 364 days (365 in leap years) remain in the year after this day. At 12 midnight on December 2014, the Julian date is 2,456,658.5

The Mummers Day Parade

Mummery traces its roots to ancient Roman laborers who ushered in the festival of Saturnalia by marching in masks while exchanging gifts and satirizing the issues of the day. In the 1600s, Swedish settlers to Philadelphia’s outskirts honored Christmas by beseeching their neighbors for dessert and liquor by dressing up, chanting and shooting firearms.

The party eventually migrated to New Year’s Day and evolved into a series of neighborhood parades; then, as immigrants moved to the area from Ireland and Italy, each group added their own cultural flair to the local customs. In 1901, the tradition began in earnest with the first recognized and judged Mummers Parade. The term “Mummer” is German and means “to costume or masquerade.”

The parade begins at 10 a.m. and ends sometime before 7:00 p.m. Fancy Brigades hold two ticketed competitions at the Pennsylvania Convention Center – the first at 12:00 noon and the second at 5:00 p.m. (See below for ticket information.) The revelry then moves to Two Street for a party the goes well into the early morning hours.








The day’s highlight is the parade itself, which begins in South Philadelphia in the morning and winds its way up Broad Street to City Hall approximately eight hours later. Each division knows its role: the Comics, often dressed as wenches, satirize issues, institutions and people; the Fancies impress with their glamorous outfits that rival those of royalty; the String Bands gleefully play banjoes, saxophones and percussion instruments; and the Fancy Brigades produce tightly choreographed theatrical extravaganzas.



Psalms 40:3 (NIV)

He put a new song in my mouth, a hymn of praise to our God. Many will see and fear and put their trust in the LORD.



“Since the general civilization of mankind, I believe there are more instances of theMadisonJ01 abridgment of the freedom of the people by gradual and silent encroachment of those in power, than by violent and sudden usurpations.”

— James Madison in 1788, speaking to the Virginia Convention.



And ye, who have met with Adversity’s blast,
And been bow’d to the earth by its fury;
To whom the Twelve Months, that have recently pass’d
Were as harsh as a prejudiced jury –
Still, fill to the Future! and join in our chime,
The regrets of remembrance to cozen,
And having obtained a New Trial of Time,
Shout in hopes of a kindlier dozen.

~Thomas Hood

fait accompli fay-tah-kom-PLEE; fet-ah-, noun;

plural faits accomplis same or -PLEEZ:

An accomplished and presumably irreversible deed or fact.



45 BC – The Julian calendar first takes effect. This day is first celebrated as New Year’s Day.

404 – The last known gladiator competition in Rome takes place.

1500 – Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral searched the coast of Brazil and claimed the region for Portugal.

1586 – Francis Drake, who left England on a new voyage to America last September, made a surprise attack on the heavily fortified city of Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, forcing the governor to pay a large ransom.

1600 – Scotland begins using the Julian calendar.

1660 – Samuel Pepys starts his diary.

1673 – Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston.

1676 – John Eliot, “the apostle to the Indians,” translates the Scriptures into the Massachusett language, spoken by the Massachusett and Wampanoag Native American nations. It is the first Bible to be published in North America. (actual date unknown).

1772 – The first traveller’s cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London for the first time.

1780 – American patriots conduct a continuing guerrilla campaign against the British in the territory surrounding Augusta, Georgia.

1781 – Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia, marking the end of the Revolutionary War.

1782 – The supporters of the British cause, the Loyalists, begin to leave the US, mainly for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.

1788 – Quakers in Pennsylvania emancipated their slaves.

1797 – Albany replaces New York City as the capital of New York.

1800 – The Dutch East India Company ceases to exist.

1801 – The first known asteroid, 1 Ceres, is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi.

1802 – A mammoth cheese was presented to President Thomas Jefferson at the White House. In summer 1801, Rev. John Leland urged the ladies of his church in Cheshire, Massachusetts to produce a mammoth cheese to give to the president to recognize his support of religious liberty. The trip to the White House started in November 1801 on a six-horse wagon. Jefferson wrote that it was 4-ft 4½-in diam., 15-in thick.

1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and first country independent in the West Indies.

1804 – The tradition of the Marine Band serenading the Commandant was established.

1808 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.

1813 – The Allies defeated Napoleon at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig.

1815 – At New Orleans, British commander Sir Edward Pakenham leads an attack against the US fortifications around the city. Under General Andrew Jackson, the US Artillery proves superior, and the British are forced to withdraw in order to await reinforcements.

1818 – An official reopening of the White House took place after being repaired from burning by British during War of 1812.

1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel “Frankenstein”, or “The Modern Prometheus” is published.

1824 – The Camp Street Theatre opened as the first English-language playhouse in New Orleans.

1831 – William Lloyd Garrison of Massachusetts, began publishing his newspaper “The Liberator”, dedicated to the abolition of slavery.

1831 –  the Genesee Farmer and Gardener’s Journal began publication with an eight-page issue. It was the first American agricultural journal written directly from practical experience.

1840 – First recorded bowling match in US, Knickerbocker Alleys, New York City, NY

1845 – The Cobble Hill Tunnel, in Brooklyn, was finished.

1850 – The first iron pile lighthouse in the U.S. built on Minot’s Ledge, Mass., just outside the Boston Harbor and the lamp was lit. The loss of 40 ships there in 1832-41, showed a light was badly needed. It was the first lighthouse in the U.S. to be exposed to the ocean’s full fury. It was feared to be unsafe by its keepers, who reported it swayed badly in storms. The structure was swept away in a great gale on April 16, 1851.

1853 – The first practical U.S. steam fire engine began service in Cincinnati, Ohio, named the Uncle Joe Ross, after a city councilman, who championed it. Four horses pulled the three-wheeled, 5-ton carriage. It could pump six water streams, or a single water stream, 1-3/4″ diam., up to 240 ft range.

1862 – Civil War: First US income tax (3% of incomes > $600, 5% of incomes > $10,000). In order to support the CIVIL WAR effort, Congress enacted the nation’s first income tax law. It was a forerunner of our modern income tax in that it was based on the principles of graduated, or progressive, taxation and of withholding income at the source. In addition sales and excise taxes were added, and an “inheritance” tax also made its debut.

1862 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Yankee, Lieutenant Eastman, and U.S.S. Anacostia, Lieutenant Oscar C. Badger, exchanged fire with Confederate batteries at Cockpit Point, Potomac River; The Yankee was damaged slightly.

1863 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, calling on the Union army to liberate all slaves in states still in rebellion as “an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity.” Three million slaves were declared to be “then, thenceforward, and forever free.”

1863 – Civil War: Confederate warships defeated Union blockading forces at Galveston in a fierce surprise attack combined with an assault ashore by Confederate troops that resulted in the capture of the Northern Army company stationed there.

1863 – Civil War: Confederate General Braxton Bragg and Union General William Rosecrans readjust their troops as the Battle of Murfreesboro continues.

1863 – The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska.

1863 – Joseph Merlin invented roller skates with no brakes. He went to a costume ball and crashed into a large mirror. James Plimpton invented roller skates WITH brakes.

1872 – The Holtermann nugget was mined at Hill End, New South Wales in Australia; weighing 630 lbs — the largest gold nugget ever found.

1874 – New York City annexed the Bronx.

1876 – The first modern New Year’s Day Mummers’ Parade was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was a boisterous Swedish custom of celebrating the end of the calendar year with noise making and shouting was combined with the tradition of the British mummery play.

1880 – Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal.

1888 – The first municipal health laboratory in the U.S. was established in Providence, Rhode Island. It was run by Dr Charles V. Chapin, a pioneer epidemiologist, assisted by Dr Gardner T. Swarts as the Medical Inspector.

1889 – The University of Pennsylvania became the first U.S. university to have a professor of psychology with the appointment of James McKeen Cattell as the first academic to have the title in that field.

1890 – The first Tournament of Roses is held in Pasadena, California.

1892 – Ellis Island opens to begin accepting immigrants to the United States. Fifteen-year-old Annie Moore (15) of County Cork, Ireland, was the first immigrant to be processed through Ellis. The new facility replaced Castle Garden, which was closed because of massive overcrowding and corruption.

1896 – Wilhelm Röntgen announces his discovery of x-rays.

1897 – First football game between Black colleges-Atlanta University 10, Tuskegee 0.

1898 – New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs,Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs.

1900 – A New York editorialist wrote that the 20th century began in the United States with  “a sense of euphoria  and self-satisfaction, a sure feeling that America is the envy of the world.”

1901 – The first official Mummers Parade is held.

1902 – The first radio broadcast demonstration in the U.S. was given by Nathan B. Stubblefield. His voice was the first to be carried on the air-waves (“wireless” – without any wires used for the transmission).

1902 – The first Rose Bowl game is played in Pasadena, California, with the University of Michigan beating Stanford University by a score of 49-0.

1903 -The first transpacific cable from the U.S. was landed at Honolulu, Hawaii and the first message was telegraphed to President Theodore Roosevelt in Washington. Cable Ship Silvertown had laid 2,620 miles of cable since leaving San Francisco, California, on December 14, 1902.

1907 – President Theodore Roosevelt shook a record 8,513 hands in one day.

1907 – The Pure Food and Drug Act became law in the United States.

1908 – For the first time, a ball is dropped in New York City’s Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.

1909 – The milk pasteurization law took effect in Chicago, Illinois, which in July 1908 became the first American city to pass such a law. Any milk sold in the city was required to have been pasteurized, or must be from cows that had been tuberculin tested.

1909 – Drilling began on the Lakeview Gusher. The Lakeview Gusher Number One is often regarded as the largest recorded U.S. oil well gusher. Located along Taft-Maricopa Highway (California State Route 33) in Kern County, California. The Center for Land Use Interpretation identifies the coordinates as 35°04′48″N, 119°23′35″W.

|1910 – The Hydrox “biscuit bonbon,” a chocolate sandwich cookie with creme filling, was introduced in the U.S., the first of its type in America.

1912 – A Massachusetts law reducing the work-week from fifty-six to fifty-four hours for women and children, went into effect.

1913 – Post office begins parcel post deliveries and issued  the world’s first stamp to depict an airplane (a biplane) went on sale at  U.S. Post Offices.

1914 – First scheduled airline flight, St Petersburg-Tampa (Tony Jannus pilot).The St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line offered two flights in each direction daily, at $5 fare each way. The flight traveled 18 miles in about 23 minutes, mostly following the Tampa Bay coast, and at an elevation of 80 feet when crossing the open water of Tampa Bay.

1915 – Aspirin was made available for the first time in tablet form. The pills were manufactured by Bayer pharmaceuticals in Germany. The medicine had previously been sold in powder form from  May 1, 1899.

1918 – The first gasoline pipeline began operation along the 40 miles Salt Creek to Casper, Wyoming.

1919 – The first national park in the eastern United States was established on Maine’s Mt. Desert Island, originally called Lafayette National Park but was renamed Acadia National Park in 1929.

1919 – Edsel Ford became president of the Ford Motor company, taking over from his father, Henry Ford. They become sole owners of the company by purchasing stock of the other shareholders.

1920 – Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and his assistant J. Edgar Hoover, begin prosecution of what he perceives as a “Red Menace.”

1923 – The Angelus Temple, a spiritual palace in the Echo Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, was dedicated by Canadian-born evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944), organizer of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.

1924 –  The first U.S.patent for ink paste was issued to Frank Buckley Cooney of Minneapolis, Minn. (No. 1,479,533). Paste ink was designed to be rendered fluid for use by the addition of water.

1925 – The American astronomer Edwin Hubble announces the discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way.

1928 – Utah’s Bryce Canyon National Monument was established.

1928 – The first high-rise office building in the world with air-conditioning installed during construction – the Milam Building – opened in San Antonio, Texas.

1934 – Alcatraz Island becomes a U.S. federal prison.The first prisoners arrived in August 11, 1934.

1934 – Nazi Germany passes the “Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring” (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). This was the most infamous sterilization program of the 20th century took place under the most infamous regime of the 20th century: the Third Reich. This law was one of the first acts by Adolf Hitler after achieving total control over the German state.

1934 – Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., the US bank guarantor, became effective.

1934 – A state law took effect mandating the use of safety glass for windshields and windows in new vehicles registered in Pennsylvania.

1935 – Bucknell University wins the first Orange Bowl 26-0 over the University of Miami and in the Sugar Bowl Temple is defeated by Tulane  20-14.

1935 – Wirephoto™ by AP News® was invented. It enabled the transmission of photographs by wire to member newspapers.

1935 – Eastern Airlines hired Eddie Rickenbacker as GM.

1937 – The first Cotton Bowl game is played in Dallas, Texas. TCU defeats Marquette University 16-6.

1937 – At a party at the Hormel Mansion in Minnesota, a guest won $100 for naming a new canned meat — Spam. SPAM was originally called Hormel Spiced Ham without much success.

1939 – William Hewlett and David Packard found Hewlett-Packard.

1942 – The Declaration by the United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.

1942 – Rose Bowl played in Durham, North Carolina due to Japanese threat. Oregon 20- Duke 16.

1944 – World War II: American aircraft attack a Japanese convoy off Kavieng, New Ireland. The planes are from the carrier task group led by Admiral Sherman.

1945 – World War II:  In Operation Bodenplatte, the German Luftwaffe makes a series of heavy attacks on Allied airfields in Belgium, Holland and northern France.This was the last major offensive of the Luftwaffe.

1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “There Goes that Song Again” by Russ Morgan, “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “I’m Wastin’ My Tears on You” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.

1946 – ENIAC, US first computer finished by Mauchly/Eckert. Though not the first ever computer, ENIAC is regarded as the first successful, general digital computer. It weighed over 60,000 lb, and contained more than 18,000 vacuum tubes.

1946 – The U.S. Coast Guard, which had operated as a service under the U.S. Navy since 1 November 1941, was returned to the U .S. Treasury Department, pursuant to Executive Order 9666, dated 28 December 1945.

1946 – An American soldier accepts the surrender of about 20 Japanese soldiers who only discovered that the war was over by reading it in the newspaper.

1947 – The American and British occupation zones in Germany, after the World War II, merge to form the Bizone, that later became the Federal Republic of Germany.

1948 –  The first U.S. motion picture newsreel in color was taken at the Tournament of Roses and the Rose Bowl Game, Pasadena, California. Warner Brothers-Pathe started showing this first color newsreel to theatre audiences on 5 Jan 1948. It was made using the Cinecolor process. *

1950 – “Rudolph, The Red-nosed Reindeer” by Gene Autry topped the charts.

1950 – Mary T. Sproul commissioned as first female doctor in Navy.

1951 – Zenith Radio Corporation of Chicago demonstrated the first pay-per-view television system, offering three movies, “April Showers,” “Welcome Stranger” and “Homecoming.”

1951 – As almost half a million Chinese Communist and North Korean troops launched a new ground offensive. They take Inchon and Kimpo Airfied. Fifth Air Force embarked on a campaign of air raids on enemy troop columns.

1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como and “What a Lonesome Life it’s Been by Skeets McDonald all topped the charts.
1953 – Ten full-length observation “Super Dome” railroad cars began service on the Hiawatha trains of the Milwaukee Railroad operating between Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Minneapolis, Seattle and Tacoma.

1954 – The first color telecast originating from the west coast of the U.S. showed the Tournament of Roses parade hosted by Don Ameche in Pasadena, California. It was viewed by the audiences of the National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) network in 21 cities (with remaining cities showing the program in black and white.)

1958 – The U.S. Coast Guard ceased listening continuously for distress calls on 2670 kilocycles replacing the monitoring 21882 kilocycles same as all other monitoring nations.

1959 – Fulgencio Batista, president of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro’s forces during the Cuban Revolution.

1960 – AFL Championship was played between the Houston Oilers and the Los Angeles Chargers. The final score was Houston 24 to LA 16. The head coach for Houston was Lou Rymkus (1919-1998). The quarterbacks were George Blanda for Houston and Jack Kemp for LA. The game was played in Jeppesen Stadium, Houston, TX.

1960 – Sun City, AZ opened today. It attracted more than 100,000 visitors, and it helped fuel America’s interest in retirement communities.

1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Are You Lonesome To-night?” by Elvis Presley,Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert, “Exodus” by Ferrante & Teicher and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.

1962 – Decca Records turn down the Beatles.

1962 – US Navy SEAL teams established.

1962 – The last signals from the OSCAR 1 satellite were received as its non-rechargeable battery failed. The OSCAR 1 (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) was the first Amateur Radio satellite, launched on 12 Dec 1961.

1963 – The first U.S. electric power plant to use hyperbolic-shaped cooling towers was placed in commercial service at Ashland, Kentucky by the Kentucky Power Company. It was designed to cool 120,000 gallons of water per minute.

1964 – An ordinance banning the open-burning of all materials on land within New York City limits took full effect upon the expiration of the two-year exemption for builders and building wreckers.

1966 – A twelve day New York City transit strike begins.

1966 – “The Sounds of Silence” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.

1966 – US cigarette packs have to carry “Caution Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health”.

1966 – Vietnam War: First Marine Division, First Regiment, USMC advance elements arrive in Vietnam.

1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Sam Houston begins as a continuation of border surveillance operations in Pleiku and Kontum Provinces in the Central Highlands by units from the U.S. 4th and 25th Infantry Divisions.

1967 –  The first fluoridation law in the U.S. went into effect in Connecticut, requiring fluoridation of public water supplies serving 20,000 or more population, to prevent dental cavities.

1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye, “For Once in My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “Stormy” by Classics IV featuring Dennis Yost and “Wichita Lineman” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.

1970 – Jimi Hendrix, Buddy Miles, and Billy Cox are recorded live at the Fillmore East. The resulting album, Band of Gypsys, is the last Hendrix album to be released before his death. This song is from that album, “Machine Gun.”

1970 – President Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act into law.

1971 – Cigarette advertisements are banned on American television.

1972 – “Promises Promises” closed at Shubert Theater New York City after 1281 performances.

1974 – The US government Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, established by Congress in 1972, began providing new benefits for the aged, blind and disabled.

1975 – A jury convicts former U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell and former White House aides John Ehrlichman and H.R. Haldeman on all counts in the Watergate cover-up case.

1975 –  The federal minimum wage was set at $2.10 per hour for 1938 and 1961 groups. It was set at $2.00 for 1966 non-farm group and $1.90 per hour for farm employment.

1976 – NBC replaced the peacock logo.

1976 – The federal minimum wage was set at $2.30 per hour for 1938 and 1961 groups. It was set at $2.20 for 1966 non-farm group and $2.00 per hour for farm employment.

1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” BY Rod Stewart,You Don’t Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)” by Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr., “You Make Me Feel Like Dancing” by Leo Sayer and “Sweet Dreams” by Emmylou Harris all topped the charts.

1977 – The federal minimum wage was set at  $$2.30 for 1966 non-farm group and $2.20 per hour for farm employment.

1978 – The US Federal Minimum Wage, set at $2.65 an hour for all covered groups. There were no longer any subgroups.

1978 – US copyright law of 2007 held that the rights to songs written before this date expire 75 years after they were published. US songs written after 1978 would hold their copyright for 50 years after the death of the songwriter.

1979 – Formal diplomatic relations are established between the People’s Republic of China and the United States of America.

1979 – The federal minimum wage is set at $2.90 per hour.

1980 – The federal minimum wage is set at $3.10 per hour.

1981 – The federal minimum wage is set at $3.35 per hour.

1983 – The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet. TCP/IP became the standard for Internet protocol.

1984 – AT&T is broken up into twenty-two independent units.

1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like a Virgin” by Madonna, “The Wild Boys” by Duran

Duran, “Sea of Love” by The Honeydrippers and “Why Not Me” by The Judds all topped the charts.

1985 – The Internet’s Domain Name System is created.

1985 – AT&T, the American telephone company, divested local operating to seven independent companies, and henceforth was limited to the long-distance market. Thus ended a monopoly that had previously been sanctioned and regulated by the government. This was required by the 1982 settlement of the 1974 U.S. Justice Department antitrust lawsuit.

1985 – The first US mandatory seat belt law went into effect in New York State.

1985 – The Coast Guard cutter Citrus was rammed by the Motor Vessel Pacific Star during a boarding incident. The Pacific Star then sank after being scuttled by her crew. There were no casualties. The seven crewmen were arrested on drug charges.

1988 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America comes into existence, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States.

1990 – David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City’s first African-American mayor.

1991 – Oklahoma  became the first state in the U.S. to implement electronic highway toll collection. It was installed on existing toll roads. Drivers with an optional windshield mounted transponder device could pass at highway speeds through designated lanes of  toll plazas.

1992 – A hospital without a policy of no-smoking indoors would risk losing accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). That would put their Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements in jeopardy. The smoke-free environment, mandated for accreditation by the Commission, was for the health of the patients. This was the first U.S. industry-wide ban on smoking in the workplace.

1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement comes into effect.

1995 – Gary Larson’s “Far Side” cartoon panel ended a 14-year run.

1995 – The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Year’s Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical.

1996 – In the US it became illegal to manufacture or import freon, a refrigerant for car air-conditioners, due to its effect on the ozone.

1997 – US withdraws completely from the UN Industrial Development Organization.

1997 – The line-item veto became officially available to Pres. Clinton. Later, The US Supreme Court would rule it unconstitutional.

1998 – The 109th Rose Bowl Parade in Pasadena was held and University of Michigan beat Washington State 21-16.

1998 – Law goes into effect in California banning smoking in all bars and nightclubs. It already was illegal to smoke in the state’s restaurants and cafes.

1999 – The Euro currency is introduced.

2000 – As the world celebrates, no major crisis arises from the dreaded Y2K computer ‘millennium bug’.

2000 – The Jewish calendar year was 5760 and the new year scheduled for September 30.

2000 – Wisconsin beat Stanford, 17-to-9, to become the first Big Ten team to win consecutive Rose Bowls.

2001 – No. 4 Washington beat No. 14 Purdue 34-to-24 in the Rose Bowl.

2002 – No. 2 Oregon defeated No. 3 Colorado 38-16 in the Fiesta Bowl.

2002 – The Open Skies mutual surveillance treaty, initially signed in 1992, officially enters into force. It establishes a program of unarmed aerial surveillance flights over the entire territory of its participants. The treaty is designed to enhance mutual understanding and confidence by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information about military forces and activities of concern to them.

2003 – Oklahoma beats Washington State 34-14 in the Rose Bowl.

2003 – Georgia defeated Florida State 26-13 in the Sugar Bowl.

2003 – Notre Dame lost to North Carolina State 28-6 in the Gator Bowl.It was its sixth straight bowl loss.

2003 – More than two dozen surgeons stopped working in West Virginia to protest the high cost of malpractice insurance.

2003 – Joe Foss (87), former South Dakota Gov. and World War II hero, Medal of Honor recipient who also served as president of the National Rifle Association and commissioner of the American Football League, died at an Arizona hospital.

2004 – The University of Southern California defeated the University of Michigan, 28-14, in the Rose Bowl.

2004 – The US Navy seized a 4th drug-smuggling vessel in the Persian Gulf with about 2,800 pounds of hashish. Street value was estimated at $11 million.

2006 – The US Medicare prescription drug plan went into effect.

2007 – The 9th-ranked Boise State Broncos completes a perfect season with a 43-42 overtime victory over No. 7 Oklahoma in the Fiesta Bowl.

2007 – Southern California beat Michigan 32-18 in the Rose Bowl.

2007 – In Denver, Colorado, Broncos football player Darrent Williams was killed in a drive-by shooting in the early morning and two people with him were injured.

2008 – In Arizona new laws targeting employers who hire illegal immigrants took effect.

2008 – The Michigan Wolverines upset No. 9 Florida 41-35 in the Capital One Bowl to win their first bowl game since 2003.

2009 – Virgin Galactic and the U.S. state of New Mexico sign a US$150-250 million agreement to launch sub-orbital commercial space flights at Spaceport America, near Las Cruces and Truth or Consequences.

2009 – Bank of America purchased Merrill Lynch to save it from bankruptcy. It was later revealed that the company had awarded $3.6 billion in bonuses to over 39,000 employees just before the acquisition by BofA. The bonuses included $121 million to four top executives.

2009 – The United States handed over control of the Green Zone and Saddam Hussein’s presidential palace to Iraqi authorities in a ceremonial move described by the country’s prime minister as a restoration of Iraq’s sovereignty.

2010 – In the Rose Bowl the No. 8 Ohio Buckeyes won a 26-17 victory over No. 7 Oregon.

2011 – 108th Mummers Parade - Highlights – Filmed at Broad street and Washington Avenue,Philadelphia Pennsylvania. This is the 108th Mummers Day Parade. Mummers tradition dates back to 400 BC and the Roman Festival of Saturnalias where Latin laborers marched in masks throughout the day of satire and gift exchange. This included Celtic variations of “trick-or-treat” and Druidic noise-making to drive away demons for the new year. Reports of rowdy groups “parading” on New Years day in Philadelphia date back before the revolution. Prizes were offered by merchants in the late 1800’s. January 1, 1901 was the first “official.”

2011 – Public workers face outrage as budget crises grow. Across the nation, a rising irritation with public employee unions is palpable, as a wounded economy has blown gaping holes in state, city and town budgets.

2011 –  Over a thousand dead blackbirds and other fowl fall out of the sky in Arkansas after a violent tornado outbreak and hailstorm.

2012 – 123rd Rose Bowl Parade in Pasadena. Camera location: Orange Grove and Colorado. (1:50:27)

2012 –  The second of NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory spacecraft is in orbit around the moon.

2013 – 124th Rose Bowl Parade in Pasadena.

2014 -The manufacture and import of 60- and 40-watt incandescent light bulbs is now illegal — one more setback in the fight against government interference into the daily lives of the American people.

2014 – Uncle Sam—AKA the federal government—went on a New Year’s Eve binge, adding a net of $125,202,709,546.99 to its total debt in just the one day of Dec. 31, 2013, according to the U.S. Treasury.

2014 – The body of 24-year-old Lauren Bump was discovered on a trail in O.P. Schnabel Park, San Antonio, TX. She had been stabbed multiple times. The murderer, Christian Ivan Bautista, 29  is an illegal alien with a long list of crimes. She was stabbed  to death on a jogging trail located in the Northwest section of the city on New Year’s Eve,



1735 – Paul Revere, American patriot (1735- 1818)
1745 – Anthony Wayne, American general and statesman (1745 – 1796)

1750 – Frederick Muhlenberg, First Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (1750-. 1801)
1752 – Betsy Ross, American seamstress (1752- 1836)

1860 – George Washington Carver, American educator (1860- 1943)
1895 – J. Edgar Hoover, American, founding director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations.
1900 – Xavier Cugat (Francisco Deulogeo), Spanish violinist, composer, band leader.
1909 – Barry Goldwater, US Senator, 1964 Republican Presidential nominee.
1919 – J.D. (Jerome David) Salinger, American novelist and short story writer.
1922 – Rocky Graziano, American boxer (1922-. 1990)
1931 – John Le Carré is the pseudonym of David John Moore Cornwell, an English writer of espionage novels.
1935 – B. (Bernard) Kliban, American cartoonist.
1942 – Country Joe McDonald, American musician (Country Joe and the Fish)








Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Air Cavalry Troop, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Near Bien Hao, Republic of Vietnam,  January 1st, 1969. Entered service at: Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: 13 December 1943, Kealakekua Kona, Hawaii. Citation: Sfc. Yano distinguished himself while serving with the Air Cavalry Troop. Sfc. Yano was performing the duties of crew chief aboard the troop’s command-and-control helicopter during action against enemy forces entrenched in dense jungle. From an exposed position in the face of intense small arms and antiaircraft fire he delivered suppressive fire upon the enemy forces and marked their positions with smoke and white phosphorous grenades, thus enabling his troop commander to direct accurate and effective artillery fire against the hostile emplacements. A grenade, exploding prematurely, covered him with burning phosphorous, and left him severely wounded. Flaming fragments within the helicopter caused supplies and ammunition to detonate. Dense white smoke filled the aircraft, obscuring the pilot’s vision and causing him to lose control. Although having the use of only one arm and being partially blinded by the initial explosion, Sfc. Yano completely disregarded his welfare and began hurling blazing ammunition from the helicopter. In so doing he inflicted additional wounds upon himself, yet he persisted until the danger was past. Sfc. Yano’s indomitable courage and profound concern for his comrades averted loss of life and additional injury to the rest of the crew. By his conspicuous gallantry at the cost of his life, in the highest traditions of the military service, Sfc. Yano has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.


Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 71st Infantry, 44th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Woelfling, France, January 1st, 1945. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He led a squad when his unit moved forward in darkness to meet the threat of a breakthrough by elements of the 17th German Panzer Grenadier Division. Assigned to protect the left flank, he discovered hostile troops digging in. As he reported this information, several German machineguns opened fire, stopping the American advance. Knowing the position of the enemy, Sgt. MacGillivary volunteered to knock out one of the guns while another company closed in from the right to assault the remaining strong points. He circled from the left through woods and snow, carefully worked his way to the emplacement and shot the two camouflaged gunners at a range of three feet as other enemy forces withdrew. Early in the afternoon of the same day, Sgt. MacGillivary was dispatched on reconnaissance and found that Company I was being opposed by about six machineguns reinforcing a company of fanatically fighting Germans. His unit began an attack but was pinned down by furious automatic and small arms fire. With a clear idea of where the enemy guns were placed, he voluntarily embarked on a lone combat patrol. Skillfully taking advantage of all available cover, he stalked the enemy, reached a hostile machinegun and blasted its crew with a grenade. He picked up a submachine gun from the battlefield and pressed on to within ten yards of another machinegun, where the enemy crew discovered him and feverishly tried to swing their weapon into line to cut him down. He charged ahead, jumped into the midst of the Germans and killed them with several bursts. Without hesitation, he moved on to still another machinegun, creeping, crawling, and rushing from tree to tree, until close enough to toss a grenade into the emplacement and close with its defenders. He dispatched this crew also, but was himself seriously wounded. Through his indomitable fighting spirit, great initiative, and utter disregard for personal safety in the face of powerful enemy resistance, Sgt. MacGillivary destroyed four hostile machineguns and immeasurably helped his company to continue on its mission with minimum casualties.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White River, S. Dak., January 1st,1891. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 7 June 1850, Washington, D.C. Date of issue. 25 April 1891. Citation: Headed the advance across White River partly frozen, in a spirited movement to the effective assistance of Troop K, 6th U.S. Cavalry.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company K, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White River, S. Dak., January 1st, 1891. Entered service at: Overton, Rusk County, Tex. Born: 22 August 1864, Overton, Rusk County, Tex. Date of issue: 25 July 1891. Citation: Bravery in action.




Rank and organization: Captain, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White River, S. Dak., January 1st,1891. Entered service at: Hutchison Station, Ky. Birth: Fayette County, Ky. Date of issue: 25 April 1891. Citation: For distinguished bravery while in command of his troop in action against hostile Sioux Indians on the north bank of the White River, near the mouth of Little Grass Creek, S. Dak., where he defeated a force of 300 Brule Sioux warriors, and turned the Sioux tribe, which was endeavoring to enter the Bad Lands, back into the Pine Ridge Agency.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop F, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White River, S. Dak., January 1st,1891. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Danville, IL. Date of issue: 1 May 1891. Citation: Led the advance in a spirited movement to the assistance of Troop K, 6th U.S. Cavalry.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White River, S. Dak., January 1st, 1891. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 4 February 1891. Citation: With five men repelled a superior force of the enemy and held his position against their repeated efforts to recapture it.





Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near White River, S. Dak., January 1st,1891.Entered service at: Helena, Mont. Birth: Tucson, Ariz. Date of issue: 4 February 1891. Citation: With 4 men of his troop drove off a superior force of the enemy and held his position against their repeated efforts to recapture it, and subsequently pursued them a great distance.




Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., 31 December 1862-January 1st,1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 November 1887. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 116th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Dutch Gap Canal, Va., January 1st, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 8 December 1898. Citation: After the fuse to the mined bulkhead had been lit, this officer, learning that the picket guard had not been withdrawn, mounted the bulkhead and at great personal peril warned the guard of its danger.




Rank and organization. Private, Company B, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., 31 December 1862 to January 1st, 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 10 June 1841, Frankford, Pa. Date of issue: 18 November 1887. Citation: Gallantry in action.



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Unerased History – December 31st

Posted by Wayne Church on December 31, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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Final Scene from “It’s a Wonderful Life”

Auld Lang Syne

Should auld acquaintance be forgot
and never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot
and days of auld lang syne?
For auld lang syne, my dear,
for auld lang syne,
we’ll take a cup of kindness yet,
for auld lang syne.Should auld acquaintance be forgot
and never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot
and days of auld lang syne?
And here’s a hand, my trusty friend
And gie’s a hand o’ thine
We’ll tak’ a cup o’ kindness yet
For auld lang syne

The song, “Auld Lang Syne” is sung at the stroke of midnight in almost every English-speaking country in the world to bring in the new year. At least partially written by Robert Burns in the 1700’s, it was first published in 1796 after Burns’ death. Early variations of the song were sung prior to 1700 and inspired Burns to produce the modern rendition. An old Scotch tune, “Auld Lang Syne” literally means “old long ago,” or simply, “the good old days.”


“I shall pass this way but once. Any good that I can do Any kindness I can show To any human being, Let me do it now. Let me not defer nor neglect For I shall not pass this way again.”

~William Penn


evanescent \ev-uh-NES-unt\, adjective:

Liable to vanish or pass away like vapor; fleeting.

Evanescent is from Latin evanescere, “to vanish,” from e-, “from, out of” + vanescere, “to disappear,” from vanus, “empty.”

192 – Lucius A.A. Commodus (31), Emperor of Rome (180-192), was murdered. His mistress Marcia, Chamberlain Eclectus, and praetorian prefect Laetus hired the wrestler Narcissus to strangle Commodus after they found their names on an imperial execution list.

1384 – John Wycliffe, English religious reformer and bible translator, died.

1492 – 100,000 Jews were expelled from Sicily.

1600 – British East India Company is chartered.

1695 – A window tax is imposed in England, causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax.

1744 – James Bradley announces discovery of Earth’s motion of nutation (wobble).

1775 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Quebec British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold.

1775 – Revolutionary War: George Washington ordered recruiting officers to accept free blacks into the army.

1776 – Rhode Island establishes wage & price controls to curb inflation.

1781 – The first modern bank in the U.S., the Bank of North America, was organized by Robert Morris and received its charter from the Confederation Congress. It began operating in Philadelphia.

1783 – Import of African slaves was banned by all of the Northern American states.

1831 – Gramercy Park is deeded to New York City.

1841 – The State of Alabama enacted the first dental legislation in the U.S.

1852 – The richest year of the gold rush ended, with $81.3 million in gold produced.

1861 – Civil War: Biloxi, Mississippi, surrendered to a landing party of seamen and Marines covered by U.S.S. Water Witch, New London, and Henry Lewis; a small Confederate battery was destroyed, two guns and schooner Captain Spedden captured.

1862 –Civil War: Abraham Lincoln signs an act that admits West Virginia to the Union (thus dividing Virginia in two).

1862 – Civil War:  The Battle of Stones River is fought near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Union General William Rosecrans’ army repelled two Confederate attacks.

1862 – Civil War: Union ironclad ship “Monitor” sinks off Cape Hatteras NC.

1877 – President Rutherford B. Hayes became the first U.S. President to celebrate his silver (25th) wedding anniversary in the White House.

1879 – Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time.

1879 – Gilbert/Sullivan’s “Pirates of Penzance” premieres in New York NY.

1879 – Cornerstone laid for Hawaii’s Iolani Palace (only royal palace in US).

1891 – New York’s new Immigration Depot was opened at Ellis Island, to provide improved facilities for the massive numbers of arrivals.

1896 – 25th auto built in US.

1897 – Brooklyn’s last day as a city, it incorporates into New York City (1/1/1898).

1904 – The first New Year’s Eve celebration is held in Times Square, then known as Longacre Square, in New York, New York.

1907 – For the first time a ball drops at Times Square to signal the New Year.

1909 – Manhattan Bridge opens.

1911 – Marie Sklodowska Curie received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her isolation of the element of metallic radium and other earlier discoveries in the field of chemistry. She was the first person to be awarded a second Nobel Prize, eight years after she became the first woman ever to be honored with a Nobel Prize.

1916 – The Hampton Terrace Hotel in North Augusta, South Carolina, one of the largest and most luxurious hotels in the United States at the time, burns to the ground.

1923 – The chimes of Big Ben are broadcast on radio for the first time by the BBC.

1923 – First transatlantic radio broadcast of a voice, Pittsburgh-Manchester.

1923 – Singer Eddie Cantor opened in the lead role of “Kid Boots.”

1927 -The Dearborn Independent–a newspaper published by Henry Ford, rolls off the printing press for the last time.  At the peak of its popularity in the mid-1920s it had about 700,000 readers.

1929 – Guy Lombardo performs “Auld Lang Syne” at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City for the first time.

1934 – Helen Richey becomes first woman to pilot an airmail transport.

1935 – A patent was issued for the game of Monopoly assigned to Parker Brothers, Inc., by Charles Darrow of Pennsylvania.

1938 – Dr R N Harger’s “drunkometer”, first breath test, introduced in Indiana.

1941 – World War II: America’s last automobiles with chrome-plated trim were manufactured on this day. Starting in 1942, chrome plating became illegal.

1942 – World War II: Commissioning of USS Essex (CV-9), first of new class of aircraft carriers, at Norfolk, VA.

1942 – World War II: After five months of battle, Emperor Hirohito allowed the Japanese commanders at Guadalcanal to retreat.

1943 – New York City’s Times Square greets Frank Sinatra at the Paramount Theater.

1944 – World War II: On Leyte, various Japanese counterattacks in the northwest are repulsed by American forces.

1944 – CHART TOPPERS –Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “There Goes that Song Again” by Russ Morgan, “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “I’m Wastin’ My Tears on You” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.

1946 – President Harry Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.

1947 – Roy Rogers and Dale Evans were married.

1949 – “Mule Train” by Frankie Laine topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: The 726th Transportation Truck Company, the first Army National Guard unit in Korea, arrived at Pusan.

1951 – First battery to convert radioactive energy to electrical announced.

1951 – The “Wild Bill Hickok” (26:21) radio series premieres on TV.

1951 – Korean War: The U.S. Navy destroyer USS Marshall fired over 5,600 five-inch shells at enemy positions in eastern Korea during the month of December. This was more than she had fired against the enemy during all of her service in World War II.

1951 – Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than $12 billion.

1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Because You’re Mine” by Mario Lanza, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como and “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Skeets McDonald all topped the charts.

1953 – Willie Shoemaker shatters record, riding 485 winners in a year.

1955 – General Motors becomes the first U.S. corporation to make over  $1 billion in a year.The company’s annual report to stockholders listed a net income of $1,189,477,082 in revenues.

1955 – “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford topped the charts.

1958 – Willie Shoemaker first jockey to win national riding championship 4X.

1958 – Cuban dictator Batista flees Cuba. He fled at the Battle of Santa Clara and immediately fled the island with an amassed personal fortune to the Dominican Republic, where strongman and previous military ally Rafael Trujillo held power.

1960 – The Pendletones become The Beach Boys.

1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Are You Lonesome Tonight?” by Elvis Presley, Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert, “Exodus” by Ferrante & Teicher and “Wings of a Dove” by Ferlin Husky  all topped the charts.

1961 – Green Bay Packers shutout New York Giants 37-0 in NFL championship game.

1961 – Beach Boys play their debut gig under this name. The group had made their live performing debut at a Ritchie Valens memorial concert.

1962 – “Match Game” (23:22) debuts on NBC with host Gene Rayburn.

1963 – “Dear Abby” show premieres on CBS radio (runs 11 years).

1963 – Jerry Garcia & Bob Weir played music together for the first time. Weir and Garcia spent the night playing music together and then decided to form a band. The band they formed was Mother McCree’s Uptown Jug Champions, which became the Warlocks, and then the Grateful Dead.

1965 – California became the largest state in population.

1966 – Monkee’s “I’m a Believer” hits #1 & stays there for 7 weeks.

1967 – First NBA game at Great Western Forum, Los Angeles Lakers beat Houston 147-118.

1967 – Dubbed by the sports media as “The Ice Bowl”, the game-time temperature at Lambeau Field was about −15 °F, with a wind chill around −48 °F. Lambeau Field’s turf-heating system malfunctioned, and when the tarpaulin was removed from the field before the game, it left moisture on the field, which flash-froze in the extreme cold, leaving an icy surface that got worse as more and more of the field fell into the shadow of the stadium. Packers win “The Ice Bowl” 21-17. It was the coldest championship game ever.

1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye, “For Once in My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “Stormy” by Classics IV featuring Dennis Yost and “Wichita Lineman” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.

1968 – Vietnam War: The bloodiest year of the war comes to an end. At year’s end, 536,040 American servicemen were stationed in Vietnam, an increase of over 50,000 from 1967.

1970 – Congress authorizes the Eisenhower dollar coin.

1972 – Leap second day; also in 1973-79, 1987, 1998….. The Earth is rotating slower and slower over time, while the atomic clocks are not slowing down. On one average day the difference is around 0.002 seconds, which means around 1 second in 500 days. The clocks are programmed to add a second on these days. Since 1972, a total of 24 seconds have been added. This means that the Earth has slowed down 24 seconds compared to atomic time since then.

1972 – The Miami Dolphins edged the Pittsburgh Steelers 21-17 in the AFC championship game and the Washington Redskins beat the Dallas Cowboys 26-3 in the NFC championship game.

1974 – Private U.S. citizens were allowed to buy and own gold for the first time in more than 40 years.

1974 – Free agent pitcher Catfish Hunter signs with Yankees.

1974 – Lindsey Buckingham & Stevie Nicks join Fleetwood Mac.

1974 – Popular Electronics displays the Altair 8800 computer.

1975 – Elvis Presley performed before 60,000 fans at the Silverdome in Pontiac, MI. He earned $800,000 for the concert — a world record for a single concert by a single artist.

1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tonight’s the Night (Gonna Be Alright)” by Rod Stewart, You Don’t Have to Be a Star (To Be in My Show)” by Marilyn McCoo and Billy Davis, Jr. and “You Make Me Feel Like Dancing” by Leo Sayer all topped the charts.

1977 – “How Deep Is Your Love” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.

1978 – “Magic Show” closes at Cort Theater NYC after 1859 performances.

1979 – At year end oil prices were 88% higher than at the start of 1979.

1980 – Hockey’s New York Islanders greatest shutout margin (9-0) vs Chicago Black Hawks.

1981 – CNN Headline News debuts.

1983 – The AT&T Bell System is broken up by the United States Government.

1983 – “Say, Say, Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson topped the charts.

1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Like a Virgin” by Madonna, “The Wild Boys” by Duran Duran, “Sea of Love” by The Honeydrippers and “Why Not Me” by The Judds all topped the charts.

1985 – Ricky Nelson, his fiancee, Helen Blair, and five members of the Stone Canyon Band were killed in a plane crash a mile southeast of DeKalb, Texas. Nelson was 45. Fire in the passenger cabin forced the pilots of Nelson’s DC-3 to attempt an emergency landing in a field. The aircraft hit wires and a pole, then crashed into trees where it was extensively damaged by impact and fire. The crew escaped through the cockpit windows, but none of the passengers got out.

1986 – A fire at the Dupont Plaza Hotel in San Juan, Puerto Rico, kills 97 and injures 140.

1986 – The State of Florida passed Illinois to become the fifth most populous state in the U.S. In the lead: California, New York, Texas, and Pennsylvania.

1988 – Mario Lemieux became the first player in National Hockey League history to score one each of the five types of goals in a single game: an even-strength goal, a power-play goal, a short-handed goal, a penalty shot and an empty-net goal.

1988 – “Every Rose Has Its Thorn” by Poison topped the charts.

1988 – The “Fog Bowl” was the name given to this NFL playoff game between the Philadelphia Eagles and Chicago Bears. A heavy, dense fog rolled over Chicago’s Soldier Field during the 2nd quarter, cutting visibility to about 15-20 yards for the rest of the game. The Bears ended up winning 20-12.

1989 – Jockey Kent Desormeaux sets record with 598 wins in a year.

1990 – Garry Kasparov holds his title by winning the World Chess Championship match against his countryman Anatoly Karpov.

1990 – The Sci-Fi Channel on cable TV begins transmitting.

1991 – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is officially dissolved.

1992 – President Bush visited Somalia, where he saw firsthand the famine racking the east African nation. He praised U.S. troops that provided relief to the starving population.

1993 – Barbra Streisand does her first live public concert in 20 years.

1993 – Former IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson died in Greenwich, Conn., at age 79.

1994 – John C. Salvi III, accused of killing two receptionists at two Boston-area abortion clinics on December 30th, was arrested in Norfolk, Va.

1994 – Bosnia: The first US tanks crossed a pontoon bridge over the Sava River from Croatia to Bosnia to start the deployment of 20,000 US troops under IFOR, the Implementation Force under NATO command.

1995 – The last strip of the popular comic Calvin and Hobbes is published.

1995 – President Clinton and Monica Lewinsky engaged in their third sexual encounter. By this time Lewinsky was a member of the staff of the Office of legislative Affairs.

1997 – Quaker Oats settles a lawsuit involving the immoral use of child subjects in radioactivity experiments circa 1945-56.

1997 – Microsoft purchases Hotmail.

1997 – Michael Kennedy, 39-year-old son of the late U.S. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, was killed in a skiing accident on Aspen Mountain in Colorado.

1997 - The US State Dept. reported that Iraq had ordered the summary execution of “hundreds if not thousands” of political detainees in recent weeks.

1998 – In New Orleans a truck loaded with fireworks exploded prior to a New Years Eve show. Two technicians were killed.

1999 – Boris Yeltsin resigns as President of Russia, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President.

1999 – The United States Government handed Panama Canal control over to Panama.

1999 –  TERRORISM: Ahmed Ressam AKA Benni Noris or the Millennium Bomber planned  (1967-05-19) to bomb Los Angeles International Airport . Prior to implementation of the plan he was arrested, convicted and sentenced to 22 years in prison.

1999 – An arson attack of the genetic research building at Michigan State University caused $3.7 million in damages.

2001 – Notre Dame tapped Tyrone Willingham to be its football coach, replacing George O’Leary, who’d resigned because of misstatements about his academic and athletic achievements on his resume; Willingham became the first African-American head coach in any sport for the Irish.

2001 – The US planned to deploy elements of the 101st Airborne Division to replace Marines near Kandahar. US troops moved by helicopter to Helmand province, the region where Mohammed Omar was suspected to be.

2001 – New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani spent his final day in office praising police, firefighters, and other city employees, and said he had no regrets about returning to private life.

2002 – US executions for the year rose from 66 to71 with 33 in Texas.

2003 – Neal Batson ended his tenure as bankruptcy examiner of Enron. The 18-month probe had a final tab of $90 million. It included lawyer rates of as much as $600 an hour.

2003 – Chicago  regained the title of America’s murder capital. It finished 2003 with 599 homicides.

2004 – The official opening of Taipei 101, the current tallest skyscraper in the world, standing at a height of 1,670 feet.

2004 – The U.S. government pledges $350,000,000 for relief due to the Indonesian earthquake on December 26th.

2005 – AT&T and SBC Communications merge, SBC name is dropped. A new AT&T is formed.

2005 –  Dick Clark, in his first television appearance since his stroke in 2004, helped to ring in the new year in Times Square.

2005 –  Guillermo Martinez (18) died in a Tijuana hospital one day after he was shot by a US Border Patrol agent near a metal wall separating that city from San Diego.

2005 – After heavy rains, Napa, California experienced its worst flooding in 20 years.

2006 –  The US Medicare prescription drug plan went into effect.

2006 – Colorado Gov. Bill Owens and Kansas Gov. Kathleen Sebelius declared statewide emergencies after a winter storm dumped as much as three-feet of snow across much of the Plains. Snowdrifts reached ten feet and twelve people died in four states.

2006 –  The International Federation of Journalists announced that the year 2006 was the deadliest for journalists and media workers worldwide, with at least 155 murders and unexplained deaths.

2006 – The number of U.S. military deaths in Iraq reaches 3,000 since the 2003 U.S. invasion.

2007 –  In Ohio a drunken driver went about four miles down a highway in the wrong direction before his pickup truck slammed into a minivan, killing a woman and four children and injuring three others. All 8 had been visiting family in Michigan and were returning to Maryland.

2007 –   In San Francisco Albert Collins (30) shielded his daughter (9) from gunfire in the Sunnydale public housing project and was killed becoming the city’s 98th homicide victim.

2007 –  The International Federation of Journalists said at least 134 media workers were killed on assignment this year, most of them in Iraq, which has become the most dangerous place for journalists since the start of the US-led war there.

2008 –  In Aspen, Colorado, James Chester Blanning (72), walked into two downtown banks after noon and left gift-wrapped bombs made of gasoline and cell phone components. He had skied competitively as a teen but had grown bitter about his hometown.

2009 –  Revelers ringing in 2010 will be treated to both a blue moon and a lunar eclipse occur. According to popular definition, a blue moon is the second full moon in a month.

2009 –  In St. George, Utah, a trailer at an RV park containing some 19 pet pythons caught fire. 11 of the snakes survived.

2009 –  Patrick Stewart, the actor who played Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: The Next Generation and Professor X in X-Men, is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

2010 – Tornadoes touch down in midwestern and southern United States, including Washington County, Arkansas; Greater St. Louis, Sunset Hills, Missouri, Illinois and Oklahoma, with a few tornadoes in the early hours of January 1, 2011. A total of thirty-six tornadoes touched down, resulting in the deaths of nine people.

2011 – A 4.0-magnitude earthquake hits Ohio, with no immediate reports of damage.

2011 – President Barack Obama signs the National Defense Authorization Act into law. Section 1021 of this act allows the President to detain anyone he wants for any reason he wants, without a trial, without a lawyer, without seeing any family member again. to be held anywhere in the world, indefinitely.

2012 – The U.S. will miss the midnight deadline and head over the “fiscal cliff”, after the House of Representatives announces it will not vote on the deal on Monday night.

2012 –  University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York, announces that a particularly harmful type of space radiation may accelerate the development of Alzheimer’s disease.


1491 – Jacques Cartier, French explorer (d. 1557)
1720 – Charles Edward Stuart, the “Young Pretender” to the British throne.
1815 – George Gordon Meade, the Union general who defeated Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg.
1869 – Henri Matisse, French painter, designer.
1880 – George Marshall, U.S. Secretary of State, designer of Marshall Plan, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff during World War II.
1884 – Elizabeth Arden, Canadian-born American cosmetic executive.
1908 – Simon Wiesenthal, Austrian Holocaust survivor (d. 2005)
1943 – John Denver, American musician (d. 1997)
1947 – Wayne C. Church, editor of Unerased History
1959 – Val Kilmer, American stage and film actor.





Rank and organization: Colonel, United States Marine Corps, Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Vietnam, December 31st, 1964 to 8 December, 1967. Entered Service at: Brooklyn, New York. Date and place of birth: 9 August 1934, Brooklyn New York. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while interned as a Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam during the period 31 December 1964 to 8 December 1967. Despite the fact that by so doing he would bring about harsher treatment for himself, Colonel (then Captain) Cook established himself as the senior prisoner, even though in actuality he was not. Repeatedly assuming more than his share of their health, Colonel Cook willingly and unselfishly put the interests of his comrades before that of his own well-being and, eventually, his life. Giving more needy men his medicine and drug allowance while constantly nursing them, he risked infection from contagious diseases while in a rapidly deteriorating state of health. This unselfish and exemplary conduct, coupled with his refusal to stray even the slightest from the Code of Conduct, earned him the deepest respect from not only his fellow prisoners, but his captors as well. Rather than negotiate for his own release or better treatment, he steadfastly frustrated attempts by the Viet Cong to break his indomitable spirit. and passed this same resolve on to the men whose well-being he so closely associated himself. Knowing his refusals would prevent his release prior to the end of the war, and also knowing his chances for prolonged survival would be small in the event of continued refusal, he chose nevertheless to adhere to a Code of Conduct far above that which could be expected. His personal valor and exceptional spirit of loyalty in the face of almost certain death reflected the highest credit upon Colonel Cook, the Marine Corps, and the United States Naval Service.




Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862-1 January 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 16 November 1887. Citation: Gallantry in action.




Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 89th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 6 August 1902. Citation: When a break occurred on the extreme right wing of the Army of the Cumberland, this soldier rallied fugitives from other commands, and deployed his own regiment, thereby checking the Confederate advance until a new line was established.



Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery. Place and date: At New Madrid, Mo., 3 March 1862; at Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Newark, N.J. Date of issue: 19 September 1890. Citation: At New Madrid, Mo., remained on duty though severely wounded. While procuring ammunition from the supply train at Stone River, Tenn., was captured, but made his escape, secured the ammunition, and in less than an hour from the time of his capture had the batteries supplied.


Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 18th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: Mount Vernon, Ohio. Birth: Mount Vernon, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 February 1894. Citation: Voluntarily went to the front and picked up and carried to a place of safety, under a heavy fire from the enemy, an acting field officer who had been wounded, and was about to fall into enemy hands.




Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 18th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: Medina County, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 12 December 1894. Citation: Voluntarily conveyed, under a heavy fire, information to the commander of a battalion of regular troops by which the battalion was saved from capture or annihilation.



Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 19th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: ——. Born: 6 December 1838, Lancaster, Ohio. Date of issue: 3 February 1894. Citation: Voluntarily rescued the body of his commanding officer, who had fallen mortally wounded. He brought off the field his mortally wounded leader under direct and constant rifle fire.




Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 21st Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Hancock County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and under a heavy fire, while his command was falling back, rescued a wounded and helpless comrade from death or capture.



Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island, which was engaged in saving the lives of the officers and crew of the Monitor off Hatteras, December 31st,  1862. Participating in the hazardous task of rescuing the officers and crew of the sinking Monitor, Wagg distinguished himself by meritorious conduct during this operation.




Rank and organization: Chaplain, 15th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 31st,  1862. Entered service at: Westville, Ind. Born: 6 March 1823, Wayne County, Ind. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Went to the front during a desperate contest and unaided carried to the rear several wounded and helpless soldiers.

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Unerased History – December 30th

Posted by Wayne Church on December 30, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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It’s About Time Week  26-31
Falling Needles Family Fest Day

The Gadsen Purchase


James Gadsden, U.S. Minister to Mexico, and General Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, signed the Gadsden Purchase in Mexico City on December 30, 1853.

In 1852 Gadsden agreed to pay Santa Anna $10,000,000 for a strip of territory south of the Gila River and lying in what is now southwestern New Mexico and southern Arizona. Many Americans were not especially proud of the Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty and considered the price of the Gadsden Purchase as “conscience money.”

The treaty settled the dispute over the exact location of the Mexican border west of El Paso, Texas, giving the U.S. claim to approximately 29,000 square miles of land in what is now southern New Mexico and Arizona. At the rest stop on 1-10 West bound in Arizona just outside of Casa Grande is the marker erected to commerate the signing of the treaty.

U.S. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis had sent Gadsden to negotiate with Santa Anna for this tract of land which many people, including Davis, believed to be strategic for the construction of the southern transcontinental railroad. Many supporters of a southern Pacific railroad route came to believe that a transcontinental route which stretched through the Gadsden Purchase territory would greatly advantage southern states should hostilities break out with the north.

The first transcontinental railroad was, however, constructed along a more northerly route by the “big four” of western railroad construction—Collis P. Huntington, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. A southern transcontinental route through territory acquired by the Gadsen Purchase was not a reality until 1881 when the tracks of the “big four’s” Southern Pacific met those of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe in the Territory of New Mexico.


As we close this year here are a couple good quotes for the future:

The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.”

 ~Eleanor Roosevelt

 And another from Eleanor

You gain strength, courage, and confidence by every experience by which you really stop to look fear in the face. You are able to say to yourself, ‘I lived through this horror. I can take the next thing that comes along.”



dehisce (di-HIS) verb intr.

1. To burst open, as the pod of a plant.
[When a peapod is ripe after a long wait and bursts open, it’s yawning,etymologically speaking.

2. To gape.

The term dehisce comes from Latin dehiscere, (to split open), from hiscere (to gape, yawn), from Latin hiare (to yawn).

Another term that derives from the same root is hiatus.]


1731 – First US music concert of classical music in the American colonies took place in Boston. The event, billed as “a Concert of Music on sundry Instruments” was held at the home of a Mr. Pelham, an engraver, dancing master and dealer in tobacco, among other things.

1803 – The United States took formal possession of the territory of Louisiana.

1809 – Wearing masks at balls forbidden in Boston.

1813 – The British burned Buffalo, N.Y., during the War of 1812.

1817 – Kamehameha I’s Brazilian physician was the first to cultivate coffee in Hawaii.

1835 – Gold was discovered in Georgia and Cherokees were forced to move across the Mississippi River. A minority faction of Cherokee agreed to the emigration of the whole tribe from their lands by signing the Treaty of New Echota. The Treaty of New Echota resulted in the cession of all Cherokee land to the U.S. and provided for the transportation of the Cherokee Indians to land beyond the Mississippi. The removal of the Cherokee was completed by 1838.

1853 – The United States bought some 45,000 square miles of land from  Mexico in a deal known as the Gadsden Purchase. It included parts of Arizona and New Mexico (29,640 sq. miles) south of the Gila River. The purchase was ratified by Congress on April 25, 1854. The treaty established the final boundaries of the southern United States.

1854 – Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company, first in US, incorporated.

1861 – Banks in the United States suspended the practice of redeeming paper money for metal currency, a practice that would continue until 1879.

1862 – The draft of the Emancipation Proclamation was finished and circulated around Lincoln’s cabinet for comment.

1862 – Civil War:  USS Monitor sinks in a storm off Cape Hatteras, NC. Many artifacts from Monitor, including her turret, cannon, propeller, anchor, engine and some personal effects of the crew, have been conserved and are on display at the Mariners’ Museum of Newport News, Virginia.

1863 –  Civil War: An Expedition from U.S.S. Pursuit, destroyed two salt works at the head of St. Joseph’s Bay, Florida.

1873 – The American Metrological Society was formed in New York City to improve systems of weights, measures and money.

1879 – “Pirates of Penzance” was the only Gilbert & Sullivan opera to have its official premiere in New York.

1894 – Amelia Jenks Bloomer (76), suffragist, died in Council Bluffs, Iowa; she had gained notoriety for wearing a short skirt and baggy trousers that came to be known as “bloomers.”

1903 – The Iroquois Theater Fire of Chicago killed 602 people. The theater was located at 24–28 West Randolph Street, on the North Side between State Street and Dearborn Street in Chicago. Matinee patrons for the Drury Lane musical “Mr Bluebeard” panicked despite efforts by comedian Eddie Foy (47) to calm the crowd. It is the deadliest theater fire and the deadliest single-building fire in United States history.

1905 – Governor Frank Steunenberg of Idaho was killed by an assassin’s bomb. The former Gov. of Idaho, was blown up by a booby-trapped gate in front of his home in Caldwell, Idaho. Three Western Federation of Miners leaders in Colorado, Charles Moyer, George Pettibone and William Haywood, were “legally kidnapped” to Idaho and put on trial for the murder.

1907The Mills Commission issued its final report, concluding that Abner Doubleday was the inventor of the sport of baseball, a claim Doubleday himself had never made.

1918 – John E Hoover decides to be called J Edgar Hoover.

1922 – The USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was established. One of America’s greatest enemies.

1924 – Edwin Hubble announces the existence of other galaxies. Scientists, at the time, weren’t sure if the “fogginess” that they were seeing were stars or what they were.

1929 – Cole Porter’s musical “Wake Up & Dream,” premiered in New York City.

1936 – The United Auto Workers union stages its first sit-down strike. It was at the Fisher Body Plant in Flint, MI.

1936 – The famous feud between Jack Benny and Fred Allen begins.

1938 – Electronic television system patented by V K Zworykin.

1940 – California opens its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway. It is the first freeway in the U.S. state of California, connecting Los Angeles with Pasadena alongside the Arroyo Seco. It is also known as the Pasadena Freeway or the 110.

1941 – World War II: Admiral Ernest J. King assumes duty as Commander in Chief, United States Fleet.

1942 – Frank Sinatra opened at New York’s Paramount Theatre. For what was scheduled to be a 4-week engagement, Sinatra’s shows turned out to be so popular that he was booked for an additional 4 weeks.

1942 – The radio program, “Mr. and Mrs. North” (25:54) , debuts on the NBC Radio network. It was a radio mystery series that ran from 1942 to 1954. It originated in New Yorker short stories written by Richard Lockridge in the 1930s.

1943 – World War II: On New Britain, the US First Marine Division, as part of Operation Cartwheel,  captures the Japanese airfield at Cape Gloucester.

1944 – World War II: The US 8th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) launches attacks northward, against the German 5th Panzer Army, from a line between Bastogne and St. Hubert with Houffalize as the objective.

1944 – Coast Guard-manned USS FS-367 takes survivors from USS Mariposa at San Jose, Mindoro, Philippine Islands. The Mariposa was a Liberty ship carrying gasoline; it was sunk off Occidental Mindoro by Allied torpedoes after devastating Japanese air attack.

1944 – World War II: General Groves, head of the Manhattan Project, reports that the first two atomic bombs should be ready by August 1, 1945.

1948 – The play “Kiss Me, Kate” opens for the first of 1,077 performances. It opened at New Century Theater, New York City.

1949 – First UHF television station operating regular basis (Bridgeport CT).

1950 – “The Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.

1950 – The body of Eighth Army commander Lieutenant General Walton Walker, killed in a jeep accident on Dec. 23, was flown to the United States for burial in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va.

1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Slowpoke” by Pee Wee King, “Sin (It’s No)” by Eddy Howard, “Down Yonder” by Del Wood and “Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.

1951 – “The Roy Rogers Show” premiered on TV.

1952 – Sinbad, the canine-mascot of the cutter Campbell during World War II, passed away at his last duty station, the Barnegat Lifeboat Station, at the ripe old age of 15.

1953 – The first color television sets go on sale for about USD at $1,175 each. For perspective, annual salaries were $4000, the average car price was $1650, gas was $.20 per gallon and a one carat diamond was $399.

1954 – First use of 24-second shot clock in pro basketball (Rochester vs Boston).

1954 – Pearl Bailey opened on Broadway in “House of Flowers.”

1954 – James Arness makes his dramatic TV debut. He starred in “The Chase” on the “Lux Video Theatre.”

1956 – The New York Giants defeated the Chicago Bears, 47-to-7, to win the NFL Championship Game.

1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why” by Frankie Avalon, “The Big Hurt” by Miss Toni Fisher, “It’s Time to Cry” by Paul Anka and “El Paso” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.

1959 – The George Washington, first ballistic missile sub is commissioned.

1961 – “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” by The Tokens topped the charts.

1961 – Jack Nicklaus lost his first attempt at pro golf to Gary Player in an exhibition match in Miami, FL.

1963 – Congress authorizes the Kennedy half dollar.

1963 – “Let’s Make a Deal” premiered on television. The pilot, which is shown here, occurred on May 25th, 1963.

1967 – Beatles’ “Hello Goodbye” single tops the charts. It went #1 for 3 weeks.

1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hello Goodbye” by The Beatles, “Woman, Woman” by The Union Gap, “Judy in Disguise (With Glasses)” by John Fred & His Playboy Band and “For Loving You” by Bill Anderson & Jan Howard all topped the charts.

1969 – Peter, Paul and Mary received a gold record for the single, “Leaving On a Jet Plane“.

1969 – The US Federal Aviation Administration certified the Boeing 747-100 for commercial service.

1969 – Pres. Nixon signed the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The US Congress (both Democrat) had enacted legislation that created a minimum tax (later known as the Alternative Minimum Tax, AMT) after the IRS revealed that about 155 high-income households had paid no tax in 1966.

1970 – Vietnam: The South Vietnamese Navy receives 125 U.S. vessels in a ceremony marking the end of the U.S. Navy’s four-year role of river patrol combat.

1972 – “Me and Mrs. Jones” by Billy Paul topped the charts.

1972 – Vietnam War: President Nixon halts bombing of North Vietnam and announces peace talks.

1973 – First picture of a comet from space (Comet Kohoutek-Skylab).

1974 – Beatles are legally disbanded.

1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Do It Again” by The Staple Singers, “Saturday Night” by Bay City Rollers, “Love Rollercoaster” by Ohio Players and “Convoy” by C.W. McCall all topped the charts.

1976 – The Smothers Brothers, Tom and Dick, played their last show at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas and retired as a team from show business.

1977 – Ted Bundy (1946-1989), serial killer, escaped from jail in Colorado. His absence was not noticed until the next day. He was re-captured in Florida on February 15, 1978, after 3 more murders.

1977 – President Jimmy Carter holds first news conference by US President in Eastern Europe (Warsaw).

1978 – Ohio State dismisses Woody Hayes as its football coach. He was fired  after having a temper tantrum during the Gator Bowl against Clemson and striking a Clemson linebacker (punch @ :34) named Charlie Bauman who had intercepted an Ohio pass. During his 28 seasons as the head coach of the Ohio State Buckeyes football program, Hayes’s teams won five national championships (1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, 1970),captured 13 Big Ten Conference titles, and amassed a record of 205–61–10.
1978 – “Le Freak” by Chic topped the charts.

1980 – After 25 years, the longest-running prime-time US TV series “The Wonderful World of Disney” is cancelled by NBC.

1980 – The Selective Service System sent a warning to Mickey Mouse at Disneyland in Anaheim, California: Register for the draft or else! The Selective Service said that Mickey was in violation of registration compliance. Of course, Mickey, age 52 at the time, sent in his registration card proving that he’s a World War II veteran.

1981 – The 14 remaining LORAN-A stations closed down at midnight, ending Loran-A coverage, which began during World War II. is a terrestrial radio navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters in multiple deployment to determine the location and speed of the receiver. In August 2010 all LORAN operations ceased with the more powerful advent of GPS.

1981 – Wayne Gretzky scores his 50th goal in 39 games, still a National Hockey League record.

1982 – Anthony Shaffer’s “Whodunnit” premieres in New York NY.

1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson, “Say It Isn’t So” by Daryl Hall-John Oates, “Union of the Snake” by Duran Duran and “Houston (Means I’m One Day Closer to You)” by Larry Gatlin & The Gatlin Brothers all topped the charts.

1983 – ‘Dr. J’, Julius Erving, of the Philadelphia 76ers, scores to become the ninth professional basketball player to score 25,000 points.

1987 – Manufacturers of all-terrain vehicles agreed to withdraw the three-wheel model from dealers’ inventories.

1988 – President Reagan and President-elect Bush subpoenaed to testify in the trial of Oliver North.

1989 – “Another Day in Paradise” by Phil Collins topped the charts.

1989 – A Northwest Airlines DC-10, target of a telephoned threat, flew safely from Paris to Detroit amid extra-tight security.

1990 – Iraq’s information minister (Latif Nussayif Jassim) said President Bush “must have been drunk” when he suggested Iraq might withdraw from Kuwait, and added: “We will show the world America is a paper tiger.”

1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black or White” by Michael Jackson, “It’s So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday” by Boyz II Men, “All 4 Love” by Color Me Badd and “My Next Broken Heart” by Brooks & Dunn all topped the charts.

1991 – The remains of two American hostages slain in Lebanon, William Buckley and Marine Col. William R. Higgins, arrived in the United States for burial.

1993 – Israel and the Vatican establish diplomatic relations.

1994 – John Salvi opened fire at two abortion clinics in suburban Boston and killed 2 clinic receptionists, Lee Ann Nichols and Shannon Lowney.

1995 – A US military policeman, Martin John Begosh, became the first American injured in NATO’s fledgling Bosnia peace mission when his Humvee hit an anti-tank mine.

1995 – The Salem Baptist Church in Gibson Co., Tenn., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.

1996 – The Clinton administration said that doctors who prescribe marijuana could be excluded from Medicare and Medicaid programs and lose the right to prescribe drugs.

1998 – Iraq again fired at US warplanes the missile site was destroyed in response.

1999 – Beatle George Harrison and his wife were attacked in their home in Henley-on-Thames  during a robbery. Though Harrison was stabbed in the chest four times, he and his wife were able to subdue the assailant until police arrived.

1999 -MASS SHOOTING:  In Tampa, Fla., Silvio Izquierdo-Leyva, an employee at the Radisson Bay Harbor Inn, shot and killed four co-workers and a motorist as he tempted to steal a car before police arrested him.

1999 – In Oregon an 80-foot power-line tower was toppled 26 miles east of Bend. It was described as an isolated case of criminal mischief.

1999 – Sarah “Sadie” Clark Knauss, listed by the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest person with a verifiable date of birth, died in Allentown, Pennsylvania, at age 119.

2001 –  Rev. Jack Brock of the Christ Community Church and his wife Sharon burned Harry Potter books in Alamogordo, NM, after calling them “a masterpiece of satanic deception.”

2002 – TERRORISM: In Yemen a suspected Muslim extremist, hiding his gun cradled like a baby, slipped into the Jibla Baptist Hospital and opened fire, killing three American missionaries.

2003 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announces a ban on the sale of dietary supplement ephedra.

2003 – The Bush administration banned the use of meat from all sick or lame animals.

2003 – U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft recuses himself and his office from the Plame affair.

2003 – FedEx agreed to acquire Kinko’s for $2.2 billion.

2004 – In Tennessee two couples were charged with defrauding Wal-Mart of $1.5 million in 19 states by switching UPC bar codes.

2004 –  Arkansas vowed to appeal after a judge struck down a 1999 rule barring the state from placing a foster child in any household with a gay member.

2005 – It was revealed the Justice Department had opened an investigation into the leak of classified information about President Bush’s secret domestic spying program.

2005 – President Bush, unhappy with Congress for not permanently extending the U.S.A. Patriot Act, signed a bill renewing the anti-terrorism law for a few weeks.

2005 – US stock markets finished the year flat with the DJIA down 49.48 for the year, closing at 10717.50.

2005 – In Germany the US Air Force handed over the keys to Rhein-Main Air Base to the operator of Frankfurt International Airport in a final act of closure for the base, which for 60 years hosted American forces.

2006 – Saddam Hussein is hanged at a former military intelligence headquarters in Baghdad’s Shiite neighborhood of Kazimiyah. Within hours of his death, bombings killed at least 80 people.

2006 – The body of Gerald Washington (57), mayor-elect of Westlake, Louisiana, was found shot to death in the parking lot of a former school. He was the first black man elected to lead the largely white town. On Jan 2 investigators ruled his death a suicide.

2008 – Illinois Gov. Rod Blagojevich named former state Attorney General Roland Burris (71) to replace Barack Obama as state senator. The surprise move put opponents in the uncomfortable position of trying to block Burris from becoming the Senate’s only black member.

2008 – A US federal judge  awarded more than $65 million to several men who were captured and tortured by North Korea after the communist country seized the U.S. spy ship USS Pueblo on Jan 23, 1968. North Korea never responded to the lawsuit.

2009 –  The US government gave GMAC Financial Services an additional $3.8 billion in cash and took a majority stake in the auto lender.

2010 – Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour frees two sisters 16 years into double life terms received for armed robbery of two men for $11, citing one of the sister’s “medical condition creates a substantial cost to the state of Mississippi.”

2011 – The stock for McDonald’s rose 31 percent in 2011, the largest gain in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, while Bank of America fell 59 percent, the largest loss in the Dow Jones.

2012 – President Barack Obama puts pressure on Republicans to accept a deal aimed at avoiding a tax and spending “fiscal cliff”, as the end-of-year deadline looms.

2012 -Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is hospitalized after doctors discover a blood clot related to the concussion she suffered earlier this month


39 – Roman Emperor Titus (d. 81) was a Roman Emperor (79-81) of the Flavian dynasty. Before being Emperor he was the general that lead the destruction of  Jerusalem in 70.
1851 – Asa Griggs Candler, American businessman and politician (d. 1929) He was an American business tycoon who made most of his money selling Coca-Cola. He also served as mayor of Atlanta, Georgia from 1916 to 1919. Candler Field, the site of the present-day Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport was named after him, as is Candler Park in Atlanta.
1865 – Rudyard Kipling, English novelist, short story author, poet, Nobel Prize for Literature winner.
1867 – Simon Guggenheim, American philanthropist.
1914 – Bert Parks, American television host (d. 1992)
1920 – Jack Lord, American actor (d. 1998) He was best known for his starring role as Steve McGarrett in the American television program Hawaii Five-O from 1968 to 1980.
1928 – Bo Diddley (Ellas Bates, Ellas McDaniel), American rhythm and blues singer.
1935 – Sandy Koufax, baseball player
1959 – Tracey Ullman, English comedienne.
1975 – Tiger Woods, American pro golfer.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam,  December 30th, 1968. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Born: 11 July 1939, Opelika, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Howard (then Sfc .), distinguished himself while serving as platoon sergeant of an American-Vietnamese platoon which was on a mission to rescue a missing American soldier in enemy controlled territory in the Republic of Vietnam. The platoon had left its helicopter landing zone and was moving out on its mission when it was attacked by an estimated two-company force. During the initial engagement, 1st Lt. Howard was wounded and his weapon destroyed by a grenade explosion. 1st Lt. Howard saw his platoon leader had been wounded seriously and was exposed to fire. Although unable to walk, and weaponless, 1st Lt. Howard unhesitatingly crawled through a hail of fire to retrieve his wounded leader. As 1st Lt. Howard was administering first aid and removing the officer’s equipment, an enemy bullet struck one of the ammunition pouches on the lieutenant’s belt, detonating several magazines of ammunition. 1st Lt. Howard momentarily sought cover and then realizing that he must rejoin the platoon, which had been disorganized by the enemy attack, he again began dragging the seriously wounded officer toward the platoon area. Through his outstanding example of indomitable courage and bravery, 1st Lt. Howard was able to rally the platoon into an organized defense force. With complete disregard for his safety, 1st Lt. Howard crawled from position to position, administering first aid to the wounded, giving encouragement to the defenders and directing their fire on the encircling enemy. For 3 1/2 hours 1st Lt. Howard’s small force and supporting aircraft successfully repulsed enemy attacks and finally were in sufficient control to permit the landing of rescue helicopters. 1st Lt. Howard personally supervised the loading of his men and did not leave the bullet-swept landing zone until all were aboard safely. 1st Lt. Howard’s gallantry in action, his complete devotion to the welfare of his men at the risk of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Farrier, Company I, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White Clay Creek, S. Dak., December 30th, 1890. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 April 1891. Citation: Bravery.




Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White Clay Creek, S. Dak., December 30th, 1890. Entered service at:——. Birth: Sweden. Date of issue: 13 April 1891. Citation: Bravery.




Rank and organization: Captain, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At White Clay Creek, S. Dak., December 30th, 1890. Entered service at: Pensacola, Fla. Birth: Troy, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 September 1897. Citation: While executing an order to withdraw, seeing that a continuance of the movement would expose another troop of his regiment to being cut off and surrounded, he disregarded orders to retire, placed himself in front of his men, led a charge upon the advancing Indians, regained a commanding position that had just been vacated, and thus insured a safe withdrawal of both detachments without further loss.


INTERIM  1871-1898



Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Texas, December 30th, 1891. Entered service at:——. Birth: Patriot, Ind. Date of issue: 25 April 1892. Citation: While carrying dispatches, he attacked a party of three armed men and secured papers valuable to the United States.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, and White Clay Creek, S. Dak December 30th, 1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany Date of issue: 23 June 1891. Citation: Conspicuous bravery.






Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island which was engaged in saving the lives of the officers and crew of the Monitor, December 30th, 1862. Participating in the hazardous rescue of the officers and crew of the sinking Monitor, Griswold, after rescuing several of the men, became separated in a heavy gale with other members of the cutter that had set out from the Rhode Island, and spent many hours in the small boat at the mercy of the weather and high seas until finally picked up by a schooner fifty miles east of Cape Hatteras.






Rank and organization: Colonel, 13th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Matagorda Bay, Tex., 29-December 30th, 1863. Entered service at: Maine. Born: 10 December 1833, Bangor, Maine. Date of issue: 2 March 1895. Citation: In command of a detachment of one-hundred men, conducted a reconnaissance for two days, baffling and beating back an attacking force of more than a thousand Confederate cavalry, and regained his transport without loss.





Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Bristol Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island, which was engaged in saving the lives of the officers and crew of the Monitor, December 30th, 1862. Participating in the hazardous task of rescuing the officers and crew of the sinking Monitor, Horton, after rescuing several of the men, became separated in a heavy gale with other members of the cutter that had set out from the Rhode Island and spent many hours in the small boat at the mercy of the weather and high seas until finally picked up by a schooner fifty miles east of Cape Hatteras.



JONES, JOHNState of Connecticut


Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Bridgeport, Conn. Accredited to: New Hampshire, G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island, which was engaged in saving the lives of the officers and crew of the Monitor, December 30th, 1862. Participating in the hazardous rescue of the officers and crew of the sinking Monitor, Jones, after rescuing several of the men, became separated in a heavy gale with other members of the cutter that had set out from the Rhode Island, and spent many hours m the small boat at the mercy of the weather and high seas until finally picked up by a schooner fifty miles east of Cape Hatteras.





Rank and organization: Captain of the Afterguard, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Rhode Island which was engaged in rescuing men from the stricken Monitor in Mobile Bay, on December 30th,1862. After the Monitor sprang a leak and went down, Logan courageously risked his life in a gallant attempt to rescue members of the crew. Although sacrificing his life during the hazardous operation, he had made every effort possible to save the lives of his fellow men.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company H, 21st Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 30th, 1862. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., 25 June 1863. Entered service at: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Birth: Marshall, Clark County, Ill. Date of issue: 23 June 1890. Citation: Conspicuous in the charge at Stone River, Tenn., where he was three times wounded. At Liberty Gap, Tenn., captured colors of 8th Arkansas Infantry (C.S.A.).





Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island which was engaged in saving the lives of the officers and crew of the Monitor, December 30th, 1862. Participating in the hazardous task of rescuing the officers and crew of the sinking Monitor, Moore after rescuing several of the men, became separated in a heavy gale with other members of the cutter that had set out from the Rhode Island, and spent many hours in the small boat at the mercy of the weather and high seas until finally picked up by a schooner fifty miles east of Cape Hatteras.

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Unerased History – December 29th

Posted by Wayne Church on December 29, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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Opposite Day

  Pepper Pot Day




How Kissing Works
by Tracy V. Wilson

Anthropologists report that 90 percent of the people in the world kiss. Most people look forward to their first romantic kiss and remember it for the rest of their lives. Parents kiss children, worshippers kiss religious artifacts and couples kiss each other. Some people even kiss the ground when they get off an airplane.When

This famous photograph captures a celebratory kiss in New York City’s Times Square at the end of World War II. Image courtesy U.S. National Archives and Records Administration

you really think about it, kissing is pretty gross. It involves saliva and mucous membranes, and it may have historical roots in chewed-up food. Experts estimate that hundreds or even millions of bacterial colonies move from one mouth to another during a kiss. Doctors have also linked kissing to the spread of diseases like meningitis, herpes and mononucleosis.

So how does one gesture come to signify affection, celebration, grief, comfort and respect, all over the world? No one knows for sure, but anthropologists think kissing might have originated with human mothers feeding their babies much the way birds do. Mothers would chew the food and then pass it from their mouths to their babies’ mouths. After the babies learned to eat solid food, their mothers may have kissed them to comfort them or to show affection.

In this scenario, kissing is a learned behavior, passed from generation to generation. We do it because we learned how to from our parents and from the society around us. There’s a problem with this theory, though: women in a few modern indigenous cultures feed their babies by passing chewed food mouth-to-mouth. But in some of these cultures, no one kissed until Westerners introduced the practice.

The Effects of Kissing

While researchers aren’t exactly sure how or why people started kissing, they do know that romantic kissing affects most people profoundly. The Kinsey Institute describes a person’s response to kissing as a combination of three factors:

  • Your psychological response depends on your mental and emotional state as well as how you feel about the person who is kissing you. Psychologically, kissing someone you want to kiss will generally encourage feelings of attachment and affection. If you’re kissing someone you don’t like, or you’re kissed against your will, your psychological response will be completely different.
  • Your body physically reacts to being kissed. Most people like to be touched, and that’s part of your body’s response to kissing. But kissing also affects everything from your blood to your brain. We’ll look at your body’s biological reactions to kissing in detail in a later section.
  • The culture in which you grew up plays a big part in how you feel about kissing. In most Western societies, people are conditioned to, look forward to and enjoy kissing. The behavior of the people around you, depictions in the media and other social factors can dramatically affect how you respond to being kissed.

A kiss is the juxtaposition of the oracle oris muscles in a state of contraction.

“The difference between something good and something great is attention to detail.”

~ Charles R. Swindoll

(Apply this quote to the kiss)

jux·ta·po·si·tion    / [juhk-stuh-puh-zish-uhn] –noun

  1. an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, esp. for comparison or contrast.
  2. the state of being close together or side by side.

[Origin: 1655–65)


1170 – Thomas Becket is slain in his own cathedral by knights eager to please Henry II of England. Barons had heard Henry II cry out, “Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?”

1607 – Indian chief Powhatan spared John Smith’s life because of the pleas of Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas.

1778 –  British troops, attempting a new strategy to defeat the colonials in America, captured Savannah, the capital of Georgia.
1782 – First nautical almanac in US was published by Samuel Stearns in Boston.
1812 – The USS Constitution won a battle with the British ship HMS Java about 30 miles off the coast of Brazil. Before Commodore William Bainbridge ordered the sinking of the Java he had her wheel removed to replace the one the Constitution had lost during the battle.
1813 – British soldiers burn Buffalo, New York during the War of 1812.
1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
1837 – Canadian militiamen destroyed the Caroline, a U.S. steamboat docked at Buffalo, New York.
1837 – Hiram A. and John A. Pitts of Maine patented the steam-powered threshing machine. Their machine threshed the grain from the heads, separated the straw by a blower, and removed the chaff from the grain in a single operation.
1845 – Texas (comprised of the present state of Texas and part of New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming) was admitted as the 28th state of the Union, with the provision that the area should be divided into no more than five states.
1848 – Gas lights first installed at White House (Polk’s administration)
1851 – The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.
1852 – Emma Snodgrass arrested in Boston for wearing pants. “The foolish girl, Emma Snodgrass, who goes about in virile toggery, was taken before the Court here, as a vagrant, a day or two ago.  But it was proved that she did not beg nor misbehave herself, and that she payed her way.  She was therefore let go — to pursue a wretched life of idleness and immorality.”
1860 – The first British seagoing iron-clad warship, the HMS Warrior is launched.
1862 – Civil War: Union General William T. Sherman is thwarted in his attempt to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, when he orders a frontal assault on entrenched Rebels.
1862 – Bowling Ball invented. The game has been around since 5200 B.C.. This was the creation of the wooden bowling ball.
1863 –Civil War:  U.S.S. Reindeer with Army steamer Silver Lake No. 2 in company, reconnoitered the Cumberland River at the request of General Grant.
1867 – First telegraph ticker used by a brokerage house.
1876 – The Ashtabula River Railroad bridge disaster occurs. It was a derailment caused by the failure of a bridge over the Ashtabula River about 1,000 feet  from the railroad station at Ashtabula, in far northeastern Ohio. At about 7:30 pm, two locomotives hauling 11 railcars of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway carrying 159 passengers plunged into the river in deep snow when the bridge gave way beneath them. The wooden cars were set alight by their heating stoves, but no attempt was made to extinguish the fire. The accident killed ninety-two people, including the gospel singer and hymn-writer Philip Bliss and his wife. It was the worst rail accident in the U.S. until the Great Train Wreck of 1918. Only the first engine of the train made it to the other side at 7:28 p.m. as the bridge began to collapse. The rest of the train broke away and plummeted to the bottom of the ravine below.
1885 – Gottlieb Daimler patents first motorbike (Germany)
1890 – United States soldiers massacre more than 300 men, women and children of the Great Sioux Nation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation . This was the last major conflict with Indians.
1891 – Thomas Edison patents the radio.
1903 – An Executive Order extended the jurisdiction of the Lighthouse Service to Guantanamo, Cuba.
1909 – William A. Besserdich and his brother-in-law, Otto Zachow, were young blacksmiths in Clintonville, Wisconsin, when they built America’s first successful four-wheel-drive motor car.
1913 – Seligs Polyscope Company releases “The Unwelcome Throne”, the first serial motion picture.
1921 – Sears, Roebuck President, Julius Rosenwald, pledged $20 million of his personal fortune to help Sears through hard times.
1924 – Milton Berle (d.2002), comedian, at 16 made his debut at Loew’s State Theater in Times Square for $600 per week.
1930 – Fred P. Newton completed the longest swim ever (1826 miles) when he swam in the Mississippi River from Ford Dam, Minnesota to New Orleans, Louisiana. He was accompanied on the adventure by his brother and a friend named James Patterson.
1933 – Yankees refuse to release Babe Ruth so he can manage the Cincinnati Reds.
1934 – The first college basketball game at New York City’s Madison Square Garden is played between the University of Notre Dame and New York University.
1934 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
1937 – The Irish Free State is replaced by a new state called Ireland with the adoption of a new constitution.
1938 – Construction on Lake Washington Floating Bridge, Seattle WA, begins. The bridge (also called Mercer Island Bridge) opened on July 2, 1940, to great fanfare, and at 6,620 feet long (the pontoon section only), it was the world’s largest floating structure at the time.
1940 – World War II: In The Second Great Fire of London, the Luftwaffe firebombs City of London, killing almost 200 civilians.
1943 – “San Fernando Valley” was recorded by Bing Crosby.
1943 – World War II: USS Silversides (SS-236) sinks three Japanese ships and damages a fourth off Palau.
1945 – The mystery voice of “Mr. Hush” introduced to the game show “Truth or Consequences.”
1948 – James V. Forrestal, the first Secretary of Defense, made the first public announcement that the U.S. military has begun feasibility studies on the launching of artificial Earth satellites.
1949 – KC2XAK of Bridgeport, Connecticut becomes the first Ultra high frequency (UHF) television station to operate a daily schedule.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Thing” by Phil Harris, “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page, “Nevertheless” by Jack Denny and “If You’ve Got the Money Honey I’ve Got the Time” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1950 – The Associated Press named General of the Army Douglas MacArthur the outstanding newsmaker of 1950.
1950 – Time magazine selected “GI Joe” as the Man of the Year.
1951 – “Cry” by Johnny Ray topped the charts.
1952 – The first transistor hearing aid went on sale, the model 1010 manufactured by the Sonotone Corporation in Elmsford, NY, U.S. It weighed 3.5-oz, measured 3″x1.5″x0.6″ and cost $229.50.
1953 – Jean Stapleton debuted in her first Broadway play, “In the Summer House”, which closed after only 55 performances.
1955 – Barbra Streisand’s first recording, “You’ll Never Know” at age 13.
1956 – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell topped the charts.
1957 – Singers Steve Lawrence and Eydie Gorme were married in Las Vegas.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS –The Chipmunk Song” by The Chipmunks, “One Night” by Elvis Presley, “Lonesome Town” by Ricky Nelson and “City Lights” by Ray Price all topped the lights.
1958 – TV soap “Young Dr Malone” debuts.
1962 – “Telstar” by the Tornados topped the charts.
1963 – Twenty-two people perish in the Hotel Roosevelt fire (11:38), the worst fire to occur in Jacksonville, Florida since the Great Fire of 1901.
1965 – Supremes release “My World is Empty Without You.”
1965 – Country and Western music singer and recording star Johnny Cash entered a plea of guilty before U.S. District Judge D.W. Suttle Tuesday at his arraignment on charges of possessing 668 Dexadrin and 475 Equanil tablets when arrested October 4th at El Paso International Airport.
1965 – James Bond in “Thunderball” premieres in US.
1965 – Vietnam: A Christmas truce was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Winchester Cathedral” by The New Vaudeville Band, I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “That’s Life” by Frank Sinatra and “There Goes My Everything” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1967 – Star Trek’s “The Trouble With Tribbles” first airs.
1969 – New York Times reports Curt Flood will sue baseball & challenge the reserve clause.
1972 – Life magazine ended publication with the issue titled “Year in Pictures.” From 1936 it had produced over 1,860 issues. The magazine was resurrected as a monthly in 1978 and ended again in 2000,
1972 – Eastern Airlines Flight 401, a Lockheed Tri-Star Jumbo Jet carrying 176 people, crashed into the Florida Everglades. 75 people survived. In the end, the crash was blamed on the crew’s preoccupation with a landing gear light.
1973 – “Time in a Bottle” by Jim Croce topped the charts.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Angie Baby” by Helen Reddy, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by  Elton John, “You’re the First, the Last, My Everything” by Barry White and “What a Man, My Man Is” by Lynn Anderson all topped the charts.
1975 – A bomb explodes at La Guardia Airport in New York City, killing 11 people and injuring 74.
1979 – “Escape (The Pina Colada Song)” by Rupert Holmes topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Maneater” by Daryl Hall & John Oates, “The Girl is Mineby Michael Jackson/Paul McCartney, “Dirty Laundry” by Don Henley and “Wild and Blue” by John Anderson all topped the charts.
1982 – Coach Paul “Bear” Bryant ends his career with Alabama (323 wins).
1983 – US announced its withdrawal from UNESCO.
1984 – “Like a Virgin” by Madonna topped the charts.
1986 – The Biltmore Hotel in Coral Gables, FL, reopened for business after eighteen years and $47 million expended on restoration.
1987 – The antidepressant drug Prozac was allowed to go on the market. It was based on fluoxetine, which increases serotonin levels in the brain by preventing the cells that that produce serotonin from reabsorbing it too quickly.
1988 – The Federal Aviation Administration, responding to the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, announced tightened security measures for U.S. air carriers at 103 airports in the Middle East and Western Europe.
1989 – On the final day of trading for the year and decade, the Japanese Nikkei 225 Average closes at an all-time high of 38,915.87.
1989 – Jane Pauley says goodbye to NBC’s “Today” show.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because I Love You” by Stevie B,  “Justify My Love” by Madonna, “Impulsive” by Wilson Phillips and “I’ve Come to Expect It from You” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1992 – New York Gov. Mario Cuomo commuted the prison sentence of Jean Harris, the convicted killer of “Scarsdale Diet” author Herman Tarnower.
1994 – U.S. officials confirmed the release in North Korea of Army helicopter pilot Bobby Hall, 12 days after he was captured in a shootdown in which co-pilot David Hilemon was killed.
1997 – In Newport, Indiana, Orville Lynn Majors (36), a former nurse, was arrested for murder and suspected in the deaths of 130 out of 147 patients that died while he was on duty between 1993 and 1995.
2002 – Cincinnati’s Riverfront Stadium/Cinergy Field is demolished.
2003 – The FBI issues a memo instructing police to be alert of people carrying almanacs, stating that information in these reference works could be used to aid in the planning of terrorist attacks.
2004 – The death toll from the Indian Ocean Earthquake and subsequent tsunamis on December 26 reaches more than 80,000 and the Red Cross issues a statement saying that the number of dead is likely to rise above 100,000.
2005 – An official said the number of detainees on hunger strike at the U.S. military detention facility in Guantanamo Bay more than doubled in the last week to 84.
2006 – US regulators gave final approval for the $86 billion merger between AT&T and BellSouth, the biggest merger in telecommunications history.
2006 – Two American sailors died after falling from a US submarine off the coast of southern England.
2007 – New England Patriots finish the season 16-0. New England became the first team since the 1972 Dolphins to finish the regular season undefeated.
2007 – Tom Brady  and Randy Moss both of the New England Patriots set NFL records. Tom  for Most Touchdown Passes in a season with 50 and Randy for the Most Touchdown Receptions in a season with 23.
2008 – Yellowstone National Park was jostled by a host of small earthquakes for a third straight day, and scientists watched closely to see whether the more than 250 tremors were a sign of something bigger to come.
2009 –  Robert Park, a 28-year-old US citizen from Tucson, Arizona, crossed the Tumen River and entered North Korea without permission around 5 pm on Christmas Day. He wanted to urge the country’s leader, Kim Jong-Il, to repent and release prisoners, according to a group associated with the activist.
2010 –  The United States revokes the visa for Bernardo Álvarez Herrera, the Venezuelan ambassador to the country
2011 – Mark Meckler, co-founder of Tea Party Patriots, was arrested at New York City’s LaGuardia Airport on a gun charge! He currently faces 15 years in prison. Yet, he had in his possession a concealed-carry permit.
2012 – Bank of America has reportedly frozen the account of gun manufacturer American Spirit Arms, according to its owner, Joe Sirochman. His bank manager is quoted, ‘We believe you should not be selling guns and parts on the Internet.’”


1800 – Charles Goodyear, American inventor of vulcanization process for rubber.

1808 – Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States of America (1865-1869).
1809 – William Gladstone, English statesman and four-time Prime Minister.
1876 – Pablo Casals, Spanish cellist.
1907 – Robert C. Weaver, the first Black American to serve on a President’s cabinet (Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Housing and Urban Development).
1917 – Thomas Bradley, American, mayor of Los Angeles.
1937 –  Mary Tyler Moore, American actress and comedian






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 2d Battalion, 39th Infantry, 9th Infantry Division. Place and date: Giao Duc District, Dinh Tuong Province, Republic of Vietnam, December 29th, 1968. Entered service at: Louisville, Ky. Born: 3 November 1947, Whitesville, Ky. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Nash distinguished himself while serving as a grenadier with Company B, in Giao Duc District. When an ambush patrol of which he was a member suddenly came under intense attack before reaching its destination, he was the first to return the enemy fire. Taking an exposed location, Pfc. Nash suppressed the hostile fusillade with a rapid series of rounds from his grenade launcher, enabling artillery fire to be adjusted on the enemy. After the foe had been routed, his small element continued to the ambush site where he established a position with three fellow soldiers on a narrow dike. Shortly past midnight, while Pfc. Nash and a comrade kept watch and the two other men took their turn sleeping, an enemy grenade wounded two soldiers in the adjacent position. Seconds later, Pfc. Nash saw another grenade land only a few feet from his own position. Although he could have escaped harm by rolling down the other side of the dike, he shouted a warning to his comrades and leaped upon the lethal explosive. Absorbing the blast with his body, he saved the lives of the three men in the area at the sacrifice of his life. By his gallantry at the cost of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service, Pfc. Nash has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Galveston, Tex. Date of issue: 27 June 1891. Citation: While the Indians were concealed in a ravine, assisted men on the skirmish line, directing their fire, etc., and using every effort to dislodge the enemy.





Rank and organization: Musician, Company E, 1st U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue 23 January 1892. Citation: Twice voluntarily rescued wounded comrades under fire of the enemy.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: Schellburg, Pa. Birth: Schellburg, Pa. Date of issue: 23 June 1891. Citation: Extraordinary gallantry.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: Athens, Ga. Born: 20 February 1853, Newberry, S.C. Date of issue: 26 September 1893. Citation: Distinguished gallantry.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: Lancaster Courthouse, Va. Birth: Virginia. Date of issue: 26 March 1895. Citation: Voluntarily led a party into a ravine to dislodge Sioux Indians concealed therein. He was wounded during this action.






Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Australia. Date of issue: 25 May 1891. Citation: Bravery in action.




Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 1st U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Paulding County, Ohio, Date of issue: 24 March 1891. Citation: Went to the rescue of the commanding officer who had fallen severely wounded, picked him up, and carried him out of range of the hostile guns.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 2d U S. Artillery. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: Kentucky. Born: 1860, Minnesota. Date of issue: 1 1 October 1892. Citation: Distinguished conduct in battle with hostile Indians .






Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: Lead City, S. Dak. Birth: Michigan. Date of issue: 16 April 1891. Citation: Distinguished bravery.



Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Pulaski County, IL. Date of issue: 23 June 1891. Citation: Conspicuous and gallant conduct in battle.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 April 1891. Citation: Bravery, especially after having been severely wounded through the lung.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 23 June 1891. Citation: While engaged with Indians concealed in a ravine, he assisted the men on the skirmish line, directed their fire, encouraged them by example, and used every effort to dislodge the enemy.






Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: Newark, N.J. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 17 December 1891. Citation: Conspicuous bravery in action against Indians concealed in a ravine.






Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at:——. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 May 1891. Citation: Bravery.





Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th,  1890. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 27 March 1891. Citation: Killed a hostile Indian at close quarters, and, although entitled to retirement from service, remained to the close of the campaign.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Quincy, Mass. Date of issue: 16 April 1891. Citation: Continued to flght after being severely wounded.






Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 1st U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Wounded Knee Creek, S. Dak., December 29th, 1890. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 24 March 1891. Citation: Taking the place of his commanding of ficer who had fallen severely wounded, he gallantly served his piece, after each flre advancing it to a better position.





Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 51st Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Stone River, Tenn., December 29th,  1862. Entered service at: North Salem, Ind. Birth: Hendricks County, Ind. Date of issue: 28 September 1897. Citation: Was the first man to cross Stone River and, in the face of a galling fire from the concealed skirmishers of the enemy, led his men up the hillside, driving the opposing skirmishers before them.




Rank and organization: Colonel, 4th lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Chickasaw Bayou, Miss., December 29th,  1862. Entered service at: Des Moines, lowa. Born: 8 February 1829, Columbia, Adair County, Ky. Date of issue: 17 January 1895. Citation: Led his regiment against a superior force, strongly entrenched, and held his ground when all support had been withdrawn.


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Unerased History – December 28th

Posted by Wayne Church on December 28, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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Pledge of Allegiance Day

National No Interruptions Day


The Ring of Fire

There seems to be an increase in the interest surrounding a region called the Ring of Fire. There is more and more talk of the fear of earthquakes and volcanoes. Even in Arizona there are old volcanoes including Mt. Humphreys just north of Flagstaff. Here is  some more information.

If you have ever been on a river that was frozen and it starts to breakup you can have some idea about how the ring of fire and plate tectonics works. The planet earth rides on a solid  core surrounded by a great “sea” of magma and the continents are like the pieces of ice in the river. Maybe a better picture would be a lake since it is calmer normally.  Once the ice has started to break, the pieces start to move against each other sometimes breaking pieces off and making a lot of noise. The same thing happens in plate tectonics or how the continents or the plates react to one another.

One particular part of the earth that is especially active in this regard is an area the “Ring of Fire.” It is an area stretching from New Zealand, along the eastern edge of Asia, north across the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, and south along the coast of North and South America. The Ring of Fire is composed of over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes.

This huge ring was noticed and described long before the invention of the theory of plate tectonics. We now know that the Ring of Fire is located at the borders of the Pacific Plate and other major tectonic plates with the exception of the southeastern spreading ridge and 900 miles of the San Andreas Fault.

The volcanoes in this area occur because just about the entire Pacific plate is undergoing subduction beneath other and younger, lighter plates. The Pacific plate is the one being subducted, so it is diving into the mantle, where the oceanic crust is melted into new magma, which rises to the surface, and to shorten the story, creates a volcano. Since the entire rim is basically one unbroken subduction zone, you have lots of volcanoes. The plates, like the large pieces of ice in the river, actually are giant rafts of the earth’s surface which often slide next to, collide with, and are forced underneath other plates. Around the Ring, the Pacific Plate is colliding with and sliding underneath other plates.

Volcanoes are temporary features on the earth’s surface and there are currently about 1500 active volcanoes in the world. About ten percent of these are located in the United States. This is a listing of major volcanic areas in the Ring of Fire:

In South America the Nazca plate is colliding with the South American plate. This has created the Andes and volcanoes such as Cotopaxi and Azul.

In Central America, the tiny Cocos plate is crashing into the North American plate and is therefore responsible for the Mexican volcanoes of Popocatepetl and Paricutun (which rose up from a cornfield in 1943 and became a instant mountains).

Between Northern California and British Columbia, the Pacific, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda plates have built the Cascades and the infamous Mount Saint Helens, which erupted in 1980.

Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are growing as the Pacific plate hits the North American plate. The deep Aleutian Trench has been created at the subduction zone with a maximum depth of 25,194 feet.

From Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula to Japan, the subduction of the Pacific plate under the Eurasian plate is responsible for Japanese islands and volcanoes (such as Mt. Fuji).

The final section of the Ring of Fire exists where the Indo-Australian plate subducts under the Pacific plate and has created volcanoes in the New Guinea and Micronesian areas. Near New Zealand, the Pacific Plate slides under the Indo-Australian plate.

Watch as volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis form and work. With  this information you will see that it is not happenstance and actually follows a somewhat predictable path.



“Life has no limitations, except the ones you make.”

~ Les Brown


Bite the bullet
Endure pain with fortitude.

Origin: In the days before effective anesthetics soldiers were given bullets to bite on to help them endure pain. Improvements in battlefield medicine has seen the real act of biting bullets migrated into metaphor, although it must still happen occasionally.

First recorded in print in Kipling’s Light that Failed, 1891. Kipling uses ‘bite the bullet’ rather than ‘bite this bullet’, which we might have expected if the idea were new to the character being spoken to. That tends to suggest the phrase was already public when the story was written.

1065 – Westminster Abbey is consecrated.

1598 – Richard and Cuthbert Burbage led a crew to begin the demolition of the Theater in London. They and partners that included William Shakespeare used the timbers to build a new theater. The Globe opened in 1599.

1612 – Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune, although he mistakenly catalogued it as a fixed star.

1732 – First known ad for “Poor Richard’s Almanack” (Pennsylvania Gazette). The ad promised “…Many pleasant and witty verses, jests and sayings … new fashions, games for kisses … men and melons … breakfast in bed, etc.

1789 – Lydia Darragh (b.1729), American spy, died in Philadelphia. Her exploits in 1777 did not become public until the publication of an anonymous article in 1827.

1832 – John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President of the United States to resign. He cited political differences with President Andrew Jackson and a desire to fill a vacant Senate seat in South Carolina

1835 – Osceola led his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the U.S. Army.

1836 – Spain recognizes independence of Mexico.

1846 – Iowa is admitted as the 29th U.S. state.

1862 – Civil War: Rear Admiral D. D. Porter’s gunboats supported General Sherman’s attempt to capture Confederate-held Chickasaw Bluffs, a vantage point upstream from Vicksburg.

1867 – U.S. claims Midway Island, first territory annexed outside Continental limits.

1869 – William E. Semple of Mt. Vernon, Ohio patents chewing gum. Chewing gum is a type of confectionery which is designed to be chewed instead of swallowed. Traditionally, it was made of chicle, a natural latex product, although for reasons of economy and quality many modern chewing gums use petroleum-based polymers instead of chicle. Chicle is nonetheless still the base of choice for some regional markets, such as in Japan. Glee Gum claims to be the last United States gum manufacturer to still use chicle.

1869 – The Knights of Labor, a labor union of tailors in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, held the first Labor Day ceremonies in American history.

1872 – A U.S. Army force defeated a group of Apache warriors at Salt River Canyon, Arizona Territory.

1877 – John Stevens of Neenah, Wisconsin, applies for a patent on his flour rolling mill.

1895 – First commercial movie screened. The Lumière brothers have their first paying audience at the Grand Cafe in Boulevard des Capucines marking the debut of the cinema.

1897 – The play Cyrano de Bergerac, by Edmond Rostand, premieres in Paris.

1900 – Convinced that her righteous campaign against alcohol justified her aggressive tactics, Carry Nation attacks a saloon in Wichita, Kansas, shattering a large mirror behind the bar and throwing rocks at a titillating painting of Cleopatra bathing.

1902 – The first indoor professional American football game, the World Series of pro football, was played in New York City at Madison Square Garden. Syracuse beats Philadelphia 6-0.

1903 – An Executive Order extended the jurisdiction of the Lighthouse Service to the non-contiguous territory of the Hawaiian Islands.

1904 – Farmers in Georgia burned two million bales of cotton to prop up falling prices.

1905 – Drydock Dewey left Solomon’s Island, MD, enroute through the Suez Canal to the Philippines to serve as repair base. This, the longest towing job ever accomplished, was completed by USS Brutus, USS Caesar, and USS Glacier on 10 July 1906.

1912 – The first municipally owned streetcars take to the streets in San Francisco.

1920 – U.S. resumed the deportation of communists and suspected communists.

1923 – George Bernard Shaw’s “St Joan” premieres in New York NY.

1925 – George/Ira Gershwin’s musical “Tip-Toes” premieres in New York NY.

1928 – Louis Armstrong makes 78rpm recording of “West End Blues.”

1928 – Last recording of Ma Rainey, “Mother of the Blues” (34:39) is made. She didn’t have a voice that was strong or beautiful as her protégé Bessie Smith, but she had a deep feeling for the sad songs she performed.

1939 – First flight of the Consolidated XB-24 “Liberator” bomber prototype.

1941 – World War II: In the Philippines, American and allied troops continue to fall back. They are now at the Tarlac-Cabanatuan line. Japanese attacks continue.

1941 – World War II: Authority given to establish the Navy’s own Construction Battalion. This is the actual beginning of the renowned Seabees and this “nickname” came from the sounds of its official name “CB”. Admiral Moreell personally furnished them with their official motto: Construimus, Batuimus — “We Build, We Fight.”

1943 – World War II: On New Britain, the US 1st Marine Division begins advancing to attack the Japanese airfield at Cape Gloucester.

1944 – World War II: The US 5th Army, fighting in the Italian Serchio valley, has pulled back from the town of Barga in response to German counterattacks.

1944 – World War II: 1200 B-17 Flying Fortress bombers, escorted by 700 fighters, attacked Coblenz and other targets. Late in the day, Bomber Command bombs Cologne.

1944 – Former Washington 3rd baseman Buddy Lewis receives the Distinguished Flying Cross for service over Burma.

1944 – The musical “On the Town” opened in New York City and ran for 462 performances. It features the song, “New York, New York.

1945 – The U.S. Congress officially recognizes the Pledge of Allegiance. The Pledge of Allegiance was written by Reverend Francis Bellamy for use at the dedication of the World’s Fair Grounds in Chicago on October 21, 1892. The words “under God” were added in 1954 in a law signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

1947 – Chicago Cardinals beat Philadelphia Eagles 28-21 in NFL championship game.

1948 – The DC-3 airliner NC16002 disappears 50 miles south of Miami, Florida. The aircraft carried 29 passengers and three crew members. No reason for the loss was determined by the official investigation and it remains unsolved. This aircraft was the first to operate an airline schedule in the world.

1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Jack Leonard), “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como, “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Bing Crosby and “Mule Train” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.

1949 – 20th Century Fox announces it will produce TV programs.

1950 – Korean War: Chinese troops cross 38th Parallel, into South Korea.

1952 – Korean War: The Far East Air Force mounted its heaviest bombing attack since August of 1952 with a 200-plane attack against targets southwest of Pyongyang.

1956 – Dr. Frances Horwich [Miss Frances], Ding Dong School started on NBC-TV. Seen Monday through Friday, the “Ding Dong School” was one of the first educational shows for kids. It pioneered the style later used by Mr. Rogers and others.

1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jailhouse Rock” by Elvis Presley, “At the Hop” – Danny & The Juniors, “Great Balls of Fire” by Jerry Lee Lewis and “My Special Angel” by Bobby Helms all topped the charts.

1957 – “April Love” by Pat Boone topped the charts.

1957 – The 2,000,000th Volkswagen was finished on this day.

1958 – What might be called greatest NFL game, Colts beat Giants 23-17  (2:35:16). The reason it might be called that? Twelve future Hall of Fame members played that game at Yankee Stadium, and included none other than Johnny Unitas. This was also the first game to go  into overtime.

1958 – Chipmunks (Alvin, Simon & Theodore with David Seville) hit #1.

1959 – “Why” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.

1961 – Tennessee Williams’ “Night of the Iguana” premieres in New York NY.

1963 – “Dominique” by Singing Nun topped the charts.

1964 – Vietnam: South Vietnamese troops retake Binh Gia in a costly battle.

1965CHART TOPPERS – “Over and Over” by The Dave Clark Five, “I Got You (I Feel Good)” by James Brown, “The Sounds of Silence” by Simon & Garfunkel and “Buckaroo” by Buck Owens & The Buckaroos all topped the charts.

1968 – Beatles’ “Beatles-The White Album” (1:33:34) goes #1 & stays #1 for 9 weeks.

1968 – Israeli commando troops destroy 13 civilian aircraft at Beirut International Airport.

1968 – “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1968 – The Doors’ “Touch Me” was released.

1969 – Neil Simon’s “Last of the Red Hot Lovers” premieres in New York NY.

1972 – Vietnam: After 11 days of round-the-clock bombing (with the exception of a 36-hour break for Christmas), North Vietnamese officials agree to return to the peace negotiations in Paris.

1973CHART TOPPERS – “The Most Beautiful Girl” by Charlie Rich, “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road” by Elton John, “Time in a Bottle” by Jim Croce and “If We Make It Through December” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.

1973 – Alexander Solzhenitsyn publishes “Gulag Archipelago,”

1973 – Akron OH’s Chamber of Commerce terminates itself from Soap Box Derby. Starting in 1935, the All-American Soap Box Derby had taken place in Akron and acquired a national sponsor: Chevrolet. Tribute to the American boy as inventor, engineer and sportsman.

1973 – Pres. Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act. The first list of endangered species contained Gray whales. The Gray whale was removed from the list in 1994 when the population climbed back to about 22,000.

1974 – “Angie Baby” by Helen Reddy topped the charts.

1975 – Twenty-five year old David Gelfer pointed a .44 magnum at Ted Nugent and was then brought down to the ground by members of the audience and security guards. Gelfer was charged with “intimidating with a weapon.”

1976 – “Fiddler on the Roof” (3:00:54)  opens at Winter Garden Theater New York City.

1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl like You” by Foreigner, “Let’s Groove” by Earth, Wind & Fire and “Love in the First Degree” by Alabama all topped the charts.

1981 – The first American test-tube baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born in Norfolk, Virginia.

1981 – The HBO pay cable television service expanded its schedule offering to 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

1981 – Pat Sajak starts hosting the daytime version of Wheel of Fortune.

1982 – Recommissioning of USS New Jersey (BB-62), the first of four Iowa-class battleships that were returned to service in 1980s.

1982 – Nevell Johnson Jr. was mortally wounded by a police officer in a Miami video arcade. The event set off three days of race-related disturbances that left another man dead.

1983 – Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys drowned while swimming near his boat in the harbor at Marina del Ray, CA.

1984 – The Edge of Night, a long running daytime American soap opera ends after a 28 year run and 7420 episodes.

1985 – “Say You, Say Me” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.

1987 – MASS SHOOTING: The bodies of 14 relatives of R. Gene Simmons were found at his home near Dover, AR. Simmons had gone on a shooting spree in Russellville that claimed two other lives.

1988 – British authorities investigating the explosion that destroyed Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, concluded that a bomb caused the blast aboard the jumbo jet.

1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Day in Paradise” by Phil Collins,” Don’t Know Much” Linda Ronstadt (featuring Aaron Neville), “Rhythm Nation” by Janet Jackson and “A Woman in Love” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.

1990 – USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) and USS America (CV-66) Carrier Battle Groups deploy from Norfolk, VA, for Middle East to join Operation Desert Shield.

1990 – Thirty-three people were injured in a trolley collision in Boston.

1991 – Ted Turner is named Time Magazine “Man of the Year.”

1991 – Nine people died in a crush to get into a basketball game at City College in New York. The game was promoted by rapper Sean “Puff Daddy” Combs.

1992 – NFL Hall of Fame quarterback Joe Montana played in his final game as a San Francisco 49er in a victory over the Detroit Lions.

1993 – US Energy Secretary Hazel O’Leary told CNN that people wrongfully exposed to radiation through federally funded experiments more than 40 years ago deserved to be compensated. Birth of the Entitlement mindset.

1994 – CIA Director R. James Woolsey resigned, ending a tenure shadowed by the Aldrich Ames spy scandal.

1995 – CompuServe sets a precedent by blocking access to sex-oriented newsgroups after being pressured by German prosecutors.

1997 – In Medford, Mass., a fire in a three-story building left six people dead including four children.

1998 – One woman was killed and more than 100 other people hurt, when a United Airlines jumbo jet en route from Tokyo to Honolulu encountered severe turbulence over the Pacific.

1998 – IRAQ: American aircraft patrolling the no-fly zone in Iraq destroyed an air defense site after the battery opened fire on them. President Clinton said there would be no letup in American and British pressure on Saddam Hussein.

1998 – In Riverside, Ca., Tyisha Miller (19) was killed by a hail of police bullets as she sat in her car with a gun. Her car had some 27 bullet holes. Miller died from bullets to her head and chest with a total of 12 bullets in her body.

1999 – Officials in Seattle canceled a public New Year’s Eve celebration due to security concerns.

1999 – Clayton Moore, TV star of the Lone Ranger series, died at age 85. His 169  episodes ran from 1949-1957, featured Jay Silverheels as Tonto and Fred Foy as the announcer: “Return with us now to those thrilling days of yesteryear…”

2000 – US 2000 census results set the population at 281,421,906, a gain of 13.2% since 1990.

2000 – U.S. retail giant Montgomery Ward announces it is going out of business after 128 years.

2000 – Bad weather in the Midwest was blamed for 41 deaths: including 22 in Texas and 11 in Oklahoma.

2001 – Buffalo, NY, dug out from a five-day storm that left nearly seven feet of snow.

2001 – In Pennsylvania a 30-50 car crash on snow-slickened I-80 left five people dead near Williamsport. Another 50 cars were involved in two pileups that left at least two more people dead.

2002 – US federal unemployment benefits ended for nearly 800,000.

2003 – A motorhome carrying ten people went off I-15 near Salt Lake City, Utah. Five people were killed including four children.

2004 – The US said it was adding 20 million-dollars to an initial 15 million-dollar contribution for Asian tsunami relief after the UN claimed we were being “stingy.” The death toll from the Dec 26 earthquake-tsunami catastrophe rose to more than 55,000.

2004 – An explosion at a scrap metal plant in Muskogee, Oklahoma, US, explodes killing two workers. The blast is felt about 50 miles away. The company is later fined for workplace violations.

2005 – A US immigration judge orders John Demjanjuk, a retired auto worker accused of being a Nazi concentration camp guard at Sobibor in Poland (1943), deported to the Ukraine for crimes against humanity committed during World War II.

2005 – US officials said the number of indictments for bilking victims of Hurricane Katrina has grown to 49 at a Bakersfield, California, call center used by the Red Cross.

2005 – Richard Causey (45), former accounting chief for Enron Corp., pleaded guilty to criminal conduct preceding the company’s collapse into bankruptcy.

2005 – Firefighters searched for missing people and hoped for cooler, calmer weather after deadly wildfires raced across thousands of acres of grassland in Texas and Oklahoma. Fires due to the worst drought in decades destroyed dozens of homes.

2006 – James Brown, the hardest working man in showbiz made a last visit to the Apollo Theatre in Harlem.

2006 –  Senators of the US Virgin Islands passed Act 6905 in a special session. It raised the governor’s salary from $80,000 to $150,000 and senators’ salaries from $65,000 to $80,000. The average income on St. Croix was $26, 548.

2008 – In Michigan strong winds knocked down tree limbs and power lines eliminating power to nearly 230,000 homes and businesses, mostly in Wayne and Oakland counties.

2009 –  In Mississippi a fire in an apartment in Starkville killed six children and three adults.

2009 –  In northern Nevada federal officials began a 2-month roundup of some 2,500 wild horses due to overpopulation. Of 1,922 horses, 86 horses died in the government roundup, mostly from stress and trauma.

2010 –  Five male teenagers from Little Haiti, Miami, Florida are killed by carbon monoxide poisoning in a motel room after fumes from a car kept idling overnight vent up a staircase into their room.

2010 –  A fire in a New Orleans warehouse kills eight people and two dogs, most of them homeless artists and musicians.


1856 – (Thomas) Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States of America (1913-1921).
1879 – Billy Mitchell, American military aviation pioneer (d. 1936)
1905 – Earl “Fatha” Hines, American musician often called “The Father of Modern Jazz Piano.”
1981 – Elizabeth Jordan Carr, the first official American test-tube baby.


No Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day

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Unerased History – December 27th

Posted by Wayne Church on December 27, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month with Comments closed |
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Howdy Doody’s Birthday – 1947

National Fruitcake Day


 History of Howdy Doody

If you are in your fifties or early sixties, do places like Doodyville, Pioneer Village or the Peanut Gallery ring any bells? Do you remember characters like Flub-a-Dub and a rather dim-witted carpenter named Dilly Dally? How about actors and actresses like Clarabell, Chief Thunderthud, Princess Summerfall Winterspring  and Phineas T. Bluster. Then there was “Buffalo Bob” whose real name was Bob Smith.


It all began before the first episode. Bob Smith (soon to be Buffalo Bob) was hosting a kids’ radio show in New York called Triple B Ranch on radio affiliate WEAF. The Triple B stood for Big Brother Bob Smith. He developed the country bumpkin voice of a ranch hand and greeted the radio audience with, “Oh, ho, ho, howdy doody.” The original Howdy marionette was designed by Frank Paris. In a contract dispute Paris left the show with that original and a new Howdy was designed. The new Howdy was designed by two artists, Margo and Rufus Rose, who’d worked at Walt Disney Studios. He was an all-American boy with red hair, forty-eight freckles (one for each state in the Union), and a permanent smile. Howdy’s face symbolized the youthful energy of the new medium and appeared on the NBC color test pattern beginning in 1954. When some kids asked about his altered appearance it was explained that he’d undergone “plastic surgery”.

The idea for a children’s television program called Howdy Doody began on that radio program. Smith launched the television program “Puppet Playhouse” on 17 December 1947. Within a week the name of the program was changed to The Howdy Doody Show and it made its debut (NBC) on December 27th, 1947. It was the first show of the day.  This was the first nationally broadcast show. It ran to Sep. 30, 1960 and was the first television show to hit the 2000 episode mark. It finally ran for over 2300 episodes. The show was on NBC and was produced by Martin Stone.


The live characters included Clarabell the Clown (Bob Keeshan who later became Captain Kangaroo), Chief Thunderthud, Princess Summerfall Winterspring. The puppet characters included Heidi Doody, Heidi was Howdy’s sister and she filled in for Howdy when he needed a vacation. Phineas T. Bluster , Doodyville’s entrepreneurial mayor, Howdy’s grumpy nemesis. Bluster had eyebrows that shot straight up when he was surprised.  Dilly Dally was Bluster’s naive, high-school-aged accomplice who wiggled his ears when he was frustrated. Flub-a-Dub was a whimsical character who was a combination of eight animals.. The theme was based on the French ditty: “Ta-ra-ra-Boom-der-e.”


In 1948, an election year, Howdy ran for “President of All the Boys and Girls”. Howdy’s popularity exploded that year–the show received a quarter of a million requests for “Howdy for President” buttons. Among those in the growing television audience were Bob Smith’s sons, Robin, Ronnie and, later Chris. “They were glued to the set, fascinated,” Bob recalls. “I’d come home and they’d say, ‘Daddy, do you know what Clarabell did to Buffalo Bob today?


Smith treated the marionettes as if they were real, and as a result, so did the children of America. Howdy, Mr. Bluster, Dilly, and the Flub-a-Dub gave the impression that they could cut their strings, saunter off the stage, and do as they pleased.”

There was a live audience of approximately 40 kids who sat in the audience of the show and they were referred to as the Peanut Gallery. Bob says the show focused on two things kids love–fantasy and slapstick. For visual excitement, there was the shell game, bursting balloons and –everyone’s favorite–seltzer water squirting. “The puppets weren’t fantasy,” Bob recalls, “but the stories were. The kids thought the puppets were real, and we treated them that way. We’d say, ‘Put the microphone on Howdy’, never’ on the puppet’.”


As the show’s popularity zoomed, Bob appeared on Edward R. Murrow’s Person to Person while working on two other live shows–a network morning radio show and a television variety show. The burden of all those added duties, plus many personal appearances, contributed to a heart attack in 1954. This sidelined Bob for a year, and when he came back, airtime was becoming too expensive to have a children’s show run five times a week.

Additional strange characters included:

Tim Tremble
Mr. Huff
Ugly Sam, a burly wrestler
John J. Fazdoozle, America’s Number One “Boing” private eye
Wendy Scuttlebutt, a ship captain

Other human characters on the show included Oilwell Willy and Dr. Singasong.


Howdy Doody Collectibles

Howdy Doody T-Shirts

Don’t let the dazzling heights you aspire to scare you from getting started. After all, few could climb Mt. Everest tomorrow, though virtually all could begin preparing.”

~Mike Dooley

prepense (pri-PENS) adjective
Planned; premeditated.

[From Anglo-Norman purpenser (to premeditate), from Latin pensare (to think).]

1512 – The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the conduct of settlers with regards to native Indians in the New World.

1777 – Floating mines intended for use against British Fleet found in Delaware River.

1814 – Destruction of schooner Carolina, the last of Commodore Daniel Patterson’s make-shift fleet that fought a series of delaying actions that contributed to Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans.

1831 – Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard the HMS Beagle, where he will formulate the theory of evolution.

1845 – Ether anesthetic is used for childbirth for the first time (Dr. Crawford Williamson Long in Jefferson, Georgia).

1846 – Mexican War: An army of volunteers known as Doniphan’s Thousand, led by Colonel Alexander W. Doniphan, wins a major victory in the war with Mexico with the occupation of El Paso.

1860U.S. Revenue Cutter Aiken was surrendered to South Carolina authorities.

1862 – Civil War: Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, Miss. (Chickasaw Bayou), began.

1862 – Civil War: Battle of Elizabethtown, KY.

1864 – Civil War: The defeated Confederate Army of Tennessee finishes crossing the Tennessee River as General John Bell Hood’s force retreats into Mississippi.

1892 – Bishop Potter laid the corner stone of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. Bishop Potter struck the massive stone three times with a large wooden mallet, “Other foundation can no man lay, than that is laid which is Jesus Christ.”

1900 – Militant prohibitionist Carry A. Nation performed her first public smashing of a bar, at the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kansas.

1903 – “Sweet Adeline”, a barbershop quartet favorite, is first sung.

1904 – James Barrie’s play Peter Pan premieres in London.

1913 – Charles Moyer, president of the Miners Union, was shot in the back and dragged through the streets of Chicago.

1915 – In Ohio, iron and steel workers went on strike for an eight hour day and higher wages.

1927 – Jerome Kern/Oscar Hammerstein II’s “Show Boat” opened in New York. Show Boat, considered to be the first true American musical play, opens at the Ziegfeld Theatre on Broadway.

1932 – Radio City Music Hall, “Showplace of the Nation”, opens in New York.

1934 – The first youth US hostel opened at Northfield, Mass.

1937 – Mae West performed an Adam and Eve skit that got her banned from NBC radio.

1938 – The first skimobile course in America opened in North Conway, NH.

1939 – The radio program, “The Glenn Miller Show,” debuted on the CBS radio network.

1941 – World War II: Rubber rationing was instituted by the U.S. government, due to shortages caused by World War II. Tires were the first items to be restricted by law.

1942 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, US attacks on Mount Austen renew. Attacking troops from the 132nd Infantry regiment, suffer heavy loses and make no real gains despite a heavy artillery barrage prior to the attack.

1943 – The threat of a paralyzing railroad strike loomed over the United States during the 1943 holiday season. The action was taken under the wartime Labor Disputes Act. The railroads were returned to private management on January 18, 1944.

1944 – World War II: Europe – Attacks by the British 30th Corps (part of US 1st Army) force the German 2nd Panzer Division (an element of 5th Panzer Army) out of Celles.

1944 – World War II: Europe – The US 8th Air Force bombs Coblenz, Bonn and Kaiserslautern (nominally railway targets). The RAF conducts nighttime raids on Munchen-Gladbach and Bonn.

1944 – World War II: General Patton’s Third Army, spearheaded by the 4th Armored Division, relieved the surrounded city of Bastogne in Belgium.

1945 – Foreign ministers from the former Allied nations of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and to govern the nation for five years.

1945 – International Monetary Fund established – The World Bank is created with the signing of an agreement by 28 nations.

1946 – US wins first Davis Cup since 1938.

1947 – Howdy Doody, a children’s television program, makes its debut (NBC). (See Fact of the Day)

1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kaiser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “My Darlin, My Darling” by Jo Stafford & Gordon MacRae and “A Heart Full of Love (For a Handful of Kisses)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1950 – Korean War: Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway took command of U.N. ground forces in Korea.

1950 – Korean War: Captain Marcus L. Sullivan became the first Army aviator to pilot a helicopter, a Bell H-13, in Korea.

1951 – Right-hand drive vehicle for mail delivery. The Crosley car was put into use by the U.S. Postal Service in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1952 – “I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus” by Jimmy Boyd topped the charts.

1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell, “A Rose and a Baby Ruth” by George Hamilton IV, “Garden of Eden” by Joe Valino and “Singing the Blues” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.

1956 – Segregation on Tallahassee, Fla. buses was outlawed.

1958 – “Chipmunk Song” by David Seville and The Chipmunks topped the charts.

1964 – The Supremes made their first appearance on TV’s “Ed Sullivan Show.”

1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Feel Fine” by The Beatles, “She’s a Woman” by The Beatles, “Goin’ Out of My Head” by Little Anthony & The Imperials and “Once a Day” by Connie Smith all topped the charts.

1965 – The BP oil rig Sea Gem capsized in the North Sea, with the loss of 13 lives.

1966 – The words from “Star Trek” theme copyright registered.

1966 – Vietnam War: A United States and South Vietnamese joint-service operation takes place against one of the best-fortified Viet Cong strongholds, located in the U Minh Forest in the Mekong Delta, 125 miles southwest of Saigon.

1968The U.S. agreed to sell fifty F-4 Phantom jets to Israel.

1968 – The long-running radio program “The Breakfast Club” signs off for the last time (ABC radio).

1968 – Apollo Program: Apollo 8 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean, ending humanity’s first manned mission to the Moon.

1969 – “Someday We’ll Be Together” by Diana Ross & the Supremes topped the charts.

1969 – Vietnam War: In the fiercest battle in six weeks, U.S. and North Vietnamese forces clash near Loc Ninh, about 80 miles north of Saigon.

1970 –  “Hello, Dolly!” closes at St James Theater NYC after 2,844 performances.

1971 – Snoopy, Charlie Brown, Linus, Lucy and Woodstock of Charles Schulz’ famous “Peanuts” comic strip made the cover of “Newsweek” magazine this day.

1971 – The “Sonny & Cher Show” began airing on CBS. The show ran for four and a half years.

1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Mrs. Jones” by Billy Paul, “You Ought to Be with Me” by Al Green, “Clair” by Gilbert O’Sullivan and “Got the All Overs for You (All Over Me)” by Freddie Hart & The Heartbeats all topped the charts.

1975 – “Let’s Do It Again” by the Staple Singers topped the charts.

1975 – The Four Seasons, “December 1963 (Oh, What A Night)” was released.

1979 – “Knots Landing” premieres on CBS-TV.

1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Just Like) Starting Over” by John Lennon, “Love on the Rocks” by Neil Diamond, “Hungry Heart” by Bruce Springsteen and “That’s All That Matters” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.

1980 – Calvin Murphy (Rockets) begins longest NBA free throw streak of 78.

1983 – President Reagan took all responsibility for the lack of security in Beirut that allowed a terrorist on a suicide mission to kill 241 Marines.

1983 – A propane gas fire devastated 16 blocks of Buffalo, NY. The fire killed five firefighters, two civilians, destroyed about a $1,000,000,000 in fire equipment, and leveled several city blocks, as well as the infamous fire alarm box # 29 also known as the Hoodoo Box. Firebox #29 of the Buffalo, New York Fire Department  was a “bad luck” box. It was known for difficult and expensive fires and more importantly for the number of firemen killed and injured while operating at this box. It seemed to be cursed or be a “Hoo Doo”.

1984 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was the woman most admired by the American people, according to a Gallup Poll. It marked the third consecutive year that the ‘Iron Lady’ received that honor.

1985 – Palestinian terrorists kill eighteen people inside Rome and Vienna airports. A total of twenty people were killed, including five of the attackers, who were slain by police and security personnel.

1986 – “Walk Like an Egyptian” by Bangles topped the charts.

1987 – Steve Largent sets all-time NFL record for career catches. When he retired, Largent held six major career pass receiving records most receptions (819), most consecutive games with a reception (177), most yards on receptions (13,089), most touchdowns on receptions (100), most seasons with 50 or more receptions (10) and most seasons with 1,000 yards or more on receptions (8). All this by a receiver who the Houston Oilers thought was too small and slow to make it in the pros.

1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Every Rose Has Its Thorn” by Poison, “My Prerogativeby Bobby Brown, “Two Hearts” by Phil Collins and “When You Say Nothing at All” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.

1989 –  President Bush, on a visit to Beeville, Texas, said he was determined to bring deposed Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega to justice “for poisoning the children of the United States” with illegal drugs.

1991 – The United States and the Philippines announced that the United States would abandon the Subic Bay naval base by the end of 1992.

1991 – Cincinnati Bengals hire Dave Shula as youngest NFL coach (32).

1991 – “Carol Burnett Show” last airs on CBS-TV. is generally regarded as the last successful major network variety show, to date. It continues to have success in syndicated reruns.

1992 – An armed gang subdued a lone security guard at a Brooklyn-based armored car company and made off with more than $8.2 million.The robbery, the second largest cash theft in the city’s history, occurred when the guard was surprised at about 11:30 p.m. Sunday in the command room of the Hudson Armored Car Courier Co. as he was watching television.

1992 – The U.S. shot down an Iraqi fighter jet during what the Pentagon described as a confrontation between a pair of Iraqi warplanes and US F-16 jets in U.N.-restricted airspace over southern Iraq.

1996 – Officials of NBC and Panasonic activated the new 891 sq. foot Astrovision screen near the base of One Times Square, New York.

1996 – Officials in Las Vegas announced that the 12-story, 900-room, 10-year-old Hacienda Hotel would be blown up on New Year’s Eve. A new 4,000 room resort owned by Circus Circus would replace it.

1996 – In South Bend, Ind., Annie Fulford was shot and killed during a drug-related robbery. Her boyfriend, Leif O’Connell, began a rampage and after two months began drive-by shootings of black men that left one dead and five injured.

1998 – Six inmates, including four convicted killers, escaped from Riverbend Maximum Security Institution in Tennessee. All were recaptured by the end of next day.

1998 – In Michigan six children of Femeeka O’Steen (27) died of smoke inhalation in Detroit as their mother recovered in a hospital after giving birth.

1999 – Space shuttle Discovery landed at Cape Canaveral, Fla., following a successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope.

2000 – Software engineer Michael McDermott pleaded innocent to seven counts of murder in the shooting deaths of seven co-workers the day before at an Internet consulting company in Wakefield, Mass. McDermott was later convicted and sentenced to life without parole.

2000 – President Clinton appointed Roger Gregory as the first African-American judge to the US Court of appeals in Richmond, Va.

2001 – President George W. Bush granted China permanent normal trade status with the US.

2001 – The US announced plans to hold Taliban and al Qaeda prisoners at the Guantanamo Bay naval base in Cuba.

2001 – Afghanistan: US warplanes destroyed a compound in eastern Afghanistan believed to used by a Taliban intelligence chief. Qari Ahmadullah (40), former Taliban chief of intelligence, was killed while fleeing US bombardment near Naka village in Paktia province.

2002 – The hamlet of Bridgeville on Highway 36 in Humboldt County, Ca., was sold on Ebay for $1.77 million. The Ebay deal failed and in 2004 a Southern California investor purchased the 82-acre town for $700,000.

2002 – North Korea ordered U.N. nuclear inspectors to leave the country and said it would restart a laboratory capable of producing plutonium for nuclear weapons.

2002 – Poland announced it will buy 48 U.S.-made F-16 jet fighters from Lockheed Martin for $3.5 billion to upgrade its air force to NATO standards.

2004 – In an audiotape, a man purported to be Osama bin Laden endorsed Abu Musab al-Zarqawi as his deputy in Iraq and called for a boycott of January’s elections in the country.

2004A massive burst of energy from a neutron star, SGR 1806-20, was detected in the constellation Sagittarius. It was the equivalent of what the sun emits every 150,000 years.

2005 – Grass fires burned in drought-stricken Texas and Oklahoma. Over three days, nearly 200 homes were lost and the fires blamed for at least four deaths.

2006 – A Florida doctor pleaded guilty to securities fraud in connection with a life insurance scam that cost 28,000 investors nearly $1 billion.

2006 – It was reported that the San Francisco Dept. of Parking and Traffic had begun a 90-day test run using cameras to scan license plates in search of cars with unpaid citations. Metal boots were immediately attached to cars with at least five outstanding tickets.

2006 –   Ohio’s state Supreme Court publicly reprimanded Gov. Bob Taft for his ethics violations in office, a black mark that will stay on his permanent record as an attorney.

2006 –  A two-day storm with sixty mph winds hit the San Francisco Bay Area. In Marin County the main hall of Manka’s Inverness Lodge, built in 1917, burned down when wind knocked a tree into a water heater. A woman was killed when a tree crashed through her cottage in Lagunitas.

2007 –  In Richmond, Ca., two gunmen shot and killed Ravinder (30) and Paramjit (42) Kalsi as they closed their restaurant.

2009 –  The New York Times reported that the United States has quietly opened a third, largely covert front against the Al-Qaeda terror network in Yemen. The paper said the Pentagon will be spending more than 70 million dollars over the next 18 months, and using teams of special forces, to train and equip Yemeni military, Interior Ministry and coast guard forces.

2010 – Allen Stanford’s, chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial Group of Companies, lawyers seek a two-year postponement of his trial and for his release from prison in the meanwhile. He is charged with running a $7 billion Ponzi scheme.

2011 – Over $30 billion was spent on holiday online shopping in the United States, a 15% increase from last year, according to comScore.

2011 – Sears Holdings Corporation announces plans to close over 100 Sears and K-Mart stores in the United States.

2012 – Former U.S. Central Command Commander and Retired Army General, Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, passed away today. “It doesn’t take a hero to order men into battle. It takes a hero to be one of those men who goes into battle.”

2012 – Toyota Motor Corporation, moving to put years of legal problems behind it, has agreed to pay more than $1 billion to settle dozens of lawsuits relating to sudden acceleration.

2012 – Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor denied a request by Christian business Hobby Lobby to block part of the federal health care law that requires employee health-care plans to provide insurance coverage for the morning-after pill and similar emergency contraception pills.



1571 – Johannes Kepler, German astronomer.
1654 – Jacob Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician (d. 1705)
1822 – Louis Pasteur, French scientist who developed pasteurization process and  rabies vaccination.
1901 – Marlene Dietrich (Maria von Losch), German-born actress.
1926 – Lee Salk, American child psychologist.
1943 – Cokie Roberts, American journalist





Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 12th Cavalry, 1st Air Cavalry Division. Place and date: Kim Song Valley, Republic of Vietnam, December 27th, 1966. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Born: 23 July 1936, Silver City, N. Mex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Part of Company C was defending an artillery position when attacked by a North Vietnamese Army regiment supported by mortar, recoilless-rifle, and machine gun fire. At the outset, S/Sgt. Jennings sprang to his bunker, astride the main attack route, and slowed the on-coming enemy wave with highly effective machine gun fire. Despite a tenacious defense in which he killed at least twelve of the enemy, his squad was forced to the rear. After covering the withdrawal of the squad, he rejoined his men, destroyed an enemy demolition crew about to blow up a nearby howitzer, and killed three enemy soldiers at his initial bunker position. Ordering his men back into a secondary position, he again covered their withdrawal, killing one enemy with the butt of his weapon. Observing that some of the defenders were unaware of an enemy force in their rear, he raced through a fire-swept area to warn the men, turn their fire on the enemy, and lead them into the secondary perimeter. Assisting in the defense of the new position, he aided the air-landing of reinforcements by throwing white phosphorous grenades on the landing zone despite dangerously silhouetting himself with the light. After helping to repulse the final enemy assaults, he led a group of volunteers well beyond friendly lines to an area where eight seriously wounded men lay. Braving enemy sniper fire and ignoring the presence of booby traps in the area, they recovered the eight men who would have probably perished without early medical treatment. S/Sgt. Jenning’s extraordinary heroism and inspirational leadership saved the lives of many of his comrades and contributed greatly to the defeat of a superior enemy force. His actions stand with the highest traditions of the military profession and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company L, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Sigolsheim, France, December 27th,  1944. Entered service at: Georgetown, Tex. Birth: Florence, Tex. G.O. No.: 79, 14 September 1945. Citation: While leading his platoon on 27 December 1944, in savage house-to-house fighting through the fortress town of Sigolsheim, France, he attacked a building through a street swept by withering mortar and automatic weapons fire. He was hit and severely wounded in the arm and shoulder; but he charged into the house alone and killed its two defenders. Hurling smoke and fragmentation grenades before him, he reached the next house and stormed inside, killing two and capturing eleven of the enemy. He continued leading his platoon in the extremely dangerous task of clearing hostile troops from strong points along the street until he reached a building held by fanatical Nazi troops. Although suffering from wounds which had rendered his left arm useless, he advanced on this strongly defended house, and after blasting out a wall with bazooka fire, charged through a hail of bullets. Wedging his submachinegun under his uninjured arm, he rushed into the house through the hole torn by his rockets, killed five of the enemy and forced the remaining twelve to surrender. As he emerged to continue his fearless attack, he was again hit and critically wounded. In agony and with one eye pierced by a shell fragment, he shouted for his men to follow him to the next house. He was determined to stay in the fighting, and remained at the head of his platoon until forcibly evacuated. By his disregard for personal safety, his aggressiveness while suffering from severe wounds, his determined leadership and superb courage, 1st Lt. Whiteley killed nine Germans, captured twenty-three more and spearheaded an attack which cracked the core of enemy resistance in a vital area.






Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Cotton served on board the U.S.S. Baron De Kalb in the Yazoo River expedition, 23 to December 27th,  1862. Proceeding under orders up the Yazoo River, the Baron De Kalb, with the object of capturing or destroying the enemy’s transports, came upon the steamers John Walsh, R. J. Locklan, Golden Age and the Scotland, sunk on a bar where they were ordered to be burned. Continuing up the river, the Baron De Kalb was fired upon but, upon returning the fire, caused the enemy’s retreat. Returning down the Yazoo, she destroyed and captured large quantities of enemy equipment and several prisoners. Serving bravely throughout this action, Cotton, as coxswain “distinguished himself in the various actions.”






Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Baron De Kalb, Yazoo River Expedition, 23 to December 27th,  1862. Proceeding under orders up the Yazoo River, the U.S.S. Baron De Kalb, with the object of capturing or destroying the enemy’s transports, came upon the steamers John Walsh, R. J. Locklan, Golden Age and the Scotland sunk on a bar where they were ordered fired. Continuing up the river, she was fired on, but upon returning the fire, caused the enemy’s retreat. Returning down the Yazoo, she destroyed and captured larger quantities of enemy equipment and several prisoners. Serving bravely throughout this action, Leon, as captain of the forecastle, “distinguished himself in the various actions.”







Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Prussia. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Serving as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Benton during the attack on Haines Bluff, Yazoo River, December 27th,  1862. Taking part in the ninety-minute engagement with the enemy, who had the dead range of the vessel and was punishing her with heavy fire, Martin served courageously throughout the battle until the Benton was ordered to withdraw.





Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1817, Scotland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 11 , 3 April 1 863. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Baron De Kalb, Yazoo River Expedition, 23 to December 27th,  1862. Proceeding under orders up the Yazoo River, the U.S.S. Baron De Kalb, with the object of capturing or destroying the enemy’s transports, came upon the steamers John Walsh, R. J. Locklan, Golden Age, and the Scotland, sunk on a bar where they were ordered burned. Continuing up the river, she was fired on but, upon returning the fire, caused the enemy’s retreat. Returning down the Yazoo, she destroyed and captured large quantities of enemy equipment and several prisoners. Serving bravely throughout this action, McDonald, as boatswain’s mate, “distinguished himself in the various actions.”






Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Serving as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Benton during the attack on Haines Bluff, Yazoo River, December 27th,  1862. Wounded during the ninety-minute engagement in which the enemy had the dead range of the vessel and was punishing her with heavy fire, Moore served courageously in carrying lines to the shore until the Benton was ordered to withdraw.





Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Ireland. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Serving as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Benton during the Yazoo River Expedition, 23 to  December 27th, 1863. Taking part in the ninety-minute engagement with the enemy at Drumgould’s Bluff, 27 December, Morton served courageously.

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Unerased History – December 26th

Posted by Wayne Church on December 26, 2014 in 12 - December, Blog by month |
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National Candy Cane Day

National Whiners Day


How to enjoy Whiners Day:



December 26 is National Whiners Day. It comes at a very appropriate time of year. Since a day has been designated specifically for you to whine and moan and groan about all that isn’t right or fair, you really need to enjoy this day to its absolute fullest.

While you’re whining go ahead and whine about how tired you are from all of the party invitations you couldn’t turn down, the hours you spent shopping, and the time you spent decorating. Whine about how long it will take you to get your decorations packed away and the house back in its proper order. National Whiners Day comes immediately after Christmas Day. As adults we probably are not as verbally honest about how we feel about our gifts as children are. You can look at a child’s face and know if they are delighted, disappointed, or disgusted with the gift they just opened. As adults, we’ve spent years perfecting that “Just what I wanted” smile. when sometimes even the most thoughtful presents only seem to elicite groans of discontent.

There’s a long history in children’s books of whiny characters. In the eighteenth century, for example, Maria Edgeworth’s famous didactic tale, “The Purple Jar,” told the story of Rosamund who pleads for a purple jar. Her mother gives Rosamund the choice between the jar or a much-needed pair of new shoes and Rosamund goes for the jar, then whines when she has to suffer the consequences of her

Yertle the Turtle

impulse buying. Don’t forget Dr. Seuss’s archetypal meglomaniac, Yertle the Turtle, who obsesses over the altitude of his own standing in the pond. And who could forget the King of Complaining himself, Judith Viorst’s Alexander, who takes having a bad day to new heights? “I went to sleep with gum in my mouth and now there’s gum in my hair and when I got out of bed I tripped on the skateboard and by mistake I dropped my sweater in the sink while the water was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day,” Alexander’s litany of complaints is an important outlet and a form of cathartic expression for children and can lead to some unexpectedly creative solutions

While you may not want the giver to know how you feel about a gift you don’t like, you can use National Whiners Day to whine about your disappointment to a friend (a very trustworthy friend), your spouse, or simply whine to yourself.

While you have a designated day to whine, make sure you whine about everything that is annoying you. Whine about the weather if you don’t like it. Whine about the world situation, your personal finances, or your appearance. Get all of your whining finished before midnight.

By taking advantage of a day to whine, you can begin practicing living in a positive state of mind on December 27. By the time the new year arrives the concept of positive thinking will be your new good habit for the upcoming year



Snowboarding is an activity that is very popular with people who do not feel that regular skiing is lethal enough.”

 ~ Dave Barry



This is the act of taking a gift that has been received and giving it to somebody else in the guise of a new gift.

The concept of a repeatedly regifted item is similar to “mathom”, a word coined by J. R. R. Tolkien in his novel The Hobbit (1954). He wrote: “Anything that Hobbits had no immediate use for, but were unwilling to throw away, they called a mathom. Their dwellings were apt to become rather crowded with mathoms, and many of the presents that passed from hand to hand were of that sort.”


1492 – Christopher Columbus established the first Spanish settlement in the Americas on the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti.

1620 – Pilgrim Fathers land at what becomes New Plymouth in Massachusetts.

1773 – Expulsion of tea ships from Philadelphia.

1776 – Revolutionary War: The British are defeated in the Battle of Trenton.

1786 – Daniel Shay led a rebellion in Massachusetts to protest the seizure of property for the non-payment of debt.

1799 – George Washington is eulogized by Colonel Henry Lee as “first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen.

1820 – Moses Austin meets with Spanish authorities in San Antonio to ask permission for 300 Anglo-American families to settle in Texas.

1825 – The Erie Canal opens.

1848 – The Phi Delta Theta fraternity is founded.

1848 – First gold seekers arrive in Panamá en route to San Francisco. Most travel would take five or six months.

1854 – Wood-pulp paper first exhibited, Buffalo, NY.

1860 – Following the secession of South Carolina (20 December) Major Robert Anderson, USA, removed his garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston Harbor.

1860 – Confederate diplomatic envoys James Mason and John Slidell are freed by the Lincoln administration, thus heading off a possible war between the United States and Great Britain.

1861 – Civil War: Confederate diplomatic envoys James M. Mason and John Slidell are freed by the United States government, thus heading off a possible war between the United States and Britain.

1862 – Civil War: Battle of Dumfries, Va.

1862 – Civil War: The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou begins.

1862 – Civil War: Four nuns who were volunteer nurses on board USS Red Rover were the first female nurses on a U.S. Navy hospital ship. Red Rover, a 625-ton side-wheel river steamer, was built in 1859 at Cape Girardeau, Missouri. She was purchased by the Confederate Government in November 1861 and used as an accommodation ship at New Orleans, Louisiana. In early 1862, she aided the defense efforts at Columbus, Kentucky, and at Island Number Ten on the Mississippi River.

1862 – The largest mass-hanging in US history took place in Mankato, Minnesota, killing 39 following the Sioux Uprising. Thirty-eight Dakota Amerindians were hanged for participation in the uprising; a total of 303 were sentenced to be hanged but President Lincoln pardoned 265 at the urging of Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple. Lincoln’s intervention was not popular at the time.

1865 – James H. Mason of Franklin, Massachusetts, received a patent for a coffee percolator.

1878 – For the first time in America, electric lighting was installed in a store at the Grand Depot, owned by John Wanamaker. Eight dynamos provided the electrical power to run 28 arc lamps.

1898 – Marie and Pierre Curie announce the isolation of radium.

1908 – Jack Johnson becomes the first Black heavyweight boxing champion by defeating Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia.

1917 – During World War I, the U.S. government took over operation of the nation’s railroads.

1917 –  First NHL defensemen to score a goal: Toronto Maple Leaf Harry Cameron.

1919 – Yankees & Red Sox reach agreement on transfer of Babe Ruth.

1924 – Judy Garland, age 2 1/2, billed as Baby Frances, show business debut.

1925 – NHL record 141 shots as New York Americans (73) beat Pittsburgh Pirates (68) 3-1.

1925 – Six U.S. destroyers were ordered from Manila to China to protect interests in the civil war that was going on there.

1927 – The East-West Shrine football game featured numbers on both the front and back of players’ jerseys.

1928 – Johnny Weissmuller announces his retirement from amateur swimming.

1931 – George/Ira Gershwin’s “Of Thee I Sing” premieres on Broadway. It became the first American musical to be awarded a Pulitzer Prize.

1931 – Phi Iota Alpha, the oldest existing Latino fraternity is founded.

1933 – The Nissan Motor Company is organized in Tokyo, Japan.

1933 – Edwin Armstrong was granted a patent for a two-path FM radio.

1939 – W.C. Handy records the classic “St. Louis Blues“.

1941 – Winston Churchill became the first British prime minister to address a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress, just three weeks after the U.S. entered World War II.

1943 – World War II: Under command of Seventh Amphibious Force, landings at Cape Gloucester, New Britain was conducted with Coast Guard-manned LST’s 18, 22, 66, 67, 68, 168, 202, 204, and 206.

1943 – World War II: The German warship Scharnhorst sinks off the coast of North Cape in Norway after being attacked by the Royal Navy late the previous evening.

1943 – World War II: Count Claus von Stauffenberg tried in vain to plant a bomb in Hitler’s headquarters.

1943 – World War II: The US 5th Army clears Monte Sammucro and the surrounding hills of German forces.

1944 – The play “The Glass Menagerie” by Tennessee Williams is first publicly performed.

1944 – World War II: U.S. troops repulse German forces at Bastogne.

1944 – World War II: In Italy two platoons of the segregated 92nd Infantry Division fought the German 14th Army at Sommocolonia. Of 70 “Buffalo Soldiers” and 25 Italian Partisans only 18 survived.

1946 – The Flamingo Hotel opens in Las Vegas. Billy Wilkerson designed the Flamingo and sold a controlling interest to Bugsy Siegel when his money ran out. It was the third hotel casino built on the Las Vegas strip.

1946 – “Beggar’s Holiday” opens at Broadway Theater New York City for 111 performances.

1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “Civilization” by Louis Prima, Serenade of the Bells” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Don Cornell) and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.

1947 – Twenty-six inches of snow falls in 16 hours in New York City.

1953 – “Big Sister” was heard for the last time on CBS Radio. The show ran for 17 years.

1953 – Korean War – The U.S. announced the withdrawal of two divisions from Korea.

1954 – “The Shadow” aired on radio for the last time.

1955 – Bill Haley and the Comets’ “See You Later Alligator” was released by Decca Records.

1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Hear You Knocking” by Gale Storm, “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin, “He” by Al Hibler and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.

1955 – RKO is first to announce sale of its film library to TV.

1957 – Twenty helicopters from Marine Light Helicopter Squadron 162, were rushed to Ceylon onboard the USS PRINCETON where US Marines participated in the rescue and evacuation of flood victims.

1959 – “Heartaches by the Number” by Guy Mitchell topped the charts.

1960 – Musical “Do re mi” with Phil Silvers premieres.

1961 – Jay & the Americans recorded “She Cried.”

1963 – Beatles release “I Want To Hold Your Hand“/”I Saw Her Standing There“.

1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dominique” by The Singing Nun, “Louie Louie” by The Kingsmen, “You Don’t Have to Be a Baby to Cry” by The Caravelles and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.

1964 – Beatles’ “I Feel Fine” single goes #1 and stays #1 for 3 weeks.

1965 – “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand closes on Broadway. Barbra Streisand’s delivery of “People” still sends a chill down the spine.

1966 – The first Kwanzaa is celebrated by Maulana Karenga, the chair of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach.

1967 – Wham-O Frisbee patented.

1967 – Atlantic Richfield oil workers struck oil on Alaska’s North Slope at Prudhoe Bay.

1967 – Vietnam: North Vietnamese troops started a general offensive against government forces in southern Laos.

1970 – “My Sweet Lord” by George Harrison topped the charts.

1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Family Affair” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Brand New Key” by Melanie, “An Old Fashioned Love Song “ by Three Dog Night and “Kiss an Angel Good Mornin’ “ by Charley Pride all topped the charts.

1971 – U.S. fighter-bombers begin striking at North Vietnamese airfields, missile sites, antiaircraft emplacements, and supply facilities. These raids continued for five days.

1972 – The 33rd president of the United States, Harry S. Truman, died in Kansas City, Mo.

1973 – Comet Kohoutek reaches perihelion but is not such a display as expected.

1973 – “The Exorcist“, starring Linda Blair & rated X, premieres.

1978 – In San Jose, Ca., Nolan K. Bushnell, inventor of the Pong video game, opened the 20,000-sq.-foot Pizza Time Theater, the world’s largest pizza parlor.

1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Escape (The Pina Colada Song)” by Rupert Holmes, Please Don’t Go” by K.C. & The Sunshine Band, “Send One Your Love” by Stevie Wonder and “Happy Birthday Darlin’ “ by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.

1981 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.

1982 – TIME magazine’s Man of the Year was for the first time given to a non-human, the personal computer.

1984 – House Speaker Tip O’Neill was selected to receive the J. Fred Muggs Award, given by “TV Guide” for TV goofs and blunders. The Speaker of the House earned the uncoveted prize when he ordered cameras from CSPAN to pan the almost empty House of Representatives while Republicans were making rip-roaring speeches.

1987 – A bomb exploded at a USO bar in Barcelona, Spain, killing one U.S. sailor and injuring nine others; a little-known group called the Red Army of Catalonian Liberation claimed responsibility.

1987 – Run D.M.C.’s Jason Mizell was hospitalized when his Jeep was hit head-on by a driver going the wrong-way.

1986 – The first long-running American television soap opera, “Search for Tomorrow”, airs its final episode after thirty-five years on the air.

1986 – Doug Jarvis, 31, sets NHL record of 916 consecutive games. He ultimately appeared in 964 NHL contests without missing a single game.

1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Faith” by George Michael,   “So Emotional” by Whitney Houston, “Got My Mind Set on You” by George Harrison and “Somewhere Tonight” by Highway 101 all topped the charts.

1988 – Another body from the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 was found, bringing the confirmed death toll to 240.

1990 – The US government reported that its 1990 census had counted a total 249,632,692 people.The census counted over 1.6 million  Americans of Chinese descent with 40% of them in California.

1990 – Nancy Cruzan, the young woman in an irreversible vegetative state whose case led to a US Supreme Court decision on the right to die, died at a Missouri hospital.

1991 – Jack Ruby’s gun sells for $220,000 in auction. The gun used in the killing was placed on auction in New York City. The .38-caliber Colt Cobra revolver, originally purchased for $62.50 went  to bidder Frank Roman who bought the gun on behalf of a private gun collector.

1991 – Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the USSR.

1991 – President Bush nominated businesswoman Barbara Franklin to be commerce secretary.

1992 – Time magazine announced it had chosen President-elect Bill Clinton its 1992 “Man of the Year.”

1995 – Israel turned dozens of West Bank villages over to the Palestinian Authority in a smooth transfer of power.

1996 – Six-year-old beauty queen JonBenet Ramsey was found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family’s home in Boulder, CO. She was found in the basement of her family home eight hours after the mother discovered a ransom note demanding $118,000. To date, the slaying remains unsolved.

1996 – Honda Motor Co. announced the first human-shaped robot that can move independently and do basic tasks. It stood 6 feet and weighed 462 lbs. and took 10 years of engineering.

1997 – It was reported that the US Centers for Disease Control had begun work on a “Bird Flu” vaccine in response to the nine confirmed cases and four deaths in Hong Kong.

1998 – President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, urged Congress to lower the blood-alcohol limit for drunken driving nationwide to 0.08 percent to conform with 17 states and the District of Columbia. The other 33 states have 0.10.

1998 – Iraq announced its intention to fire upon U.S. and British warplanes that patrol the northern and southern no-fly zones.

1998 – Severe gales over Ireland, northern England, and southern Scotland cause widespread disruption and widespread power outages in Northern Ireland and southern Scotland.

1999 – The crew of space shuttle “Discovery” packed up its tools and prepared to return home after an eight-day mission of repairs to the Hubble Space Telescope that NASA declared a success.

1999 – Time Magazine named Albert Einstein (d.1955) as the Person of the Century.

2000 – MASS SHOOTING: Michael McDermott, age 42, a software tester at Edgewater Tech in Wakefield, Mass.,opened fire at his place of employment killing seven people. McDermott had no criminal history. He wielded a semiautomatic rifle and a shotgun.

2000 – President Clinton signed a ban on cutting shark fins and discarding the fish back to the sea.

2000 – Donna Shalala, US Sec. of Health and Human Services, blocked a GOP sponsored drug reimportation plan intended to reduce drug prices.

2001 – Iraq: The Al Jazeera Arab network broadcast a new video-taped statement from Osama bin Laden that appeared to have been made in late Nov or early December.

2002 – French Raelian scientist Brigitte Boisselier says Clonaid has delivered the world’s first human clone, a 7-pound baby girl, through cesarean section. The claim was subsequently dismissed by scientists for lack of proof.

2003 – An avalanche in Provo Canyon, Utah, left three snowboarders dead.

2004 – An earthquake measuring 9.3 on the Richter magnitude scale creates a tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, The Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing more than 250,000 people. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC  with an epicenter off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. It was it is the third largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. The earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre (0.4 inches) and triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska. It  inundated coastal communities with waves up to 98 ft high. The Impossible (trailer)

2004 – Peyton Manning of the Indianapolis Colts broke Dan Marino’s single-season touchdown pass record when he threw his 48th and 49th of the season against San Diego. The Colts defeated San Diego in overtime, 34-31.

2004 –  An unmanned cargo ship docked at the international space station, ending a shortage that forced astronauts to ration supplies.

2004 – Reggie White (43), NFL defensive star, died in Huntersville, NC of a heart attack. White played 15 seasons with Philadelphia, Green Bay and Carolina. He retired after the 2000 season as the NFL’s career sacks leader with 198.

2005 – “Monday Night Football” ended an unprecedented 36-year run on ABC TV with a lackluster game, a 31-to-21 New England Patriots victory over the New York Jets. The series switched to ESPN the following season.

2005 – New Orleans Police officers shot and killed a man brandishing a knife in a confrontation that was partially videotaped by a bystander, setting off another internal investigation of the embattled department.

2005 – Iraq: Two US pilots were killed after their Apache collided in mid-air with another helicopter just west of Baghdad.

2006 – Gerald R. Ford (b.1913), former Michigan Congressman and US President (1973-1976), died. He had declared “Our long national nightmare is over” as he replaced Richard Nixon, but may have doomed his own chances of election by pardoning his disgraced predecessor.

2006 – A 21,000 gallon oil spill off the Texas coast resulted when a ship anchor hit an oil line.

2007 – Online auction giant eBay said it has launched a microlending website, www.microplace.com,  that lets people invest in entrepreneurs in poor communities around the world and get a return on their money.

2007 –  President Bush signed a $555 billion domestic spending bill and took a swipe at Congress for including pet projects totaling nearly $10 billion.

2007 –  The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission said that employers could reduce of eliminate health benefits for retirees when they turn 65 and become eligible for Medicare.

2008 – In Hawaii a power failure during a thunderstorm blacked out Oahu’s population of about 900,000 people and thousands of tourists including vacationing President-elect Barack Obama.

2008 – In Philadelphia a duplex fire apparently caused by fuel spilling from an overfilled kerosene heater killed seven people, including 3 kids, in a basement that had only one exit.

2010 –  The eastern United States is struck by more snow, with South Carolina receiving its first ever snow on Christmas Day.

2010 – Newly released cables from July 2004 reveal that American diplomats panicked about a screening of the film Fahrenheit 9/11, which is critical of the U.S. government’s response to the September 11 attacks.

2011 –  Drew Brees, the quarterback for the New Orleans Saints, breaks the 1984 National Football League record for yards passing in a single season.

2012 – A moderate severe weather outbreak hits several southern states on Christmas Day including Texas, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. More than 30 tornadoes are reported. The storms leave at least six people dead.


1646 – Robert Bolling, English settler in Virginia (d. 1709)1716 – Thomas Gray, English poet.
1792 – Charles Babbage, English mathematician.
1837 – Commodore George Dewey, American naval hero of the Spanish-American War.
1891 – Henry Miller, American novelist.
1921 – Steve Allen, American comedian, author, musician, composer, TV host.
1940 – Phil Spector, American music producer.





Rank and Organization: Lieutenant, Cannon Company, 366th Infantry Regiment, 92d Infantry Division. Entered Service: Cincinnati, OH Born: May 18, 1915; Cincinnati, Ohio Citation: For extraordinary heroism against an armed enemy in the vicinity of Sommocolonia, Italy on December 26th, 1944. During the preceding few weeks, Lieutenant Fox served with the 598th Field Artillery Battalion as a forward observer. On Christmas night, enemy soldiers gradually infiltrated the town of Sommocolonia in civilian clothes, and by early morning the town was largely in hostile hands. Commencing with a heavy barrage of enemy artillery at 0400 hours on 26 December 1944, an organized attack by uniformed German units began. Being greatly outnumbered, most of the United States Infantry forces were forced to withdraw from the town, but Lieutenant Fox and some other members of his observer party voluntarily remained on the second floor of a house to direct defensive artillery fire. At 0800 hours, Lieutenant Fox reported that the Germans were in the streets and attacking in strength. He then called for defensive artillery fire to slow the enemy advance. As the Germans continued to press the attack towards the area that Lieutenant Fox occupied, he adjusted the artillery fire closer to his position. Finally he was warned that the next adjustment would bring the deadly artillery right on top of his position. After acknowledging the danger, Lieutenant Fox insisted that the last adjustment be fired as this was the only way to defeat the attacking soldiers. Later, when a counterattack retook the position from the Germans, Lieutenant Fox’s body was found with the bodies of approximately one-hundred German soldiers. Lieutenant Fox’s gallant and courageous actions, at the supreme sacrifice of his own life, contributed greatly to delaying the enemy advance until other infantry and artillery units could reorganize to repel the attack. His extraordinary valorous actions were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of military service, and reflect the utmost credit on him, his unit, and the United States Army.





Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company C, 53d Armored Infantry Battalion, 4th Armored Division. Place and date: Near Assenois, Belgium, December 26th, 1944. Entered service at: Lepanto, Ark. Birth: Lepanto, Ark. G.O. No.: 74, 1 September 1945. Citation: On the night of 26 December 1944, near Assenois, Belgium, he was with the leading element engaged in the final thrust to break through to the besieged garrison at Bastogne when halted by a fierce combination of artillery and small arms fire. He dismounted from his half-track and advanced against two 88mm. guns, and, by the ferocity of his rifle fire, compelled the gun-crews to take cover and then to surrender. Later in the attack he again left his vehicle, voluntarily, to aid two wounded soldiers, helpless and exposed to intense machinegun fire. Effectively silencing two hostile machine-guns, he held off the enemy by his own fire until the wounded men were evacuated. Pvt. Hendrix again distinguished himself when he hastened to the aid of still another soldier who was trapped in a burning half-track. Braving enemy sniper fire and exploding mines and ammunition in the vehicle, he extricated the wounded man and extinguished his flaming clothing, thereby saving the life of his fellow soldier. Pvt. Hendrix, by his superb courage and heroism, exemplified the highest traditions of the military service.


(Air Mission)

Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps, 13th Air Force. Place and date: Over Luzon, Philippine Islands, December 25-December 26th, 1944. Entered service at: Sebring, Fla.. Birth: Ridgewood, N.J. G.O. No.: 24, 7 March 1946. Citation: He fought with conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity over Luzon, Philippine Islands. Voluntarily, he led a squadron of fifteen P-38’s as top cover for heavy bombers striking Mabalacat Airdrome, where his formation was attacked by twenty aggressive Japanese fighters. In the ensuing action he repeatedly flew to the aid of embattled comrades, driving off enemy assaults while himself under attack and at times outnumbered three to one, and even after his guns jammed, continuing the fight by forcing a hostile plane into his wingman’s line of fire. Before he started back to his base he had shot down three Zeros. The next day he again volunteered to lead escort fighters on a mission to strongly defended Clark Field. During the resultant engagement he again exposed himself to attacks so that he might rescue a crippled bomber. In rapid succession he shot down one aircraft, parried the attack of four enemy fighters, one of which he shot down, single-handedly engaged three more Japanese, destroying one, and then shot down still another, his 38th victory in aerial combat. On 7 January 1945, while leading a voluntary fighter sweep over Los Negros Island, he risked an extremely hazardous maneuver at low altitude in an attempt to save a fellow flyer from attack, crashed, and was reported missing in action. With gallant initiative, deep and unselfish concern for the safety of others, and heroic determination to destroy the enemy at all costs, Maj. McGuire set an inspiring example in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service.




Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S . Army, 1st Battalion, 1 5th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Sigolsheim, France, December 26th, 1944. Entered service at: Glendale, Calif. Born: 23 November 1915, Denver, Colo. G.O. No.: 47, 18 June 1945. Citation: Commanding the 1st Battalion attacking a strongly held enemy position on a hill near Sigolsheim, France, on 26 December 1944, found that one of his assault companies had been stopped and forced to dig in by a concentration of enemy artillery, mortar, and machinegun fire. The company had suffered casualties in attempting to take the hill. Realizing that his men must be inspired to new courage, Lt. Col. Ware went forward 150 yards beyond the most forward elements of his command, and for two hours reconnoitered the enemy positions, deliberately drawing fire upon himself which caused the enemy to disclose his dispositions. Returning to his company, he armed himself with an automatic rifle and boldly advanced upon the enemy, followed by two officers, nine enlisted men, and a tank. Approaching an enemy machinegun, Lt. Col. Ware shot two German riflemen and fired tracers into the emplacement, indicating its position to his tank, which promptly knocked the gun out of action. Lt. Col. Ware turned his attention to a second machinegun, killing two of its supporting riflemen and forcing the others to surrender. The tank destroyed the gun. Having expended the ammunition for the automatic rifle, Lt. Col. Ware took up an Ml rifle, killed a German rifleman, and fired upon a third machinegun fifty yards away. His tank silenced the gun. Upon his approach to a fourth machinegun, its supporting riflemen surrendered and his tank disposed of the gun. During this action Lt. Col. Ware’s small assault group was fully engaged in attacking enemy positions that were not receiving his direct and personal attention. Five of his party of eleven were casualties and Lt. Col. Ware was wounded but refused medical attention until this important hill position was cleared of the enemy and securely occupied by his command.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898



Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Nova Scotia. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Powhatan at Norfolk, December 26th, 1872, Noil saved Boatswain J. C. Walton from drowning.

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