Wayne C. C National Carry a Tune Week
National Custodial Workers Day
The Good Humor Man
Credit a clever Ohio candy maker for the invention of the Good Humor® Bar. It was 1920. Harry Burt had just created the Jolly Boy Sucker, a lollypop on a stick and applied for a patent. In addition Burt outfitted a fleet of twelve street vending trucks with freezers and bells to sell his creation out of. The first set of bells came from his son’s bobsled. Later, while working in his ice cream parlor, Burt developed a smooth chocolate coating that was compatible with ice cream. Unfortunately, the new combination was too messy to eat. Burt’s young son, Harry Jr., suggested that his dad take some of the wooden sticks used for the Jolly Boy Suckers and freeze them into the ice cream. The first ice cream on a stick was born.
The name Good Humor came from the belief that a person’s “humor” or temperament was related to the humor of the palate (one’s sense of taste). In 1923, Mr. Burt headed to Washington, D.C. to the Patent Office with a five-gallon pail of Good Humor® Bars for the patent officials to sample. It worked – his patent was granted.
To market his Good Humor Bars, Burt sent out a fleet of 12 chauffeur-driven trucks with bells to make door-to-door deliveries. The Good Humor Man was born. In the early days, Good Humor® men were required to tip their hats to ladies and salute gentlemen.
A Good Humor plant opened in Chicago in 1929. The mob demanded $5,000 in protection money, which was refused, so they destroyed part of the Chicago fleet. During the Great Depression, Good Humor® introduced a bar for 5¢ – half the price of a normal bar.
Good Humor® sold its fleet of vehicles in 1976 to focus on selling in grocery stores. Some of the trucks were purchased by ice cream distributors and others were sold to individuals. The trucks sold for $1000 – $3000 each.
When it is all put into perspective, this quote from Dennis the Menace puts life’s worries where they belong:
vagary VAY-guh-ree; vuh-GER-ee, noun:
An extravagant, erratic, or unpredictable notion, action, or occurrence.
Vagary comes from Latin vagari, “to stroll about, to wander,” from vagus, “wandering.”
1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.
1608 – First telescope was demonstrated by the Dutch lens maker, Hans Lipperschey.
1656 – US colony Connecticut passed a law against Quakers.
1780 – British Major John Andre was hanged as a spy by U.S. forces in Tappan, New York, during the Revolutionary War. He held papers showing Benedict Arnold as a traitor.
1789 – George Washington transmits the proposed Constitutional amendments (the so-called “Bill of Rights”) to the States for ratification.
1789 – Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton asked collectors of customs to report on expediency of employing boats for the “security of the revenue against contraband.”
1799 – Washington Navy Yard established. It is currently the home to the Chief of Naval Operations and is headquarters for the Naval Historical Center and the Marine Corps Historical Center.
1803 – Samuel Adams (b.1722), former Gov. of Mass. (1793-1797), died. He was a propagandist, political figure, revolutionary patriot and statesman who helped to organize the Boston Tea Party.
1833 – The New York Anti-Slavery Society was organized.
1835 – The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.
1836 – Charles Darwin returned from his five-year survey of South American waters aboard the HMS Beagle.
1862 – Civil War: An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrived in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Saltville – Union forces attack Saltville, Virginia, but are defeated by Confederate troops.
1865 – Former Confederate General Robert E. Lee became president of Washington and Lee University in Virginia.
1866 – J. Osterhoudt patented a tin can with key opener.
1871 – Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for polygamy.
1876 – The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas opened. It was the state’s first venture into public higher education.
1889 – In Colorado, Nicholas Creede strikes it rich in silver during the last great silver boom of the American Old West.
1908 – For just the fourth time in history, baseball fans saw a perfect game. Cleveland pitcher Addie Joss never let Chicago near the bases as Cleveland won, 1-0.
1909 – Orville Wright set an altitude record, flying at 1,600 feet.
1918 – World War I: US Marines participated in the Battle of Blanc Mont in France. The USMC Fifth Regiment drove forward and seized in a single assault the strongly entrenched German positions between Blanc Mont and Medeah Farm advancing, in a single day, almost four miles.
1919 – US President Woodrow Wilson suffered a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed. Mrs. Wilson found her husband unconscious on the bathroom floor of their private White House quarters bleeding from a cut on his head. The stroke left his left side paralyzed and impaired his vision. The country never heard about it.
1920 – The Cincinnati Reds and the Pittsburgh Pirates played the only triple-header in baseball history. The Reds won 2 of the 3 games.
1929 – “The National Farm and Home Hour” debuted on NBC radio.
1932 – World Series: The NY Yankees won the World Series against the Chicago Cubs in four games.
1933 – “Red Adams” debuted on NBC radio.
1937 – Warner Bros. released “Love Is on the Air.” Ronald Reagan made his acting debut in the motion picture. He was 26 years old.
1937 – Samuel R. Caldwell becomes the first person is the United States to be arrested on a marijuana charge.
1939 – “Flying Home” was recorded by the Benny Goodman Sextet.
1941 – World War II: Operation Typhoon was launched by Nazi Germany. The plan was an all-out offensive against Moscow.
1941 – Gilbert Gable, mayor of Port Orford, Ore., announced with some pals that they were fed up with being neglected by legislators in Salem and Sacramento and began promoting a 49th state named Jefferson with Yreka as the capital.
1942 – Enrico Fermi and others demonstrated the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction under Stagg Field at the University of Chicago.
1942 – World War II: President Roosevelt is granted power to control wages, salaries and agricultural prices.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazi troops crushed the 63-day-old Warsaw Uprising; one-quarter million Poles died.
1948 – “Finian’s Rainbow” closed at 46th St Theater in New York City after 725 performances.
1948 – The first automobile race to use asphalt, cement and dirt roads took place in Watkins Glen in New York. It was the first road race in the U.S. following World War II.
1949 – “The Aldrich Family” (29:06) debuted on NBC-TV.
1950 – Korean War: Chinese Foreign Minister Chou En-lai warned the Indian Ambassador in Beijing that if the Americans cross the 38th parallel China would enter the war.
1950 – The comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is first published in nine US newspapers. Peanuts is a syndicated daily and Sunday comic strip which ran from October 2, 1950, to February 13, 2000 (the day after Schulz’s death), continuing in reruns afterward.
1953 – “Person to Person” debuted on CBS-TV. Interview with Bing Crosby.
1954 – World Series: New York Giants (4) vs Cleveland Indians (0)
1955 – “Alfred Hitchcock Presents” had its TV premiere.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards, “Rock-in Robin” by Bobby Day, “Tears on My Pillow” by Little Anthony & The Imperials and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1959 – “The Twilight Zone” premiered. The show ran for 5 years for a total of 154 episodes.
1961 – “Banks of the Ohio” was released by Joan Baez.
1961 – “Ben Casey,” starring Vince Edwards and Sam Jaffe, premiered on ABC.
1963 – Vietnam: Defense Secretary Robert McNamara told Pres. Kennedy in a cabinet meeting that: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam.” McNamara proposed to replace the 16,000 US advisors with Canadian personnel.
1964 – Scientists announced findings that smoking can cause cancer.
1965 – “The Who” made their debut on U.S. TV on the show “Shindig!”
1967 – Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as the first Black (associate) justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1968 – California’s Redwood National Park was established.
1970 – A plane carrying the Wichita State Univ. football team crashed near Silver Plume, Colorado, killing twenty-nine passengers as well as the Captain and Flight Attendant.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Honestly Love You” by Olivia Newton-John, “ Rock Me Gently” by Andy Kim, “Nothing from Nothing” by Billy Preston and “I’m a Ramblin’ Man” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1975 – Showa Tenno Hirohito, the 124th Japanese monarch along an imperial line dating back to 660 BC, was welcomed by President Gerald Ford.
1976 – “Tonight’s The Night” by Rod Stewart was released.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jack & Diane” by John Cougar, “Eye in the Sky” by The Alan Parsons Project, “Somebody’s Baby” by Jackson Browne and “Put Your Dreams Away” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1984 – Richard W. Miller became the first FBI agent to be arrested and charged with espionage. Miller was tried three times; he was sentenced to 20 years in prison, but was released after nine years.
1987 – Democratic senators lined up against Supreme Court nominee Robert H. Bork as President Reagan continued to lobby undecided lawmakers on behalf of his candidate for the high court.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Can’t Live Without Your) Love and Affection” by Nelson,
1990 – The US Senate voted 90-to-9 to confirm the nomination of Judge David H. Souter to the Supreme Court.
1995 – O.J. Simpson’s jurors stunned the courtroom and the nation by reaching verdicts in less than four hours. They acquitted him of both murders.
1996 – The US meeting between Benjamin Netanyahu, Yasser Arafat and King Hussein ended with no specific issues resolved in the recent Middle East flare-up between Palestinians and Jews.
1996 – The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments are signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton.
1996 – Mark Fuhrman was given three years’ probation and fined $200 after he pled no contest to perjury at O.J. Simpson’s trial.
1998 – The House released 4,600 pages of evidence that detailed President Clinton’s efforts to contain the Monica Lewinsky scandal.
1999 – The US and Russia opened a new video-conferencing center in Moscow to allow real-time links with the White House.
2000 – President Clinton signed into law the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) as Title 1 of the Trade and Development Act of 2000. It offered tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets.
2001 – The US Federal Reserve cut interest rates for a ninth time and reduced the federal funds rate to 2.5%, its lowest level since 1962. The DJIA rose 113 to 8,950. The NASDAQ rose 11 to 1,492.
2001 – Acting Massachusetts Gov. Jane Swift unveiled security measures that included a new security chief at Logan International Airport, where hijackers boarded the two planes that smashed into the World Trade Center.
2002 – James Martin (55) was shot to death by a sniper in Wheaton, Md. He was the first to die at the hands of a local serial killer. The next day, five people in the Washington D.C. area were shot dead, setting off a frantic manhunt. Ultimately ten would be killed.
2003 – The US House voted 281-142 to prohibit doctors from carrying out partial birth abortions.
2004 – Two US ships carrying 300 pounds of plutonium were scheduled to dock in Cherbourg, France. A French nuclear factory planned to transform it into fuel assemblies and return it next year to Charleston, SC.
2005 – In New York the 40-foot boat the Ethan Allen capsized on Lake George over so quickly that none of the forty-seven passengers from Michigan could put on a life jacket. Twenty people were killed.
2006 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Nickel Mines, PA, Charles Carl Roberts IV (32), a local truck driver, lined eleven girls against a blackboard and shot them in the head at a one-room Amish schoolhouse in Lancaster County. He shot himself as police stormed the schoolhouse. Four of the girls and the female teacher’s aide died.
2007 – A draft report by the Government Accountability Office said Federal employees wasted at least $146 million over a one-year period on business- and first-class airline tickets, in some cases simply because they felt entitled to the perk.
2007 – In Colorado, five workers trapped at least 1,500 feet underground survived an initial chemical fire at a hydroelectric plant near Georgetown, but died before emergency workers could rescue them.
2008 – Sarah Palin and Joe Biden have their only scheduled debate for the vice presidency.
2008 – A search team finds the wreckage of the airplane flown by adventurer Steve Fossett in the mountains of Madera County, California, and what appears to be some of his personal effects nearby. Fossett had disappeared on September 3, 2007.
2009 – U.S. Economy lost 263,000 jobs in September; jobless rate rises to 9.8%.
2010 – Rick Sanchez, a Cuban-born news anchorman with the American channel CNN, is fired by the network after calling comedian Jon Stewart a “bigot”, saying Jews are not an oppressed minority in the United States, and implying the people who run CNN and other news media are Jewish.
2010 – Phillip and Nancy Garrido, the kidnappers of 11-year-old American child Jaycee Lee Dugard, are each indicted on 18 counts, ranging from rape to false imprisonment.
2012 – A U.S. Border Patrol agent was killed and another wounded in a shooting early today near the U.S.-Mexico line in Arizona, according to the Border Patrol. The agents were shot while patrolling on horseback in Naco, Arizona, Nicholas Ivie, 30, was killed around 1:50 a.m. after he and two other agents responded to a sensor hit near mile marker 352 on State Route 80, the Border Patrol said in a statement. A third agent was not harmed, according to George McCubbin, president of the National Border Patrol Council, a union representing about 17,000 agents.
2012 – An elementary school teacher in Chesapeake,Virginia, Tara Harris, a teacher charged with teaching reading and math took it upon herself to teach 10-year olds in her care how to perform Islamic hand signs. She injured a young girl in the process of teaching these hand signs drawing blood. The school resource officer had this to say: “Speaking in Arabic isn’t against school policy.”
1800 – Nat Turner, American leader of slave uprising (d. 1831)
1871 – Cordell Hull, United States Secretary of State, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1955)
1890 – Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1977)
1895 – Bud Abbott, American comedian and actor (d. 1974)
1937 – Johnnie L. Cochran Jr., American attorney (d. 2005)
NOVOSEL, MICHAEL J.
Rank and organization: Chief Warrant Officer, U.S. Army, 82d Medical Detachment, 45th Medical Company, 68th Medical Group. Place and date: Kien Tuong Province, Republic of Vietnam, October 2nd, 1969. Entered service at: Kenner, La. Born: 3 September 1922, Etna, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. CWO Novosel, 82d Medical Detachment, distinguished himself while serving as commander of a medical evacuation helicopter. He unhesitatingly maneuvered his helicopter into a heavily fortified and defended enemy training area where a group of wounded Vietnamese soldiers were pinned down by a large enemy force. Flying without gunship or other cover and exposed to intense machinegun fire, CWO Novosel was able to locate and rescue a wounded soldier. Since all communications with the beleaguered troops had been lost, he repeatedly circled the battle area, flying at low level under continuous heavy fire, to attract the attention of the scattered friendly troops. This display of courage visibly raised their morale, as they recognized this as a signal to assemble for evacuation. On six occasions he and his crew were forced out of the battle area by the intense enemy fire, only to circle and return from another direction to land and extract additional troops. Near the end of the mission, a wounded soldier was spotted close to an enemy bunker. Fully realizing that he would attract a hail of enemy fire, CWO Novosel nevertheless attempted the extraction by hovering the helicopter backward. As the man was pulled on aboard, enemy automatic weapons opened fire at close range, damaged the aircraft and wounded CWO Novosel. He momentarily lost control of the aircraft, but quickly recovered and departed under the withering enemy fire. In all, fifteen extremely hazardous extractions were performed in order to remove wounded personnel. As a direct result of his selfless conduct, the lives of twenty-nine soldiers were saved. The extraordinary heroism displayed by CWO Novosel was an inspiration to his comrades in arms and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*KELSO, JACK WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, October 2nd,1952. Entered service at: Caruthers, Calif. Born: 23 January 1934, Madera, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman of Company I, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When both the platoon commander and the platoon sergeant became casualties during the defense of a vital outpost against a numerically superior enemy force attacking at night under cover of intense small-arms, grenade, and mortar fire, Pfc. Kelso bravely exposed himself to the hail of enemy fire in a determined effort to reorganize the unit and to repel the onrushing attackers. Forced to seek cover, along with four other Marines, in a nearby bunker which immediately came under attack, he unhesitatingly picked up an enemy grenade which landed in the shelter, rushed out into the open and hurled it back at the enemy. Although painfully wounded when the grenade exploded as it left his hand, and again forced to seek the protection of the bunker when the hostile fire became more intensified Pfc. Kelso refused to remain in his position of comparative safety and moved out into the fire-swept area to return the enemy fire, thereby permitting the pinned-down marines in the bunker to escape. Mortally wounded while providing covering fire for his comrades, Pfc. Kelso, by his valiant fighting spirit, aggressive determination, and self-sacrificing efforts in behalf of others, served to inspire all who observed him. His heroic actions sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
(name legally changed from CHRISTOS H. KARABERIS,
under which name the medal was awarded )
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company L, 337th Infantry, 85th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Guignola, Italy, October 1st – October 2nd, 1944. Entered service at:Manchester,N.H. Birth:Manchester, N.H. G.O. No.: 97,1 November 1945. Citation Leading a squad of Company L, he gallantly cleared the way for his company’s approach along a ridge toward its objective, the Casoni di Remagna. When his platoon was pinned down by heavy fire from enemy mortars, machineguns, machine pistols, and rifles, he climbed in advance of his squad on a maneuver around the left flank to locate and eliminate the enemy gun positions. Undeterred by deadly fire that ricocheted off the barren rocky hillside, he crept to the rear of the first machinegun and charged, firing his submachinegun. In this surprise attack he captured eight prisoners and turned them over to his squad before striking out alone for a second machinegun. Discovered in his advance and subjected to direct fire from the hostile weapon, he leaped to his feet and ran forward, weaving and crouching, pouring automatic fire into the emplacement that killed four of its defenders and forced the surrender of a lone survivor. He again moved forward through heavy fire to attack a third machinegun. When close to the emplacement, he closed with a nerve-shattering shout and burst of fire. Paralyzed by his whirlwind attack, all four gunners immediately surrendered. Once more advancing aggressively in the face of a thoroughly alerted enemy, he approached a point of high ground occupied by two machineguns which were firing on his company on the slope below. Charging the first of these weapons, he killed four of the crew and captured three more. The six defenders of the adjacent position, cowed by the savagery of his assault, immediately gave up. By his one-man attack, heroically and voluntarily undertaken in the face of tremendous risks, Sgt. Karaberis captured five enemy machinegun positions, killed eight Germans, took twenty-two prisoners, cleared the ridge leading to his company’s objective, and drove a deep wedge into the enemy line, making it possible for his battalion to occupy important, commanding ground.
*KINER, HAROLD G.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company F, 117th Infantry, 30th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Palenberg, Germany, October 2nd,1944. Entered service at: Enid, Okla. Birth: Aline, Okla. G.O. No.: 48, 23 June 1945. With 4 other men, he was leading in a frontal assault 2 October 1944, on a Siegfried Line pillbox near Palenberg, Germany. Machinegun fire from the strongly defended enemy position twenty-five yards away pinned down the attackers. The Germans threw hand grenades, one of which dropped between Pvt. Kiner and two other men. With no hesitation, Private Kiner hurled himself upon the grenade, smothering the explosion. By his gallant action and voluntary sacrifice of his own life, he saved his two comrades from serious injury or death.
*CORRY, WILLIAM MERRILL, JR.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Near Hartford, Conn., October 2nd, 1920. Born: 5 October 1889, Quincy, Fla. Accredited to: Florida. Other Navy award: Navy Cross. Citation: For heroic service in attempting to rescue a brother officer from a flame-enveloped airplane. On 2 October 1920, an airplane in which Lt. Comdr. Corry was a passenger crashed and burst into flames. He was thrown 30 feet clear of the plane and, though injured, rushed back to the burning machine and endeavored to release the pilot. In so doing he sustained serious burns, from which he died four days later.
National Sarcastics Awareness Month
Ten Code Month
Pizza is a flattened disk of bread dough topped with olive oil, tomatoes, and mozzarella cheese, baked quickly and served hot – and the recipient of various toppings. The term ‘pizza’ first appeared “in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta in 997 AD, which claims that a tenant of certain property is to give the bishop of Gaeta ‘duodecim pizze’ or “twelve pizzas”, every Christmas Day, and another twelve every Easter Sunday,”
In 16th century “Naples a Galette” flatbread was referred to as a pizza, a dish of the poor people. It was sold in the street and was not considered a kitchen recipe for a long time. Before the 17th century, the pizza was covered with red sauce. This was later replaced by oil, tomatoes (after Europeans came into contact with the Americas) or fish.
The pizza we enjoy today originated in 1830 in Naples, Italy. Pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries. Pizzerias keep this old tradition alive today. In 1843, Alexandre Dumas, described the diversity of pizza toppings. In June 1889, to honour the Queen consort of Italy, Margherita of Savoy, the Neapolitan chef Raffaele Esposito created the “Pizza Margherita,” a pizza garnished with tomatoes, mozzarella cheese, and basil, to represent the colors of the Italian flag.
It came to America through the Italian community of New York City, where the first pizzeria opened in 1905. Before the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited mostly to Italian immigrants and their descendants. After World War II, pizza’s popularity soared. Allied troops occupying Italy, weary of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food. They discovered the pizzeria, and local bakers were hard-pressed to satisfy the demand from the soldiers. The American troops involved in the Italian campaign took their appreciation for the dish back home, touted by “veterans ranging from the lowliest private to Dwight D. Eisenhower”.
With pizza’s rising popularity chain restaurants moved in. Leading early pizza chains were Shakey’s Pizza, founded in 1954 in Sacramento, California, Pizza Hut, founded in 1958 in Wichita,Kansas, and Josey’s Pizza founded in Newnan, Georgia in 1943. Later entrant restaurant chains to the dine-in pizza market were Bertucci’s, Happy Joe’s, Monical’s Pizza, California Pizza Kitchen, Godfather’s Pizza, and Round Table Pizza.
Today, the American pizza business is dominated by companies that specialize in pizza delivery, such as Domino’s, Papa John’s Pizza, Giordano’s Pizza, Pizza Ranch, Mazzio’s, andGodfather’s Pizza. Pizza Hut has shifted its emphasis away from pizza parlors and toward home delivery. Another recent development is the take-and-bake pizzeria, such as Papa Murphy’s.
According to a survey, about 62% of Americans prefer meat toppings on their pizza, while 38% prefer vegetables. The most popular topping is pepperoni with 37% ordered this way. Americans eat an average of 100 acres worth of pizza daily. There are approximately 61,269 pizzerias in America.
“Never let a day go by without giving some attention to your goals.
If you predict fish for dinner tonight, you’d better get your line in the water.”
“Every journey requires a posted destination, a planned path and purposeful movement.”
“A goal is something beyond where you are.”
pollicitation (puh-lis-i-TAY-shuhn) noun
A promise or an offer made but not yet accepted.
[From Latin pollicitation, from polliceri (to promise).]
331 BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
1189 – Gerard de Ridefort, grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184, is killed in the Siege of Acre.
1768 – English troops under General Gage landed in Boston. Soldiers drawn chiefly from the 14th and 29th Infantry Regiments, and numbering about 700 men, landed at Boston without opposition.
1811 – The first steamboat to sail the Mississippi River arrives in New Orléans, Louisiana. The New Orleans, or Orleans, was launched in 1811 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for a company organized by Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton, her designer, she was a large, heavy side-wheeler with a deep draft.
1837 – A treaty was made with the Winnebago Indians. The Winnebago people call themselves Ho-Chunk, “People of the First Voice.”
1844 – Naval Observatory headed by LT Matthew Fontaine Maury occupies first permanent quarters. Founded in 1830 as the Depot of Charts and Instruments, the Naval Observatory is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the country.
1847 – German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske.
1847 – Maria Mitchell (29), American astronomer living on Nantucket Island, discovered a new comet that was named after herself.
1854 – The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.
1864 – The Condor ran aground at the mouth of the Cape Fear River near Wilmington, North Carolina. A Union gunboat had been pursuing the ship.
1878 – General Lew Wallace was sworn in as governor of New Mexico Territory. He went on to deal with the Lincoln County War, Billy the Kid and wrote Ben-Hur.
1880 – John Philip Sousa becomes leader of the United States Marine Corps Band. He premiered many of his marches and produced the first commercial phonograph recordings in his 12 year tour.
1880 – Thomas Edison began the commercial production of electric lamps at Edison Lamp Works in Menlo Park.
1885 – Special delivery mail service began in the United States. The first routes were in West Virginia.
1888 – National Geographic magazine published for the first time. The National Geographic Society was founded by Gardiner Hubbard, the father-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell.
1890 – The Yosemite National Park and the Yellowstone National Park are established by the U.S. Congress.
1890 – Congress created the Weather Bureau, moving the Weather Warning Service from the US Army Signal Corps to the Department of Agriculture.
1891 – Stanford University opens its doors.
1892 – The University of Chicago opened.
1893 – In the 3rd worst hurricane in US history 1,800 people were killed in Mississippi.
1896 – Rural Free Delivery was established by the U.S. Post Office. Service began in Charles Town, Halltown, and Uvilla in West Virginia,
1903 – The first modern World Series took place between the Boston Pilgrims and the Pittsburgh Pirates.
1907 – The Plaza Hotel opened in New York City at 5th Av and 59th Street.
1908 – Ford puts the Model T car on the market at a price of US$825. Ford sold over 10,000 in the first year of production. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black.
1910 – The Los Angeles Times building at 1st and Broadway was bombed killing 21 nonunion pressman and linotype operators. A new Los Angeles Times building was completed in 1935.
1910 – At midnight a strict anti-gambling law became effective in Nevada. It even forbid the western custom of flipping a coin for the price of a drink.
1918 – World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence (a/k/a “Lawrence of Arabia”) capture Damascus.
1919 – In baseball’s World Series the Chicago White Sox faced the Cincinnati Reds in a best of nine games. The White Sox intentionally threw the series to satisfy gamblers in what became known as the Black Sox Scandal. Eight players were banned from baseball for life.
1919 – Black sharecroppers gathered at Elaine, Arkansas, to secure a more equitable price for their products. When a white deputy sheriff and a railroad detective, arrived at the church, a fight broke out between them and the guards in which the railroad detective was killed and the deputy sheriff was wounded.
1926 – An oil field accident cost aviator Wiley Post his left eye, but he used the settlement money to buy his first aircraft.
1928 – Duke Ellington recorded “The Mooche.”
1928 – Ben Pollack and his band recorded “Forever.” The band included Benny Goodman and Jack Teagarden. No copy on YouTube!!
1928 – First class at school for enlisted Navy and Marine Corps Radio intercept operators (RIO).
1929 – In New York City, demolition began of the Waldorf-Astoria to make way for the new Empire State Building.
1931 – The George Washington Bridge linking New Jersey and New York opens.
1931 – The second (and current) Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is opened in New York.
1933 – Babe Ruth made his final pitching appearance. He pitched all nine innings and hit a home run in the fifth inning.
1934 – Adolph Hitler expanded the German army and navy and created an air force, violating Treaty of Versailles.
1939 – World War II: After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, German forces entered the city.
1939 – Churchill called the Soviets a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.”
1940 – The first 160 miles of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opens to traffic.
1942 – World War II: USS Grouper torpedoes Lisbon Maru not knowing she was carrying British PoWs from Hong Kong .
1942 – The Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, first US jet, made its maiden flight.
1942 -Little Golden Books (children books) began publishing.
1943 – World War II: Naples was captured by the Allied forces.
1943 – World War II: Germans attacked Jews in Denmark.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. First Army began the siege Aachen, Germany.
1946 – The International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg sentenced twelve Nazi officials to death. Seven others were sentenced to prison terms and 3 were acquitted.
1946 – Mensa International is founded in the United Kingdom.
1946 – The first baseball play-off game for a league championship was played. The St. Louis Cardinals defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers, 4-2.
1947 – The F-86 Sabre flies for the first time.
1948 – The California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp voided a state statue banning interracial marriages.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “Maybe It’s Because” by Dick Haymes, “Some Enchanted Evening” by Perry Como and “Slipping Around” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1951 – The all-Black 24th Infantry Regiment and 159th Field Artillery Battalion, 25th Infantry Division, were disbanded and the personnel reassigned to formerly all-white units.
1952 – “This is Your Life” with Laurel &Hardy (10:21) began airing on NBC-TV.
1955 – USS Forrestal (CVA-59), first of postwar supercarriers, is commissioned.
1955 – “The Honeymooners” airs for the first time. It starred Jackie Gleason, Art Carney and Audrey Meadows living at 328 Chauncey Street, Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, NY. The last episode aired May 9th, 1971.
1956 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower pushed the button to set off the first dynamite charge used in the construction of Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wake Up Little Susie” by The Everly Brothers, “Honeycomb” by Jimmie Rodgers, “Chances Are/The Twelfth of Never” by Johnny Mathis and “My Shoes Keep Walking Back to You” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1957 – First appearance of “In God We Trust” on U.S. paper currency.
1957 – B-52 bombers began full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack.
1958 – NASA created to replace NACA.
1958 – American Express launched its first credit card.
1961 – Baseball: Roger Maris and Mickey Mantle of the New York Yankees engage in an epic battle to break Babe Ruth’s single season home run record of 60 in 1927. Maris ends up hitting his 61st against the Boston Red Sox, passing Ruth.
1961 – Pat Robertson’s Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) first aired.
1962 – Johnny Carson began hosting the “Tonight” show on NBC-TV. He stayed with the show for 29 years. Jack Paar was the previous host. It is currently hosted by Jay Leno.
1962 – Barbra Streisand signed her first recording contract with Columbia.
1964 – Vee Jay Records released the album “The Beatles Vs. The Four Seasons.”
1964 – The Free Speech Movement is launched on the campus of University of California, Berkeley.
1966 – West Coast Airlines Flight 956 crashes with eighteen fatal injuries and no survivors 5.5 miles south of Wemme, Oregon. This accident marks the first loss of a DC-9.
1966 -“I Love My Dog” was released by Cat Stevens.
1968 – The US Congress created the Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area in Wyoming.
1969 – The Concorde supersonic transport plane breaks the sound barrier for the first time.
1971 – Walt Disney World opens near Orlando, Florida.
1974 – Five Nixon aides–Kenneth Parkinson, Robert Mardian, Nixon’s Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and U.S. Attorney General John Mitchell– went on trial for conspiring to hinder the Watergate investigation.
1975 – Thrilla in Manila: Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila, Philippines.
1979 – The 1977 Panama Canal Treaties entered into force. The US returned the Canal Zone, but not the canal, to Panama after 75 years.
1979 – President Jimmy Carter awards the Congressional Space Medal of Honor to former naval aviators Neil Armstrong, CAPT Charles Conrad, Jr., USN (Ret.), COL John Glenn, USMC (Ret.), and RADM Alan Shepard, Jr., USN (Ret.)
1979 – Henry Ford II stepped down as Ford’s chairman and CEA and was succeeded by Philip Caldwell (b.1920).
1980 – Robert Redford became the first male to appear alone on the cover of “Ladies’ Home Journal.” He was the only male to achieve this in 97 years.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Queen of Hearts” by Juice Newton, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “Tight Fittin’ Jeans” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1982 – EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow) Center opened in Florida. The concept was planned by Walt Disney.
1982 – Sony launches the first consumer compact disc player (model CDP-101).
1984 – Gary Trudeau’s Doonesbury comic strip resumed after a 2-year hiatus.
1986 – Former President Jimmy Carter’s presidential library and museum were dedicated in Atlanta with help from President Reagan.
1987 – The Whittier Narrows earthquake shook the San Gabriel Valley, registering as a magnitude 5.9 and an aftershock measuring 5.3 struck the Los Angeles area. . It killed eight people.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Girl I’m Gonna Miss You” by Milli Vanilli, “Heaven” by Warrant, “If I Could Turn Back Time” by Cher and “Let Me Tell You About Love” by The Judds all topped the charts.
1989 – The San Francisco Health Department reported the first two documented cases in which men became infected with the AIDS virus through oral sex.
1990 – USS Independence (CV-62) enters Persian Gulf (first carrier in Persian Gulf since 1974).
1991 – U.S. President Bush condemned the military coup in Haiti that removed President Jean-Bertrand Aristide from power. U.S. economic and military aid was suspended.
1993 – The Church of Scientology secured tax-exempt status for its main branch in a settlement with the IRS in which it paid $12.5 million. The church agreed to drop thousands of suits against the IRS. The details were only made public in 1997.
1993 – In Petaluma, Ca. 12-year-old Polly Klaas was kidnapped from her bedroom while playing with two girl friends by a knife-wielding intruder; her body was found more than two months later. Sixty days later Richard Allen Davis was arrested for the kidnap and murder of Polly. He was later convicted and sentenced to death.
1993 – The US federal tax on gasoline was raised to 18.3 cents per gallon.
1994 – The National Hockey League (NHL) team owners began a lockout of the players that lasted 103 days.
1995 – Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman and nine other defendants were convicted in New York of conspiring to attack the U.S. through bombings, kidnappings and assassinations.
1996 – A federal grand jury indicted Unabomber suspect Theodore Kaczynski in the mail bomb murder of an ad executive in 1994.
1996 – The first phase of a US minimum wage 50-cent increase to $4.75 took effect. Phase 2 to $5.15 was scheduled for Sep 1, 1997.
1996 – NASA began turning over day-to-day Shuttle operations to private industry.
1996 – Operation Frontier Shield commences. It is the largest counter-narcotics operation in Coast Guard history.
1997 – US FBI Director Louis J. Freeh warned that Russian organized crime networks were growing and that they posed a menace to US national security.
1997 – The first African-American female colonel in the Marine Corps was promoted to that rank during a ceremony at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina. Colonel Gilda A. Jackson, a native of Columbus, Ohio.
1997 – Paula Jones announced a new legal team from Texas to pursue her suit against President Clinton.
1997 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Pearl, Mississippi, Luke Woodham (16) stabbed his mother Mary (50) to death and went to school and shot his former girlfriend and another student and wounded 7 others. Woodham was stopped by Assistant Principal Joel Myrick, a U.S. Army Reserve commander, who detained him by using a .45 caliber semi-automatic pistol he kept in his truck.
1998 – The US Dept. of Defense said that it would spend an estimated $50 million this year to provide Viagra to soldiers, sailors, fliers, retirees and their dependents.
1998 – CollaGenex Pharmaceuticals announced FDA approval of Periostat, a pill to help fight gum disease. The drug suppresses the enzyme responsible for gum and tooth breakdown during inflammation.
2000 – On the last day of the 27th Olympics in Sydney, the U.S. men’s basketball team beat France for the gold medal. The United States led the way in the final medal tally, collecting 97 (39 gold, 25 silver and 33 bronze).
2001 – New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, in an impassioned speech to the United Nations, said there was no room for “neutrality” in the global fight against terrorism and no need for more studies or vague directives.
2001 – The Supreme Court suspended former President Clinton from practicing before the high court.
2001 – San Francisco’s Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to ban Internet filters designed to keep pornography away from children at city libraries.
2002 – U.N. inspectors reached agreement with Iraq about a new mission to reassess Saddam Hussein’s alleged arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Iraq said it expected an advance party in Baghdad in two weeks.
2002 – The West Coast dockworker lockout continued.
2002 – New Jersey Democrats chose former Senator Frank Lautenberg to be on the November ballot in place of scandal-tainted Senator Robert Torricelli.
2002 – Allied aircraft launched an airstrike in the southern no-fly zone over Iraq after Iraqi aircraft penetrated the restricted area.
2003 – Conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh resigned from ESPN, three days after saying Philadelphia Eagles quarterback Donovan McNabb is overrated because the media wanted to see a black quarterback succeed.
2003 – US officials identified Abu Hazim al-Sha’ir (29), a Yemeni ex-bodyguard of Osama bin Laden, as al Qaeda’s new terror chief.
2003 – California state car license fees increased $150 from $73 to $223.
2004 – Seattle Mariners outfielder Ichiro Suzuki gets his 258th hit of the season, breaking George Sisler’s 84-year-old single-season record.
2004 – The U.S. Postal Service canceled a brief experiment that allowed ordinary people to make postage stamps using images of their dogs, babies and even, it turned out, outlaws such as the Unabomber.
2004 – Mount St. Helens quieted down after spewing a plume of steam and ash, but only briefly. Within hours of the eruption, seismic readings suggested pressure was building again inside the volcano, which had been dormant for 18 years.
2005 – The US military released about 500 Iraqi detainees from the notorious Abu Ghraib prison.
2005 – Internet sensation Fred Figglehorn makes his first video on YouTube.
2005 – A bomb explodes outside of a packed football stadium at the University of Oklahoma holding 84,000 people. Joel Henry Hinrichs (21), a Univ. of Oklahoma student, committed suicide using an explosive attached to his body , killing just himself.
2007 – The Dow Jones Industrial Averages rose 191.92 to a record 14,087.55, surpassing a mid-July closing record of 14,000.41. Nasdaq rose 39.49 to 2,740.
2007 – The Colorado Rockies beat The San Diego Padres in an extra-innings tiebreaker game to clinch a wild card birth to the playoffs.
2008 – The National Transportation Safety Board reports that a Metrolink engineer sent a text message 22 seconds before the Chatsworth train collision in Los Angeles, California, that killed 25 people.
2008 – The US Senate voted 74-25 for its version of a $700 billion rescue of the nation’s banking system. A 2nd House vote was set for Oct 3. The 451-page bill was loaded with earmarks adding billions of dollars in tax breaks with little to do with restoring confidence in financial markets.
2009 – David Letterman, late-night TV talk show host, admitted in an extraordinary monologue before millions of viewers that he had sexual relationships with female employees.
2010 – A massive rainstorm, formed from the combination of the remnants of Tropical Storm Nicole and a second extratropical low, drenches the East Coast of the United States from North Carolina to Maine.
2010 – More than 1,200 NASA employees are laid off despite a $19 billion funding budget passed by the US Congress earlier in the week.
2010 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a measure making marijuana possession up to ounce an infraction, on par with traffic and littering tickets. Schwarzenegger opposed Proposition 19, the upcoming marijuana initiative.
2011 -California becomes the first U.S. state to forbid “conversion therapy” for minors, effective January 1st, 2013. Conversion therapy is a range of pseudo-scientific treatments that aim to change sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual.
2013 – United States Government shut down.
2013 – OBAMACARE: Healthcare.gov launches—and flops.
2015 – A 26-year-old man opened fire at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, OR leaving 10 people dead and seven wounded. The shooter, identified as Chris Harper Mercer, was killed in an exchange of gunfire with police who responded to the shooting.
1881 – William Boeing, American engineer (d. 1956)
1920 – Walter Matthau, American actor.
1924 – Jimmy Carter 39th President of the United States of America (1977-1981)
1933 – Richard Harris, Irish actor.
1935 – Julie Andrews, English actress and singer.(Sound of Music)
THOMPSON, JOSEPH H.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 110th Infantry, 28th Division. Place and date: Near Apremont, France, October 1st, 1918. Entered service at: Beaver Falls, Pa. Born: 26 September 1871, Kilkeel, County Down, Ireland. G.O. No.: 21, W.D., 1925. Citation: Counterattacked by two regiments of the enemy, Maj. Thompson encouraged his battalion in the front line of constantly braving the hazardous fire of machineguns and artillery. His courage was mainly responsible for the heavy repulse of the enemy. Later in the action, when the advance of his assaulting companies was held up by fire from a hostile machinegun nest and all but one of the six assaulting tanks were disabled, Maj. Thompson, with great gallantry and coolness, rushed forward on foot 3 separate times in advance of the assaulting line, under heavy machinegun and antitank-gun fire, and led the one remaining tank to within a few yards of the enemy machinegun nest, which succeeded in reducing it, thereby making it possible for the infantry to advance.
CLANCY, JAMES T.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Vaughn Road, Va., October 1st, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Albany, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Shot the Confederate Gen. Dunovant dead during a charge, thus confusing the enemy and greatly aiding in his repulse.
KEEN, JOSEPH S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 13th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: Near Chattahoochee River, Ga., October 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 24 July 1843, England. Date of issue: 4 August 1899. Citation: While an escaped prisoner of war within the enemy’s lines witnessed an important movement of the enemy, and at great personal risk made his way through the enemy’s lines and brought news of the movement to Sherman’s army.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 10th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Peebles Farm, Va., October 1st, 1864. Entered service at: New York. Born: 9 July 1841, Germany. Date of issue: 12 December 1898. Citation: At the imminent risk of his own life, while his regiment was falling back before a superior force of the enemy, he dragged a wounded and helpless officer to the rear, thus saving him from death or capture.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 14th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Chapel House, Farm, Va., October 1st, 1864. Entered service at: Woodstock, Conn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.
National Mud Pack Day
Dangers of blogging
I remember the scientist that said to be careful what you watch or hear because someone else did it or played it and the sound waves would go on forever. His contention was that sound and light once released could never be brought back.
Blogging is very similar. Don’t get excited yet though. Blogging has some very good upsides; it just has to be used intelligently. Unlike light and sound which won’t come back, what you say on a blog can, most assuredly, come back. Some of the upsides include a great way for you to advertise your services, your products and other peoples as well to make some money. It certainly gives you an opportunity to write and put your thoughts down for others to read and. Therein, lies the beginning of the problem. Blogging is still a fairly new phenomenon, and many people are writing blogs without much thought to the long term effects of what they write or share. To give you have a framework in which to guide you to keep you safe and keep to prevent any embarrassment. Do you remember the old axiom, “You only get one chance to make a good impression.” Where one-on-one meetings are fairly easy to manage, when hundreds, thousands and millions are reading your blogs, it is much more difficult. Some basic rules and solutions:
A. Blogging is instantaneous. When you send it, it is gone immediately. There is no getting it back. Solution recommendation: Write out what you want to share in a word processor that has spelling and grammar checking turned on. Check it over, make sure everything is worded right and in the major processors you can do a “characters including spaces” check. The message will fit within the limits of the service.
B. Blogging is pervasive. Whether you write some sort of scientific dissertation or say something unkind about a former friend, colleague, spouse, supervisor, It will be all over the place and never be fully retrievable. Be very careful about what personal information, accomplishments and credits you take, they could end up in your next job interview or certification process. DO NOT EVER EXPECT PRIVACY OF ANY TYPE WHEN BLOGGING.
C. Blogging is international and instant. The message you post is posted at the speed of light and will circle the globe seven times in the next second. At any one moment people will be able to read what you write and react within minutes. Facebook, alone, has 750 million members or more than twice the population of the United States.
D. What you write is dangerous. If you are reading this it could be in a blog, in an article, in a collection of some sort. It could be in use by anyone in the world at some time or another. Remember two things: Once you release something you will never be able to find all the copies. Once a single database picks it up it will be forever irretrievable. If you don’t want someone in the year 2300 to be able to search and find your writings, don’t write them. Be aware that what you write can be parsed, cut, changed, deleted. This is important because people can cut segments or pieces and then add them to other items, totally changing the original meaning or understanding. In your writing use short sentences and if there is a way to qualify it, use it either preceding or following the statement. Never use a quote that is not attributed and if it is your quote, add the approbation.
The biggest challenge to safe and effective blogging is to approach it in a professional manner. That means to think out what it is you really want to say and then how you want to say it. For example, in universal signage rules, an octagonal sign is a “STOP” sign. It does not have to be red. It does not have to say “STOP”. In Northern Mexico, the word on these signs is “ALTO” which in “border Mexican” means “STOP”. If you go to a country that mainly speaks Castilian Spanish, the word “ALTO” means “HIGH.” The point is that you must also consider what the post will sound or read like in other cultures. Be careful, stay sane and blog to your hearts content.
“Find something you’re passionate about and keep tremendously interested in it.”
~ Julia Child
votary VOH-tuh-ree, noun: 1. One who is devoted, given, or addicted to some particular pursuit, subject, study, or way of life. 2. A devoted admirer. 3. A devout adherent of a religion or cult. 4.A dedicated believer or advocate.
1452 – Gutenberg Bible was published in Germany.
1630 – John Billington, one of the signers of the Mayflower Compact, became the first criminal executed in the American colonies when he was hanged for murder at Plymouth. He was hanged for having shot John Newcomin following a quarrel.
1777 – The Congress of the United States, forced to flee in the face of advancing British forces, moved to York, Pennsylvania.
1787 – The Columbia left Boston and began the trip that would make it the first American vessel to sail around the world.
1846 – Dentist William Morton of Boston became the first to use ether as an anesthetic on a patient. He used it at Massachusetts General Hospital.
1860 – The first British tramway was inaugurated by an American, George Francis Train.
1862 – Civil War: “Stonewall” Jackson led the Confederates to victory at the second Battle of Bull Run, Virginia, during the Civil War.
1864 – In an attempt to cut the last rail line into Petersburg, Virginia, Union troops attack the Confederate defense around the entire city. Confederate troops failed to retake Fort Harrison from the Union forces during the siege.
1881 – First stereo system (for a telephonic broadcasting service) was patented in Germany by Clement Adler.
1882 – The world’s first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.
1899 – First Navy wireless message sent via Lighthouse Service Station at Highlands of Navesink, New Jersey.
1901 – Scottish inventor Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner.
1919 – The Elaine Race Riot, also called the Elaine Massacre occurred. It was in the town of Elaine in Phillips County, Arkansas, in the Arkansas Delta. A group of about 100 black sharecroppers led by Robert L. Hill, the founder of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America, protested the pricing of their cotton. In the resulting riot, many more blacks than whites died as a result of the violence. Five whites and between 100 and 200 blacks were killed.
1927 – Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in a season.
1930 – “Death Valley Days” was heard for the first time on the NBC Blue radio network.
1932 – US Marine “Chesty” Puller won second Navy Cross.
1933 – The half-hour country music and comedy show “National Barn Dance” debuted on WLS in Chicago, IL.
1934 – Babe Ruth played his last game for the New York Yankees.
1935 – The Hoover Dam, astride the border between Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.
1935 – “The Adventures of Dick Tracy“ (51:31) debuted on Mutual Radio Network.
1938 – The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”
1938 – Britain, France, Italy, and Germany negotiated and agreed to the partitioning of Czechoslovakia in The Munich Pact. The Munich Conference ended with a decision to appease Adolf Hitler. Britain and France allowed Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland to be annexed by the Nazis.
1939 – “Captain Midnight” was heard for the first time on the Mutual Radio Network. 1941 – “That Solid Old Man” was recorded by The Larry Clinton Orchestra.
1943 – Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps became the Women’s Army Corps, a regular contingent of the U.S. Army.
1943 – World War II: In Italy, The US 5th Army continues to advance. Elements of the British 10th Corps reach the outskirts of Naples as elements of US 6th Corps capture Avellino. 1944 – USS Nautilus (SS-168) lands supplies and evacuates some people from Panay, Philippine Islands.
1945 – World War II: American Marines of the US 3rd Amphibious Corps start landing at Tientsin, in the north, to disarm 630,000 Japanese.
1946 – An international military tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, found 22 top Nazi leaders guilty of war crimes.
1947 – The World Series, featuring New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, is televised for the first time. The sponsors only paid $65,000 for the entire series. 1949 – After 15 months and more than 250,000 flights, the Berlin Airlift officially comes to an end.The last aircraft to land in Berlins was a C-54.
1948 -CHART TOPPERS – “A Tree in the Meadow” by Margaret Whiting, “It’s Magic” by Doris Day, “You Call Everybody Darlin’” by Al Trace (vocal: Bob Vincent) and “Just a Little Lovin’ (Will Go a Long Way)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.1950 – Korean War: U.N. forces crossed the 38th parallel separating North and South Korea as they pursued the retreating North Korean Army.
1954 – Julie Andrews made her first Broadway appearance in “The Boy Friend.”
1954 – The U.S. Navy submarine, the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) is commissioned as the world’s first nuclear reactor powered vessel. It was named after Nautilus (SS-168) of WW II fame.
1955 – James Dean, actor, was killed in a two-car collision near Cholame, CA.
1955 – “The Red Skelton Show” debuted on NBC-TV.
1956 -CHART TOPPERS – “Canadian Sunset” by Hugo Winterhalter & Eddie Heywood, “The Flying Saucer (Parts 1 & 2)” by Buchanan & Goodman, “Honky Tonk (Parts 1 & 2)” by Bill Doggett and “Don’t Be Cruel/Hound Dog” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1958 – US Marines leave Lebanon.
1960 – “Flintstones” premiered on TV.
1962 – In Oxford, Mississippi, James H. Meredith is escorted onto the University of Mississippi campus by U.S. Marshals, setting off a deadly riot.
1962 – Last episodes of Suspense and Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar broadcast on CBS Radio, marking the end of The Golden Age of Radio.
1963 – The “Hotline” between the U.S. president and the Soviet premier was established.
1964 -CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, Pretty Woman“ by Roy Orbison, “Bread and Butter” by The Newbeats, “G.T.O.” by Ronny & The Daytonas and “I Guess I’m Crazy” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – Donovan made his U.S. television debut on the show “Shindig!”
1965 – President Lyndon Johnson signed legislation that established the National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities.
1966 – Nazi war criminals Albert Speer, the German minister of armaments, and Baldur von Schirach, the founder of the Hitler Youth, were freed from Spandau prison after serving 20-year prison sentences.
1968 – Vietnam War: USS New Jersey, the world’s only active battleship, arrives in Vietnamese waters and begins bombarding the Demilitarized Zone from her station off the Vietnamese coast.
1970 – Jordan makes a deal with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) for the release of the remaining hostages from the Dawson’s Field hijackings. In the Dawson’s Field hijackings (September 6, 1970) four jet aircraft bound for New York City were hijacked by members of the Popular Front.
1971 – A committee of nine people was organized to investigate the prison riot at Attica, NY. Ten hostages and thirty-two prisoners were killed when National Guardsmen stormed the prison on September 13.
1972 -CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Don’t Get Hooked on Me” by Mac Davis, “Saturday in the Park” by Chicago, “Back Stabbers” by O’Jays and “I Ain’t Never” by Mel Tillis all topped the charts.
1975 – The Hughes (later McDonnell-Douglas, now Boeing) AH-64 Apache makes its first flight.
1976 – California enacted the Natural Death Act of California. The law was the first example of right-to-die legislation in the U.S.
1980 -CHART TOPPERS – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross, “All Out of Love” by Air Supply, “Another One Bites the Dust” by Queen and “Old Flames Can’t Hold a Candle to You” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1982 – Cyanide-laced Tylenol kills six people in the Chicago area. Seven were killed in all. The incident is known as the Tylenol murders.
1982 – “Cheers” began an 11-year run on NBC-TV. The show ended on August 19, 1993.
1982 – Ross Perot, Jr.,23, and Jay Coburn, 35, completed the first ever around-the-world helicopter flight in a Bell 206 Lone Ranger called the “Spirit of Texas.” It took 29 days and 56 stops for refueling.
1984 – Mike Witt became only the eleventh pitcher to throw a perfect game in major league baseball.
1988 -CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Worry Be Happy” by Bobby McFerrin, “I’ll Always Love You” by Taylor Dayne, “Love Bites” by Def Leppard and “Addicted” by Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1988 – Mikhail S. Gorbachev forced retirement on President Andrei A. Gromyko and fired other old-guard leaders in a Kremlin shakeup.
1992 – George Brett of the Kansas City Royals reached his 3,000th career hit during a game against the California Angels.
1992 – Congress approved a bill requiring the release of nearly all government files concerning the assassination of President Kennedy.
1993 – MS Dos 6.2 was released.
1993 – David Crosby and George Harrison appeared on the fifth season premiere of “The Simpsons.”
1994 – The space shuttle Endeavour and its six astronauts launched into orbit on an 11-day mission. Part of the mission was to use a radar instrument to map remote areas of the Earth.
1997 – France’s Roman Catholic Church apologized for its silence during the persecution and deportation of Jews the pro-Nazi Vichy regime.
1998 – The General Accounting Office reported that Kenneth Starr and Robert Fiske had spent more than $40 million to investigate President Clinton’s Whitewater land deals in Arkansas and later the Monica Lewinsky affair.
1999 – The San Francisco Giants played the Los Angeles Dodgers in the last baseball game to be played at Candlestick Park (3Com Park). The Dodgers won 9-4. The attendance was 61,389 fans.
1999 – Japan’s worst nuclear accident at a uranium reprocessing facility in Tokai-mura, northeast of Tokyo. Workers overload a container with uranium, exposing workers and local residents to very high radiation levels.
1999 – Defense Secretary William Cohen ordered a top-level investigation of accounts of mass killings of Korean civilians by US soldiers at No Gun Ri in 1950. 2000 – A Catholic priest crashed his car into a building housing an abortion clinic in Rockford, Ill., and attacked it with an ax. The Rev. John Earl later pleaded guilty to damaging property, and was sentenced to 30 months’ probation and two days in county jail.
2001 – Leaders of the Taliban said they had Osama bin Laden “under our control,” but would release him to the US only if shown proof that he plotted the Sep 11 attacks. Pres. Bush said he would not negotiate.
2003 – The FBI began a criminal investigation into whether White House officials had illegally leaked the identity of an undercover CIA officer.
2003 – Ford planned to cut some 12,000 jobs world-wide. Chrysler planned to eliminate several thousand positions.
2004 – AIM-54 Phoenix which became the primary missile for the Northrop Grumman F-14 Tomcat was retired from the Navy.
2004 – US fiscal year 2004 ended. The CBO soon estimated a budget deficit for the year of about $415 billion.
2004 – Officials at US one-hundred fifteen int’l. airports and fourteen seaports began photographing and electronically fingerprinting travelers from twenty-seven industrialized nations.
2005 – The US federal deficit for the fiscal year ending on this day stood at $319 billion, down from $413 billion in 2004.
2005 – The controversial drawings of Muhammad are printed in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.
2005 – Out of jail after 85 days, New York Times reporter Judith Miller testified before a grand jury investigating the leak of CIA operative Valerie Plame’s identity. 2007 – In Burlingame, Ca., a shooting on Highway 101 killed Londell Wilson (25). Police used a stoplight photograph from a nearby exit to identify the car.
2008 – U.S. Stock Market drops 777 points, the largest drop in U.S. History.
2008 – A new US law took effect as part of the 2008 Farm Bill requiring food retailers to label or display the country of origin for meat, produce and certain kinds of nuts.
2009 – The US fiscal year ended with a budget deficit at a record $1.4 trillion.
2010 – Actor Tony Curtis, who appeared in more than 100 films including Some Like It Hot and The Defiant Ones, dies in Henderson, Nevada.
2010 – Heavy rain from former Tropical Storm Nicole causes flooding in North Carolina and Virginia and delays in airline flights on the East Coast.
2011 – Anwar al-Awlaki, an American-born radical cleric linked to al-Qaida who led an organization labeled as one of the most serious threats to U.S. security, was killed by an airstrike in Yemen. In addition, American muslim and Al-Queda leader Samir Khan, 25, was killed in the same attack.
2011 – Thirty-four Muslim shuttle bus drivers at Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, were suspended indefinitely by Hertz Rent-A-Car for not clocking out when they went to pray. The company said employees were warned in person and in writing that if they did not comply with the clocking rules, they would be suspended.
2012 – U.S. military deaths in the Afghan War have reached 2,000, a cold reminder of the human cost of an 11-year-old conflict that now garners little public interest at home as the United States prepares to withdraw most of its combat forces by the end of 2014.
2013 – The hatch between the newly arrived Orbital Sciences’ Cygnus spacecraft and the Harmony module of the International Space Station was opened at 4:10 a.m. EDT this morning. Cygnus delivered about 1,300 pounds (589 kilograms) of cargo to the six crew members of Expedition 37.
1631 – William Stoughton, American judge at the Salem witch trials (d. 1701)
1861 – William Wrigley Jr., American industrialist (Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company) (d. 1932)
1915 – Lester Maddox, Governor of Georgia (d. 2003)
1917 – Buddy Rich, American drummer (d. 1987)
1924 – Truman Capote, American author (d. 1984)
1931 – Angie Dickinson, American actress
1935 – Johnny Mathis, American singer
1943 – Marilyn McCoo, American singer (The Fifth Dimension)
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 369th Infantry, 93d Division. Place and date: Near Sechault, France, September 29- September 30th, 1918. Entered service at: Salina, Kans. Born: 18 May 1887, Assaria, Kans. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: While leading his platoon in the assault 1st Lt. Robb was severely wounded by machinegun fire, but rather than go to the rear for proper treatment he remained with his platoon until ordered to the dressing station by his commanding officer. Returning within 45 minutes, he remained on duty throughout the entire night, inspecting his lines and establishing outposts. Early the next morning he was again wounded, once again displaying his remarkable devotion to duty by remaining in command of his platoon. Later the same day a bursting shell added 2 more wounds, the same shell killing his commanding officer and 2 officers of his company. He then assumed command of the company and organized its position in the trenches. Displaying wonderful courage and tenacity at the critical times, he was the only officer of his battalion who advanced beyond the town, and by clearing machinegun and sniping posts contributed largely to the aid of his battalion in holding their objective. His example of bravery and fortitude and his eagerness to continue with his mission despite severe wounds set before the enlisted men of his command a most wonderful standard of morale and self-sacrifice.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877. Entered service at: Milford, Conn. Birth: Connecticut. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in action with the Nez Perce Indians.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877. Entered service at: Augusta, Ga. Birth: Augusta, Ga. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Led a charge under a galling fire, in which he inflicted great loss upon the enemy.
Rank and organization: Captain, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877.Entered service at: Ottawa, Putnam County, Ohio. Born: 9 October 1843, Ottawa, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Led his command into action when he was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877. Citation: Carried Lt. Romeyn, who was severely wounded, off the field of battle under heavy fire.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877.Entered service at: Utica, N.Y. Born: 16 June 1852, Utica, N.Y. Date of issue: 22 March 1895. Citation: Having been directed to order a troop of cavalry to advance, and finding both its officers killed, he voluntarily assumed command, and under a heavy fire from the Indians advanced the troop to its proper position.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877.Entered service at: Springfield, IL Birth: Jacksonville, IL. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Gallantly attacked a band of hostiles and conducted the combat with excellent skill and boldness.
Rank and organization: Captain, 7th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877.Entered service at: Essex, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Gallantly led his command in action against Nez Perce Indians until he was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877.Entered service at: Michigan. Birth: Galen, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Led his command into close range of the enemy, there maintained his position, and vigorously prosecuted the fight until he was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Major and Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Bear Paw Mountain, Mont., September 30th, 1877. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: Barnegat, N.J. Date of issue: 22 March 1895. Citation: Fearlessly risked his life and displayed great gallantry in rescuing and protecting the wounded men.
Chapins’ Farm or New Market Second Day of the battle
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company D, 37th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Newtonia, Mo., September 30th, 1862.Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 29 January 1839, Downers Grove, Ill. Date of issue: 15 February 1894. Citation: With a single orderly, captured an armed picket of eight men and marched them in as prisoners.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 6th New Hampshire Veteran Infantry. Place and date: Near Pegram House, Va., September 30th, 1864.Entered service at: ——. Birth: Nashua, N.H. Date of issue: 27 July 1896. Citation: As color bearer of his regiment he defended his colors with great personal gallantry and brought them safely out of the action.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 21st Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 30th, 1864.Entered service at: North Stonington, Conn. Born: 19 April 1837, Wolcottville, Conn. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Led out a small flanking party and by a clash and at great risk captured a large number of prisoners.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 36th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 30th, 1864.Entered service at: Norfolk, Va. Birth: Princess Anne County, Va. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Having had his arm mutilated, making immediate amputation necessary, he loaded and discharged his piece with one hand and urged his men forward; this within thirty yards of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 118th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 30th, 1864.Entered service at:——. Birth: Highgate Falls, Vt. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of forty prisoners.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 30th, 1864.Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 15 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
Civil War Battle of Chapin’s Farm
Today in the Civil War there was a battle known as Chapin’s Farm or New Market, VA. The battle known by this name was fought at the same time as the successful assault on Fort Harrison, and was being an extension of our line to the right. In this battle the colored troops sustained remarkable losses and performed a most conspicuous part. Their heroism was great and their fighting superb. The Fourth United Stated Colored Infantry lost 56 per cent., killed and wounded, and of the 12 of the color guard, 11 were killed and wounded, and Sergeant Major Christian A. Fleetwood gained a Congress medal of honor for saving the flag of his regiment. This gallant regiment was recruited at Baltimore, in July and August, 1863.
The Sixth United States (colored) also made a remarkable fight at New Market Heights, losing nearly 55 percent killed and wounded and not one missing or unaccounted for. Captain McMurray’s company lost 87 per cent., the greatest of any organization during the whole war.
During this battle (and it extended into tomorrow) there was a remarkable chaplain for the Confederacy who ministered to all and was the bain of General Stonewall Jackson. Here is his story:
Inspirational Story From the Civil War: Father James Sheeran
By John E. Carey
The Reverend James Sheeran, a Catholic priest, served with the 14th Louisiana Regiment from New Orleans in General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
Writer and historian Bruce Catton once said he wished he had met Sheeran. Sheeran perplexed “Stonewall” Jackson by his tenacity and self assurance. Robert E. Lee and Phil Sheridan both backed down in the face of Sheeran’s logic and determination.
Father Sheeran ministered to those in need of religious support, cared for the sick and wounded, and performed innumerable acts of kindness for his fellow man. Sheeran’s determination and righteousness, grounded in God, inspired common soldiers and generals alike. In the face of all kinds of adversity, Sheeran displayed real backbone.
Three things seemed to guide Sheeran in every action, every disagreement and every situation. He believed in duty, the word of the Lord, and his home in the Confederacy.
During a confrontation at a hospital, Sheeran demonstrated some of his strengths.
“Across the road from our hospital,” Sheeran wrote, “was one full of Yankees. As usual having attended to the wants of our own men I visited the wounded of the enemy and offered my service.”
What Father Sheeran found in the Yankee hospital infuriated him. “I enquired if they had no surgeon of their own or any person to dress their wounds. They told me that they had several surgeons over there (pointing to the adjacent building), but they paid no attention to them, did not even come to see them.”
Sheeran marched directly to find the surgeons responsible for the Yankee wounded, telling them “of the painful condition of the wounded and requested them as a matter of humanity not to neglect them so….”
The Union medical staff “told me that they had no bandages to dress the wounds, no instruments to operate with, and that they were fatigued from the labors of the night.”
“I remarked it would be some consolation to their wounded if they would but visit them and wash the wound of those who were bathed in their own blood. I next went to their men paroled to attend to the wounded, asked why they did not wait on their companions, many of whom were suffering for a drink of water. They told me that they had no one to direct them, that their surgeons seemed to take no interest in the men.”
“I became somewhat indignant to hear the excuses of these worthless nurses, and putting on an air of authority ordered them to go to the rifle pits filled with the dead bodies of their companions and they would find hundreds of knapsacks filled with shirts, handkerchiefs and other articles that would make excellent bandages.”
“They obeyed my orders with the utmost alacrity and soon returned with their arms full of excellent bandage material, and bringing them to me asked: ‘Now sir, what shall we do with them?’” Sheeran was fully prepared to give the required final direction. “Go and tell your surgeons that you have bandages enough now.”
“Off they went to the surgeons….” Sheeran records. “In about two hours I returned and was pleased to find the surgeons and nurses all at work attending to their wounded.”
Sheeran spoke his mind and, when he believed he was in the right, he was not afraid of any man. In 1892, a Sheeran friend, Father Joseph Flynn wrote down this account of Sheeran’s run in with Stonewall Jackson:
“Going to his [Father Sheeran’s] tent one day, General Jackson sternly rebuked the priest for disobeying his orders, and reproached him for doing what he would not tolerate in any officer in his command. [The exact offense is unknown.] ‘Father Sheeran,’ said the general, ‘you ask more favors and take more privileges than any officer in the army.’ [Sheeran apparently replied] ‘General Jackson, I want you to understand that as a priest of God I outrank every officer in your command. I even outrank you, and when it is a question of duty I shall go wherever called.’ The General looked with undistinguished astonishment on the bold priest and without reply left his tent.”
Dr. Hunter McGuire, Chief Surgeon of the Second Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, recalled another incident between Father Sheeran and Stonewall Jackson. “At one time just before the fight at Chancellorsville,” Dr. McGuire said, “we were ordered to send to the rear all surplus baggage. All tents were discarded…. A Catholic priest belonging to one of the Louisiana brigades sent up his resignation because he was not permitted to have a tent, which he thought necessary to the proper performance of his office.”
“I said to General Jackson,” reported McGuire, “that I was very sorry to give up [the] Father–; that he was one of the most useful chaplains in the service He replied: ‘If that is the case he shall have a tent.’ And so far as I know this Roman Catholic priest was the only man in the corps who had one.”
Looking to clear the way for unrestricted access to men in need throughout the army and the countryside, Sheeran sought an authorization to go wherever and whenever he is needed. This led the chaplain into conflict with both Robert E. Lee and Phil Sheridan. Army red tape tends to restrict one’s movements to designated times and places. Sheeran set out to attain a pass authorizing the fullest freedoms imaginable.
After hearing half-answers, excuses and outright lies from dozens of officers, Sheeran obtained entry into General Lee’s presence. Lee, at first, refused to support Sheeran. But then Sheeran explained his army role, the length and arduous nature of his service, and the number of men he has prayed with and assisted along the way. Lee scribbled Sheeran a pass “that will last me the rest of the war if I should last so long.”
Later in the war, Union troops arrested Sheeran for crossing into Yankee lines. The Union Army imprisoned Sheeran at the old horse stables of Fort McHenry. Civil War Historian Scott Sheads at Fort Mc Henry in Baltimore pulled Sheeran’s file for us.
“The Reverend James Sheeran was arrested at Winchester, Virginia on November5, 1864 and confined at Fort McHenry on November 10, 1864. Arrested byorder of Major General Philip Sheridan.”
In the cold, cramped, dung and vermin filled environment, of Civil War Fort McHenry, Sheeran tired physically but his resolve stiffened. He wrote letters to General Sheridan and the Union Secretary of War, denouncing his treatment.
Ultimately, the Union Army set Sheeran free. But he again encountered red tape; only this time it is in the form of Union Army rules and restrictions. Sheeran again explained his case, this time to a befuddled General Phil Sheridan. Sheeran, as usual, departed with the passes and respect he thought he deserved.
James Sheeran knew God wanted him at his place at the front. During one engagement, Sheeran actually formed and “commanded” a rag-tag force of troops. “Our ambulance drivers….as well as our stragglers, were for stampeding,” wrote Sheeran. “Mounting my Grey and riding down….I ordered [them] to move forward as quickly as possible….” Before infantry officers arrived to take over, Sheeran wrote, “I took command of the stragglers and formed them in a line…”
Throughout the war, Sheeran retained his sense of humor and his sense of perspective.
Father Sheeran was born in Temple Mehill, County Longford, Ireland, in 1818. At the age of twelve, he emigrated to Canada and eventually settled in Monroe, Michigan where he taught in a boy’s school opened by the Catholic Redemptorist Fathers.
“If you can’t make it better, you can laugh at it.”
~ Erma Bombeck
prelapsarian (pree-lap-SAYR-ee-uhn) adjective
Relating to any innocent or carefree period in the past.
[From Latin pre- (before) + lapsus (fall). The term refers to the period
in the Garden of Eden before Adam and Eve lost their innocence.]
1399 – Richard II of England was deposed and his cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself King Henry IV.
1789 – U.S. War Department established a regular army of several hundred men. Josiah Harmar was appointed the first commander-in-chief of the U.S. Army.
1812 – Seminole Indians ambushed Marines at Twelve Mile Swamp, Florida.
1829 – Greater London’s Metropolitan Police force was established by Parliament. It was championed by the then Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel, giving rise to the nicknames of “Peelers” or “Bobbies” for members of the force.
1862 – Civil War: Union General Jefferson C. Davis mortally wounds his commanding officer, General William Nelson, in Louisville, Kentucky.
1864 – Civil War:Union General Ulysses S. Grant tries to break the stalemate around Richmond and Petersburg—25 miles south of Richmond—by attacking two points along the defenses of Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
1864 – Civil War:Confederate James River Squadron, Flag Officer Mitchell, supported Southern troops in attacks against Fort Harrison, Chaffin’s Farm, James River, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War:Christian A. Fleetwood was one of 13 African-American soldiers who won the Medal of Honor at the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm, Virginia.
1879 – Dissatisfied Ute Indians killed Agent Nathan Meeker and nine others in the “Meeker Massacre.”
1880 – First professional baseball game at New York City’s Polo Grounds.
1892 – First night football game played (Mansfield, PA).
1899 – Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) was established by Congress.
1907 – The foundation stone was laid for Washington National Cathedral, which wasn’t fully completed until 1990.
1911 – NY Yankees steal fifteen bases & get thirteen walks, beating Browns 16-12; with a major-league record six stolen bases in one inning.
1911 – Walter Brookins set an American record by flying 192 miles from Chicago to Springfield, Ill., making only two stops.
1913 – Washington Senator Walter Johnson wins his 36th game and 11th shutout of the year, defeating the league champion Athletics 1-0 .
1915 – Philadelphia Phillies clinch their first pennant.
1916 – American John D Rockefeller became the world’s first billionaire.
1918 – World War I: Lt. Frank Luke Jr. against orders destroyed three German balloons and downed two pursuing fighters in a final flight of vengeance for the loss of his wingman Lt. Joseph Wehner. Luke received a posthumous Medal of Honor. Luke Air Force Base in Glendale, AZ is named after him.
1918 – Earlier this month Dr. Victor Vaughan, acting Surgeon General of the Army, received urgent orders to proceed to Camp Devens near Boston. Once there, what Vaughan sees changes his life forever. He wrote this letter describing what he found: Influenza Letter
1920 – Babe Ruth sets then home run season record at 54.
1927 – Ruth ties record by hitting grand slams in consecutive games hitting two HRs to tie his 59 of 1921 in a 15-4 win over Washington.
1928 – Yanks (17) Tigers (28) set a nine-inning hit record (45).Tigers win 19-10.
1930 – Lowell Thomas made his debut on the CBS Radio Network replacing Floyd Gibbons. “Lowell Thomas and the News” began September 29, 1930 and ran to May 14, 1976. The program began with his signature “Good Evening Everybody.”
1932 – A five-day work week was established for General Motors workers.
1940 – The radio quiz show “Double or Nothing,” was first heard on Mutual.
1941 – World War II (Europe): Holocaust: Thirty-thousand Jews were gunned down in Kiev when Henrich Himmler sent four strike squads to exterminate Soviet Jewish civilians and other “undesirables.”
1943 – World War II: General Eisenhower and Marshal Badoglio of Italy sign the armistice agreement aboard the HMS Nelson in Malta harbor. Italy surrendered on September 8 and this formalized it. The Germans still held the country so fighting continued.
1943 – World War II: In Italy, elements the US 5th Army continue to advance. Elements of the US 6th Corps attack Avellino. The British 10th Corps reaches Pompeii.
1944 – World War II: HOLOCAUST: Nazi murders took place in Marzabotto, Italy, under SS-major Reder. Retreating Nazi troops killed some 1,000 women, children and elderly while allegedly pursuing resistance fighters.
1944 – World War II: The USS Narwhal (SS-167) evacuates 81 Allied prisoners of war that survived sinking of Japanese Shinyo Maru from Sindangan Bay, Mindanao.
1946 – The “Adventures of Sam Spade” debuted on the CBS Radio Network .
1946 – First time NL pennant ends in a tie (Cards & Dodgers).
1946 – Los Angeles (previously Cleveland) Rams play first NFL game in LA.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “Feudin’ and Fightin’” by Dorothy Shay, “I Wish I Didn’t Love You So” by Vaughn Monroe, “I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now” by Perry Como and “Smoke! Smoke! Smoke! (That Cigarette)” by Tex Williams all topped the charts.
1947 – Dizzy Gillespie presented his first Carnegie Hall concert in New York.
1947 – First World Series televised.
1950 – The first automatic telephone answering machine was tested by the Bell Telephone Company.
1951 – First color telecast of football game on network, Philadelphia (CBS).
1951 – S B Nicholson discovers 12th satellite of Jupiter.
1951 – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett topped the charts.
1953 – Milton Berle Show premiers.
1953 – “Make Room for Daddy”, starring Danny Thomas, debuted this day on ABC-TV.
1954 – The movie musical “A Star Is Born,” starring Judy Garland and James Mason, had its world premiere at the Pantages Theater in Hollywood.
1954 – New York Giants centerfielder Willie Mays made a spectacular World Series catch. He raced back to deep center field in the Polo Grounds to make an over-the-head catch of Indian Vic Wertz’s 462-foot drive in the 8th with the score tied at 2-2.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Yellow Rose of Texas” by Mitch Miller, “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” by The Four Aces, “Tina Marie” by Perry Como and “I Don’t Care” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The Arthur Miller play “A View From the Bridge” opened at the Coronet Theater in New York City.
1956 – RCA Victor, by this day, had received 856,327 advance orders for “Love Me Tender” by Elvis Presley.
1957 – The Brooklyn Dodgers played their last game before moving to Los Angeles, losing to the Phillies 2-1 in Philadelphia.
1957 – The New York Giants played their final game at the Polo Grounds and defeated the Pirates 9-1. They would next appear as the San Francisco Giants.
1958 – “It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards topped the charts.
1960 – “My Three Sons” debuted on ABC-TV.
1962 – “Sherry” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1962 – President John F. Kennedy nationalized the Mississippi National guard in response to city officials defying federal court orders. The orders had been to enroll James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.
1962 – “My Fair Lady” closed after a 6½ year run on Broadway. The show, at the time, held the record for the longest-running musical.
1963 – Cardinal’s Stan Musial’s final game, gets his 3,630th hit.
1963 – “My Favorite Martian” premiered on CBS-TV.
1963 – “The Judy Garland Show” premiered on CBS-TV.
1965 – Vietnam War: Hanoi publishes the text of a letter it has written to the Red Cross claiming that since there is no formal state of war, U.S. pilots shot down over the North will not receive the rights of prisoners of war (POWs) and will be treated as war criminals.
1967 – “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” was released by Gladys Knight & the Pips.
1969 – “Love American Style,” premiers on ABC.
1969 – Steve O’Neal of NY Jets, kicks longest NFL punt; 98 yards vs Denver.
1970 – Egyptian Vice President Anwar el-Sadat was sworn-in as the president of Egypt following the death of Gamal Abdel Nasser.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Go Away Little Girl” by Donny Osmond, “Maggie Mae/Reason to Believe” by Rod Stewart, “The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down” by Joan Baez and “The Year That Clayton Delaney Died” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1973 – “We’re an American Band” by the Grand Funk Railroad topped the charts.
1977 – Eva Shain became the first woman to officiate a heavyweight title boxing match. About 70 million people watched Muhammad Ali defeat Ernie Shavers on NBC-TV.
1982 – Seven people in the Chicago area died after taking Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules poisoned with cyanide. A suspect for the murders (as of 2013) was never found. The incident led to safety seals on most consumer products. 264,000 bottles were recalled.
1983 – On the Great White Way, “A Chorus Line” became the longest-running show on Broadway, with performance number 3,389.
1983 – The War Powers Act was used for the first time by the U.S. Congress when they authorized President Reagan to keep U.S. Marines in Lebanon for 18 more months.
1984 – “Let’s Go Crazy” by Prince & the Revolution topped the charts
1985 – “MacGyver” debuted on ABC and it lasted seven seasons, ending its run on August 8, 1992.
1986 – Cubs Greg Maddux defeats Phillies Mike Maddux (first rookie brothers.)
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Didn’t We Almost Have It All” by Whitney Houston, “Here I Go Again” by Whitesnake, “Lost in Emotion” by Lisa Lisa & Cult Jam and “Three Time Loser” by Dan Seals all topped the charts.
1987 – “Thirtysomething” premiered on TV.
1987 – NY Yankee Don Mattingly hits record 6th grand slam of the year.
1988 – Space shuttle Discovery was the first manned flight to launch after the Challenger disaster.
1988 – Florence Griffith Joyner and Jackie Joyner-Kersee of the U.S. won their second gold medals of the Seoul Olympics, in the 200-meter and the long jump, respectively.
1988 – Stacy Allison became the first American woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
1989 – Bruce Springsteen stopped in a small salon in Prescott, AZ, and played a few songs with the band. He overheard a woman talking about financial problems concerning her medical bills. A week later she received a check for $100,000 from Springsteen.
1989 – In California The Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 was signed into law.
1990 – “(Can’t Live Without Your) Love and Affection” by Nelson topped the charts.
1990 – “Millie’s Book” by First Lady Barbara Bush was the best-selling non-fiction book by a First Lady in the U.S.
1990 – The YF22 fighter, an American prototype fighter aircraft designed by Northrop and McDonnell Douglas, was first flown by Lockheed test pilot Dave Ferguson.
1992 – Magic Johnson announced that he was returning to professional basketball. The comeback was ended the following November.
1994 – The first phase of jury selection in the O.J. Simpson murder trial ended, with a pool of 304 potential jurors chosen.
1994 – Gunmen in Italy fired at the rental car of the Green family of Bodega Bay, Ca., and killed their young boy, Nicholas Green. The parents donated his organs and saved seven lives in Italy.
1994 – The U.S. House voted to end the practice of lobbyist buying meals and entertainment for members of Congress.
1995 – The O.J. Simpson trial was sent to the jury.
1996 – The Nintendo 64 video game system, known as the first ‘true’ 64-bit system, hit North American shelves.
1997 – Oklahoma City bombing defendant Terry Nichols went on trial in the same courtroom in Denver where Timothy McVeigh was convicted and sentenced to die. Nichols was later convicted of involuntary manslaughter and conspiracy, but acquitted of murder and weapons-related counts; he was sentenced to life in prison.
1997 – A 10,000 gallon oil spill occurred off the coast of Santa Barbara from an undersea pipeline to an offshore oil platform.
1999 – Pres. Clinton signed a $28 billion Treasury and Postal Services spending bill that doubled the next president’s salary to $400k, gave a 3.4% raise to senators and representatives and a federal worker’s average raise of 4.8%.
1999 – A California appeals court ruled that gunmakers can be held responsible for the criminal use of their weapons. The ruling was made in association with the 1993 San Francisco massacre at 101 California. This was a mass shooting that took place July 1, 1993 in San Francisco, California, claiming the lives of nine people including the shooter.
2000 – US Navy pilot, Lt. Bruce Joseph Donald, was killed when his F/A-18C Hornet fighter crashed into the Persian Gulf.
2001 – Pres. Bush in his weekly radio address condemned the Taliban for sheltering terrorists and said: “We did not seek this conflict, but we will win it.”
2002 – West Coast ports faced the second lockout in two days as talks failed between the Pacific Maritime Assoc. and the International Longshoreman and Warehouse Workers Union ( ILWU).
2003 – NASA outlines plans for the Space Shuttle’s Replacement, a “Space Taxi“. The next-generation space vehicle is on the drawing boards now and NASA has just issued newly defined requirements.
2003 – US The Justice Department launched a full-blown criminal investigation into who leaked the name of CIA officer Valerie Plame, the wife of ex-Ambassador Joseph Wilson, and President Bush the next day directed his White House staff to cooperate fully.
2003 – President Bush signed legislation to ratify the Federal Trade Commission’s authority to set up a national do-not-call list for telemarketers.
2004 – A US federal judge ruled that a section of the Patriot Act, that allowed the search of phone and Internet records, was unconstitutional.
2004 – Mike Melvill piloted SpaceShipOne, designed by Burt Rutan, climbed to 337,500 feet in the first leg of an attempt to capture the $10 million X Prize. The prize required a second success within two weeks.
2005 – Supreme Court Justice John Glover Roberts Jr., confirmed by the Senate to lead the Supreme Court, became the 17th Chief Justice of the US by a vote of 78-22.
2005 – NY Times reporter Judith Miller was released from 85 days of federal detention after agreeing to testify in a criminal probe into the leak of a covert CIA officer’s identity, Valerie Plame.
2005 – The Oregon Supreme Court held yesterday that its State Constitution protects live sex shows and nude dancing, also voiding a 4′ limitation.
2006 – The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter takes its first low-orbit, high-resolution pictures of Mars.
2006 – US Rep. Mark Foley, a prominent House Republican from Florida, resigned after the revelation that he exchanged raunchy electronic messages with a teenage boy, a former congressional page.
2006 – In Oakland, Ca., Anthony J. Quintero, a Brink’s security guard and former Marine, was shot dead during a daylight robbery. Quintero’s partner, Clifton Wherry Jr. (28), was soon arrested for the murder and admitted that he had planned the robbery.
2006 – In Cazenovia, Wisconsin, Eric Hainstock (15) walked into Weston High School with a shotgun. The principal confronted him in a corridor and was shot and killed.
2006 – The last game for the Playstation came out.
2007 – Robert Levy, mayor of Atlantic City, New Jersey, disappears after being found to have embellished his Vietnam War record.He vanished for two weeks amid allegations that he lied about his military service and illegally collected veterans’ benefits.
2007 – Iran declares the US Army and CIA, “terrorist organisations”, countering claims by America about their own armed forces.
2008 – The United States House of Representatives rejects a proposed bailout of the U.S. financial system.
2008 – US Attorney General Michael Mukasey announces the appointment of a special prosecutor to investigate the firings of nine U.S. attorneys in 2006.
2008 – Scientists reported that NASA’s Phoenix spacecraft has discovered evidence of past water at its Martian landing site and spotted falling snow for the first time.
2009 – An 8.3 magnitude earthquake strikes the Samoa Islands, triggering a tsunami that kills at least twenty in the nation of Samoa and another fourteen in American Samoa.
2009 – Norman Hsu (58), former US Democratic fundraiser, was sentenced to over 24 years in prison for fraud and breaking campaign finance laws.
2009 – Toyota Motor Corp. issued its largest-ever US recall, involving 3.8 million vehicles. Toyota and the government warned owners to remove the mats from their vehicles that could cause accelerators to get stuck and lead to a crash.
2010 – Astronomers discover the first Earth analog extrasolar planet that may be capable of supporting life, Gliese 581 g, located within the habitable zone and orbiting Gliese 581, a red dwarf star twenty light years from the solar system.
2010 – US District Court for the Northern District of California judge Jeremy D. Fogel stays the execution of sex killer Albert Greenwood Brown who was due to be executed on Thursday.
2012 – Iran accuses the United States of “double standards” over the U.S.’ delisting of the Mujahideen-e Khalq as a terrorist entity.
1388 – Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (d. 1421)
1547 – Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish author (d. 1616)
1786 – Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico (d. 1843)
1842 – Louis J. Weichmann, chief witness in the trial of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1902)
1907 – Gene Autry, American actor, singer, and businessman (d. 1998)
1935 – Jerry Lee Lewis, American musician
1939 – Tommy Boyce, songwriter, Boyce and Hart, The Monkees
1943 – Lech Wałęsa, President of Poland, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1948 – Bryant Gumbel, American television personality
MICHAEL A. MONSOOR
Rank and organization: Petty Officer 2nd Class (SEAL), United States Navy Place and date: southern Ar Ramadi, September 29th, 2006. Entered service at: Long Beach, CA. Birth: April 5, 1981, Long Beach, CA. Summary of Actions: Petty Officer Michael A. Monsoor distinguished himself through conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a Combat Advisor and Automatic Weapons Gunner for Naval Special Warfare Task Group Arabian Peninsula in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom on 29 September 2006. He displayed great personal courage and exceptional bravery while conducting operations in enemy held territory at Ar Ramadi Iraq.
During Operation Kentucky Jumper, a combined Coalition battalion clearance and isolation operation in southern Ar Ramadi, he served as automatic weapons gunner in a combined SEAL and Iraqi Army (IA) sniper overwatch element positioned on a residential rooftop in a violent sector and historical stronghold for insurgents. In the morning, his team observed four enemy fighters armed with AK-47s reconnoitering from roads in the sector to conduct follow-on attacks. SEAL snipers from his roof engaged two of them which resulted in one enemy wounded in action and one enemy killed in action. A mutually supporting SEAL/IA position also killed an enemy fighter during the morning hours. After the engagements, the local populace blocked off the roads in the area with rocks to keep civilians away and to warn insurgents of the presence of his Coalition sniper element. Additionally, a nearby mosque called insurgents to arms to fight Coalition Forces.
In the early afternoon, enemy fighters attacked his position with automatic weapons fire from a moving vehicle. The SEALs fired back and stood their ground. Shortly thereafter, an enemy fighter shot a rocket-propelled grenade at his building. Though well-acquainted with enemy tactics in Ar Ramadi, and keenly aware that the enemy would continue to attack, the SEALs remained on the battlefield in order to carry out the mission of guarding the western flank of the main effort.
Due to expected enemy action, the officer in charge repositioned him with his automatic heavy machine gun in the direction of the enemy’s most likely avenue of approach. He placed him in a small, confined sniper hide-sight between two SEAL snipers on an outcropping of the roof, which allowed the three SEALs maximum coverage of the area. He was located closest to the egress route out of the sniper hide-sight watching for enemy activity through a tactical periscope over the parapet wall. While vigilantly watching for enemy activity, an enemy fighter hurled a hand grenade onto the roof from an unseen location. The grenade hit him in the chest and bounced onto the deck. He immediately leapt to his feet and yelled “grenade” to alert his teammates of impending danger, but they could not evacuate the sniper hide-sight in time to escape harm. Without hesitation and showing no regard for his own life, he threw himself onto the grenade, smothering it to protect his teammates who were lying in close proximity. The grenade detonated as he came down on top of it, mortally wounding him.
Petty Officer Monsoor’s actions could not have been more selfless or clearly intentional. Of the three SEALs on that rooftop corner, he had the only avenue of escape away from the blast, and if he had so chosen, he could have easily escaped. Instead, Monsoor chose to protect his comrades by the sacrifice of his own life. By his courageous and selfless actions, he saved the lives of his two fellow SEALs and he is the most deserving of the special recognition afforded by awarding the Medal of Honor.
*CHRISTIANSON, STANLEY R.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 1st Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Seoul, Korea, September 29th, 1950. Entered service at: Mindoro, Wis. Born: 24 January 1925, Mindoro, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company E, in action against enemy aggressor forces at Hill 132, in the early morning hours. Manning one of the several listening posts covering approaches to the platoon area when the enemy commenced the attack, Pfc. Christianson quickly sent another Marine to alert the rest of the platoon. Without orders, he remained in his position and, with full knowledge that he would have slight chance of escape, fired relentlessly at oncoming hostile troops attacking furiously with rifles, automatic weapons, and incendiary grenades. Accounting for seven enemy dead in the immediate vicinity before his position was overrun and he himself fatally struck down, Pfc. Christianson, by his superb courage, valiant fighting spirit, and devotion to duty, was responsible for allowing the rest of the platoon time to man positions, build up a stronger defense on that flank, and repel the attack with forty-one of the enemy destroyed, many more wounded, and three taken prisoner. His self-sacrificing actions in the face of overwhelming odds sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. Pfc. Christianson gallantly gave his life for his country.
ADKINSON, JOSEPH B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 119th Infantry, 30th Division. Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at:Memphis,Tenn. Born:4 January 1892,Egypt, Tenn. G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919. Citation: When murderous machinegun fire at a range of fifty yards had made it impossible for his platoon to advance, and had caused the platoon to take cover Sgt. Adkinson alone, with the greatest intrepidity, rushed across the fifty yards of open ground directly into the face of the hostile machinegun kicked the gun from the parapet into the enemy trench, and at the point of the bayonet captured the three men manning the gun. The gallantry and quick decision of this soldier enabled the platoon to resume its advance.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Summit, N.J. Birth: Saranac Lake, N.Y. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Eggers, Sgt. John C. Latham and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled thirty yards from them, the three soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank, under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted two wounded soldiers to cover in a sap of a nearby trench. Sgt. Eggers and Sgt. Latham then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were, keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it, with the wounded men, back to our lines under cover of darkness.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company G, 108th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Niagara Falls, N.Y. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Pfc. Gaffney, an automatic rifleman, pushing forward alone, after all the other members of his squad had been killed, discovered several Germans placing a heavy machinegun in position. He killed the crew, captured the gun, bombed several dugouts, and, after killing four more of the enemy with his pistol, held the position until reinforcements came up, when eighty prisoners were captured.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company E, 132d Infantry, 33d Division. Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 24 October 1879, San Raphael, Calif. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: When the advancing line was held up by machinegun fire, 1st Sgt. Gumpertz left the platoon of which he was in command and started with two other soldiers through a heavy barrage toward the machinegun nest. His two companions soon became casualties from bursting shells, but 1st Sgt. Gumpertz continued on alone in the face of direct fire from the machinegun, jumped into the nest and silenced the gun, capturing nine of the crew.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered .service at: Rutherford, N.J. Born: 3 March 1888, Windemere, England. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Sgt. Latham, Sgt. Alan L. Eggers, and Cpl. Thomas E. O’Shea took cover in a shellhole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank which had become disabled thirty yards from them, the three soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area, Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded, but his companions, undeterred, proceeded to the tank, rescued a wounded officer, and assisted two wounded soldiers to cover in the sap of a nearby trench. Sgts. Latham and Eggers then returned to the tank in the face of the violent fire, dismounted a Hotchkiss gun, and took it back to where the wounded men were keeping off the enemy all day by effective use of the gun and later bringing it with the wounded men back to our lines under cover of darkness.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 119th Infantry, 30th Division. Place and date: Near Bellicourt, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Crossville, Tenn. Birth: Marshalltown, lowa. G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919. Citation: Seeing that the left flank of his company was held up, he located the enemy machinegun emplacement, which had been causing heavy casualties. In the face of heavy fire he rushed it single-handed, killing the entire crew with grenades. Continuing along the enemy trench in advance of the company, he reached another emplacement, which he also charged, silencing the gun with grenades. A third machinegun emplacement opened up on him from the left and with similar skill and bravery he destroyed this also. Later, in company with another sergeant, he attacked a fourth machinegun nest, being killed as he reached the parapet of the emplacement. His courageous action in destroying in turn four enemy machinegun nests prevented many casualties among his company and very materially aided in achieving the objective.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 27th Aero Squadron, 1st Pursuit Group, Air Service. Place and date: Near Murvaux, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 19 May 1897, Phoenix, Ariz. G.O. No.: 59, W.D., 1919. Citation: After having previously destroyed a number of enemy aircraft within seventeen days he voluntarily started on a patrol after German observation balloons. Though pursued by eight German planes which were protecting the enemy balloon line, he unhesitatingly attacked and shot down in flames three German balloons, being himself under heavy fire from ground batteries and the hostile planes. Severely wounded, he descended to within fifty meters of the ground, and flying at this low altitude near the town of Murvaux opened fire upon enemy troops, killing six and wounding as many more. Forced to make a landing and surrounded on all sides by the enemy, who called upon him to surrender, he drew his automatic pistol and defended himself gallantly until he fell dead from a wound in the chest.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Machine Gun Company, 107th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Le Catelet, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Summit, N.J. Birth: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 20, W.D., 1919. Citation: Becoming separated from their platoon by a smoke barrage, Cpl. O’Shea, with two other soldiers, took cover in a shell hole well within the enemy’s lines. Upon hearing a call for help from an American tank, which had become disabled thirty yards from them, the three soldiers left their shelter and started toward the tank under heavy fire from German machineguns and trench mortars. In crossing the fire-swept area Cpl. O’Shea was mortally wounded and died of his wounds shortly afterwards.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army, 308th Infantry, 77th Division. Place and date: Near Binarville, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Bartlett, N. Dak. Birth: Rockford, Ill. G.O. NO.: 49, W.D., 1922. Citation: When communication from the forward regimental post of command to the battalion leading the advance had been interrupted temporarily by the infiltration of small parties of the enemy armed with machineguns, Lt. Col. Smith personally led a party of two other officers and ten soldiers, and went forward to reestablish runner posts and carry ammunition to the front line. The guide became confused and the party strayed to the left flank beyond the outposts of supporting troops, suddenly coming under fire from a group of enemy machineguns only fifty yards away. Shouting to the other members of his party to take cover this officer, in disregard of his danger, drew his pistol and opened fire on the German guncrew. About this time he fell, severely wounded in the side, but regaining his footing, he continued to fire on the enemy until most of the men in his party were out of danger. Refusing first-aid treatment he then made his way in plain view of the enemy to a handgrenade dump and returned under continued heavy machinegun fire for the purpose of making another attack on the enemy emplacements. As he was attempting to ascertain the exact location of the nearest nest, he again fell, mortally wounded .
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company D, 107th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: East of Ronssoy, France, September 29th, 1918. Entered service at: Ogdensburg N.Y. Born: 5 February 1895, Cassino, Italy. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., i929. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy during the operations against the Hindenburg line, east of Ronssoy, France, 29 September 1918. Finding the advance of his organization held up by a withering enemy machinegun fire, Pvt. Valente volunteered to go forward. With utter disregard of his own personal danger, accompanied by another soldier, Pvt. Valente rushed forward through an intense machinegun fire directly upon the enemy nest, killing two and capturing five of the enemy and silencing the gun. Discovering another machinegun nest close by which was pouring a deadly fire on the American forces, preventing their advance, Pvt. Valente and his companion charged upon this strong point, killing the gunner and putting this machinegun out of action. Without hesitation they jumped into the enemy’s trench, killed two and captured sixteen German soldiers. Pvt. Valente was later wounded and sent to the rear.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation. Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Captain, Troop D, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near White River Agency, Colo., September 29th, 1879. Entered service at: Danvers, Mass. Born: 11 September 1842, Danvers, Mass. Date of issue: 2 April 1898. Citation: With a force of forty men rode all night to the relief of a command that had been defeated and was besieged by an overwhelming force of Indians, reached the field at daylight, joined in the action and fought for three days.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England, Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th to October 5th, 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Dover, N.H. Date of issue: 27 January 1880. Citation: The command being almost out of ammunition and surrounded on three sides by the enemy, he voluntarily brought up a supply under heavy flre at almost point blank range.
Rank and organization: Farrier, Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Bristol, R.l. Date of issue: 7 June 1880. Citation: Coolness and steadiness under fire; volunteered to accompany a small detachment on a very dangerous mission.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Augusta, Maine. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 7 June 1880. Citation: Though painfully wounded, he remained on duty and rendered gallant and valuable service.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, to October 5th 1879. Entered Service at: ———. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 January 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Wayne County, Pa. Date of issue: 23 April 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Tariffville, Conn. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Troop D, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, 1879. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 12 December 1894. Citation: With nine others voluntarily attacked and captured a strong position held by Indians.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th to October 5th 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 27 lanuary 1880. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Blacksmith, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: Bellefontaine, Ohio. Birth: Bellefontaine, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Lewistown, Pa. Date of issue: 19 November 1872. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.
ROACH, HAMPTON M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th to October 5th 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Concord, La. Date of issue: 27 January 1880. Citation: Erected breastworks under fire; also kept the command supplied with water three consecutive nights while exposed to fire from ambushed Indians at close range.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Milk River, Colo., September 29th, 1879. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 4 May 1880. Citation: Volunteered to accompany a small detachment on a very dangerous mission.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red River, Tex., September 29th, 1872. Citation: Distinguished conduct in action with Indians, Red River, Tex.
APPLETON, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company H, 4th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 15 June 1864; At New Market Heights, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Portsmouth, N.H. Born: 24 March 1843, Chichester, N.H. Date of issue: 18 February 1891. Citation: The first man of the Eighteenth Corps to enter the enemy’s works at Petersburg, Va., 15 June 1864. Valiant service in a desperate assault at New Market Heights, Va., inspiring the Union troops by his example of steady courage.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company E, 96th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Fort Ann, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Gallantry in placing the colors of his regiment on the fort.
BARNES, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 38th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: St. Marys County, Md. Date of issue 6 April 1865. Citation: Among the first to enter the enemy’s works; although wounded.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 5th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Delaware County, Ohio. Birth: Richmond, Va. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took command of his company, all the officers having been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 9th Maine Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Bangor, Maine. Birth: Bangor, Maine. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took a guidon from the hands of the bearer, mortally wounded, and advanced with it nearer to the battery than any other man.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 188th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Harrisburgh, Pa. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Planted first national colors on the fortifications.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 10th New Hampshire Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Kingston, N.H. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
BRONSON, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 5th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Delaware County, Ohio. Birth: Indiana County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took command of his company, all the officers having been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it.
*BUCHANAN, GEORGE A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 148th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Ontario County, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took position in advance of the skirmish line and drove the enemy’s cannoneers from their guns; was mortally wounded.
BUCK, F. CLARENCE
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 21st Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Windsor Conn. Birth: Hartford, Conn. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: A;though wounded, refused to leave the field until the fight closed.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company K, 58th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 19 April 1892. Citation: Led his regiment in the charge, carrying the colors of another regiment, and when severely wounded in the right arm, incurring loss of same, he shifted the colors to the left hand, which also became disabled by a gunshot wound.
EDGERTON, NATHAN H.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant and Adjutant, 6th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 30 March 1898. Citation: Took up the flag after three color bearers had been shot down and bore it forward, though himself wounded.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 55th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Chest Springs, Pa. Birth: Cambria County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Gallantry in the charge on the enemy’s works: rushing forward with the colors and calling upon the men to follow him; was severely wounded.
FLEETWOOD, CHRISTIAN A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 4th U.S. Colored Troops, Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Seized the colors, after two color bearers had been shot down, and bore them nobly through the fight.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 36th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Gloucester, Va. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Rushed in advance of his brigade, shot a rebel officer who was on the parapet rallying his men, and then ran him through with his bayonet.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 47th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Fell dead while planting the colors of his regiment on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 188th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Reading, Pa. Birth: Reading, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: First to plant the colors of his State on the fortifications.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Gallantry in advancing to the ditch of the enemy’s works.
HARRIS, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 38th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At New Market Heights, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: St. Marys County, Md. Date of issue: 18 February 1874. Citation: Gallantry in the assault.
HAWKINS, THOMAS R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 6th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 8 February 1870. Citation: Rescue of regimental colors.
HICKOK, NATHAN E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 8th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Danbury, Conn. Birth: Danbury, Conn. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
HILTON, ALFRED B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 4th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date. At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Harford County, Md. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: When the regimental color bearer fell, this soldier seized the color and carried it forward, together with the national standard, until disabled at the enemy’s inner line.
HOLLAND, MILTON M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 5th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Athens, Ohio. Born: 1844, Austin, Tex. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took command of Company C, after all the officers had been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it.
HORNE, SAMUEL B.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 11th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Winsted, Conn. Born: 3 March 1843, Ireland Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: While acting as an aide and carrying an important message, was severely wounded and his horse killed but delivered the order and rejoined his general.
Rank and organization: 1st Sergeant, Company B, 139th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864; At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: France. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: Voluntarily went between the lines under a heavy fire at Petersburg, Va., to the assistance of a wounded and helpless officer, whom he carried within the Union lines. At Fort Harrison, Va., seized the regimental color, the color bearer and guard having been shot down, and, rushing forward, planted it upon the fort in full view of the entire brigade.
JOHNSON, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 58th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Harrison, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Born: 5 February 1843, Lower Merion, Montgomery County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: Though twice severely wounded while advancing in the assault, he disregarded his injuries and was among the first to enter the fort, where he was wounded for the third time.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company F, 6th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth. Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Gallantly seized the colors, which had fallen near the enemy’s lines of abatis, raised them and rallied the men at a time of confusion and in a place of the greatest danger.
KRAMER, THEODORE L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 188th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Danville, Pa. Birth: Luzerne County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took one of the first prisoners, a captain.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Hempstead, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Was among the first to scale the parapet.
McKOWN, NATHANIEL A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 58th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Susquehanna County, Pa. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Brooklyn N.Y. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Led a section of his men on the enemy’s works, receiving a wound while scaling a parapet.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 5th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Massillon, Ohio. Born: 1 March 1843, Stark County, Ohio. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took command of his company after all the officers had been killed or wounded and gallantly led it in battle.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company C, 38th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: James County, Va. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation. Commanded and gallantly led his company after the commanding officer had been killed; was the first enlisted man to enter the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 158th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Advanced to the ditch of the enemy’s works.
SHEA, JOSEPH H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 92d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: March 1866. Citation: Gallantry in bringing wounded from the field under heavy fire.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 112th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Mina, N.Y. Birth: Mina, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took the colors of his regiment, the color bearer having fallen, and carried them through the first charge; also, in the second charge, after all the color guards had been killed or wounded he carried the colors up to the enemy’s works, where he fell wounded.
VAN WINKLE, EDWARD (EDWIN)
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 148th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Phelps, N.Y. Birth: Phelps, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Took position in advance of the skirmish line and drove the enemy’s cannoneers from their guns.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Portsmouth, Va. Birth: Portsmouth Va. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Seized the national colors after 2 color bearers had been shot down close to the enemy’s works, and bore them through the remainder of the battle.
*WELLS, HENRY S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 148th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Chapins Farm, Va., September 29th, 1864. Entered service at: Phelps, N.Y. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: With two comrades, took position in advance of the skirmish line, within short distance of the enemy’s gunners, and drove them from their guns.
Ask a Stupid Question Day
THEY SAID IT DID NOT MATTER, NONE OF IT MATTERED…
THAT’S WHAT THEY SAID
THEY REMAINED SMUG, AND SCATTERED…
TIL THE LADY LAY DEAD (Statue of Liberty)
When Obama wrote a book and said he was mentored as a youth by Frank (Frank Marshall Davis), an avowed Communist, people said it didn’t matter.
When it was discovered that his grandparents were strong socialist, sent Obama’s mother to a socialist school and introduced Frank Marshall Davis to young Obama, people said it didn’t matter.
When people found out that he was enrolled as a Muslim child in school and his father and step father were both Muslims, people said it didn’t matter.
When he wrote in another book he authored I will stand with them (Muslims) should the political winds shift in an ugly direction, people said it didn’t matter.
When in his book Obama admittedly said he chose Marxist friends and professors in college, people said it didn’t matter.
When he traveled to Pakistan after college on an unknown national passport, people said it didn’t matter.
When he sought the endorsement of the Marxist party in 1996 as he ran for the Illinois Senate, people said it didn’t matter.
When Obama sat in a Chicago Church for twenty years and listened to a preacher spew hatred for America and preach black liberation theology, people said it didn’t matter.
When an independent Washington organization that tracks senate voting records gave him the distinctive title as the most liberal senator, people said it didn’t matter.
When the Palestinians in Gaza set up a fund raising telethon to raise money for his election campaign, people said it didn’t matter.
When his voting record supported gun control, people said it didn’t matter.
When he refused to disclose who donated money to his election campaign as other candidates had done people said it didn’t matter.
When he received endorsements from people like Louis Farrakhan and Moammar
Kadafi and Hugo Chavez, people said it didn’t matter.
When it was pointed out that he was a total newcomer and had absolutely no experience at anything except community organizing, people said it didn’t matter.
When he chose friends and acquaintances such as Bill Ayers and Bernadine Dohrn who were revolutionary radicals, people said it didn’t matter..
When his voting record in the Illinois Senate and in the U.S. Senate came into question, people said it didn’t matter.
When he refused to wear a flag lapel pin and did so only after a public outcry, people said it didn’t matter.
When people started treating him as a Messiah and children in schools were taught to sing his praises, people said it didn’t matter.
When he stood with his hands over his groin area for the playing of the National Anthem and Pledge of Allegiance, people said it didn’t matter.
When he surrounded himself in the White house with advisors who were pro gun control, pro abortion, pro homosexual marriage and wanting to curtail freedom of speech to silence the opposition, people said it didn’t matter.
When he aired his views on abortion, homosexuality and a host of other issues, people said it didn’t matter.
When he said he favors sex education in Kindergarten including homosexual indoctrination, people said it didn’t matter.
When his background was either scrubbed or hidden and nothing could be found about him, people said it didn’t matter.
When the place of his birth was called into question and he refused to produce a birth certificate, people said it didn’t matter.
When he had an association in Chicago with Tony Rezko, a man of questionable character who is now in prison and had helped Obama to a sweet deal on the purchase of his home, people said it didn’t matter.
When it became known that George Soros, a multi-billionaire Marxist, spent a fortune to get him elected, people said it didn’t matter.
When he started appointing czars who are radicals, revolutionaries, and even avowed Marxist/Communist, people said it didn’t matter.
When he stood before the nation and told us that his intentions were to fundamentally transform this nation into something else, people said it didn’t matter.
When it became known that he had trained ACORN workers in Chicago and served as an attorney for ACORN, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed a cabinet members and several advisers who were tax cheats and Marxists, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed a science czar, John Holdren, who believes in forced abortions, mass sterilizations and seizing babies from teen mothers, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Cass Sunstein as regulatory czar and he believes in Explicit Consent harvesting human organs without family consent and to allow animals to be represented in court while banning all hunting, people said it didn’t matter..
When he appointed Kevin Jennings a homosexual, and organizer of a group called gay, lesbian, and Transgender Education network as safe school czar and it became known that he had a history of bad advice to teenagers, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Mark Lloyd as diversity czar and he believed in curtailing free speech, taking from one and giving to another to spread the wealth and admires Hugo Chavez, people said it didn’t matter.
When Valerie Jarrett was selected as Obama’s senior White House adviser and she is an avowed Socialist, MAO ADMIRER, people said it didn’t matter.
When Anita Dunn, White House Communications director said Mao Tse Tung was her favorite philosopher and the person she turned to most for inspiration, people said it didn’t matter.
When he appointed Carol Browner as global warming czar, and she is a well known socialist working on Cap and Trade as the nation’s largest tax, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he appointed Van Jones, an ex-con and avowed Communist as green energy czar who was forced to resign when Jones history was made known, by a patriot, Glenn Beck, people said it didn’t matter.
When Tom Daschle, Obama’s pick for health and human services secretary, could not be confirmed because he was a tax cheat, people said it didn’t matter.
When as a counterfeit president of the United States Obama bowed to the King of Saudi Arabia, people said it didn’t matter.
When he traveled around the world criticizing America and never once talking of her greatness, people said it didn’t matter.
When his actions concerning the Middle East seemed to support the Palestinians over America’s long time friend Israel, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he took American tax dollars to resettle thousands of Palestinians from Gaza to the United States, people said it doesn’t matter.
When he upset the Europeans by removing plans for a missile defense system against the Russians, people said it doesn’t matter.
When Obama played politics in Afghanistan by not sending our troops what field commanders said we needed to win, people said it didn’t matter.
When he started spending us into a debt that was so big we could not pay it off, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took a huge spending bill under the guise of stimulus and used it to pay off organizations, unions and individuals that got him elected, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took over insurance companies, car companies, banks and other financial institutions, people said it didn’t matter.
When he took away student loans from the banks and put it through the government, people said it didn’t matter.
When he designed plans to take over the health care system and put it under government control, people said it didn’t matter.
When he set into motion a plan to take over the control of all energy in the United States through Cap and Trade, people said it didn’t matter.
When he finally completed his transformation of America into a Socialist State people finally woke up but it was too late.
…and, when We the People stood massively against socialized medicine he told his congress “THOSE PEOPLE DON’T MATTER”
“A person without ambition is dead. A person with ambition but no love is dead. A person with ambition and love for his blessings here on earth is ever so alive.”
commodious kuh-MOH-dee-us, adjective:
Comfortably or conveniently spacious; roomy; as, a commodious house.
Commodious derives from the Latin commodus, “conforming to measure, hence convenient or fit for a particular purpose,” from com-, “with” + modus, “measure.”
48 BC – Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt (may have occurred September 29, records unclear).
1066 – William the Conqueror invades England: the Norman Conquest begins.
1528 – A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane; 380 died.
1542 – Navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo of Portugal arrives as what is now San Diego, California.
1678 – “Pilgrim’s Progress” by John Bunyan (b.1628) was published.
1779 – American Revolution: Samuel Huntington is elected President of the Continental Congress, succeeding John Jay.
1781 – American forces backed by a French fleet begin the Siege of Yorktown, Virginia, during the Revolutionary War.
1787 – The newly completed United States Constitution is voted on by the Congress to be sent to the State legislatures for approval.
1820 – The tomato is publicly proven safe when Robert Johnson eats a bushel (24 kg) of tomatoes in Salem, Massachusetts.
1822 – Sloop-of-war Peacock captures five pirate vessels.
1850 – The U.S. Navy abolished flogging as a form of punishment.
1850 – U.S. President Millard Fillmore named Brigham Young the first governor of the Utah territory. In 1857, U.S. President James Buchanan removed Young from the position.
1858 – Donati’s comet becomes the first to be photographed.
1863 – Union Generals Alexander M. McCook and Thomas Crittenden lose their commands and are ordered to Indianapolis, Indiana, to face a court of inquiry following the Federal defeat at Chickamauga, Tennessee.
1867 – The United States takes control of Midway Island.
1868 – A mob of Democrats massacred nearly 300 Black Republicans in Opelousas, Louisiana, St. Landry Parish. The savagery began when racist Democrats attacked a newspaper editor, a white Republican and schoolteacher for ex-slaves. Several Blacks rushed to the assistance of their friend, and in response, Democrats went on a “Negro hunt,” killing every Black (all of whom were Republicans) in the area that they could find.
1874 – Colonel Ranald Mackenzie (d.1889) raided a war camp of Comanche and Kiowa at the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Texas, slaughtering 2,000 of their horses.
1892 – The first nighttime football game in the U.S. took place under electric lights. The game was between the Mansfield State Normal School and the Wyoming Seminary.
1900 – Marines withdrew from Peking after the Boxer Rebellion.
1901 – At Balangiga on Samar Island, Philippine villagers surprised a the US military Company C, 9th Infantry Regiment. Church bells, used to signal the attack, were taken by the Americans. 38 of 74 US soldiers were killed.
1905 – Einstein’s paper on the special theory of relativity is published.
1906 – US troops reoccupied Cuba. They stayed until 1909.
1913 – Race riots in Harriston, Mississippi, killed 10 people.
1919 – Fastest major league game (51 mins), Giants beat Phillies 6-1.
1920 – Eight White Sox indicted, threw 1919 World Series (Black Sox scandal).
1924 – The first around-the-world flight was completed by two U.S. Army planes when they landed in Seattle, WA. The trip took 175 days.
1928 – Glen Gray’s Orchestra recorded “Under a Blanket of Blue.” Kenny Sargeant performed the vocals.
1930 – Lou Gehrig’s errorless streak ends at 885 consecutive games.
1936 – “Bachelor’s Children” debuted on CBS Radio.
1937 – President Franklin Roosevelt dedicated the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in Oregon.
1939 – Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland after their invasion during World War II.
1939 – Warsaw surrenders to Nazi Germany during World War II.
1939 – “Fleischmann Hour” aired for the last time on radio.
1940 – The first of the fifty old American destroyers given to Britain arrives in the UK.
1942 – World War II: Development of two new aircraft–the B-35 Flying Wing and the B-36 Peacemaker–intended for bombing runs from bases in the United States to targets in Europe are given the highest priority.
1944 – WABD in New York City telecast the first full-length musical written for TV. “The Boys From Boise” aired on the DuMont network.
1944 – World War II : Battle of Arnhem – Germans defeat British airborne at Arnhem, Netherlands.
1944 – World War II : Soviet Army troops liberate Klooga concentration camp in Klooga, Estonia.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Each His Own” by Eddy Howard, “Five Minutes More” by Tex Beneke, “South America, Take It Away” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters and “Wine, Women and Song” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1949 – “My Friend Irma” was the first of 12 films starring Dean Martin & Jerry Lewis.
1950 – Task Force Matthews, consisting of the 25th Reconnaissance Company and A Company, 79th Tank Battalion, liberated 86 half-starved American POWs in Namwon.
1952 – Korean War: At Panmunjom, the U.N. proposed three alternatives for a solution to the POW issue. The communists categorically reject voluntary repatriation.
1953 – The “Bob & Ray Show,” TV Variety, last aired on NBC.
1955 – The World Series was televised in color for the first time. The game was between the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers.
1958 – “To Know Him Is To Love Him” by the Teddy Bears was released. The song was written and composed by 18-year old Phil Spector.
1959 – Explorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth and took the first remote imaging TV pictures of Earth meteorological conditions.
1960 – “Millionaire,” last aired on CBS-TV.
1961 – “Dr. Kildare” premieres on NBC.
1961 – “Hazel” premiered on NBC-TV.
1963 – “She Loves You” by the Beatles was played on the radio by Murry The K in New York. It is believed that this was the first time a Beatles song was played in the U.S.
1963 – “Blue Velvet” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts.
1963 – “New Phil Silvers Show,” debuted on CBS-TV.
1964 – First deployment of Polaris A-3 missile on USS Daniel Webster (SSBN 626) from Charleston, SC.
1967 – Walter Washington elected first black mayor of Washington, DC.
1968 – The Atlanta Chiefs won the first North American Soccer League Championship.
1968 – Vietnam War: Battle begins for the Special Forces camp at Thuong Duc, situated between Da Nang and the Laotian border.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” by Diana Ross, “Lookin’ Out My Back Door/Long as I Can See the Light” by Creedence Clearwater Revival, “Julie, Do Ya Love Me” by Bobby Sherman and “There Must Be More to Love Than This” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: Weekly casualty figures are released that contain no U.S. fatalities for the first time since March 1965.
1973 – A bomb explosion blasted out windows, splintered furniture and crumpled metal air ducts early today in the Manhattan offices of the Latin American division of International Telephone and Telegraph Corp (ITT). No one was injured in the explosion at about 2:40 a.m. The building in New York City was bombed to protest ITT’s involvement in the September 11, 1973 coup d’état in Chile.
1976 – R&B singer Stevie Wonder releases the classic double album Songs in the Key of Life.
1976 – Muhammad Ali kept his world heavyweight boxing championship with a close 15-round decision over Ken Norton at New York’s Yankee Stadium.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey, “Kiss You All Over” by Exile, “Hopelessly Devoted to You” by Olivia Newton-John and “I’ve Always Been Crazy” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1978 – Don Sherman, editor of Car & Driver, set a new Class E record in Utah. Driving the Mazda RX7 he reached a speed of 183.904 mph.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stuck with You” by Huey Lewis & The News, “Friends and Lovers” by Gloria Loring & Carl Anderson, “Walk This Way” by Run-D.M.C. and “In Love” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1987 – “Encounter at Farpoint”, the first episode of TV show Star Trek: The Next Generation airs.
1987 – Gladys Knight and Smokey Robinson were guests on the television show “$10,000 Pyramid.”
1991 – In response to U.S. President Bush’s reduction of U.S. nuclear arms Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev promised to reciprocate.
1991 – The Garth Brooks album “Ropin’ the Wind” became the first country album to debut at No. 1 on the Billboard pop chart.
1991 – “Good Vibrations” by Marky Mark & the Funky Bunch topped the charts.
1995 – Bobby Brown’s car was riddled with bullets in Boston’s Roxbury section. The gun battle killed his sister’s fiancé.
1996 – Landmark legislation to crack down on illegal immigrants in the United States won House passage as part of a giant federal spending bill.
1997 – The 103rd convention of the Audio Engineering Society (AES) was held in New York City, NY. The official debut of the DVD format was featured.
1997 – Newscaster David Brinkley, 74, retired after 54 years in broadcasting.
1998 – Hurricane Georges hit the Gulf Coast, weakening to a tropical storm but pouring rain at a pace of an inch per hour.
1999 – The Supreme Court agreed to decide whether a state can give visitation rights to grandparents when, after a divorce or some other family split, the children’s parents say no.
2000 – The Federal Drug Administration approved the use of RU-486 in the United States. The pill is used to induce an abortion.
2001 – Dr. Kenneth M. Berry of Pittsburgh filed a patent application for a system responsive to bioterrorism attacks. In 2004 the FBI probed him in relation to investigations on letters containing anthrax.
2001 – The FBI released a four-page document, handwritten in Arabic that served as a set of final instructions for the Sep 11 hijackers. Copies were found in a rental car, in the suitcase of Mohamed Atta and the wreckage of the UA plane that crashed in Pa.
2004 – The U.S. Federal Reserve and the U.S. Secret Service introduced the first newly redesigned $50 bill.
2004 – IBM said its still-unfinished BlueGene/L System, named for its ability to model the folding of human proteins, can sustain speeds of 360 teraflops. A teraflop is 1 trillion calculations per second. BlueGene/L reached full capacity in 2005.
2004 – Nate Olive and Sarah Jones arrived at the U.S.-Mexico border to complete the first known continuous hike of the 1,800-mile trail down the U.S. Pacific Coast. They started the trek on June 8.
2004 – A 6.0 earthquake shook central California, cracking pipes, breaking bottles of wine and knocking pictures from walls. The quake was centered about seven miles southeast of Parkfield, a town of 37 people known as California’s earthquake capital.
2005 – The September 2005 California wildfires began as a brush fire northwest of Los Angeles, California. Growing to more than 16,000 acres in 2 days, the blaze threatened homes, natural resources, power lines, and communications equipment in the Thousand Oaks region north of the Santa Monica Mountains.
2005 – A newly designed $10 bill was unveiled featuring splashes of orange, yellow and red to go with the traditional green. The bills will not actually go into circulation until early next year.
2007 – The government shut down NetBank Inc., an online bank with $2.5 billion in assets, due to excessive mortgage defaults.
2007 – A federal judge refused to block a new NYC city rule that requires taxi drivers to install global positioning systems and credit card machines in their cabs by Oct 1.
2007 – Traveler Carol Anne Gotbaum of New York died in a holding cell at Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix; authorities say Gotbaum accidentally asphyxiated herself after being chained to a bench.
2008 – SpaceX Falcon 1 makes orbit, becoming the first privately developed liquid-fueled space launch vehicle to do so.
2008 – In San Francisco hundreds of thousands gathered for the 25th Folsom Street Fair, the world’s biggest celebration of leather, bondage and sexual fetish.
2010 – The US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit permanently lifts an injunction thereby allowing the United States Government to fund embryonic stem cell research.
2010 – The Cincinnati Reds win the National League Central Championship.
2011 – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention links an outbreak of listeriosis that has caused 13 deaths and 72 illnesses in 18 states to infected cantaloupes from Colorado.
2011 – The National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB) filed a petition with the U.S. Supreme Court appealing the 11th Circuit’s Obamacare decision.
2012 – President Obama “issued a presidential memorandum waiving penalties under the Child Soldiers Protection Act of 2008 for Libya, South Sudan, and Yemen.” These penalties, that Congress put in place to prevent U.S. arms sales to countries determined by the State Department to be the worst abusers of child soldiers in their militaries.
2012 – The Obama administration issued a memo from the Department of Labor telling defense contractors not to provide legally-required notice to thousands of employees that they are about to be laid off, if automatic spending cuts agreed to by the President and the Congress take effect. A complete disregard for the law.
2014 – Miami Police announced Monday that 17-year-old Will Campbell has been arrested for the mass shooting that left fifteen people injured, including children, at a Miami night club.
2014 – Jim Spinella set a new record for a long target shot. The attempt was for 3600 yards or 36 football fields. He made the shot on his third attempt. The bullet took 7.2 seconds to make the flight.
551 BC – Confucius, Chinese philosopher (d. 479 BC)
58 BC – Livia Drusilla, wife of the Roman emperor Caesar Augustus (d. 29)
1887 – Avery Brundage, American athlete and sports official (d. 1975)
1889 – Jack Fournier, baseball player (d. 1973)
1901 – Ed Sullivan, American television show host (d. 1974)
1905 – Max Schmeling, German boxer (d. 2005)
1909 – Al Capp, American cartoonist (d. 1979)
1915 – Ethel Rosenberg, American spy (d. 1953)
1925 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (d. 1996)
1934 – Brigitte Bardot, French actress
*BAUER, HAROLD WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 20 November 1908. Woodruff, Kans. Appointed from: Nebraska. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous courage as Squadron Commander of Marine Fighting Squadron 212 in the South Pacific Area during the period 10 May to 14 November 1942. Volunteering to pilot a fighter plane in defense of our positions on Guadalcanal, Lt. Col. Bauer participated in two air battles against enemy bombers and fighters outnumbering our force more than two to one, boldly engaged the enemy and destroyed one Japanese bomber in the engagement of September 28th, and shot down four enemy fighter planes in flames on October 3rd, leaving a fifth smoking badly. After successfully leading 26 planes on an over-water ferry flight of more than 600 miles on 16 October, Lt. Col. Bauer, while circling to land, sighted a squadron of enemy planes attacking the U.S.S. McFarland. Undaunted by the formidable opposition and with valor above and beyond the call of duty, he engaged the entire squadron and, although alone and his fuel supply nearly exhausted, fought his plane so brilliantly that 4 of the Japanese planes were destroyed before he was forced down by lack of fuel. His intrepid fighting spirit and distinctive ability as a leader and an airman, exemplified in his splendid record of combat achievement, were vital factors in the successful operations in the South Pacific Area.
*ROEDER, ROBERT E.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company G, 350th Infantry, 88th Infantry Division. Place and date: Mt. Battaglia, Italy, 27-September 28th, 1944. Entered service at: Summit Station, Pa. Birth: Summit Station, Pa. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Roeder commanded his company in defense of the strategic Mount Battaglia. Shortly after the company had occupied the hill, the Germans launched the first of a series of determined counterattacks to regain this dominating height. Completely exposed to ceaseless enemy artillery and small-arms fire, Capt. Roeder constantly circulated among his men, encouraging them and directing their defense against the persistent enemy. During the sixth counterattack, the enemy, by using flamethrowers and taking advantage of the fog, succeeded in overrunning the position Capt. Roeder led his men in a fierce battle at close quarters, to repulse the attack with heavy losses to the Germans. The following morning, while the company was engaged in repulsing an enemy counterattack in force, Capt. Roeder was seriously wounded and rendered unconscious by shell fragments. He was carried to the company command post, where he regained consciousness. Refusing medical treatment, he insisted on rejoining his men although in a weakened condition, Capt. Roeder dragged himself to the door of the command post and, picking up a rifle, braced himself in a sitting position. He began firing his weapon, shouted words of encouragement, and issued orders to his men. He personally killed two Germans before he himself was killed instantly by an exploding shell. Through Capt. Roeder’s able and intrepid leadership his men held Mount Battaglia against the aggressive and fanatical enemy attempts to retake this important and strategic height. His valorous performance is exemplary of the fighting spirit of the U.S. Army.
*MILLER, OSCAR F.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 361st Infantry, 91st Division. Place and date: Near Gesnes, France, September 28th, 1918. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Birth: Franklin County, Ark. G.O. No.: 16, W.D. 1919. Citation: After two days of intense physical and mental strain, during which Maj. Miller had led his battalion in the front line of the advance through the forest of Argonne, the enemy was met in a prepared position south of Gesnes. Though almost exhausted, he energetically reorganized his battalion and ordered an attack. Upon reaching open ground the advancing line began to waver in the face of machinegun fire from the front and flanks and direct artillery fire. Personally leading his command group forward between his front-line companies, Maj. Miller inspired his men by his personal courage, and they again pressed on toward the hostile position. As this officer led the renewed attack he was shot in the right leg, but he nevertheless staggered forward at the head of his command. Soon afterwards he was again shot in the right arm, but he continued the charge, personally cheering his troops on through the heavy machinegun fire. Just before the objective was reached he received a wound in the abdomen, which forced him to the ground, but he continued to urge his men on, telling them to push on to the next ridge and leave him where he lay. He died from his wounds a few days later.
SCHAFFNER, DWITE H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 306th Infantry, 77th Division. Place and date: Near St. Hubert’s Pavillion, Boureuilles, France, September 28th, 1918. Entered service at: Falls Creek, Pa. Birth: Arroya, Pa. G.O. No.: 15, W.D., 1923. Citation: He led his men in an attack on St. Hubert’s Pavillion through terrific enemy machinegun, rifle, and artillery fire and drove the enemy from a strongly held entrenched position after hand-to-hand fighting. His bravery and contempt for danger inspired his men, enabling them to hold fast in the face of 3 determined enemy counterattacks. His company’s position being exposed to enemy fire from both flanks, he made three efforts to locate an enemy machinegun which had caused heavy casualties. On his third reconnaissance he discovered the gun position and personally silenced the gun, killing or wounding the crew. The third counterattack made by the enemy was initiated by the appearance of a small detachment in advance of the enemy attacking wave. When almost within reach of the American front line the enemy appeared behind them, attacking vigorously with pistols, rifles, and handgrenades, causing heavy casualties in the American platoon. 1st Lt. Schaffner mounted the parapet of the trench and used his pistol and grenades killing a number of enemy soldiers, finally reaching the enemy officer leading the attacking forces, a captain, shooting and mortally wounding the latter with his pistol, and dragging the captured officer back to the company’s trench, securing from him valuable information as to the enemy’s strength and position. The information enabled 1st Lt. Schaffner to maintain for five hours the advanced position of his company despite the fact that it was surrounded on three sides by strong enemy forces. The undaunted bravery, gallant soldierly conduct, and leadership displayed by 1st Lt. Schaffner undoubtedly saved the survivors of the company from death or capture.
Corporal Stowers, a native of Anderson County, South Carolina, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism on September 28th, 1918, while serving as a squad leader in Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93rd Infantry Division. His company was the lead company during the attack on Hill 188, Champagne Marne Sector, France, during World War I. A few minutes after the attack began, the enemy ceased firing and began climbing up onto the parapets of the trenches, holding up their arms as if wishing to surrender. The enemy’s actions caused the American forces to cease fire and to come out into the open. As the company started forward and when within about 100 meters of the trench line, the enemy jumped back into their trenches and greeted Corporal Stowers’ company with interlocking bands of machine gun fire and mortar fire causing well over fifty percent casualties. Faced with incredible enemy resistance, Corporal Stowers took charge, setting such a courageous example of personal bravery and leadership that he inspired his men to follow him in the attack. With extraordinary heroism and complete disregard of personal danger under devastating fire, he crawled forward leading his squad toward an enemy machine gun nest, which was causing heavy casualties to his company. After fierce fighting, the machine gun position was destroyed and the enemy soldiers were killed. Displaying great courage and intrepidity, Corporal Stowers continued to press the attack against a determined enemy. While crawling forward and urging his men to continue the attack on a second trench line, he was gravely wounded by machine gun fire. Although, Corporal Stowers was mortally wounded, he pressed forward, urging on the members of his squad, until he died. Inspired by the heroism and display of bravery of Corporal Stowers, his company continued the attack against incredible odds, contributing to the capture of Hill 188 and causing heavy enemy casualties. Corporal Stowers’ conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism and supreme devotion to his men were well above and beyond the call of duty, follow the finest traditions of military service and reflect the utmost credit on him and the United States Army.
FERGUSON, ARTHUR M.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 36th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Porac, Luzon, Philippine Islands, September 28th, 1899. Entered service at: Burlington, Kans. Birth: Coffey County, Kans. Date of issue: 8 March 1902. Citation: Charged alone a body of the enemy and captured a captain.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Red River, Tex., 26-September 28th, 1874. Entered service at: ——. Birth: South Wales. Date of issue: 13 October 1875, Citation: Gallantry in attack on a large party of Cheyennes.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Red River, Tex., 26-September 28th, 1874. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Gallantry in attack on a large party of Cheyennes.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Red River, Tex., 26-September 28th, 1874. Entered service at: Kentucky. Birth: St. Louis, Mo. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
BLISS, GEORGE N.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 1st Rhode Island Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., September 28th, 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Tiverton, R.I. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: While in command of the provost guard in the village, he saw the Union lines returning before the attack of a greatly superior force of the enemy, mustered his guard, and, without orders, joined in the defense and charged the enemy without support. He received three saber wounds, his horse was shot, and he was taken prisoner.
Ancestor Appreciation Day
National Women’s Health & Fitness Day
Google’s 16th Birthday
Here are some facts about crayons:
Washington Irving used the pseudonym Geoffrey Crayon when he published The Sketch-Book, a collection of short stories and essays, including “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle.”
Alice Binney, wife of company co-owner Edwin Binney, coined the word Crayola by joining craie, from the French word meaning chalk, with ola, from oleaginous, meaning oily.
All the colors in the rainbow plus some… In 1903, the Binney & Smith company made the first box of Crayola crayons costing a nickel and containing eight colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, and black.
Today, there over one hundred different types of crayons being made by Crayola including crayons that: sparkle with glitter, glow in the dark, smell like flowers, change colors, and wash off walls and other surfaces and materials.
How about a really long word?
The made-up word means a “pointy-headed person who writes in crayon.”
“The world is full of abundance and opportunity, but far too many people come to the fountain of life with a sieve instead of a tank car… a teaspoon instead of a steam shovel. They expect little and as a result they get little.”
~ Ben Sweetland
Ex pec ta tion (n) (kspk-tshn)
The act of expecting.
Eager anticipation: eyes shining with expectation.
- The state of being expected.
- To look forward to the PROBABLE occurrence or appearance of someone or something;
- To consider LIKELY or certain; To anticipate CONFIDENTLY.
70 – The walls of upper city of Jerusalem were battered down by Romans.
1590 – Pope Urban VII dies 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.
1779 – John Adams negotiates Revolutionary War peace terms with Britain.
1787 – The United States Constitution is delivered to the states for ratification.
1813 – Marines served aboard ships in battle against the British on Lake Ontario.
1821 – Mexico gains its independence from Spain.
1822 – Jean-François Champollion announces that he has deciphered the Rosetta stone.
1825 – The Stockton and Darlington Railway opens, and begins operation of the world’s first service of locomotive-hauled passenger trains.
1840 – Thomas Nast was born. He was a political cartoonist that created the Republican elephant and the Democrat donkey.
1852 – “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” premiered in Troy, NY.
1854 – The steamship Arctic sinks with 300 people on board. This marks the first great disaster in the Atlantic Ocean.
1864 – Civil War: A guerilla band led by William “Bloody Bill” Anderson sacks the town of Centralia, Missouri, killing 22 unarmed Union soldiers before massacring 120 pursuing Yankees.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Pilot Knob (Ft Davidson), Missouri. 1700 were killed or injured.
1869 – Wild Bill Hickok, sheriff of Hays City, Kan., shot down Samuel Strawhim, a drunken teamster causing trouble.
1881 – Chicago Cubs beat Troy 10-8 before a record small “crowd” of 12.
1892 – Book matches were patented by Diamond Match Company.
1894 – The Aqueduct Race Track opened in New York City, NY. Aqueduct Racetrack was opened today by the Queens County Jockey Club.
1903 – Wreck of the Old 97, a train crash made famous by the song of the same name. The “Old 97”, a Southern Railway train en route from Monroe, Virginia to Spencer, North Carolina, derailed at Stillhouse Trestle near Danville, Virginia on September 27, 1903. It occurred when the train’s engineer forced the train to go to breakneck speeds to make its stop at Spencer on time (Old 97 had a perfect reputation for never being late). The train went down a steep hill and couldn’t slow down when it reached the trestle at the base, sending it careening into the ravine below. A 1920s recording of the song, “Wreck of the Old 97” by Vernon Dalhart, is sometimes cited as the first million-seller in the American record industry. Here it is sung by Johnny Cash.
1905 – Albert Einstein publishes the paper “Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?” in Annalen der Physik. This paper revealed the relationship between energy and mass.
1912 – W C Handy published “Memphis Blues,” the first Blues song.
1916 – First Native American Day celebrated, honoring American Indians.
1919 – Democratic National Committee votes to admit women.
1920 – Eight Chicago White Sox players were charged with fixing the 1919 World Series. As a result they picked up the nickname of the Black Sox.
1922 – Report on observations of experiments with short wave radio at Anacostia, DC, starts Navy development of radar.
1923 – Lou Gehrig hits the first of his 493 home runs. It comes off Bill Piercy at Fenway Park in an 8-3 New York win.
1928 – The Republic of China is recognized by the United States.
1930 – Bobby Jones completes the Grand Slam of Golf.
1933 – “Waltz Time” debuted on NBC Radio. It remained on the network until 1948 .
1937 – Last Balinese Tiger killed.
1937 – Charlie Howard established a world famous Santa Claus School at his Albion farmhouse, the first school of its kind. He was considered the Dean of the Santa Claus School with a worldwide reputation for turning out top-notch St. Nicks.
1938 – “Thanks for the Memory” was heard for the first time on “The Bob Hope Show”.
1938 – Clarinet virtuoso Artie Shaw recorded the song that would become his theme song, “Nightmare.”
1939 – After 19 days of resistance, Warsaw, Poland, surrendered to the Germans after being invaded by the Nazis and the Soviet Union during World War II.
1940 – Black leaders protested discrimination in US armed forces.
1940- The Axis powers are formed as Germany, Italy, and Japan become allies with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in Berlin.
1941 – The SS Patrick Henry is launched becoming the first of more than 2,700 Liberty ships.
1942 – Glenn Miller and his Orchestra perform for the last time before Miller enters the US Army.
1942 – NY Giants beat Wash Redskins 14-7 without making a single first down.
1942 –World War II: The S.S. Stephen Hopkins, a Liberty Ship with an all-San Francisco crew, engaged the German raider Stier and her tender, Tannenfels.
1942 – 1st Class Signalman Douglas A. Munro, U.S. Coast Guard, rescued Marines of 1/7 during Operation Pestilence on Guadalcanal. He is the only Medal of Honor recipient for the U.S. Coast Guard.
1944 – World War II: Thousands of British troops were killed as German forces rebuffed their massive effort to capture the Arnhem Bridge across the Rhine River in Holland.
1944 – World War II: Special Air Task Force (STAG-1) commences operations with drones, controlled by TBM aircraft, against Japanese in Southwestern Pacific.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “If I Loved You” by Perry Como, “On the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe” by Johnny Mercer, “Till the End of Time” by Perry Como and “You Two Timed Me One Time Too Often” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1949 – The House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC) held hearings on alleged communist infiltration of the Radiation Laboratory at UC Berkeley. This was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties.
1950 – Korean War: Seoul fell to the First Marine Division augmented by ROK Marines and troops of the 7th Infantry Division with the 17th ROK Regiment attached.
1950 – Heavyweight champ Ezzard Charles defeats Joe Louis.
1952 – “I Went to Your Wedding” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “No Other Love” by Perry Como, “Vaya Con Dios” by Les Paul & Mary Ford, “Crying in the Chapel” by June Valli and “A Dear John Letter” by Jean Shepard & Ferlin Husky all topped the charts.
1954 – The nationwide debut of Tonight! (The Tonight Show) hosted by Steve Allen on NBC.
1954 – School integration begins in Washington DC & Baltimore Md public schools.
1956 – The U.S. Air Force Bell X-2, the world’s fastest and highest-flying plane, crashed, killing the test pilot.
1958 – “Volare” by Domenico Modugno topped the charts.
1962 – Detroit secretary Martha Reeves cut a side with a group called The Vandellas.
1962 – The U.S. sold Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to Israel.
1963 – At 10:59 AM the census clock, records US population at 190,000,000.
1964 – The Beach Boys appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show for the first time. They performed “I Get Around.”
1964 – The Warren Commission releases its report, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, assassinated President John F. Kennedy.
1968 – The stage musical Hair opened at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, where it played 1,998 performances until its closure was forced by the roof’s collapsing in July 1973.
1968 – A 1-0 win and 11 strikeouts against the Astros enables Cardinal Bob Gibson to lower his ERA to 1.12, a new NL season mark.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sugar, Sugar” by The Archies, “Green River” by Creedence Clearwater Revival , “Easy to Be Hard” by Three Dog Night and “Tall Dark Stranger” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1970 – “The Original Amateur Hour” (14:30) aired for the last time on CBS. It had been on television for 22 years.
1973 – Nolan Ryan strikes out his 383rd batter of the year.
1975 – “I’m Sorry” by John Denver topped the charts.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Best of My Love” by Emotions, “Don’t Stop” by Fleetwood Mac, “Keep It Comin’ Love” by KC & The Sunshine Band and “I’ve Already Loved You in My Mind” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1979 – The United States Department of Education receives final approval from the U.S. Congress to become the 13th US Cabinet agency.
1980 – “Upside Down” by Diana Ross topped the charts.
1982 – John Palmer becomes news anchor of the Today Show.
1983 – Larry Bird signed a seven-year contract with the Boston Celtics worth $15 million. The contract made him the highest paid Celtic in history.
1985 – Hurricane Gloria hits Long Island, New York with 130 mph winds.
1986 – Lionel Richie’s “Dancing on the Ceiling“ was the #1 LP. (47:04)
1986 – “Stuck with You” by Huey Lewis & the News topped the charts.
1987 – Football fans suffered through their first Sunday without football since players went on strike. NFL owners soon organized games with replacement and nonstriking players.
1988 – Grand jury evidence showed Tawana Brawley fabricated her rape story. Reverend Al Sharpton turned this into a racial show.
1989 – The first two people to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel and live to tell about it. Peter Debernardi, 42, and Jeffrey (Clyde) Petkovich, 25, tumbled over the 167-foot high Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of the Falls.
1990 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee approved the Supreme Court nomination of David H. Souter.
1991 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee deadlocked, 7-7, on the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court.
1994 – More than 350 Republican congressional candidates signed the Contract with America. It was a 10-point platform they pledged to enact if voters sent a GOP majority to the House.
1995 – The Government of the United States unveils the first of its redesigned bank notes with the $100 bill featuring a larger portrait of Benjamin Franklin slightly off-center.
1995 – At the O.J. Simpson trial, the prosecution and defense presented dueling summations.
1996 – Texan Charles Hurwitz of Maxxam Inc. agreed to exchange his hold on the Headwaters forest in California in exchange for cash, land or other government assets.
1997 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis, docked with the problem-plagued Russian Mir station to drop off American David Wolf and pick up Michael Foale.
1998 – Google is established.
1998 – Mark McGwire of the Cardinals hit his record-setting 69th and 70th home runs.
1998 – In Holmdel, N.J., the nation’s first Vietnam Museum opened as the Vietnam Era Educational Center.
1999 – The last professional baseball game is played at historic Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan with Detroit beating the Kansas City Royals 8-2.
2000 – Venus Williams became only the second player to win Wimbledon, the U.S. Open and the Olympics in the same year with her 6-2, 6-4 victory over Elena Dementieva.
2001 – Pres. Bush announced enhanced airport security measures that included national guard soldiers at checkpoints and armed air marshals on planes as a first step toward federal control of airline security.
2001 – US and British warplanes struck 2 artillery sites in Iraq’s southern no-fly zone.
2001 – In Jakarta, Indonesia, protesters burned US flags outside the US Embassy and threatened to kill Americans.
2002 – President Bush said the UN should have a chance to force Saddam Hussein to give up his weapons of mass destruction before the US acted on its own against Iraq.
2002 – The DJIA fell 295 to 7701.45. Nasdaq fell 22.45 to 1199.16.
2002 – All West Coast ports shut down when the Pacific Maritime Assoc. locked out some 10,500 longshoremen in retaliation for work slowdowns.
2004 – U.S. jets pounded suspected Shiite militant positions in the Baghdad slum of Sadr City.
2004 – A US Justice Department audit said the FBI had a backlog of hundreds of thousands of hours of untranslated audio recordings from terror and espionage investigations.
2005 – New Orleans Police Superintendent Eddie Compass stepped down from his post 4 weeks after Hurricane Katrina destroyed the city.
2005 – NASA and other institutions reported a huge galaxy, HUDF-JD2, dating from about 800 million years after the Big Bang. Odds on the date were given at 75%. The galaxy was said to be unusually massive and mature for its place in the young universe.
2007 – In Oakland, Ca. 4 people were charged with growing marijuana that since 2001 was used in cookies and other packaged food made by Tainted Inc.
2007 – In Florida a spacecraft named Dawn blasted off aboard an unmanned Delta rocket on a mission to explore two giant asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Dawn was powered by a trio of solar-powered electric engines that ionize and expel xenon gas. It could serve as a blueprint for future interplanetary transport.
2009 – American General Stanley McChrystal, Commander of the International Security Assistance Force, formally requests more troops for the War in Afghanistan.
2009 – Italian Premier Silvio Berlusconi makes some condescending remarks at a rally in Milan about his encounters with President of the United States Barack Obama, saying: “What’s his name? Some tanned guy… Ah, Barack Obama!”
2010 – Brandon Joseph Rhode is executed at a prison in Jackson, Georgia. His victims names were Steven Moss, Bryan Moss and Kristin Moss.
2011 – Fugitive hijacker George Wright is caught in Portugal, thirty-nine years after he and members of the Black Liberation Army took control of Delta Air Lines Flight 841 and flew it to Algeria.
2011 – The trial of Dr Conrad Murray for manslaughter in connection to the death of American singer Michael Jackson begins in California.
2012 – A Los Angeles jury finds David Viens, the Lomita, CA chef who told authorities that he cooked his dead wife’s body to dispose of it, guilty of second-degree murder.
2012 – A mass shooting takes place at Accent Signage Systems, a sign company in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Five people are killed, including the gunman who committed suicide, and four others are wounded.
2012 – The NFL and the NFL Referees Association reach an agreement, ending the referee lockout that has been ongoing since June of this year.
1643 – Solomon Stoddard, American Puritan clergyman. He was one of the most important puritan religious leaders in the colonial period and was the grandfather of the famous Rev. Jonathan Edwards.
1722 – Samuel Adams, American revolutionary leader (d. 1803)
1805 – George Müller, Prussian orphanage builder (d. 1898)
1824 – William “Bull” Nelson, American Civil War general (d. 1862) was a U.S. Navy officer and later a Union general in the Civil War who commanded the Army of Kentucky. He holds the distinction of being the only naval officer to achieve the rank of major general on either side of the Civil War. He was shot and killed by a fellow Union general, Jefferson C. Davis, during an argument in 1862.
1830 – William Babcock Hazen, American Civil War general (d. 1887) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Indian Wars, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army. His most famous service was defending “Hell’s Half Acre” at the Battle of Stones River in 1862.
1896 – Sam Ervin, American politician (d. 1985)
1920 – Jayne Meadows, American actress
1934 – Dick Schaap, American sports reporter (d. 2001)
1958 – Shaun Cassidy, American singer
FIELDS, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 10th Armored Infantry, 4th Armored Division. Place and date: Rechicourt, France, September 27th, 1944. Entered service at: Houston, Tex. Birth: Caddo, Tex. G.O. No.: 13, 27 February 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, at Rechicourt, France. On 27 September 1944, during a sharp action with the enemy infantry and tank forces, 1st Lt. Fields personally led his platoon in a counterattack on the enemy position. Although his platoon had been seriously depleted, the zeal and fervor of his leadership was such as to inspire his small force to accomplish their mission in the face of overwhelming enemy opposition. Seeing that one of the men had been wounded, he left his slit trench and with complete disregard for his personal safety attended the wounded man and administered first aid. While returning to his slit trench he was seriously wounded by a shell burst, the fragments of which cut through his face and head, tearing his teeth, gums, and nasal passage. Although rendered speechless by his wounds, 1st Lt. Fields refused to be evacuated and continued to lead his platoon by the use of hand signals. On one occasion, when two enemy machineguns had a portion of his unit under deadly crossfire, he left his hole, wounded as he was, ran to a light machinegun, whose crew had been knocked out, picked up the gun, and fired it from his hip with such deadly accuracy that both the enemy gun positions were silenced. His action so impressed his men that they found new courage to take up the fire fight, increasing their firepower, and exposing themselves more than ever to harass the enemy with additional bazooka and machinegun fire. Only when his objective had been taken and the enemy scattered did 1st Lt. Fields consent to be evacuated to the battalion command post. At this point he refused to move further back until he had explained to his battalion commander by drawing on paper the position of his men and the disposition of the enemy forces. The dauntless and gallant heroism displayed by 1st Lt. Fields were largely responsible for the repulse of the enemy forces and contributed in a large measure to the successful capture of his battalion objective during this action. His eagerness and determination to close with the enemy and to destroy him was an inspiration to the entire command, and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
*MUNRO, DOUGLAS ALBERT
Rank and organization: Signalman First Class, U.S. Coast Guard Born: 11 October 1919, Vancouver, British Columbia. Accredited to Washington. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and conspicuous gallantry m action above and beyond the call of duty as Petty Officer in Charge of a group of 24 Higgins boats, engaged in the evacuation of a battalion of Marines trapped by enemy Japanese forces at Point Cruz Guadalcanal, on September 27th, 1942. After making preliminary plans for the evacuation of nearly 500 beleaguered Marines, Munro, under constant strafing by enemy machineguns on the island, and at great risk of his life, daringly led five of his small craft toward the shore. As he closed the beach, he signaled the others to land, and then in order to draw the enemy’s fire and protect the heavily loaded boats, he valiantly placed his craft with its two small guns as a shield between the beachhead and the Japanese. When the perilous task of evacuation was nearly completed, Munro was instantly killed by enemy fire, but his crew, two of whom were wounded, carried on until the last boat had loaded and cleared the beach. By his outstanding leadership, expert planning, and dauntless devotion to duty, he and his courageous comrades undoubtedly saved the lives of many who otherwise would have perished. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*BAESEL, ALBERT E.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 148th Infantry, 37th Division. Place and date: Near Ivoiry, France, September 27th, 1918. Entered service at: Berea, Ohio. Born: 1892, Berea, Ohio. G.O. No.: 43, W.D., 1922. Citation: Upon hearing that a squad leader of his platoon had been severely wounded while attempting to capture an enemy machinegun nest about 200 yards in advance of the assault line and somewhat to the right, 2d Lt. Baesel requested permission to go to the rescue of the wounded corporal. After thrice repeating his request and permission having been reluctantly given, due to the heavy artillery, rifle, and machinegun fire, and heavy deluge of gas in which the company was at the time, accompanied by a volunteer, he worked his way forward, and reaching the wounded man, placed him upon his shoulders and was instantly killed by enemy fire.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company H, 364th Infantry, 91st Division. Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, 26-September 27th, 1918. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Born: 8 July 1894, Rhinelander, Wis. G.O. No.: 12 W.D., 1929. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy. On the morning of 26 September, during the advance of the 364th Infantry, 1st Lt. Bronson was struck by an exploding enemy handgrenade, receiving deep cuts on his face and the back of his head. He nevertheless participated in the action which resulted in the capture of an enemy dugout from which a great number of prisoners were taken. This was effected with difficulty and under extremely hazardous conditions because it was necessary to advance without the advantage of cover and, from an exposed position, throw handgrenades and phosphorous bombs to compel the enemy to surrender. On the afternoon of the same day he was painfully wounded in the left arm by an enemy rifle bullet, and after receiving first aid treatment he was directed to the rear. Disregarding these instructions, 1st Lt. Bronson remained on duty with his company through the night although suffering from severe pain and shock. On the morning of 27 September, his regiment resumed its attack, the object being the village of Eclisfontaine. Company H, to which 1st Lt. Bronson was assigned, was left in support of the attacking line, Company E being in the line. He gallantly joined that company in spite of his wounds and engaged with it in the capture of the village. After the capture he remained with Company E and participated with it in the capture of an enemy machinegun, he himself killing the enemy gunner. Shortly after this encounter the company was compelled to retire due to the heavy enemy artillery barrage. During this retirement 1st Lt. Bronson, who was the last man to leave the advanced position, was again wounded in both arms by an enemy high-explosive shell. He was then assisted to cover by another officer who applied first aid. Although bleeding profusely and faint from the loss of blood, 1st Lt. Bronson remained with the survivors of the company throughout the night of the second day, refusing to go to the rear for treatment. His conspicuous gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice were a source of great inspiration to the members of the entire command.
*TURNER, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army 105th Infantry, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, September 27th,1918. Entered service at: Garden City, N.Y. Birth: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 81, W.D., 1919. Citation: He led a small group of men to the attack, under terrific artillery and machinegun fire, after they had become separated from the rest of the company in the darkness. Single-handed he rushed an enemy machinegun which had suddenly opened fire on his group and killed the crew with his pistol. He then pressed forward to another machinegun post 25 yards away and had killed one gunner himself by the time the remainder of his detachment arrived and put the gun out of action. With the utmost bravery he continued to lead his men over three lines of hostile trenches, cleaning up each one as they advanced, regardless of the fact that he had been wounded three times, and killed several of the enemy in hand-to-hand encounters. After his pistol ammunition was exhausted, this gallant officer seized the rifle of a dead soldier, bayoneted several members of a machinegun crew, and shot the other. Upon reaching the fourth-line trench, which was his objective, 1st Lt. Turner captured it with the nine men remaining in his group and resisted a hostile counterattack until he was finally surrounded and killed.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 105th Machine-Gun Battalion, 27th Division. Place and date: Near Ronssoy, France, September 27th, 1918. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Norway. G.O. No.. 5, W.D., 1920. Citation: In the face of heavy artillery and machinegun fire, he crawled forward to a burning British tank, in which some of the crew were imprisoned, and succeeded in rescuing two men. Although the tank was then burning fiercely and contained ammunition which was likely to explode at any time, this soldier immediately returned to the tank and, entering it, made a search for the other occupants, remaining until he satisfied himself that there were no more living men in the tank.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mimbres Mountains, N. Mex., 29 May 1879; at Cuchillo Negro River near Ojo Caliente, N. Mex., September 27th, 1879. Entered service at:——. Birth: Prince Georges County, Md. Date of issue: 6 January 1882. Citation: Bravery in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Indian Scouts. Place and date: Canyon Blanco tributary of the Red River, Tex., 26-September 27th, 1874. Entered service at: Fort Duncan, Texas. Birth: Florida. Date of issue: 13 October 1875. Citation: Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry, during this engagement.
Johnny Appleseed Day
Shamu the Whale Day
Restaurants and the Naming of Them
The public dining room that ultimately became known as the restaurant originated in France. The first restaurant proprietor was A. Boulanger, a soup vendor, who opened his business in Paris in 1765. The sign above his door advertised restoratives or restaurants, referring to the soups and broths available within. The institution took its name from that sign, and restaurant now denotes a public eating place in English, French, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Romanian, and many other languages. The specialty restaurant (serving one or two kinds of food, such as seafood or steak), the cafeteria, and fast food establishments are types of restaurants originating in the U.S.
Names are interesting and can be very creative and generally indicate something about the area, the owner, its historical setting or its cuisine. For example, in an article from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette dated March, 6, 2011, China Millman does an excellent job showing the names of some local restaurants such as “The Gab ‘n Eat” giving you the idea to just sit, eat and talk. There is a local restaurant that focuses on breakfast and it is called “Not Just Toast.” A chain of pizza parlors is called “M-m-m Pizza. “ A very interesting name also comes from the Pittsburgh area and it is simply called “The Dinette.” The problem came when people did not know what a dinette was so the owner told them with a unique but familiar design:
Sonja Finn changed the tagline for her East Liberty restaurant, Dinette, in part because she had realized that many of her customers had no idea what “Dinette” meant.
In the downtown Philadelphia area there is a colonial time Inn called “Man In A Lot of Trouble Tavern.” Others include Tun’s Tavern, the historical founding location for the United States Marines. It is now gone, the original site being buried under I-95.
Creating names is a very creative process but one still has to be aware that there are other creative people around. A hot dog establishment was called “Hot Dogma” but it ran into a trademark infringement and was renamed “Franktuary.” Created just for this article, I think, is “Breakfast2, Lunch2 and Dinner2.” That would be three “square” meals.
There are several ways to approach the naming. Start by looking at names that reflect your concept. Names for hot dog places could include “Kraut ‘n Dogs” or spell it “Kraut ‘n Dawgs.” W.C. Fields once called hot dogs the “Tube Steaks.” The restaurants with “Saigon” in the name denote Vietnamese cuisine. In Indianapolis, IN there once was a “John’s Stew.” His menu had “John’s Stew”, John’s Hot Stew” and John’s Hot Hot Stew.”
Select a name that is easy to remember but also reminds people of where it is located. The restaurant (doesn’t exist) called Bell75 might suggest that it is at 75th Ave or Street and Bell. In Tucson, AZ, restaurants on the Miracle Mile use that in their names.
Look at historical connotations. Ask whether the building had been anything before it was a restaurant. For example, an old factory renovated to an Italian restaurant might be called the Spaghetti Factory. Check into history for events that happened nearby or historical people’s names that could be incorporated for example in northern Ohio could be called “The Leap” for its proximity to Brady’s Leap.
Be very careful when using English words that reflect English meanings but also reflect different words and meanings in other languages. For example, there may be a piano bar that is simply called “Alto.” In some parts of the United States that might work well but if there is a high Spanish or Mexican population, it could also mean “high” or “stop.” One other thing to be careful of in our society today is whether the name might create either a good or bad acronym.
These are but a few ideas. Let your creative juices flow and during the creative process, write down every idea that flows. Sometimes combinations of multiple ideas can create really good names.
“It’s the repetition of affirmations that leads to belief. And once that belief becomes a deep conviction, things begin to happen.”
~ Claude M. Bristol
scuttlebutt SKUHT-l-buht, noun:
1. A drinking fountain on a ship.
2. A cask on a ship that contains the day’s supply of drinking water.
3.Gossip; rumor. Scuttlebutt comes from scuttle, “a small opening” + butt, “a large cask” — that is, a small hole cut into a cask or barrel to allow individual cups of water to be drawn out. The modern equivalent is the office water cooler, also a source of refreshment and gossip.
1580 – Sir Francis Drake circumnavigates the globe. Drake was knighted and awarded a prize of 10 thousand pounds. His crew of 63 split a purse of 8 thousand pounds.
1687 – The Parthenon in Athens is partially destroyed after an explosion caused by the bombing from Venetian forces led by Morosini who were besieging the Ottoman Turks stationed in Athens.
1772 – New Jersey passed a bill requiring a license to practice medicine.
1777 – British troops occupy Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the American Revolution.
1786 – Protesters shut down the court in Springfield, Massachusetts in a military standoff that begins Shays’ Rebellion.
1789 – Thomas Jefferson is appointed the first United States Secretary of State, John Jay is appointed the first Chief Justice of the United States, Samuel Osgood is appointed the first United States Postmaster General, and Edmund Randolph is appointed the first United States Attorney General.
1820 – The legendary frontiersman Daniel Boone died quietly at the Defiance, Mo., home of his son Nathan, at age 85.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate General Sterling Price invades Missouri and attacks a Yankee garrison at Pilot Knob.
1864 – Civil War: General Nathan Bedford Forrest and his men assaulted a Federal garrison near Pulaski, Tennessee.
1872 – The first Shriners Temple (called Mecca) is established in New York City.
1892 – John Philip Sousa’s The ‘March King’ was introduced to the general public.
1892 – The Diamond Match Co. patented book matches.
1901 – Leon Czolgosz, who murdered President William McKinley, was sentenced to death.
1905 – Pitcher Ed Walsh hurls two complete-game victories over Boston, winning by scores of 10-5 and 3-1.
1908 – Cubs’ Ed Reulbach becomes only pitcher to throw Doubleheader shutout against host Brooklyn 5-0 and 3-0.
1908 – An ad for the Edison Phonograph appeared in “The Saturday Evening Post”. The phonograph offered buyers’ free records by both the Democratic and Republican US presidential candidates.
1910 – The first boat was raised in the locks of the Panama Canal.
1914 – The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is established by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its charge was to regulate interstate commerce and foster competition by preventing monopolies in business.
1915 – “Horse Marines” engaged Haitian bandits near Petite Riviere.The US Marine Corps used horses often over the course of their service. The golden age of these Horse Marines was 1909-1938.
1916 – A Bishop spoke against Catholics joining trade unions.
1917 – World War I: The Battle of Polygon Wood begins.
1918 – World War I: Battle of the Meuse-Argonne offensive against the Germans began. It was the final Allied offensive on the western front.
1926 – The Browns beat the Yankees twice, 6-1 and 6-2, in a total time of two hours, seven minutes, a major-league record for a twin bill. The 2nd game is the fastest in American League history: 55 minutes.
1931 – Keel laying at Newport News, VA of USS Ranger (CV-4), first ship designed and constructed as an aircraft carrier.
1931 – As more and more Americans lost their jobs, President Hoover stepped in on this day and convened a national conference on unemployment.
1933 – As gangster Machine Gun Kelly surrenders to the FBI, he shouts out, “Don’t shoot, G-Men!”. That name became a nickname for FBI agents.
1933 – Ten convicts escape from the Indiana State Prison with guns smuggled into the prison by bank robber John Dillinger.
1934 – Steamship RMS Queen Mary is launched.
1937 – Bessie Smith, known as the ‘Empress of the Blues,’ died in a car crash on Highway 61 near Clarksdale, Mississippi. “The Collection” (58:45)
1940 – An American embargo is imposed on the export of all scrap iron and steel to Japan.
1943 – World War II: The Germans placed an extortion on the Jews of Rome with an order to produce 50 kg of gold within two days or face massive deportations.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’ll Walk Alone” by Dinah Shore, “Is You is or is You Ain’t” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “I’ll Be Seeing You” by Bing Crosby and “Smoke on the Water” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1944 – World War II: Operation Market Garden fails.
1948 – Boston Braves win first National League championship since 1914.
1950 – The California state legislature passed a bill requiring state employees to sign a loyalty oath.
1950 – Korean War: The USS Brush struck a free-floating mine and thirteen sailors were killed and thirty-four others seriously wounded. This was the first incident of a U.S. Navy ship hitting a mine during the war.
1950 – Korean War: United Nations troops recapture Seoul from the North Koreans.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS –“You Belong to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Wish You Were Here“ by Eddie Fisher, “Half as Much” by Rosemary Clooney and “Jambalaya (On the Bayou)” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Cecil Foster, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying an F-80 Shooting Star jet fighter, shot down a pair of MiG-15s for his second and third aerial kills.
1953 – “You You You” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1954 – Japanese rail ferry Toya Maru sinks during a typhoon in the Tsugaru Strait, Japan killing 1,172.
1954 – Ronald Reagan made his first appearance as host of the “General Electric Theater,” and continued on for eight years.
1955 – NY Stock Exchange worst price decline since 1929 when the word was released concerning U.S. President Eisenhower’s heart attack.
1957 – West Side Story, by Arthur Laurents, Leonard Bernstein, and Stephen Sondheim, directed and choreographed by Jerome Robbins opens on Broadway for 732 performances.
1959 – “Sleepwalk” by Santo & Johnny topped the charts.
1960 – In Chicago, Illinois, the first televised presidential debate (58:34) takes place between candidates Vice President Richard M. Nixon (R) and Senator John F. Kennedy (D).
1960 – Longest speech in UN history (4 hrs, 29 minutes, by Fidel Castro). Castro’s presentation was primarily a complaint against U.S. policy toward his country and interference in their internal affairs.
1960 – “My Heart Has a Mind of its Own” by Connie Francis topped the charts.
1960 – Ted Williams hit his 521st home run off Jack Fisher for his last time at bat.
1961 – Bob Dylan makes his public debut.
1961 – Roger Maris hits HR #60 off Jack Fisher, tying Babe Ruth’s record.
1961 – Patent for an aerial capsule (satellite) emergency separation device.
1962 – Maury Wills of the Dodgers stole 100 bases in a season (He went on to break Ty Cobb’s 47-year-old record by stealing 104 bases for the Dodgers and was named NL most valuable player.
1963 – First steam-eject launch of Polaris missile at sea off Cape Canaveral, FL (now Cape Kennedy) from USS Observation Island (EAG-154).
1964 – “Oh, Pretty Woman” by Roy Orbison topped the charts.
1964 -“Gilligan’s Island” began its 98-show run on CBS.
1964 – The Kinks released the song “You Really Got Me.”
1968 – Hawaii Five-O debuts as an hourly program on CBS. Its theme song was “Walk Don’t Run” by the Ventures. It continued until 1980 and was the longest running police show in TV history.
1969 – The Chicago Seven trial begins.
1969 – The Brady Bunch debuts on ABC-TV and would run for five years.
1970 – The Laguna Fire starts in San Diego County, California, burning 175,425 acres.
1970 – “Ain’t No Mountain High Enough” by Diana Ross topped the charts.
1971 – An attack on an American Embassy softball game occurred in Phnom Pehn, Cambodia. One dead.
1972 – Captain James P. Walsh, USMC of VMA-211 was the last US Marine to be taken prisoner during the Vietnam War, and was released as a POW on 12 February 1973.
1972 – Richard M. Nixon met with Emperor Hirohito in Anchorage, Alaska, the first-ever meeting of a U.S. President and a Japanese Monarch.
1973 – Concorde makes its first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic in record-breaking time, 3 hours-33 minutes.
1974 – “Walls and Bridges” was released by John Lennon. He would not release any more new material for almost 6 years.
1975 – Phillies & NY Mets play a doubleheader that ends at 3:15 AM.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Play That Funky Music” by Wild Cherry, “I’d Really Love to See You Tonight” by England Dan & John Ford Coley “A Fifth of Beethoven” by Walter Murphy & The Big Apple Band and “If You’ve Got the Money I’ve Got the Time” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1981 – Nolan Ryan sets a Major League record by throwing his fifth no-hitter.
1981 – The twin-engine Boeing 767 made its maiden flight in Everett, WA.
1981 – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Missing You” by John Waite, “Let’s Go Crazy” by Prince & The Revolution, “Drive” by The Cars and “Let’s Chase Each Other Around the Room” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1984 – Philadelphia’s Juan Samuel breaks Tim Raines’s record for steals by a rookie with his 72nd in a 7-1 loss to the Mets.
1985 – Shamu was born this day at Sea World in Orlando, Florida. She was the first killer whale to be born in captivity and survive.
1986 – William Rehnquist becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
1986 – The episode of “Dallas” that had Bobby Ewing returning from the dead was aired.
1987 – “Didn’t We Almost Have It All” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – “Star Trek: The Next Generation,” debuted on TV.
1988 – Ben Johnson is stripped of his gold medal in the 100 m sprint at the Seoul Olympics for failing a drug test.
1990 – Motion Picture Association of America creates new NC-17 rating.
1991 – Two year experimental Biosphere 2 in Oracle, Arizona begins. The first Biosphere 2 crew remained inside for two years despite various problems, including limited agricultural productivity, and emerged on September 26, 1993. The unit cost $150 million and was a sealed-off structure on 3.15 acres.
1991 – The U.S. Congress heard a plea from Kimberly Bergalis concerning mandatory AIDS testing for health care workers.
1994 – Jury selection began in Los Angeles for the murder trial of O.J. Simpson.
1995 – The prosecution began its closing argument in the murder trial of O.J. Simpson. Note the time frame from the previous entry.
1996 – Richard Allen Davis, the killer of 12-year-old Polly Klaas, was sentenced to death in San Jose, CA. It was his criminal record which resulted in California’s “Three strike law” for repeat offenders.
1996 – Shannon Lucid returned to Earth after being in space for 188 days. She set a time record for a U.S. astronaut in space and in the world for time spent by a woman in space.
1996 – Patricia Billings, amateur sculptor and med tech, demonstrated her fire-proof material GeoBond. It was made of gypsum, cement, and a secret off-the-shelf ingredient that in combination would not burn even under flames over 2,000 degrees.
1997 – Gap Inc. dressed the NY stock exchange in khakis fashion, the first casual dress day in exchange history.
2000 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act. The act states that an infant would be considered to have been born alive if he or she is completely extracted or expelled from the mother and breathes and has a beating heart and definite movement of the voluntary muscles.
2001 – Pres. Bush met with US Sikh and Muslim leaders and declared that discrimination against such groups would not be tolerated.
2001 – In Vacaville, California, FBI agents arrested Bryan Douglas Rosenquist (39) and Michelle Elaine Serrao (41) for embezzling almost $12 million from BofA.
2001 – Enron Pres. Kenneth Lay urged his employees to buy Enron stock. Lay sold shares from the years 2000-2001 for a gain of $146 million.
2002 – A new edition of the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary was published and contained such new words as: Jedi, Klingons, Grinches, gearheads, bunny-huggers and bunny-boilers.
2004 – Hurricane Jeanne blasted ashore in Florida with drenching rains and 120 mph winds. She killed 3025 on her run with four of them in Florida.
2005 – Kitzmiller et al. v. Dover Area School District is the first direct challenge brought in United States federal courts against a public school district curriculum mandating the teaching of intelligent design as an alternative to evolution.
2005 – A military court in Texas convicted Pfc. Lynndie England (22) on 6 of 7 counts of conspiracy and maltreatment of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.
2006 – Former Enron chief financial officer Andrew Fastow was sentenced by a federal judge in Houston to six years in prison for his role in the fallen energy company’s bankruptcy.
2007 – Barry Bonds went 0 for 3 in his last baseball game with the SF Giants.
2008 – Barack Obama and John McCain shared a stage in their first of three presidential debates. It primarily focused on foreign policy.
2010 – The Pentagon admits purchasing nearly 10,000 copies of a memoir by U.S. Army Reserve officer Anthony Shaffer, destroying all of them in an effort to suppress secret information.
2011 – The United States Senate reaches a temporary deal to avoid a government shutdown.
2013 – OBAMACARE: Small businesses now won’t be able to buy healthcare coverage coverage until November.
2014 – A man, Alton Nolen, 30, was recently fired from Vaughan Foods in Moore, OK drove to the front of the business and struck a vehicle before walking inside. He then attacked Colleen Hufford, 54, stabbing her several times before severing her head. He also stabbed another woman, 43-year-old Traci Johnson, at the plant. The FBI is investigating Nolen’s background and whether his recent conversion to Islam was somehow linked to the crime.
1774 – Johnny Appleseed, American pioneer who planted apple trees all over the Midwest. (d. 1847)
1888 – T. S. Eliot, American-born writer and editor, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1965) American poet and playwright, best known for “The Waste Land.” In Eliot’s words, “Any poet, if he is to survive beyond his 25th year, must alter; he must seek new literary influences; he will have different emotions to express. “
1895 – George Raft, American actor (d. 1980)
1897 – Arthur Rhys Davids, English pilot (d. 1917)
1897 – Pope Paul VI (d. 1978)
1898 – George Gershwin, American composer (d. 1937)
1909 – Bill France, Sr., American founder of NASCAR (d. 1992)
1914 – Jack LaLanne, American fitness advocate
1925 – Marty Robbins, American singer (d. 1982)
1926 – Julie London, American singer and actress (d. 2000)
1981 – Serena Williams, American tennis player
CAPTAIN HUMBERT R. VERSACE
for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Captain Humbert R. Versace distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism during the period of 29 October 1963 to September 26th, 1965, while serving as S-2 Advisor, Military Assistance Advisory Group, Detachment 52, Ca Mau, Republic of Vietnam. While accompanying a Civilian Irregular Defense Group patrol engaged in combat operations in Thoi Binh District, An Xuyen Province, Captain Versace and the patrol came under sudden and intense mortar, automatic weapons, and small arms fire from elements of a heavily armed enemy battalion. As the battle raged, Captain Versace, although severely wounded in the knee and back by hostile fire, fought valiantly and continued to engage enemy targets. Weakened by his wounds and fatigued by the fierce firefight, Captain Versace stubbornly resisted capture by the over-powering Viet Cong force with the last full measure of his strength and ammunition. Taken prisoner by the Viet Cong, he exemplified the tenets of the Code of Conduct from the time he entered into Prisoner of War status. Captain Versace assumed command of his fellow American soldiers, scorned the enemy’s exhaustive interrogation and indoctrination efforts, and made three unsuccessful attempts to escape, despite his weakened condition which was brought about by his wounds and the extreme privation and hardships he was forced to endure. During his captivity, Captain Versace was segregated in an isolated prisoner of war cage, manacled in irons for prolonged periods of time, and placed on extremely reduced ration. The enemy was unable to break his indomitable will, his faith in God, and his trust in the United States of America. Captain Versace, an American fighting man who epitomized the principles of his country and the Code of Conduct, was executed by the Viet Cong on26 September 1965. Captain Versace’s gallant actions in close contact with an enemy force and unyielding courage and bravery while a prisoner of war are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect the utmost credit upon himself and the United States Army.
*OBREGON, EUGENE ARNOLD
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Seoul, Korea, September 26th, 1950. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 12 November 1930, Los Angeles, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. While serving as an ammunition carrier of a machine gun squad in a Marine rifle company which was temporarily pinned down by hostile fire, Pfc. Obregon observed a fellow Marine fall wounded in the line of fire. Armed only with a pistol, he unhesitating dashed from his covered position to the side of the casualty. Firing his pistol with one hand as he ran, he grasped his comrade by the arm with his other hand and, despite the great peril to himself dragged him to the side of the road. Still under enemy fire, he was bandaging the man’s wounds when hostile troops of approximately platoon strength began advancing toward his position. Quickly seizing the wounded Marine’s carbine, he placed his own body as a shield in front of him and lay there firing accurately and effectively into the hostile group until he himself was fatally wounded by enemy machine gun fire. By his courageous fighting spirit, fortitude, and loyal devotion to duty, Pfc. Obregon enabled his fellow Marines to rescue the wounded man and aided essentially in repelling the attack, thereby sustaining and enhancing the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
CALL, DONALD M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 344th Battalion, Tank Corps. Place and date: Near Varennes, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: France. Born: 29 November 1892, New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: During an operation against enemy machinegun nests west of Varennes, Cpl. Call was in a tank with an officer when half of the turret was knocked off by a direct artillery hit. Choked by gas from the high-explosive shell, he left the tank and took cover in a shellhole thirty yards away. Seeing that the officer did not follow, and thinking that he might be alive, Cpl. Call returned to the tank under intense machinegun and shell fire and carried the officer over a mile under machinegun and sniper fire to safety.
KATZ, PHILLIP C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 363d Infantry, 91st Division. Place and date: Near Eclisfontaine, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: San Francisco, Calif. Birth: San Francisco, Calif. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: After his company had withdrawn for a distance of 200 yards on a line with the units on its flanks, Sgt. Katz learned that one of his comrades had been left wounded in an exposed position at the point from which the withdrawal had taken place. Voluntarily crossing an area swept by heavy machinegun fire, he advanced to where the wounded soldier lay and carried him to a place of safety.
MALLON, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 132d Infantry, 33d Division. Place and date: In the Bois-de-Forges, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Minneapolis, Minn. Born: 15 June 1877 Ogden, Kans. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: Becoming separated from the balance of his company because of a fog, Capt. Mallon, with nine soldiers, pushed forward and attacked nine active hostile machineguns, capturing all of them without the loss of a man. Continuing on through the woods, he led his men in attacking a battery of four 155-millimeter howitzers, which were in action, rushing the position and capturing the battery and its crew. In this encounter Capt. Mallon personally attacked one of the enemy with his fists. Later, when the party came upon two more machineguns, this officer sent men to the flanks while he rushed forward directly in the face of the fire and silenced the guns, being the first one of the party to reach the nest. The exceptional gallantry and determination displayed by Capt. Mallon resulted in the capture of 100 prisoners, eleven machineguns, four 155-millimeter howitzers and one antiaircraft gun.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 132d Infantry, 33d Division. Place and date: At Bois-de-Forges, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Hyden, Ky. Birth: Jackson, Ky. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: He showed conspicuous gallantry in action by advancing alone directly on a machinegun nest which was holding up the line with its fire. He killed the crew with a grenade and enabled the line to advance. Later in the day he attacked alone and put out of action two other machinegun nests, setting a splendid example of bravery and coolness to his men.
SEIBERT, LLOYD M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 364th Infantry, 91st Division. Place and date: Near Epinonville, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Salinas, Calif. Birth: Caledonia, Mich. G.O. No.: 445, W.D., 1919. Citation. Suffering from illness, Sgt. Seibert remained with his platoon and led his men with the highest courage and leadership under heavy shell and machinegun fire. With two other soldiers he charged a machinegun emplacement in advance of their company, he himself killing one of the enemy with a shotgun and capturing two others. In this encounter he was wounded, but he nevertheless continued in action, and when a withdrawal was ordered he returned with the last unit, assisting a wounded comrade. Later in the evening he volunteered and carried in wounded until he fainted from exhaustion.
*SKINKER, ALEXANDER R.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, 138th Infantry, 35th Division. Place and date: At Cheppy, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: St. Louis, Mo. G.O. No.: 13, W.D., 1919. Citation: Unwilling to sacrifice his men when his company was held up by terrific machinegun fire from iron pill boxes in the Hindenburg Line, Capt. Skinker personally led an automatic rifleman and a carrier in an attack on the machineguns. The carrier was killed instantly, but Capt. Skinker seized the ammunition and continued through an opening in the barbed wire, feeding the automatic rifle until he, too, was killed.
WEST, CHESTER H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 363d Infantry, 91st Division. Place and date: Near Bois-de-Cheppy, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Los Banos, Calif. Birth: Fort Collins, Colo. G.O. No.: 34, W.D., 1919. Citation: While making his way through a thick fog with his automatic rifle section, his advance was halted by direct and unusual machinegun fire from two guns. Without aid, he at once dashed through the fire and, attacking the nest, killed two of the gunners, one of whom was an officer. This prompt and decisive hand-to-hand encounter on his part enabled his company to advance farther without the loss of a man.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company I, 138th Infantry, 35th Division. Place and date: Near Cheppy, France, September 26th, 1918. Entered service at: Minnewaukan, N. Dak. Birth: Winger, Minn. G.O. No.: 16, W.D., 1919. Citation: He rendered most gallant service in aiding the advance of his company, which had been held up by machinegun nests, advancing, with one other soldier, and silencing the guns, bringing with him, upon his return, eleven prisoners. Later the same day he jumped from a trench and rescued a comrade who was about to be shot by a German officer, killing the officer during the exploit. His actions were entirely voluntary, and it was while attempting to rush a fifth machinegun nest that he was killed. The advance of his company was mainly due to his great courage and devotion to duty.
HILLS, WILLIAM G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 9th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At North Fork, Va., September 26th, 1864. Entered service at. ——. Birth: 26 June 1841, Conewango, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 September 1893. Citation: Voluntarily carried a severely wounded comrade out of a heavy fire of the enemy.
90 days to Christmas
Telephone Number Tidbits
One of the most expensive phone numbers in the world is 666-6666 which was sold for USD$2.75 million in Doha, Qatar as part of a charity event in 2006. Another is 888-8888, which was sold for USD$270,723 in Chengdu, China. Eight is traditionally considered a lucky number in Chinese culture.
The band “999” was named after the British emergency telephone number. This number is also police code for “Officer Needs Help Urgently.”
Other songs that include telephone numbers:
“911 is a Joke” by Public Enemy
“What’s the 411?” by Mary J. Blige
“867-5309/Jenny” by Tommy Tutone
PEnnsylvania 6-5000 by Glenn Miller
“634-5789” (Soulsville, U.S.A.) by Wilson Pickett
"853-5937" by Squeeze
"236-6132" by Dave Carter and Tracy Grammer
"6060-842" by the B-52's
"777-9311" by The Time
"Beechwood 4-5789" by The Marvelettes (notable cover by The Carpenters)
"Echo Valley 2-6809" by The Partridge Family 555-4475: "555-GIRL" by Goin' Places 567-7203: "Lonesome 7-7203" by Hawkshaw Hawkins 5705: "18.104.22.168" by City Boy 976-2277: "976-BASS" by Bass Erotica 911: "911 is a joke" by Public Enemy 411: "What's the 411?" by Mary J. Blige 061: "061" by The Grid
The North American Numbering Plan reserves a portion of the exchange prefix 555- for use in fictitious telephone numbers. The 555- exchange originally contained the directory/information number 555-1212, allowing a block of fictitious numbers to be reserved across multiple area codes.
Computer industry pioneer Steve Wozniak, a collector of phone numbers, obtained the phone number 888-888-8888, but it proved unusable: Children playing with phones would dial it, resulting in more than a hundred wrong numbers a day.
The telephone number 867-5309 is a prime number and may be the largest prime number to appear in the title of a popular song. (The song 867-5309/Jenny peaked at #4 on Billboard in 1982.)
The phone number of Jenny’s twin sister is “867-5311” because 867-5309 and 867-5311 are twin primes.
“Use those talents you have. You will make it. You will give joy to the world. Take this tip from nature: The forest would be a very silent place if no birds sang except those who sang best.”
improvident im-PROV-uh-duhnt; -dent, adjective:
Lacking foresight or forethought; not foreseeing or providing for the future; negligent or thoughtless.
275 – Marcus Claudius Tacitus is appointed Roman emperor by the Senate.
1066 – The Battle of Stamford Bridge marks the end of the Viking era.
1492 – The crew of the Pinta, one of Christopher Columbus’ ships, mistakenly thought that they had spotted land.
1493 – Christopher Columbus embarked on his second voyage to the New World.
1513 – The Pacific Ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa when he crossed the Isthmus of Panama. He named the body of water the South Sea. He was truly the first European to see the Pacific Ocean.
1639 – The first press in the British colonies in America was established in 1639. The Cambridge Press was begun to allow the publication of religious works without fear of interference from London.
1676 – Greenwich Mean Time began when two very accurate clocks are set in motion at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England. Greenwich Mean Time, now known as Universal Time, became the standard for the world in 1884.
1690 – “Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick“, the first newspaper published in the Americas, published for the first and only time by Benjamin Harris.
1775 – Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen was captured by the British when he tried to invade Canada.
1777 – English General William Howe conquered Philadelphia.
1780 – American General Benedict Arnold joins the British.
1789 – The first U.S. Congress adopted 12 amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America and sent them to the states for ratification. Ten of the amendments became the Bill of Rights.
1789 – The Congressional Apportionment Amendment to the United States Constitution is proposed at the U.S. Congress. It was never approved and is still pending.
1804 – The Teton Sioux (a subdivison of the Lakota) demand one of the boats from the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a toll for moving further upriver.
1804 – The Twelfth Amendment was ratified, changing the procedure of choosing the president and vice-president.
1847 – During the Mexican-American War, U.S. forces led by General Zachary Taylor captured Monterrey Mexico.
1861 – Secretary of the Navy authorizes the enlistment of slaves.
1867 – Congress created the first all- black university, Howard Univ. in Wash DC.
1882 – First doubleheader was played in Major League Baseball: Providence v. Worcester.
1889 – The Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 (previously called the Great Fire of 1889) was a wildfire in California. It burned large parts of Orange County and San Diego County.
1890 – Yosemite National Park established in California.
1890 – Sequoia National Park and Kings Canyon National Park was established by President Benjamin Harrison.
1904 – A New York City police officer ordered a female passenger in an automobile on Fifth Avenue to stop smoking a cigarette. A male companion was arrested and later fined two dollars for “abusing” the officer.
1909 – The first National Aeronautic Show opened at Madison Square Garden.
1911 – Ground is broken for Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts.
1919 – President Woodrow Wilson collapsed after a speech in Pueblo, CO. The speaking tour was in support of the Treaty of Versailles.
1924 – Malcolm Campbell sets world auto speed record at 146.16 MPH
1926 – Henry Ford of the Ford Motor Company announced the 8-houra day, 5-day work week.
1929 – Jimmy Doolittle performs the first blind flight from Mitchel Field proving that full instrument flying from take off to landing is possible.
1933 – Tom Mix was heard on NBC Radio for the first time. His show ran until June of 1950.
1933 – First state poorhouse opened in Smyrna, Georgia.
1934 – Lou Gehrig plays in his 1500th consecutive game.
1942 – World War II: War Labor Board ordered equal pay for women in the United States.
1948 – Iva Toguri D’Aquino (b.1916), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist “Tokyo Rose,” arrived in San Francisco aboard the USS General Hodges and was taken away by FBI agents.
1950 – The first Kate Smith Hour aired and was broadcast live from the Houston Theater in New York. Her theme song for the show was “When the Moon Comes Over the Mountain“.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Because of You” by Tony Bennett, “I Get Ideas” by Tony Martin, “Come on-a My House” by Rosemary Clooney and “Always Late (With Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1952 – The American Federation of Labor broke a 71-year precedent and endorsed Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson.
1955 – Patty Berg won the LPGA Clock Golf Open.
1957 – U.S. Army troops escorted nine black children to their classes at Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Until the arrival of federal troops, riots and violence had prevented desegregation of the public school.
1959 – President Eisenhower and Soviet Premier Khrushchev began Camp David talks.
1962 – Sonny Liston knocked out Floyd Patterson in round one to win the world heavyweight title at Comiskey Park in Chicago.
1964 – The TV show “Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C.” debuted with Jim Nabors as Gomer Pyle.
1965 – “Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire topped the charts.
1965 – Willie Mays, at the age of 34, became the oldest man to hit fifty home runs in a single season. He had also set the record for the youngest to hit fifty ten years earlier.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Letter” by The Box Tops, “Never My Love” by The Association, “Apples, Peaches, Pumpkin Pie” by Jay & The Techniques and “My Elusive Dreams” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1970 – The Partridge Family debuts on ABC-TV and would run for four years.
1971 – “Go Away Little Girl” by Donny Osmond topped the charts.
1973 – The three crewmen of Skylab II landed in the Pacific Ocean after being on the U.S. space laboratory for 59 days.
1974 – Scientists warned that continued use of aerosol sprays would cause ozone depletion, leading to an increased risk of skin cancer and global weather changes and warming.
1978 – PSA Flight 182, a Boeing 727-214, collides in mid-air with a Cessna 172 and crashes in San Diego, California, resulting in the deaths of 144 people.
1978 – Melissa Ludtke, a writer for “Sports Illustrated”, filed a suit in U.S. District Court. The result was that Major League Baseball could not bar female writers from the locker room after the game.
1979 – The musical “Evita” opened on New York City’s Broadway for 1568 performances.
1981 – Sandra Day O’Connor was the 102nd Justice sworn in as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, the first woman to hold the office.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tell Her About It” by Billy Joel, “Total Eclipse of the Heart” by Bonnie Tyler, “The Safety Dance” by Men Without Hats and “Baby, What About You” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1983 – A Soviet military officer, Stanislav Petrov, averted a potential worldwide nuclear war. He declared a false alarm after a U.S. attack was detected by a Soviet early warning system. It was later discovered the alarms had been set off when the satellite warning system mistakenly interpreted sunlight reflections off clouds as the presence of enemy missiles.
1987 – The booty collected from the Wydah, which sunk off Cape Cod in 1717, was auctioned off. The worth was around $400 million.
1987 – The US Senate unanimously approved the nomination of Judge William S. Sessions to be the new director of the FBI.
1988 – Republican George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis clashed over deficits, drugs and the Pledge of Allegiance in their first presidential debate.
1990 – Saddam Hussein warns that the US will repeat its Vietnam experience.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Adore Mi Amor” by Color Me Badd, “Good Vibrations” by Marky Mark & The Funky Bunch/Loleatta Holloway, “Emotions” by Mariah Carey and “Leap of Faith” by Lionel Cartwright all topped the charts.
1992 – In Orlando, FL, a judge ruled in favor of 12-year-old Gregory Kingsley. He had sought a divorce from his biological parents.
1992 – The Mars Observer blasted off on a mission that cost $980 million. The probe has not been heard from since it reached Mars in August of 1993.
1992 – Dorothy Harris (41) and Louis Oates (63) were shot to death at their oil company office in Palestine, Texas by a paranoid schizophrenic.
1993 – Three U.S. soldiers in Somalia were killed when their helicopter was downed by a rocket-propelled grenade.
1997 – NBC sportscaster Marv Albert pled guilty to assault and battery of a lover. He was fired from NBC within hours.
1997 – The NBC prime-time drama “ER” did its season premiere live for the Eastern United States, then repeated the performance live for the West Coast.
1997 – The space shuttle Atlantis was launched. Astronaut David Wolf scheduled to replace Michael Foale on the Mir space station.
1998 – Sammy Sosa blasts his 66th Home Run.
1998 – Mark McGwire hit his 66th home run; just 45 minutes after Sammy Sosa hit his 66th homer of the season.
1998 – Hurricane Georges raked the Florida Keys with sheets of rain and 105 mph winds, but spared Florida the kind of devastation seen across the Caribbean.
2001 – Michael Jordan returned to basketball with the NBA’s Washington Wizards.
2001 – General Motors announced the 2002 model year would be the last for the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird.
2001 – The US campaign against terrorism was renamed “Operation Enduring Freedom.”
2002 – U.S. forces landed in Ivory Coast to aid in the rescue foreigners trapped in a school by fighting between government troops and rebel troops. Rebels had attempted to take over the government on September 19.
2003 – The U.S. District Court in Denver rules that the National Do Not Call Registry would violate the First Amendment since it contains exceptions for certain unsolicited calls. Thus, the Federal Trade Commission is currently prohibited from implementing the registry.
2003 – A magnitude-8.0 earthquake strikes just offshore of Hokkaido, Japan.
2004 – Hurricane Jeanne makes landfall at 11:50 p.m. local time at Hutchison Island, just east of Stuart, Florida, as a Category Three storm with maximum sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). About 3 million people are ordered to evacuate vulnerable areas in Florida.
2005 – Pres. Bush said Congress should consider giving the Defense Dept. the lead role in responding to natural disasters.
2005 – Iraq: At least four Shia Muslims, believed to be members of the Mahdi Army are killed by US soldiers in a gunfight following a U.S. raid into Sadr City, eastern Baghdad.
2006 – The Louisiana Superdome, a symbol of misery during Hurricane Katrina, reopened for a New Orleans Saints game. The Saints defeated the Atlanta Falcons, 23-3.
2007 – The highly anticipated Halo 3 was released for the Xbox 360.
2007 -Seventy-three thousand United Auto Workers union workers go on strike against General Motors, the first general strike against the company in 37 years.
2008 – Dark flow, a new and unexplained cosmic phenomenon, is observed by astronomers for the first time.
2008 – The Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.(FDIC) seized Seattle-based Washington Mutual Inc., and then sold the thrift’s banking assets to JPMorgan Chase & Co. for $1.9 billion. WaMu, founded in 1889, became the largest bank to fail by far in the country’s history.
2008 – An effigy of Barack Obama is found hanging from a tree at George Fox University in Newberg, Oregon.
2009 – US regulators shut down Atlanta-based Georgian Bank, the 95th US bank to fail this year as loan defaults rise in the worst financial climate in decades.
2009 – In Pennsylvania police arrested 83 people during protests at the meeting of the G20 Pittsburgh. A “People’s March” attracted some 3,000 people.
2009 – Paul G. Kirk, Jr. is sworn in as the interim U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, succeeding the late Ted Kennedy.
2010 – A U.S. federal court judge denies convicted murderer and rapist Albert Green’s request for a stay of execution, clearing the way for California’s first execution in five years.
2010 – The U.S. government urges a judge to dismiss a lawsuit which challenges an American targeted killing program which is currently hunting an American citizen who has no charges brought against him.
2011 – At least five people are shot dead in two locations in Indiana.
2011 – The decommissioned NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite re-enters Earth’s atmosphere without incident, after more than 20 years in orbit.
2013 – A new space station crew lifted off today at 4:58 pm EDT aboard a Soyuz spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. Expedition 37 NASA.
2013 – Secretary of State John Kerry signed the UN Arms Trade Treaty, “On behalf of President Obama and the United States of America.”
2014 – Americans 38-year-old Erick Candanoza, and 25-year-old Carlos Vela Moreno were beaten by drug cartel members. Cardanoza was killed while Moreno barely managed to survive the kidnapping and torture just south of the Texas border.
1725 – Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, French automobile pioneer (d. 1804)
1738 – Nicholas Van Dyke, American lawyer and President of Delaware (d. 1789)
1897 – William Faulkner, American writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1962)
1929 – Barbara Walters, American broadcaster
1944 – Michael Douglas, American actor and producer
1947 – Cheryl Tiegs, American model
1952 – Christopher Reeve, American actor and activist (d. 2004
1968 – Will Smith, American actor and rapper
*NEW, JOHN DURY
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 12 August 1924, Mobile, Ala. Accredited to: Alabama. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Peleliu Island, Palau Group, September 25th, 1944. When a Japanese soldier emerged from a cave in a cliff directly below an observation post and suddenly hurled a grenade into the position from which two of our men were directing mortar fire against enemy emplacements, Pfc. New instantly perceived the dire peril to the other Marines and, with utter disregard for his own safety, unhesitatingly flung himself upon the grenade and absorbed the full impact of the explosion, thus saving the lives of the two observers. Pfc. New’s great personal valor and selfless conduct in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
ORMSBEE, FRANCIS EDWARD, JR.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 30 April 1892, Providence, R.l. Accredited to: Florida. G.O. No.: 436, 1918. Citation: For extraordinary heroism while attached to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., on September 25th, 1918. While flying with Ens. J. A. Jova, Ormsbee saw a plane go into a tailspin and crash about three-quarters of a mile to the right. Having landed near by, Ormsbee lost no time in going overboard and made for the wreck, which was all under water except the 2 wing tips. He succeeded in partially extricating the gunner so that his head was out of water, and held him in this position until the speedboat arrived. Ormsbee then made a number of desperate attempts to rescue the pilot, diving into the midst of the tangled wreckage although cut about the hands, but was too late to save his life.
RICKENBACKER, EDWARD V.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Corps, 94th Aero Squadron, Air Service. Place and date: Near Billy, France, September 25th, 1918. Entered service at: Columbus, Ohio. Born: 8 October 1890, Columbus, Ohio. G.O. No.: 2, W.D., 1931. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy near Billy, France, 25 September 1918. While on a voluntary patrol over the lines, 1st Lt. Rickenbacker attacked 7 enemy planes (5 type Fokker, protecting two type Halberstadt). Disregarding the odds against him, he dived on them and shot down one of the Fokkers out of control. He then attacked one of the Halberstadts and sent it down also.
CONNOR, WILLIAM C.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Pennsylvania. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Howquah on the occasion of the destruction of the blockade runner Lynx, off Wilmington, September 25th, 1864. Performing his duty faithfully under the most trying circumstances, Connor stood firmly at his post in the midst of a crossfire from the rebel shore batteries and our own vessels.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Howquah on the occasion of the destruction of the blockade runner, Lynx, off Wilmington,September 25th, 1864. Performing his duty faithfully under the most trying circumstances, Robinson stood firmly at his post in the midst of a crossfire from the rebel shore batteries and our own vessels.
More Than Just Hot Air
For many years, it was suspected that the tale of the lawn chair pilot, who soared to 16,000 feet near LAX, was a spoof, an urban legend, a bit of fun…but they were wrong.
In 1982, Larry Walters of Southern California, satisfied a lifelong dream to try his own unique method of flying. He went to a Navy Surplus store and purchased 42 weather balloons and numerous tanks of helium. He then took a lawn chair and equipped it with padding, loaded it with supplies like lunch, a CB radio, and a BB gun, with which he proposed to pop balloons, one at a time, in order to get himself back to Earth
The chair reached 16,000 feet, where it was very cold. Walters attempted to bring himself back down, but after popping a few balloons, he dropped his gun, and was literally trapped in airspace, where he was reported to air traffic controllers by the startled pilots of both TWA and Delta planes.
“Stand up to your obstacles and do something about them. You will find that they haven’t half the strength you think they have.”
~ Norman Vincent Peale
concatenation kon-kat-uh-NAY-shuhn; kuhn-, noun:
A series of links united; a series or order of things depending on each other, as if linked together; a chain, a succession.
Concatenation is from Late Latin concatenatio, from concatenare, “to chain together,” from Latin con-, “with, together” + catena, “a chain, a series.”
622 – Mohammed and his followers commenced the Hegira, or “flight,” to Medina, where he founded Islam.
1493 – Christopher Columbus departs on his second expedition to the New World.
1657 – The first autopsy and coroner’s jury verdict was recorded in the state of Maryland.
1683 – King Louis XIV expelled all Jews from French possessions in America.
1742 – Faneuil Hall opened in Boston. It has been a marketplace and a meeting hall since built. It was the site of several speeches by Samuel Adams, James Otis, and others encouraging independence from England.
1789 – Senate Bill Number One of the First Session of the First Congress became, after lengthy and heated debate, the Judiciary Act of September 24, 1789. It created a six-person Supreme Court and provided for an Attorney General.
1789 – President George Washington appointed John Jay as the first Chief Justice.
1789 – The United States Post Office Department is established.
1852 – French engineer Henri Giffard made the first flight in an airship that was powered by a steam engine.
1856 – John Marsh, Harvard graduate and pioneer California settler, was murdered on the road between Pacheco and Martinez while traveling to San Francisco. Marsh was the first non-Hispanic to live in Contra Costa County.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus against anyone suspected of being a Southern sympathizer.
1862 – Civil War: The Confederate Congress adopted the Confederacy seal.
1865 – James Cooke walked a tightrope from the San Francisco Cliff House to Seal Rocks.
1869 – Thousands of businessmen were financially ruined after a panic on Wall Street. “Black Friday”: Gold prices plummet as Financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk plot to control the market.
1876 – Mary Newton (2), the daughter of US Army Engineer Lt. Col. John Newton, triggered a huge blast to clear rocks in the Hell Gate channel of the East River.
1904 – Sixty-two died and 120 were injured in head-on train collision in Tennessee. The No. 15 crashed head-on into the eastbound No. 12 train due to the unannounced schedule change. At that time, railroads had no block signals to control the rail traffic, and the trains operated on only a single track, making scheduling errors extremely dangerous.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt proclaims Devils Tower the nation’s first National Monument.
1909 – Thomas M. Flaherty filed for a U.S. patent, with an idea for a “Signal for Crossings.”
1915 – Douglas Fairbanks debuted in “The Lamb.”
1918 – Ensign David S. Ingalls, USNR, in a Sopwith Camel, shoots down his fifth enemy aircraft, becoming the first U.S. Navy ace while flying with the British Royal Air Force.
1922 – Roger Hornsby sets the National League home run mark at 42.
1924 – Boston, Massachusetts, opened its airport.
1927 – The Yankees win their 106th game, 6-0 over Detroit, for a new American League high. They will win 110, a record until the 1954 Cleveland Indians win 111.
1929 – First all-instrument flight took place; it was piloted by U.S. Army Lieutenant James H. Doolittle. The aircraft was a Consolidated NY2 Biplane and he flew it over Mitchell Field.
1930 – Portsmouth beats Brooklyn in first NFL game played under floodlights.
1933 – “Roses and Drums” was heard on WABC in New York City. It was the first dramatic presentation for radio.
1934 – 2500 fans see Babe Ruth’s farewell Yankee appearance at Yankee Stadium.
1938 -Don Budge becomes first US tennis player to grand slam.
1940 – Jimmy Foxx hits his 500th career HR.
1940 – “Flinging a Wing Ding” was recorded by Bob Chester.
1941 – World War II: The Japanese consul in Hawaii is instructed to divide Pearl Harbor into five zones and calculate the number of battleships in each zone–and report the findings back to Japan.
1942 – World War II: Off Guadalcanal, the routine re-supplying done at night by the Japanese is disrupted by the Americans as they sink two Japanese destroyers and a cruiser.
1943 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned USS LST-167 and the USS LST-334 with a partial Coast Guard crew landed troops during the invasion of Vella Lavella in the central Solomons despite fierce resistance from the Japanese defenders.
1948 – The Honda Motor Company is founded.
1948 – Mildred Gillars, known as “Axis Sally”, pleaded innocent to charges of treason. She ended up serving 12 years for being a Nazi wartime radio propagandist.
1949 – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone topped the charts.
1950 – Forest fires black out the sun over portions of Canada and New England. A Blue moon (in the astronomical sense) is seen as far away as Europe.
1953 – The discovery of the antibiotic tetracycline was reported.
1955 – Millions tune in to watch Judy Garland make her TV debut on the “Ford Star Jubilee.”
1955 – “Ain’t That a Shame” by Fats Domino topped the charts.
1955 – President Dwight Eisenhower suffered a heart attack while on vacation in Denver, CO. He fully recovered.
1957 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower sends United States National Guard troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce desegregation.
1957 – Brooklyn Dodgers play last game at Ebbets Field, defeated the Pittsburgh Pirates 2-0.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)” by Domenico Modugno, “It’s All in the Game” by Tommy Edwards, “Rock-in Robin” by Bobby Day and “Bird Dog” by The Everly Brothers all topped the charts.
1958 – “The Donna Reed Show” premiered on ABC-TV.
1960 – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1960 – USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was launched at Newport News, Virginia.
1961 – Bullwinkle J. Moose and his friend, Rocket J. (Rocky) Squirrel seen in prime time.
1961 – The last episode of “I Love Lucy” aired. There were 179 episodes.
1962 – University of Mississippi agreed to admit James Meredith as the first black university student. US Court of Appeals orders the University of Mississippi to admit him.
1964 – “The Munsters” premiered on TV.
1967 – Cards Jim Bakken kicks seven field goals vs the Pittsburgh Steelers.
1968 – “The Mod Squad” premiered on ABC-TV.
1969 – The TV News magazine, “60 Minutes” debuted.
1968 – The Vogues received a gold record for “Turn Around Look at Me.”
1969 – The trial began for the “Chicago Eight,” who were accused of inciting riots at the 1968 Democratic national convention.
1970 – First Automated return of lunar sample by Luna 16.
1972 – Jack Tatum, Oakland, returns a fumble 104 yards vs Green Bay (record).
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Can’t Get Enough of Your Love, Babe” by Barry White, “Rock Me Gently” by Andy Kim, “I Honestly Love You” by Olivia Newton-John and “I Wouldn’t Want to Live if You Didn’t Love Me” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1976 – Patricia Hearst was sentenced to seven years in prison for her role in a 1974 bank robbery. An executive clemency order from U.S. President Jimmy Carter set her free after only twenty-two months.
1977 – “The Love Boat” premiers on ABC-TV with Gavin MacLeod as the commander of the Pacific Princess. It ran until 1986.
1977 – “Best of My Love” by the Emotions topped the charts.
1979 – CompuServe system started.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hard to Say I’m Sorry” by Chicago, “Abracadabra” by The Steve Miller Band, “Jack & Diane” by John Cougar and “She Got the Goldmine (I Got the Shaft)” by Jerry Reed all topped the charts.
1988 – Summer Olympics: Ben Johnson beats Carl Lewis and Linford Christie in 100 meters sprinting in a record time of 9.79 seconds. (Johnson would later be disqualified in a high profile case of doping in sports.)
1983 – “Tell Her About It” by Billy Joel topped the charts.
1988 – “Don’t Worry, Be Happy” by Bobby McFerrin topped the charts.
1989 – Residents of Charleston, S.C., were in church services recovering from the devastation of Hurricane Hugo. Hugo caused twenty-nine deaths in the United States.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Release Me” by Wilson Phillips, “(I Can’t Live Without Your) Love and Affection” by Nelson, “Close to You” by Maxi Priest and “Jukebox in My Mind” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1991 – Children’s author Dr. Seuss (real name: Theodor Seuss Geisel) , died in La Jolla, Calif., at age 87.
1992 – Acting Navy Secretary Sean O’Keefe stripped three admirals of their jobs for failing to investigate aggressively the Tailhook sex abuse scandal.
1992 – Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton promised to press for a national health-care system for all Americans; the Bush campaign countered that the plan would be too expensive for average Americans.
1994 – A firefight erupted between U.S. Marines and a group of armed Haitians outside a police station in the northern coastal city of Cap-Haitian; ten of the Haitians were killed.
1996 – The United States and the world’s other major nuclear powers signed a treaty to end all testing and development of nuclear weapons.
1997 – Garth Brooks was named best entertainer by Country Music Association.
1998 – New, harder-to-counterfeit US $20 bill was introduced.
1999 – Oregon teenager Kip Kinkel, who killed his parents and gunned down two classmates at school, abandoned an insanity defense and pleaded guilty to murder. He was later sentenced to 112 years without parole.
2001 – President George W. Bush froze the assets of 27 suspected terrorists and terrorist groups.
2001 – In Maryland, two college students, sisters, were killed by tornadoes at College Park.
2002 – The US Census Bureau reported a rise in the poverty rate to 11.7%, with 32.9 million people classified as poor. It was the first rise in eight years.
2003 – After four turbulent months, three special legislative sessions and two Democratic walkouts, both houses of the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature adopted redistricting plans.
2004 – The USS Crommelin stopped the fishing boat “San Jose.” The Coast Guard team found 26,000 pounds of cocaine.
2005 – Hurricane Rita makes landfall , devastating Beaumont, Texas and portions of southwestern Louisiana. It largely spared Houston and New Orleans.
2006 – A survey by the Pew Internet and American Life Project said machines after 2020 will become intelligent, evolve rapidly, and could end up treating humans as pets.
2007 – More than 73,000 General Motors Corp workers walked off the job after marathon contract talks between the United Auto Workers union and GM stalled and the union called the first national strike since 1970 against the top U.S. automaker.
2007 – In San Francisco, CA, union-represented security officers at fourteen buildings in the Financial District went on strike protesting contract negotiations that have been fruitless for three months.
2009 – A US federal jury rejected a New Orleans family’s claims that a FEMA issued trailer they lived in after Hurricane Katrina was defective and exposed them to dangerous fumes.
2009 – Susan Atkins (61), a follower of cult leader Charles Manson, died at a prison facility in Chowchilla, Ca. Her remorseless witness stand confession to killing pregnant actress Sharon Tate in 1969 shocked the world. She had been suffering from brain cancer.
2009 – In Texas, Hosam Maher Husein Smadi (19) parked what he thought was an explosive laden truck in a parking garage beneath the 60-story Fountain Place office tower in Dallas. FBI agents had provided Smadi with the truck. Smadi was indicted the next day.
2010 – Satirist Stephen Colbert attracts media attention by appearing before a United States Congress committee. This was supposed to be funny but it was a horrible waste of time.
2010 – Gold prices reach a record US$1,300/oz in a prolonged rally.
2011 – The decommissioned NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite re-enters Earth’s atmosphere without incident, after more than 20 years in orbit.
2012 – The US military announces that two US Marines are charged with urinating on Taliban corpses in Afghanistan and failing to stop other misconduct by subordinates.
2014 – Ontario County, New York announces that a grand jury decided not to bring criminal charges against NASCAR driver Tony Stewart in the death of Kevin Ward, Jr. during an August sprint car race.
2015 – Pope Francis becomes the first Pope ever to address a Joint Session of the United States Congress.
15 – Vitellius, Roman Emperor (d. 69)
1755 – John Marshall, 4th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1835)
1870 – Georges Claude, invented neon light
1884 – Hugo Schmeisser, German weapons designer (d. 1953)
1896 – F. Scott Fitzgerald, American novelist (d. 1940) American writer best known for his depictions of the Jazz Age. In Fitzgerald’s words, “All good writing is swimming under water and holding your breath. “
1921 – Jim McKay, American sports commentator
1930 – John W. Young, American astronaut
1936 – Jim Hensen, who made Kermit & Miss Piggy what they are today
1946 – “Mean” Joe Greene, American football player
1950 – Alan Colmes, American talk show host
SCHAEFER, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Stolberg, Germany, September 24th, 1944. Entered service at: Long Island, N.Y. Birth: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 71, 22 August 1945. Citation: He was in charge of a squad of the 2d Platoon in the vicinity of Stolberg, Germany, early in the morning of 24 September 1944, when two enemy companies supported by machineguns launched an attack to seize control of an important crossroads which was defended by his platoon. One American squad was forced back, another captured, leaving only S/Sgt. Schaefer’s men to defend the position. To shift his squad into a house which would afford better protection, he crawled about under heavy small-arms and machinegun fire, instructed each individual, and moved to the building. A heavy concentration of enemy artillery fire scored hits on his strong point. S/Sgt. Schaefer assigned his men to positions and selected for himself the most dangerous one at the door. With his Ml rifle, he broke the first wave of infantry thrown toward the house. The Germans attacked again with grenades and flame throwers but were thrown back a second time, S/Sgt. Schaefer killing and wounding several. Regrouped for a final assault, the Germans approached from two directions. One force drove at the house from the front, while a second group advanced stealthily along a hedgerow. Recognizing the threat, S/Sgt. Schaefer fired rapidly at the enemy before him, killing or wounding all six; then, with no cover whatever, dashed to the hedgerow and poured deadly accurate shots into the second group, killing five, wounding two others, and forcing the enemy to withdraw. He scoured the area near his battered stronghold and captured ten prisoners. By this time the rest of his company had begun a counterattack; he moved forward to assist another platoon to regain its position. Remaining in the lead, crawling and running in the face of heavy fire, he overtook the enemy, and liberated the American squad captured earlier in the battle. In all, single-handed and armed only with his rifle, he killed between fifteen and twenty Germans, wounded at least as many more, and took ten prisoners. S/Sgt. Schaefer’s indomitable courage and his determination to hold his position at all costs were responsible for stopping an enemy break-through.
CATHERWOOD, JOHN HUGH
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 August 1888, Springfield, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911. Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, Catherwood was one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, on the island of Basilan, Philippine Islands, on the morning of September 24th, 1911. Advancing with the scout party to reconnoiter a group of nipa huts close to the trail, Catherwood unhesitatingly entered the open area before the huts, where his party was suddenly taken under point-blank fire and charged by approximately twenty enemy Moros coming out from inside the native huts and from other concealed positions. Struck down almost instantly by the outlaws’ deadly fire, Catherwood, although unable to rise, rallied to the defense of his leader and fought desperately to beat off the hostile attack. By his valiant effort under fire and in the face of great odds, Catherwood contributed materially toward the destruction and rout of the enemy.
|HARRISON, BOLDEN REUSH
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 April 1886, Savannah, Tenn.Accredited to: Tennessee. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911. Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, Harrisonwas one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, on the island of Basilan, Philippine Islands, on September 24th, 1911. Harrison instantly responded to the calls for help when the advance scout party investigating a group of nipa huts close to the trail, was suddenly taken under point-blank fire and rushed by approximately twenty enemy Moros attacking from inside the huts and from other concealed positions. Armed with a double-barreled shotgun, he concentrated his blasting fire on the outlaws, destroying three of the Moros and assisting in the rout of the remainder. By his aggressive charging of the enemy under heavy fire and in the face of great odds,Harrison contributed materially to the success of the engagement.
HENRECHON, GEORGE FRANCIS
Rank and organization: Machinist’s Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 November 1885, Hartford, Conn. Accredited to: California. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911 Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, Henrechon was one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, Philippine Islands, on September 24th, 1911. Ordered to take station within 100 yards of a group of nipa huts close to the trail, Henrechon advanced and stood guard as the leader and his scout party first searched the surrounding deep grasses, then moved into the open area before the huts. Instantly enemy Moros opened point-blank fire on the exposed men and approximately twenty Moros rushed the small group from inside the huts and from other concealed positions. Henrechon, responding to the calls for help, was one of the first on the scene. When his rifle jammed after the first shot, he closed in with rifle, using it as a club to break the stock over the head of the nearest Moro and then, drawing his pistol, started in pursuit of the fleeing outlaws. Henrechon’s aggressive charging of the enemy under heavy fire and in the face of great odds contributed materially to the success of the engagement.
McGUlRE, FRED HENRY
Rank and organization: Hospital Apprentice, U.S. Navy. Born: 7 November 1890, Gordonville, Mo.Entered service at: Gordonville, Mo. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911. Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, McGuire was one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, on the islandof Basilan, Philippine Islands, on the morning of September 24th, 1911. Ordered to take station within one-hundred yards of a group of nipa huts close to the trail, McGuire advanced and stood guard as the leader and his scout party first searched the surrounding deep grasses, then moved into the open area before the huts. Instantly enemy Moros opened point-blank fire on the exposed men and approximately twenty Moros charged the small group from inside the huts and from other concealed positions. McGuire, responding to the calls for help, was one of the first on the scene. After emptying his rifle into the attackers, he closed in with rifle, using it as a club to wage fierce battle until his comrades arrived on the field, when he rallied to the aid of his dying leader and other wounded. Although himself wounded, McGuire ministered tirelessly and efficiently to those who had been struck down, thereby saving the lives of two who otherwise might have succumbed to enemy-inflicted wounds.
NISPEROS, JOSE B.
Rank and organization: Private, 34th Company, Philippine Scouts. Place and date: At Lapurap, Basilan, Philippine Islands, September 24th, 1911. Entered service at: San Fernandos Union, P.I.. Birth: San Fernandos Union, P.I.. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Having been badly wounded (his left arm was broken and lacerated and he had received several spear wounds in the body so that he could not stand) continued to fire his rifle with one hand until the enemy was repulsed, thereby aiding materially in preventing the annihilation of his party and the mutilation of their bodies.
Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate Third Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Island of Basilan, Philippine Islands, September 24th, 1911. Entered service at: Nebraska. Birth: Sutton, Nebr. G.O. No.: 138, 13 December 1911. Citation: While attached to the U.S.S. Pampang, Volz was one of a shore party moving in to capture Mundang, on the island of Basilan, Philippine Islands, on 24 September 1911. Investigating a group of nipa huts close to the trail, the advance scout party was suddenly taken under point-blank fire and rushed by approximately twenty enemy Moros attacking from inside the huts and other concealed positions. Volz responded instantly to calls for help and, finding all members of the scout party writhing on the ground but still fighting, he blazed his rifle into the outlaws with telling effect, destroying several of the Moros and assisting in the rout of the remainder. By his aggressive charging of the enemy under heavy fire and in the face of great odds, Volz contributed materially to the success of the engagement.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 2d Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Luray, Va., September 24th, 1864. Entered service at: Fall River, Mass. Birth: England. Date of issue: 19 October 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.
HAPPINESS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Research carried out by the Association for Research into the Science of Enjoyment (ARISE) has shown that happy thoughts and pleasant smells can boost the immune system. A study by Professor Warburton at Reading University in England showed that within 20 minutes of happy thoughts being experienced, the amount of antibody immunoglobulin (sIgA) found in the saliva doubled, remaining raised for at least three hours. By contrast, memory of traumatic or painful experiences caused the sIgA levels to drop. Another study carried out by Angela Clow at the University of Westminster showed a similar response to unpleasant and pleasant smells. Strangely the smell of water appears to have had an effect similar to unpleasant smells such as rotting meat.
The good news though is that this effect could be counteracted by the smell of chocolate. Professor David Warburton, found of ARISE and head of psychopharmacology at Reading University, said “Previous scientific experiments have observed a correlation between changing moods and the immunity system, but these new studies provide a direct causal link. Identifying this direct link proves that happiness could make you healthier. Instead of worrying about the often ill-founded health scares created by so- called health experts most people would do better to listen to their bodies. These studies illustrate how our bodies naturally seek to protect themselves from disease by doing the things we enjoy.”
Researchers have discovered that events such as pleasant family celebrations or evenings with friends boost the immune system for the following two days. Unpleasant moments had the opposite effect: negative events, such as being criticized at work, weakened the immune function for one day afterward.
“There is great treasure there behind our skull and this is true about all of us. This little treasure has great, great powers, and I would say we only have learnt a very, very small part of what it can do.”
~ Isaac Bashevis Singer
inveigh in-VAY, intransitive verb:
To rail (against some person or thing); to protest strongly or attack with harsh and bitter language — usually with “against”; as, “to inveigh against character, conduct, manners, customs, morals, a law, an abuse.”
53 BC – Augustus, the first Roman emperor, or Caesar, was born. His ascension to the title of emperor marked the end of true Roman democracy, even though the Senate survived for generations.
1518 – The Royal College of Physicians was established to protect citizens from medical charlatans and quacks.
1642 – First commencement exercises occur at Harvard College.
1667 – Slaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
1776 – Continental Marines were ordered to reinforce General George Washington in New York.
1779 – Revolutionary War: USS Bonhomme Richard, commanded by John Paul Jones, wins a fight against the British ships of war Serapis and Countess of Scarborough off the coast of England. John Paul Jones’ French-Irish Marines participated in epic battle. John Paul Jones was quoted as saying “I have not yet begun to fight!”
1780 – Revolutionary War: British Major John André arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold’s treason. He was caught with papers revealing Benedict Arnold’s plot to surrender West Point to the British.
1805 – Lieutenant Zebulon Pike paid $2,000 to buy from the Sioux a 9-square-mile tract at the mouth of the Minnesota River that would be used to establish a military post, Fort Snelling. It was originally known as Fort Saint Anthony and was a military fortification located at the confluence of the Minnesota River and Mississippi River in Hennepin County, Minnesota.
1806 – Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States. This was the first recorded overland journey from the Mississippi River to the Pacific coast and back.
1845 – The Knickerbockers Baseball Club is founded in New York. It was the first baseball team to play under the modern rules.
1846 – Discovery of Neptune by French astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and British astronomer John Couch Adams; verified by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle.
1848 – First commercial production of chewing gum by John Curtis on a stove at his home in Bangor, Maine in the United States and marketed as ‘The State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum’.
1862 – Lincoln’s Emancipation is published in northern newspapers.
1863 – Civil War: The most impressive logistical accomplishment of the war occurred when an entire Union Army was moved from Virginia to Chattanooga, TN. General William Rosecrans’s army had been dealt a serious defeat at Chickamauga, Georgia, just south of Chattanooga. It took just a week and a half to ship an entire army of soldiers, animals, and equipment, which underscored the Union’s ability to effectively utilize the rail network.
1864 – Civil War: Confederate and Union forces clashed at Mount Jackson, Front Royal and Woodstock in Virginia during the Valley campaign.
1875 – William Bonney (“Billy the Kid”) is arrested for the first time.
1879 – Richard Rhodes invented a hearing aid called the Audiophone.|
1884 – Herman Hollerith patents his mechanical tabulating machine.
1885 – In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners, who are struggling to unionize so they could strike for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15 and forcing several hundred more out of town.
1897 – First frontier days rodeo celebration (Cheyenne Wyoming).
1912 – First Mack Sennett Keystone Comedy, “The Water Nymph“, is released.
1923 – Jan Savitt and his orchestra recorded “720 in the Books” on Decca Records.
1930 – Johannes Ostermeier was issued a patent for the flash bulb.
1931 – LT Alfred Pride pilots Navy’s first rotary wing aircraft, XOP-1 autogiro, in landings and takeoffs on board USS Langley while underway. The Langley was the first aircraft carrier of the Navy.
1938 – Time capsule, to be opened in 6939, buried at World’s Fair in New York City. The capsule contained a woman’s hat, man’s pipe & 1,100′ of microfilm.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: The first gas experiments are conducted at Auschwitz.
1942 – World War II: Holocausts: At Auschwitz Nazis began experimental gassing executions.
1942 – World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins. U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
1944 – World War II: USS West Virginia (BB-48) reaches Pearl Harbor and rejoins the Pacific Fleet, marking the end of the salvage and reconstruction of eighteen ships damaged at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
1945 – The first American to die in Vietnam was Lt. Col. A. Peter Dewey, head of the American OSS mission. He was killed by Vietminh troops while driving a jeep during the fall of Saigon to French forces.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re Breaking My Heart” by Vic Damone, “Let’s Take an Old Fashioned Walk” by Perry Como, “Someday” by Vaughn Monroe and “Slipping Around” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1949 – Truman announces evidence of USSR’s first nuclear device detonation.
1950 – Congress adopted the Internal Security Act, which provided for registration of communists. The Act was ruled later unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court. US Senator Pat McCarran (Nevada) legislated the Internal Security Act, which included a jumble of restrictions on speech and association. Pres. Truman attempted an unsuccessful veto of the McCarran Act, which gave the government unprecedented powers.
1950 – “Goodnight Irene” by the Weavers with Gordon Jenkins topped the charts.
1950 – Korean War: US Mustangs accidentally bombed British troops on Hill 282 Korea, 17 killed.
1951 – The first transcontinental telecast was received on the west coast. The show “Crusade for Freedom” was broadcast by CBS-TV from New York.
1952 – Rocky Marciano knocked Jersey Joe Walcott out in the thirteenth round, becoming the new Heavyweight Champion. This was the first Pay Television sporting event ever to take place. The Marciano-Walcott fight was seen in 49 theaters in 31 cities.
1952 – Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon went on television to deliver the “Checkers” speech, to deny the accuracy of allegations of improper campaign financing.
1953 – “The Robe” premiered in Hollywood a week after its premiere in New York. The 20th Century Fox movie had been filmed using the Cinemascope wide screen process.
1957 – Nine black students withdrew from Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas due to the white mob outside.
1957 – Hank Aaron of the MLB gives the Milwaukee Braves the pennant with a home run.
1957 – “Honeycomb” by Jimmie Rodgers shared the top spot.
1957 – “That’ll Be the Day” by Crickets shared the top spot.
1961 – First movie to become a TV series-How to Marry a Millionaire.
1961 – “Take Good Care of My Baby” by Bobby Vee topped the charts.
1961 – Mantle slugs his career high 54th HR.
1962 – New York’s Philharmonic Hall opened.
1962 – ABC’s first color TV series-The Jetsons premiered.
1962 – Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City opens with the first building completed, Philharmonic Hall, now Avery Fisher Hall home of the New York Philharmonic.
1967 – “The Letter” by Box Tops topped the charts.
1968 – The TV western “The Outcasts” premiered. The one season show featured Otis Young (d.2001 at 69) and Don Murray working together as post Civil War bounty hunters.
1969 – The Chicago 8 trial opens in Chicago, Illinois.
1969 – The first broadcast of “Marcus Welby MD” on ABC-TV. The drama with Robert Young continued to 1976.
1972 – “Baby Don’t Get Hooked on Me” by Mac Davis topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Get It On” by Marvin Gaye, “We’re an American Band” by Grand Funk, “Loves Me like a Rock” by Paul Simon and “You’ve Never Been This Far Before” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1973 – Largest known prime number, 2 ^ 132,049-1, is discovered.
1978 – “Boogie Oogie Oogie” by A Taste of Honey topped the charts.
1979 – St. Louis legend Lou Brock steals the 938th and final base of his career in a 7-4 win against the New York Mets.
1979 – The ABC TV show “The Associates” premiered as a comedy about lawyers. It lasted for one season.
1980 – Big Thunder Mountain Railroad opens at the Magic Kingdom in Disneyland. The ride is a relatively mild indoor/outdoor roller coaster based on the concept of a runaway train careening through an abandoned mine complex.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Endless Love” by Diana Ross & Lionel Richie, “Queen of Hearts” by Juice Newton, “Stop Draggin’ My Heart Around” by Stevie Nicks with Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers and “You Don’t Know Me” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1983 – Philadelphia Phillies Steve Carlton wins his 300th game (beating St Louis Cards).
1984 – Sparky Anderson is first baseball manager to win 100 games in both the American and National Leagues.
1986 – The US Congress selected the rose as the US national flower.
1986 – Houston Astro Jim Deshales sets record of striking out first eight men starting a baseball game.
1987 – Delaware Sen. Joseph Biden withdrew from the Democratic presidential race following questions about his use of borrowed quotations and the portrayal of his academic record.
1988 – Jose Canseco becomes baseball’s first to steal 40 bases & hit 40 HRs.
1990 – Iraq publicly threatened to destroy Middle East oil fields and to attack Israel if any nation tried to force it from Kuwait.
1990 – Two Hospital ships (USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort) steam together for first time in Arabian Gulf.
1991 – UN weapons inspectors in Baghdad discovered documents detailing Iraq’s secret nuclear weapons program and said Iraq was close to building a bomb. This triggered a standoff with Iraqi authorities.
1995 – Guillermo Gaede, an Intel engineer, was arrested in Phoenix. He had used his computer to tap into plans for the Pentium & 486 chip manufacturing process and videotaped the information in May 1993. He sent the info to his former employer Advanced Micro Devices who notified federal authorities.
1996 – Space Shuttle Atlantis left Russia’s orbiting Mir station with astronaut Shannon Lucid, who ended her six-month visit.
1997 – Kevin (18) and Tilmon Golphin (19) of Virginia shot and killed Patrol Troopers Ed Lowry and David Hathcock on I-95 in North Carolina after they were pulled over in a stolen car. The two brothers were sentenced to death May 13, 1998.
1998 – Joan Kroc, the heiress to McDonald’s, donated $80 million to the Salvation Army.
1999 – NASA announces that it lost contact with the Mars Climate Orbiter. The $125 million Mars Climate Orbiter was presumed lost after it hit the Martian atmosphere. The crash was later blamed on navigation confusion due to two teams using conflicting English and metric units.
1999 – President Clinton vetoed the $792 billion GOP proposed ten-year tax cut calling it “too big, too bloated.”
2001 – After 9/11, President George W. Bush returned the American flag to full staff at Camp David, symbolically ending a period of national mourning.
2001 – Thousands gathered at New York’s Yankee Stadium to offer prayers for the victims of terrorism; Mayor Rudolph Giuliani pledged that “our skyline will rise again.”
2001 – Four coal miners were killed in an explosion at the Blue Creek Mine Number Five in Brookwood, AL. Nine miners who rushed to their aid also died. The mine is the deepest in North America at 2,140 feet below the surface.
2002 – Mozilla Firefox (Phoenix) web browser is born: version 0.1.
2002 – The Bush administration asked a federal appeals court to strike down Oregon’s assisted-suicide law.
2003 – Puerto Rico’s congressional delegate said the United States will close its Roosevelt Roads Naval Station in eastern Puerto Rico within the next six months. It was actually closed on March 31, 2004.
2003 – An 11-judge panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturns the earlier ruling of a three-judge panel and reinstates October 7 as the date of the California gubernatorial recall election.
2003 – Iraqi War: A raid in Saudi Arabia on Islamic militants left three suspects dead, including an Sultan Jubran Sultan al-Qahtani (aka as Zubayr al-Rimi), an al-Qaida figure wanted by the US.
2004 – The US Congress voted to extend three tax cuts aimed at the middle class along with a bevy of business tax breaks.
2004 – The US agrees to release Yaser Esam Hamdi, who was born in the United States and raised in Saudi Arabia, after holding him for almost three years without charges, as an “illegal enemy combatant”. In exchange, Hamdi agrees to relinquish his American citizenship and to never return to the United States.
2004 – Iraqi War: US warplanes fired on insurgent targets in the east Baghdad slum of Sadr City. Gunmen in Mosul killed a senior official of Iraq’s North Oil Co.
2005 – Hurricane Rita, dropped to Category 4, moved toward the Texas and Louisiana coast with 135 mph winds, creating monumental traffic jams along evacuation routes and raising fears of a crippling blow to the nation’s oil-refining industry.
2005 – In Texas, a bus carrying elderly evacuees from Hurricane Rita caught fire and was rocked by explosions on a gridlocked highway near Dallas, killing twenty-three people.
2006 – Barry Bonds hit his 734th career home run in the Giants’ 10-8 loss to the Brewers, breaking Hank Aaron’s NL record.
2006 – Two days of high winds, heavy rain and tornadoes pounded parts of the US Midwest and the South, killing at least ten people and stranding others in trees and shelters while forecasters warned that the stormy weather was expected to continue.
2007 – The 7-part, 15-hour opus “The War,” by Ken Burns and co-director Lynn Novick, began on PBS. PBS later estimated 18.7 million viewers saw the airings of “The War,” the first chapter of Ken Burns’ seven-part documentary about World War II.
2008 – California’s Gov. Schwarzenegger signed a $144.5 billion spending plan. The state budget was a record 85 days late.
2008 – Goldman Sachs said it will get a $5 billion infusion from Warren Buffett and his Berkshire Hathaway Inc., giving Berkshire roughly 10% of Goldman.
2009 – In Illinois Michael Finton (29) was arrested in Springfield after federal officials said he attempted to detonate what he believed to be explosives in a van in Springfield. The FBI had provided the decoy devices.
2010 – Approximately 16,000 people have died in the United States between 2001 and 2007 due to people using cell phones while driving,
2010 – Virginia executes its first woman since 1912; Teresa Lewis will also be the first woman in the U.S to be executed since 2005.
2011 – Top executives from a bankrupt California solar energy company (Solyndra) pleaded the Fifth Amendment more than a dozen times in a congressional hearing that went nowhere but gave members the opportunity to pose dozens of questions about the loss of a half billion dollars in government loans.
2011 – NASA’s 1991-era Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is expected to fall from orbit sometime this evening Greenwich Mean Time.
2012 – Researchers find that there are four genetically distinct types of breast cancer.
2014 – U.S. targets ISIS with airstrikes inside Syria. The U.S. and five Arab allies launched airstrikes against ISIS in Syria early on Tuesday, marking a new phase in the fight against the Islamist extremist group.
63 BC – Augustus Caesar, Roman Emperor (d. 14)
1215 – Kublai Khan of the Mongol Empire (d. 1294)
1838 – Victoria Chaflin Woodhull was born. She became the first female candidate for the U.S. Presidency.
1852 – William Stewart Halsted, American surgeon (d. 1922) is known as the father of American surgery. Born in New York City, he was the founder of the American residency training system of progressive responsibility.
1863 – Mary Eliza Church Terrell, American writer (d. 1954) A high school teacher and principal, Terrell was appointed to the District of Columbia Board of Education, 1895 to 1906 , the first black woman in the United States to hold such a position. She led the successful fight to integrate eating places in the District of Columbia. Terrell continued to participate in picket lines protesting the segregation of Blacks in restaurants, as well as theatres way into her eighties.
1910 – Elliot Roosevelt, son of FDR and writer (Murder in the Oval Office).
1920 – Mickey Rooney, American actor. He was born Joe Yule, Jr. in Brooklyn, NY.
1926 – John Coltrane, American saxophonist (d. 1967)
1930 – Ray Charles, American musician (d. 2004)
1943 – Julio Iglesias, Spanish singer
1943 – Marty Schottenheimer, American football coach
1949 – Bruce Springsteen, American singer and songwriter
SLATON, JAMES D.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Oliveto, Italy, September 23rd, 1943. Entered service at: Gulfport, Miss. Born: 2 April 1912, Laurel, Miss G.O. No.: 44, 30 May 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy in the vicinity of Oliveto, Italy, on 23 September 1943. Cpl. Slaton was lead scout of an infantry squad which had been committed to a flank to knock out enemy resistance which had succeeded in pinning two attacking platoons to the ground. Working ahead of his squad, Cpl. Slaton crept upon an enemy machinegun nest and, assaulting it with his bayonet, succeeded in killing the gunner. When his bayonet stuck, he detached it from the rifle and killed another gunner with rifle fire. At that time he was fired upon by a machinegun to his immediate left. Cpl. Slaton then moved over open ground under constant fire to within throwing distance, and on his second try scored a direct hit on the second enemy machinegun nest, killing two enemy gunners. At that time a third machinegun fired on him one-hundred yards to his front, and Cpl. Slaton killed both of these enemy gunners with rifle fire. As a result of Cpl. Slaton’s heroic action in immobilizing three enemy machinegun nests with bayonet, grenade, and rifle fire, the two rifle platoons which were receiving heavy casualties from enemy fire were enabled to withdraw to covered positions and again take the initiative. Cpl. Slaton withdrew under mortar fire on order of his platoon leader at dusk that evening. The heroic actions of Cpl. Slaton were far above and beyond the call of duty and are worthy of emulation.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd, 1869. Entered service at: Montgomery County, Ohio. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.
HARRIS, CHARLES D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd,1869. Entered service at:——. Birth: Albion, N.Y. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Creek, Ariz., September 23rd, 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: France. Date of issue: 23 November 1869. Citation: Gallantry in action with Indians.