National Read Across America Day
In a time when we can easily lose our ability to communicate even over short distances. Governments are threatening to “shut-down” the internet, weapons keying up to electro-magnetic pulses that will knock out all electronic systems and losses to power from many other forces. It is important that we keep some options open for emergencies. While not secure, optical systems can take care of information shares of a general nature. Optical “telegraphs” or signaling devices have been traced back to ancient times (using torches) and were the fastest systems to convey messages over long distances. These systems could have been in use since the beginnings of time and include devices in the form of torches, smoke signals and eventually semaphore towers.
Semaphore towers used large blades/paddles to convey messages. These messages were decoded based on the fixed positions of these arms and could transmit signals up to 150 miles in two minutes using multiple towers.
The semaphore tower/semaphore line design was first thought up by Robert Hooke in 1684 and submitted to the Royal Society. The system was not implemented though due to military concerns. However, this did lead to Claude Chappe developing the first visual telegraph in 1792 – eventually covering much of France via 556 stations. In France, this was the primary source of communication for military and national applications, until it became more widely used in the 1850′s. Designs varied between using shudders open and closed to holes being open and closed, but Chappe’s design became the most widely used semaphore design.
Chappe’s design used large towers that had a single crossbar with large pivoting “arms” at the ends and were spaced as far as part as the eye could see. The crossbar could be used in 4 different positions while the arms could be in 7 different positions each, for a combination of 196 (4x7x7) characters. These 196 characters could be combined to create a multitude of messages and phrases. Some have estimated that there were as many as 9,999 different “codes” created.
Many other takes of semaphores became created, including the naval signaling code flags which are still used today. These flags could be used in combination to become different words and messages and thus not have to spell out each word since messages were usually needed to be displayed quickly. This system however proved to be slow during battle since these flags were hoisted to the top of the ship for display.
Even Napoleon used one design to communicate to his army strategies and locations of his enemies. These semaphore stations were so successful that the French government rejected Samuel Morse‘s first proposals of the electrical telegraph, citing that its design was flawed by wires being able to be cut easily.
These visual messaging systems eventually led to semaphore flags. These flags were used in the same way that the arms were used on the semaphore towers – different fixed positions mean different messages. Semaphore flags were primarily used for naval applications to communicate message between boats. It proved to be a very useful tactic during battles, most famously the Battle of Trafalgar during the Napoleonic Wars.
Today these flags have become smaller and are usually mounted to small dowels or poles to allow them to be seen easier. Maritime use flags are red and yellow (or the OSCAR) flag and while in land use, the flags are blue and white (or the PAPA) flag. Even though they are not in use much anymore, they still serve for some boats and ships.
Psalm 119:46 – 48
I will speak of Your testimonies also before kings, And will not be ashamed.
47 And I will delight myself in Your commandments, Which I love.
48 My hands also I will lift up to Your commandments,Which I love,
And I will meditate on Your statutes.
“All (laws), however, may be arranged in two different classes. 1) Divine. 2) Human…But it should always be remembered that this law, natural or revealed, made for men or for nations, flows from the same Divine source: it is the law of God…Human law must rest its authority ultimately upon the authority of that law which is Divine.”
1804, (Signer both the Declaration of Independence & the Constitution, and a U.S. Supreme Court Justice)
Get through the rough spots today by looking forward to the moment when you can say “All finished!”
~ E.R. Haas
From French jobard (stupid, gullible), from Old French jobe (stupid) + noll (top or crown of the head).]
1717 – “The Loves of Mars and Venus” becomes the first ballet performed in England.
1776 – Colonel Knox arrived near Boston with 80 sleds packed with cannons, mortars and other heavy equipment in February and General Washington saw his chance. On March 2 and 3, 1776, soldiers fired all night into the city of Boston from the west.
1776 – The Battle of the Rice Boats. A group of boats containing rice are the target of a British attack.
1781 – Maryland ratified the Articles of Confederation. She was the last state to sign.
1789 – Pennsylvania ended the prohibition of theatrical performances.
1791 – Long-distance communication speeds up with the unveiling of a semaphore machine in Paris. A semaphore line, optical telegraph, shutter telegraph chain, Chappe telegraph, or Napoleonic semaphore is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles. Information is encoded by the position of the mechanical elements; it is read when the shutter is in a fixed position. These systems were popular in the late 18th – early 19th century. In modern usage, “semaphore line” and “optical telegraph” may refer to a relay system using flag semaphore.
1792 – Congress authorized the revenue cutters to fire on merchant ships who refused to “bring to.”
1797 – The Directory of Great Britain authorized vessels of war to board and seize neutral vessels, particularly if the ships were American.
1799 – Congress standardized US weights and measures.
1799 – Congress authorized that “Revenue Cutters shall, whenever the President of the United States shall so direct, cooperate with the Navy of the United States.
1807 – The U.S. Congress passes an act called ” Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves” to “prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States… from any foreign kingdom, place, or country.”
1815 – To put an end to robberies by the Barbary pirates, the United States declared war on Algiers.
1817 – The first US Evangelical church building was dedicated in New Berlin, PA.
1819 – US passed its first immigration law. The Steerage Act of 1819 worked to encourage immigration by ensuring safe and healthy conditions aboard passenger ships.
1819 – Territory of Arkansas was organized.
1824 – In the US Supreme Court case of Gibbons v Ogden held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
1829 – New England Asylum for the Blind, first in US, was incorporated in Boston.
1831 – John Frazee becomes first US sculptor to receive a federal commission.
1836 – Texas Revolution: Declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico.
1853 – The Territory of Washington was organized after separating from Oregon Territory.
1859 – Launch of “Saginaw” at Mare Island, first Navy ship built on West Coast of U.S.
1861 – Nevada Territory and Dakota Territory are organized as political divisions of the United States. The first elected governor of the state was Henry G. Blasdel.
1861 – The Patent Act of 1861 increased term of a patent grant from 14 to 17 years.
1863 – The United States Congress authorizes track width of 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm) for Union Pacific Railroad.
1865 – Civil War: Union General George Custer’s troops rout Confederate General Jubal Early’s force, bringing an end to fighting in the Shenandoah Valley.
1865 – Civil War: General Lee proposed peace to Grant. President Abraham Lincoln rejected Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s plea for peace talks, demanding unconditional surrender.
1866 – The Excelsior Needle Company began making sewing machine needles.
1867 – Jacob Zeilin, Colonel Commandant of the Marine Corps from 30 June 1864, was this date promoted to the rank of Brigadier General Commandant, the first time Congress authorized this rank for the Marine Corps.
1867 – US Congress created the Department of Education.
1867 – The United States Congress passed the first Reconstruction Act. After the end of the Civil War, as part of the on-going process of Reconstruction, the United States Congress passed four statutes known as Reconstruction Acts (March 2, 1867 (39 Cong. Ch. 153; 14 Stat. 428), March 23, 1867 (40 Cong. Ch. 6; 15 Stat. 2), July 19, 1867 (40 Cong. Ch. 30; 15 Stat. 14), March 11, 1868 (ch. 25, 15 Stat. 25)). The acts’ main points included:
- Creation of five military districts in the seceded states (not including Tennessee, which had ratified the 14th Amendment and was readmitted to the Union)
- Required congressional approval for new state constitutions (which were required for Confederate states to rejoin the Union)
- Confederate states gave voting rights to all men.
- All states must ratify the 14th Amendment.
Johnson’s vetoes of these measures were overridden by Congress, repeating a familiar pattern.
1867 – Jesse James gang (5 riders) robbed the Judge John McClain Banking House of Savannah, Missouri. Judge John McClain was shot in the arm during the attempted robbery. No money was taken.
1867 – Howard University, Washington DC, was incorporated. General Oliver Otis Howard, Union Civil War commander, co-founded Howard University.
1874 – Baseball batter’s box is officially adopted.
1876 – Birthday of Civil Engineer Corps.
1877 – U.S. presidential election, 1876: Just two days before inauguration, the U.S. Congress declares Rutherford B. Hayes the winner of the election even though Samuel J. Tilden had won the popular vote on November 7, 1876.
1887 – The American Trotting Association was organized in Detroit, MI.
1889 – Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Bill, proclaiming unassigned lands in the public domain; the first step toward the famous Oklahoma Land Rush.
1893 – First federal railroad legislation passed; required safety features. The Safety Appliance Act is a United States federal law that made air brakes and automatic couplers mandatory on all trains in the United States.
1897 – U.S. President Cleveland vetoed legislation that would have required a literacy test for immigrants entering the country.
1899 – In the state of Washington, Mount Rainier National Park is established as the fifth national park.
1899 – George Dewey becomes first in US with rank of Admiral of the Navy.
1901 – The United States Congress passes the Platt amendment, limiting the autonomy of Cuba as a condition for the withdrawal of American troops.
1901 – The first telegraph company in Hawaii opened.
1903 – In New York City, the Martha Washington Hotel opens, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women. It was located at 30 East 30th Street between Madison Avenue and Park Avenue South in the Rose Hill neighborhood of Manhattan. Now Hotel 30 30, a block from the Empire State Building.
1904 – “Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs” was adopted.
1906 – A tornado in Missouri killed 33 and did $5 million in damage.
1908 – Gabriel Lippman introduced the new three-dimensional color photography at the Academy of Sciences.
1917 – The enactment of the Jones-Shafroth Act grants Puerto Ricans United States citizenship.
1923 – The first issue of “TIME” appeared on newsstands. The first issue, dated March 3, was 32 pages and featured a charcoal sketch of Congressman Joseph Gurney Cannon on the cover. It was the United States’ first modern newsmagazine.
1925 – Nationwide road numbering system & US shield marker adopted.
1927 – Babe Ruth becomes highest paid baseball player ($70,000 per year).
1929 – The U.S. Court of Customs & Patent Appeals was created by the U.S. Congress.
1929 – The Jones Act, the last gasp of the Prohibition, is passed by Congress.
1929 – The San Mateo-Hayward Bridge, then called the San Francisco Bay Toll-Bridge, opened. The $7.5 million, 7.1-mile span was for the time the longest in the world. The initial toll was 45 cents per car with an additional nickel for each passenger.
1933 – “King Kong” premieres at Radio City Music Hall & RKO Roxy New York City.
1934 – Union Pacific tests light-weight high-speed passenger train, Omaha. The passenger train was called the City of Salina.
1937 – The Steel Workers Organizing Committee signs a surprise collective bargaining agreement with U.S. Steel, leading to unionization of the United States steel industry.
1938 – Landslides and floods cause over 200 deaths in Los Angeles, CA.
1939 – The Massachusetts legislature voted to ratify the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution. These first ten amendments had gone into effect 147 years before.
1940 – First intercollegiate track meet telecast (W2XBS-TV), Madison Square Garden, New York City.
1941 – World War II: Europe: First German military units enter Bulgaria after it joined the Axis Pact.
1943 – World War II: Battle of the Bismarck Sea – United States and Australian forces sink Japanese convoy ships.
1943 – World War II: The center of Berlin was bombed by the RAF. Approximately 900 tons of bombs were dropped in a half hour.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: First transport of Jews from Westerbork, Netherlands, to Sobibor concentration camp.
1943 – World War II: 173 people die in the Bethnal Green Tube Disaster, London, the worst civilian disaster of World War II.
1944 – World War II: A second 1000 men from the US 5th Cavalry Regiment arrives at Los Negros. Meanwhile, the American forces already on the island capture Momote airfield with fire support from destroyers offshore.
1945 – World War II: Elements of US Task Force 58, consisting of 4 cruisers and 15 destroyers, under the command of Admiral Whiting, bombard Okino Daito Jima, a group of islands SE of Japan.
1945 – World War II: The American flag is raised again over Corregidor, with General Douglas MacArthur and members of his staff present.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Galway Bay” by Bing Crosby and “Don’t Rob Another Man’s Castle” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – Captain James Gallagher lands his B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II in Fort Worth, Texas after completing the first non-stop around-the-world airplane flight in 94 hours and one minute.
1949 – The first automatic street light was installed in New Milford, Conn.
1949 – Captain James Gallagher and his 13-man US Air Force crew completed the first round-the-world non-stop flight in 94 hours in an American USAF B-50 Superfortress, the “Lucky Lady II.” They landed at Fort Worth, TX.
1950 – Silly Putty was introduced as a toy by Peter Hodgson, a marketing consultant, who packaged one-ounce portions of the rubber-like material in plastic eggs.
1951 – First NBA All-Star Game: East beats West 111-94 at Boston.
1953 – The Academy Awards are first broadcast on television by NBC.
1955 – William Inge’s “Bus Stop” premieres at the Music Box Theater in New York.
1955 – Claudette Colvin refuses to give up her seat in Montgomery, Alabama, nine months before Rosa Parks’ famous arrest for the same offense.
1958 – First surface crossing of Antarctic continent is completed in 99 days.
1961 – Meeting place of National Civil War Centennial Commission shifted from Charleston to Charleston Naval Station after a national controversy cover segregation hotels in Charleston.
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain sets the single-game scoring record in the National Basketball Association by tallying 100 points. The Philadelphia Warriors beat the New York Knicks 169-147. The 316 total points scored tied an NBA record at the time.
1962 – President John F. Kennedy announced US will resume above ground nuclear testing.
1963 – “Walk Like a Man” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “My Girl” by The Temptations, “The Jolly Green Giant” by The Kingsmen and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – The movie version of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical “The Sound of Music,” starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, had its world premiere at New York’s Rivoli Theater. (1:28:48)
1965 – Vietnam War: Operation Rolling Thunder begins with more than 100 United States Air Force jet bombers striking an ammunition depot at Xom Bang, 10 miles inside North Vietnam.
1967 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. Testing had started on January 27th, 1951.
1967 – 9th Grammy Awards: “Strangers in Night” by Frank Sinatra won Record of the Year and “Michelle” by the Beatles won Song of the Year. For the people who don’t speak French : “Sont des mots qui vont très bien ensemble, Très bien ensemble.” mean the same thing that “These are words that go together well, Together well”.
1968 – Vietnam War: The siege of Khe Sanh ended in Vietnam, the U.S. Marines stationed there were still in control of the mountain top.
1968 – USAF displays Lockheed C-5A Galaxy, biggest plane in the world.
1968 – “Love Is Blue” by Paul Mauriat topped the charts.
1969 – In Toulouse, France the first test flight of the Anglo-French Concorde is conducted.
1970 – American Airlines first flight of Boeing 747.
1970 – US Supreme Court ruled draft evaders cannot be penalized after 5 years.
1972 – The Pioneer 10 space probe is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida with a mission to explore the outer planets. It carried a plaque designed by Carl Sagan and Frank Drake showing some details of human civilization on Earth. Pioneer is expected to reach the red star Aldebaran in Taurus in about 2 million years.
1972 – Dr. Jerome H. Holland was elected to the board of directors of the New York Stock Exchange.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack, “Dueling Banjos” by Eric Weissberg & Steve Mandell, “Could It Be I’m Falling in Love” by the Spinners and “Rated “X” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1973 – Women begin pilot training in U.S. Navy.
1973 – Federal forces surrounded Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which was occupied by members of the militant American Indian Movement who were holding at least ten hostages.
1973 – TERRORISM: US Ambassador Cleo A. Noel, Deputy George Curtis Moore and Belgian charge d’affaires Guy Eid were executed by Arab commandos, “Black September” terrorists, led by Abu Jihad.
1974 – “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks topped the charts.
1974 – 16th Grammy Awards Roberta Flack won for the song “Killing Me Softly” & Bette Midler won as Best New Artist. Stevie Wonder got five Grammy Awards for his album, “Innervisions” and his hit songs, “You Are The Sunshine of My Life” and “Superstition“.
1974 – Postage stamps jumped from 8 to 10 cents for first-class mail.
1974 – Grand jury concludes President Nixon is involved in Watergate cover-up.
1976 – Walt Disney World logged its 50 millionth guest.
1977 – Future Tonight Show host Jay Leno debuts with host Johnny Carson.
1977 – Bette Davis (1908-1989) became the first woman to receive the American Film Institute’s Life Achievement Award.
1977 – U.S. House of Representatives adopted a strict code of ethics.
1980 – Thomas “Hit Man” Hearns wins the vacant USBA Welterweight title. This is one of five weight classes that he has won a boxing title making him the first African American to win boxing titles in five different weight classes.
1983 – Compact Disc recordings developed by Phillips & Sony introduced.
1984 – The first McDonald’s franchise was closed. A new location was opened across the street from the old location in Des Plaines, IL.
1985 – “Careless Whisper” by George Michael topped the charts.
1985 – The U.S. government approved a screening test for AIDS that detected antibodies to the virus that allowed possibly contaminated blood to be kept out of the blood supply.
1987 – US government officials reported that the median price for a new home had topped $100,000 for the first time. The new six-figure price of $110,700 was up from $94,600.
1987 – The Macintosh II computer was introduced. The first color Mac had a CPU speed of 16 MHz and sold for $3,898.
1989 – TERRORISM: A grenade attack in downtown Panama killed a U.S. soldier and injured 28 other people at the “My Place” discotheque on Via Espania and Calle 50.
1989 – Exxon Houston ran aground in Hawaii and spilled 117,000 gallons of oil.
1990 – More than 6,000 drivers went on strike against Greyhound Lines Inc. The company, later declaring an impasse in negotiations, fired the strikers.
1991 – Gulf War: Battle at Rumaila Oil Field brings end to the 1991 Gulf War. The Rumaila oil field is a super-giant oil field located in southern Iraq, approximately 20 miles from the Kuwaiti border.
1991 – Gulf War: Iraq released CBS newsman Bob Simon and his crew, held captive for nearly six weeks.
1992 – A jury was seated in Simi Valley, Calif., in the assault trial of four Los Angeles police officers charged with beating motorist Rodney King.
1993 – Somalia: Members of 10th Mountain Divisions Bravo Company 2/87 Infantry fight their way out of a crossfire in Kismaayo. Four Marines, while pinned down, kill 9 Somalis. No US casualties.
1995 – The space shuttle STS-67 (Endeavour 8) blasted off to study the far reaches of the universe.
1995 – The US Senate rejected the balanced-budget amendment; the vote, 65-35, was two votes shy of the two-thirds majority needed for passage.
1997 – A storm hit Arkansas with as many as 20 tornadoes and caused major flooding in the Ohio Valley. At least 41 people were killed.
1998 – Data sent from the Galileo spacecraft indicates that Jupiter’s moon Europa has a liquid ocean under a thick crust of ice.
1999 – In England Dusty Springfield (59), pop-soul singer, died from breast cancer. Her hits included “”You Don’t Have to Say You Love Me,” “I Just Don’t Know What to Do With Myself” and “Son of a Preacher Man.”
2000 – A federal jury in Washington convicted Maria Hsia, a friend and political supporter of Vice President Al Gore, for arranging more than $100,000 in illegal donations during the 1996 presidential campaign.
2001 – Afghanistan: The Taliban began the destruction of the giant Buddha of Bamiyan despite international protests.
2002 – Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins, (ending on March 19 after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters, with 11 Western troop fatalities).
2002 – Afghanistan: US and Afghan forces attacked hundreds of suspected al Qaeda and Taliban fighters in eastern Afghanistan. 1 US soldier was killed.
2004 – Voters in the U.S. state of Georgia vote on a referendum concerning its Confederacy-derived flag.
2004 – Californians voters approved Proposition 57, Gov. Schwarzenegger’s $15 billion bond measure, to be repaid over the next 9 to 14 years. Prop 58 to prohibit future deficit financing also passed.
2004 – War in Iraq: Al Qaeda carries out the Ashoura Massacre in Iraq, killing 170 and wounding over 500.
2004 – NASA announced that the Mars Rover Opportunity had discovered evidence that water had existed on Mars in the past.
2005 – Pakistani police arrested a man wanted in the murder of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl and already sentenced to death in absentia for a hotel bombing that killed 11 French engineers.
2005 – The number of U.S. military deaths in Iraq reached 1,500.
2005 – Alan Greenspan warned that US federal budget deficits are unsustainable and urged Congress to cut spending.
2005 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Tennessee a school bus driver was shot and killed by a 14-year old student, who was recently disciplined by the driver for using snuff.
2006 – “Killer nurse” Charles Cullen, who’d killed at least 29 patients, was sentenced in Somerville, N.J., to spend the rest of his life in prison.
2006 – The US Federal Reserve began shipping a new colorized $10 bill to commercial banks.
2007 – A charter bus carrying a college baseball team from Ohio’s Mennonite-affiliated Bluffton University plunged off a highway ramp in Georgia and slammed into the pavement below, killing six people, injuring 29 and scattering sports equipment across the road.
2009 – A winter storm in the eastern United States cancels 1,000 flights and cuts hundreds of thousands of people’s electricity.
2009 – Dow drops below 6,800; lowest close since 1997.
2009 – An asteroid named 2009 DD45, about the size of one that blasted Siberia a century ago, buzzed by Earth. It measured between 69 feet and 154 feet in diameter and came to 48,800 miles from Earth.
2011 – Sirhan Sirhan, the assassin of US politician Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, is denied parole again in California.
2011 – Apple Inc unveils the latest model of its tablet computer, the iPad 2.
2011 – Two United States Air Force personnel are killed and two others injured after a gunman opens fire at Frankfurt Airport in Germany.
2011 – The Wisconsin Senate votes to fine missing Democrats $100 a day for their absence during the 2011 Wisconsin protests.
2012 – An armored car guard allegedly shot his partner in the back of the head, stole more than $2 million in cash from the truck and then took the time to call his mom as he fled the Pittsburgh area. Police have launched a massive manhunt for Ken Konias, Jr., 22, of Dravosburg, PA. Konias was arrested at an alleged crack house in Florida April 25th 2012.
2012 – Tornados hit the midwestern and southern United States two days after the 2012 Leap Day tornado outbreak. Steve Beshear, the Governor of Kentucky, declares a state of emergency due to widespread damage and at least 27 people are killed in the tornado outbreaks, including 15 from Indiana and 11 from Kentucky.
2012 – The NFL finds that the New Orleans Saints paid bounties for injuries on opposition players including Kurt Warner and Brett Favre.
2013 -A massive car crash on I-65 in Kentucky, United States, leaves 6 people from Wisconsin dead and 2 injured.
2013 – The 1,000 mile 2013 Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race begins in Anchorage, Alaska. The winner of the race will get a new truck and $50,400.
2014 – Alabama’s oldest hotel, the Mentone Springs Hotel – built in 1884 and listed on the register of historical places – burns to the ground. The general manager Judy Rathel tried to describe the loss of this beautiful hotel.
1316 – Robert II of Scotland, (d. 1390)
1545 – Thomas Bodley, was an English diplomat and scholar, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. (d. 1613)
1578 – George Sandys, English colonist and poet (d. 1644). He took great interest in the earliest English colonization in America. In April 1621 he became colonial treasurer of the Virginia Company and sailed to Virginia with his niece’s husband, Sir Francis Wyat, the new governor.
1779 – Joel Roberts Poinsett, (d. 1851) was a physician, botanist and American statesman.
1793 – Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas (d. 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician, and soldier.
1836 – Henry Billings Brown, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1913) was an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from January 5, 1891 to May 28, 1906. He is perhaps best known today as the author of the opinion for the Court in Plessy v. Ferguson, the famous decision that upheld the legality of racial segregation in public transportation.
1860 – Susanna M. Salter, (d. 1961) was a U.S. politician and activist. She served as mayor of Argonia, Kansas, becoming the first woman elected as mayor in the United States.
1886 – Willis O’Brien, American animator (d. 1962) was a pioneering motion picture special effects.
1904 – Dr. Seuss, (Theodor Seuss Geisel ) (d. 1991) was an American writer and cartoonist, better known by his pen name, Dr. Seuss. He published over 60 children’s books, which were often characterized by his imaginative characters, rhyme, and frequent use of trisyllabic meter. His most notable books include the bestselling classics Green Eggs and Ham, The Cat in the Hat, and One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish.
1917 – Desi Arnaz, Cuban-born American actor and bandleader (d. 1986) Desi Arnaz was born to a wealthy family in Santiago de Cuba.
1931 – Tom Wolfe, is a best-selling American author and journalist. He is one of the founders of the New Journalism movement of the 1960s and 1970s.
1938 – Lawrence Payton (d. 1997) was an American tenor singer, songwriter, and record producer for the popular Motown quartet, The Four Tops. Payton also created the smooth, sharp jazz/pop harmonies for the Four Tops.
1941 – David Satcher, 16th United States Surgeon General from 1998 to 2002 and the Assistant Secretary for Health from 1998 to 2001. He was the first African American male to serve as Surgeon General.
1949 – Gates McFadden, American actress. She is best known for portraying the character of Dr. Beverly Crusher in the Star Trek: The Next Generation television series and subsequent films.
1950 – Karen Carpenter, American singer and drummer. She and her brother, Richard, formed the popular 1970s duo The Carpenters.(d. 1983)
1962 – Jon Bon Jovi, American musician best known as the lead singer and founder of Bon Jovi.
CUTINHA, NICHOLAS J.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Gia Dinh, Republic of Vietnam, March 2nd, 1968. Entered service at: Coral Gables, Fla. Born: 13 January 1945, Fernandina Beach, Fla. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While serving as a machine gunner with Company C, Sp4c. Cutinha accompanied his unit on a combat mission near Gia Dinh. Suddenly his company came under small arms, automatic weapons, mortar and rocket propelled grenade fire, from a battalion size enemy unit. During the initial hostile attack, communication with the battalion was lost and the company commander and numerous members of the company became casualties. When Sp4c. Cutinha observed that his company was pinned down and disorganized, he moved to the front with complete disregard for his safety, firing his machine gun at the charging enemy. As he moved forward he drew fire on his own position and was seriously wounded in the leg. As the hostile fire intensified and half of the company was killed or wounded, Sp4c. Cutinha assumed command of all the survivors in his area and initiated a withdrawal while providing covering fire for the evacuation of the wounded. He killed several enemy soldiers but sustained another leg wound when his machine gun was destroyed by incoming rounds. Undaunted, he crawled through a hail of enemy fire to an operable machine gun in order to continue the defense of his injured comrades who were being administered medical treatment. Sp4c. Cutinha maintained this position, refused assistance, and provided defensive fire for his comrades until he fell mortally wounded. He was solely responsible for killing fifteen enemy soldiers while saving the lives of at least nine members of his own unit. Sp4c. Cutinha’s gallantry and extraordinary heroism were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
ANDERSON, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New Orleans, La. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of unknown Confederate flag.
BICKFORD, HENRY H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Hartland, Niagara County, N.Y. Birth: Michigan. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Recapture of flag.
BRUTON ( BRATON ), CHRISTOPHER C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company C, 22d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Riga, Monroe County, N.Y. Birth:——. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of Gen. Early’s headquarters flag and the Confederate national standard.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Seneca County, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and several prisoners.
COMPSON, HARTWELL B.
Rank and organization: Major, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Seneca Falls, N.Y. Birth: Seneca Falls, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag belonging to Gen. Early’s headquarters.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 22d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Rochester, N.Y. Birth: Rochester, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
DUNCAN, JAMES K. L.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Frankfort, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Fort Hindman during the engagement near Harrisonburg, La., March 2nd,1864. Following a shellburst at one of the guns which started a fire at the cartridge tie, Duncan immediately seized the burning cartridge, took it from the gun and threw it overboard, despite the immediate danger to himself. Carrying out his duties through the entire engagement, Duncan served courageously during this action in which the Fort Hindman was raked severely with shot and shell from the enemy guns.
GOHEEN, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Groveland, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 22d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Rochester, N.Y. Birth: England. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and bearer, with two other prisoners.
JOHNSTON, WILLIAM P.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Chicago, Ill. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Fort Hindman during the engagement near Harrisonburg, La., March 2nd, 1864. Badly wounded in the hand during the action, Johnston, despite his wound, took the place of another man to sponge and lead one of the guns throughout the entire action in which the Fort Hindman was raked severely with shot and shell from the enemy guns.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Groveland, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company G, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Groveland, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 22d New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Carmillus, Onondaga County, N.Y. Birth: Carmillus, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Captured a standard bearer, his flag, horse and equipment.
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company E, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Fairport, N.Y. Birth: Niagara, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Recapture of Gen. Crook’s headquarters flag.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 8th New York Cavalry Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at. Rochester, N.Y. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Illinois. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Fort Hindman during the engagement near Harrisonburg, La., March 2nd, 1864. Following a shellburst which mortally wounded the first sponger, who dropped the sponge out of the forecastle port, Molloy jumped out of the port to the forecastle, recovered the sponge and sponged and loaded the gun for the remainder of the action from his exposed position, despite the extreme danger to his person from the raking fire of enemy musketry.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company H, 8th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: Rochester, N.Y. Born: 18 December 1833, Harlem, N.Y. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of two flags.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry. Place and date: At Waynesboro, Va., March 2nd, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 26 March 1865. Citation: Capture of flag and of a Confederate officer with his horse and equipment.
Adopt a Rescued Guinea Pig Month
National Ghostwriters Week 1-7
Peace Corps Birthday
The dam is in Black Canyon spanning the Colorado River between Arizona and Nevada, about 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas, Nevada.
Construction on the Hoover Dam began September 30, 1930. The last concrete was poured in 1935. It was a massive undertaking at the time and when completed it was the highest dam in the world. It is now the twenty-third highest (2011).
The dam is 726.4 feet high from the riverbed. It is 1,244 feet across and 45 feet thick at the top. At the bottom it is 660 feet thick. It is made of 4,360,000 cubic yards of concrete in the dam, powerplant and appurtenant works. This much concrete would build a monument 100 feet square and 2-1/2 miles high; would rise higher than the 1,250-foot-tall Empire State Building if placed on an ordinary city block; or would pave a standard highway 16 feet wide, from San Francisco to New York City. It weighs 6.6 million tons. Hoover Dam was the first single structure to contain more masonry than the Great Pyramid at Giza. The maximum water pressure at the base of the dam is 45,000 pounds per square foot. The dam cost $49 million dollars to construct.
The chemical heat caused by setting concrete in the dam was dissipated by embedding more than 582 miles of 1-inch steel pipe in the concrete and circulating ice water through it from a refrigeration plant that could produce 1,000 tons of ice in 24 hours. Cooling was completed in March 1935.
One of the most unusual features of the dam was that it was built in vertical columns of blocks that varied in size from about 60 feet square at the upstream face of the dam to about 25 feet square at the downstream face. An estimated 215 blocks make up the dam. Adjacent columns were locked together by a system of vertical keys on the radial joints and horizontal keys on the circumferential joints (think “giant Lego set”). Concrete placement in any one block was limited to five feet in 72 hours. After the concrete was cooled, a cement and water mixture called grout was forced into the spaces created between the columns by the contraction of the cooled concrete to form a monolithic (one-piece) structure.
The reservoir created is called Lake Mead. The surface area of Lake Mead is 146,000 acres or just slightly over 224 square miles. That is nine times the size of Las Vegas and a little over half the size of Phoenix, AZ. The lake is 115 miles long. It’s maximum depth is 590 feet and the maximum water surface elevation of Lake Mead is 1229 ft.
NO ONE IS BURIED IN THE DAM!!!!!!!! A total of 21,000 men worked on the dam with an average of 3,500 and a maximum of 5,218 daily, which occurred in June 1934. The average monthly payroll was $500,000.
In recent years rumors have flown around about this being a potential target for terrorists. There probably isn’t a more silly statement around, at least when it comes to any real damage. The destruction of Glen Canyon Dam either by terrorists or by natural causes, and its downstream neighbor Hoover Dam in the Western United States are on the FBI’s less publicly known list of targets. The economic impact involving the destruction of these dams would be twofold. Not only would an initial impact cause more devastation than Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake combined; but a long-term impact would cripple the major cities of Los Angeles, Phoenix, and Las Vegas for years.
The Colorado River has more than 50 dams all together, any of the smaller dams downstream from Glen Canyon would fail from the initial water release. The structure of Hoover Dam itself is in question should Glen Canyon ever fail; however at a minimum, the rush of water would bypass Hoover Dam causing a 500 foot high wall of water to overtake its crest for 11 days. The flood damage caused by destroying both dams simultaneously can only be speculated.
Even with near drought conditions behind both dams today, the resulting floods from their fall would destroy many river towns along the Colorado including; Laughlin, NV, and Yuma, AZ, as well as Needles and Blythe, CA, and dozens of other small towns populated by recreationalists. The Imperial Valley of Southern California resident to farmland would flood. Sand and rocks from the rush of water would change the lanscape of the lower Colorado River valley, and resulting flood waters would bury fertile land for as much as three years under pools of water.
Hoover Dam contains the largest reservoir (Lake Mead) in the United States, supplying water to 30 million residents with 34,850,000 cubic meters. Glen Canyon reservoir (Lake Powell) holds 33,300,000 cubic meters and is the second largest reservoir in the United States.
Galatians 6:9 (NIV)
“Let us not become weary in doing good, for at the proper time we will reap a harvest if we do not give up.”
“It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded, not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the gospel of Jesus Christ. For this very reason Peoples of other faiths have been afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here.”
Patrick Henry (5 time Governor of Virginia)
“To dream anything that you want to dream, that is the beauty of the human mind. To do anything that you want to do, that is the strength of the human will. To trust yourself, to test your limits, that is the courage to succeed.”
~ Bernard Edmonds
nonagenarian \non-uh-juh-NAIR-ee-uhn; no-nuh-\,
noun: A ninety year old person; someone whose age is in the nineties.
1562 – Over 1,000 Huguenots are massacred by Catholics in Wassy, France, marking the start of the French Wars of Religion.
1628 – Writs are issued in February by Charles I of England mandating that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date.
1642 – Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine) becomes the first incorporated city in the USA. York is a town in York County, Maine at the southwest corner of the state.
1692 – Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba Indian are brought before local magistrates in Salem Village, Massachusetts, beginning what would become known as the Salem witch trials.
1780 – Pennsylvania becomes first US state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only.)
1781 – The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.
1790 – The first United States census is authorized. The cost was $44,000 to enumerate 3, 929,214 people and it asked just six questions.
1792 – Presidential Succession Act of 1792 provided that after the vice president, the next officials in line would be the president pro tempore (presiding officer) of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives.
1803 – Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state.
1805 – Justice Samuel Chase is acquitted at the end of his impeachment trial by the U.S. Senate.
1836 – A Convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.
1845 – President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.
1847 – The state of Michigan formally abolishes capital punishment.
1862 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Tyler and the U.S.S. Lexington engaged Confederate forces preparing to strongly fortify Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing), Tennessee.
1864 – Rebecca Lee became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree.
1864 – President Lincoln nominates Ulysses S. Grant for the newly revived rank of lieutenant general.
1867 – Nebraska becomes the 37th U.S. state; Lancaster, Nebraska is renamed Lincoln and becomes the state capital.
1868 – The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia.
1869 – Postage stamps showing scenes are issued for first time. It was also the first time two-color stamps were used.
1872 – President Ulysses S. Grant signed a measure creating Yellowstone National Park (Idaho, Montana, Wyoming). The act of Congress creating Yellowstone National Park was based on a report from an expedition led by Ferdinand Hayden.It was established as the world’s first national park.
1872 – Doc Holliday received his Doctor of Dental Surgery.
1873 – E. Remington and Sons of Ilion, NY began the manufacturing of the first practical typewriter. The strong as steel, heavy black clunkers became instant fixtures in offices across the country.
1875 – Congress passed the Civil Rights Act. It protected all Americans, regardless of race, in their access to public accommodations and facilities such as restaurants, theaters, trains and other public transportation, and protected the right to serve on juries. It created the concept of ‘separate but equal.” It was invalidated in 1883 by the Supreme Court.
1876 – Nuova Ottavia, an Italian Ship, grounded off the Jones Hill North Carolina Life-Saving Station. The rescue attempt by the crew of that Life-Saving station resulted in the loss of seven surfmen, the first deaths in the line of duty since the service started with paid crews in 1870.
1890 – First US edition of Sherlock Holmes (Study in Scarlet) published.
1893 – Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.
1896 – Henri Becquerel, A French scientist, discovers radioactivity.
1902 – The first regular light stations in Alaska were established at Southeast Five Finger Island and at Sentinel Island, both on the main Inside passage between Wrangell Strait and Skagway.
1909 – First US university school of nursing established, University of Minnesota.
1910 – An avalanche at Wellington, WA., pushed two Great Northern trains carrying 96 people over a ledge at Stevens Pass.
1912 – Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri (near St. Louis).
1912 – Isabella Goodwin, first US woman detective, was appointed in New York City. Her salary was a whopping $2,250 a year.
1913 – The US Federal income tax took effect (16th amendment).
1917 – The U.S. government releases the unencrypted text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public. This was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States.
1921 – Harry Houdini was granted a patent for a “diver’s suit”.
1927 – Bank of Italy became a National Bank. California’s laws prohibiting branch banking changed and A.P. Giannini consolidated his banking properties into the Bank of America of California.
1927 – A system of broadcasting weather reports by radio on four lightships on the Pacific Coast was put into effect.
1928 – Paul Whiteman and his orchestra recorded “Ol’ Man River” featuring Paul Robeson.
1932 – Charles Lindbergh Jr. (20 months), the infant son of Charles and Anne Lindbergh was kidnapped from his nursery at the family home near Hopewell, (Princeton) N.J. A handwritten note left at the scene demanded a $50,000 ransom.
1933 – Bank holidays declared in six states, to prevent run on banks.
1936 – The Hoover Dam is completed. The Dam, once known as Boulder Dam, is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between Arizona and Nevada.
1936 – A strike occurs aboard the S.S. California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen’s Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.
1937 – First permanent automobile license plates issued in Connecticut.
1937 – US Steel raises workers’ wages to $5 a day.
1940 – “Native Son” by Richard Wright (1908-1960) was first published. This launched him as America’s first best-selling African American author.
1941 – W47NV (now known as WSM-FM) begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station in the U.S.
1941 – “Captain America” appears in a comic book.
1941 – “Duffy’s Tavern” debuted on CBS radio.
1941 – “Downbeat” magazine scooped the entertainment world with news that Glenn Miller’s renewed contract with Chesterfield Cigarettes was worth $4,850 a week.
1941 – Elmer Layden became the first NFL commissioner.
1941 – World War II: Holocaust: Nazi extermination camps begin full operation. These include Auschwitz, Bamberg, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Chelmno, Jena, Sobibor and Treblinka. Over 2.600.000 Polish Jews are among those killed during the course of the war. Over 12.000 people would be killed daily at Auschwitz alone.
1942 – World War II: U-656 becomes the first German submarine of World War II to be sunk by Naval air (VP-82). The attack was carried out by Ensign William Tepuni piloting a Hudson bomber with Patrol Squadron 82 (VP-82).
1942 – World War II: The three-day Battle of Java Sea ended as US suffered a major naval defeat.
1942 – World War II: Baseball decided that players in military can’t play when on furlough.
1942 – American military authorities, angered over the destruction at Pearl Harbor, order Rear Adm. Husband E. Kimmel and Maj. Gen. Walter Short, the top Navy and Army officers in Hawaii at the time, court-martialled. Admiral Kimm (4-star) was reduced in grade to 2-stars. He retired in 1942. Major General Short was ordered back to Washington, D.C. by Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall. In disgrace, he was reduced in rank from his temporary rank of lieutenant general to his permanent rank of major general. He retired from active duty on February 28, 1942.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Bismarck Sea begins.
1944 – World War II: U-358 sank in Atlantic.
1945 – World War II: US 29th infantry Division captured Mönchengladbach.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, forces of US 5th Amphibious Corps now hold both the first and second of the island’s airfields and have a foothold at the southern end of the third. There is intensive fighting all along the line.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1949 – Joe Louis retires as heavyweight boxing champion.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1953 – Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses. He dies four days later.
1954 – Nuclear testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.
1954 – Terrorism: Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives. They shot 30 rounds using automatic pistols from the Ladies’ Gallery (a balcony for visitors) of the House of Representatives chamber in the United States Capitol. They wounded Alvin Bentley of Michigan, George Fallon of Maryland, Ben Jensen of Iowa, Clifford Davis of Tennessee, and Kenneth Roberts of Alabama, all of whom recovered.
1954 – Baseball great Ted Williams fractures collarbone in first game of spring training after flying 39 combat missions without injury in Korean War.
1955 – The second detonation in the Operation Teapot nuclear tests is conducted.
1955 – The San Francisco Chronicle reported that a Univ. of California survey found that Americans spend more money on comic books that all the country’s elementary schools and high schools spend on textbooks.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle, “The Poor People of Paris” by Les Baxter, “Why Do Fools Fall in Love” by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers and “I Forgot to Remember to Forget” by Elvis Presley all topped the charts.
1956 – The federal minimum wage was set at $1.00 per hour.
1956 – The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.
1958 – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – Doctors declared that President Eisenhower had fully recovered from his stroke. In that time he gave a letter of authority to Vice President Richard Nixon should he become incapacitated. This led ultimately to the 25th Amendment.
1960 – One-thousand Black students prayed and sang the national anthem on the steps of the old Confederate Capitol in Montgomery, Ala.
1960 – The Beaufort (South Carolina) Auxiliary Air Station was re-designated a Marine Corps Air Station.
1961 – President of the United States John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps. The first volunteers were sent to Ghana.
1962 – A US Army memorandum was put out titled “Possible Actions to Provoke, Harass or Disrupt Cuba.”
1962 – The first Kmart store opened in Garden City, Michigan. A total of eighteen Kmart stores opened that year.
1962 – An American Airlines 707 plunged nose-first into Jamaica Bay, NY, killing 87 passengers and eight crewmembers.
1965 – Vietnam War:Ambassador Maxwell Taylor informs South Vietnamese Premier Phan Huy Quat that the United States is preparing to send 3,500 U.S. Marines to Vietnam to protect the U.S. airbase at Da Nang.
1967 – US Rep. Adam Clayton Powell (1908-1972) of New York City, accused of misconduct, was denied his seat in the 90th Congress. The House of Representatives voted 307 to 116 to expel Powell. The Supreme Court ruled in 1969 that Powell had to be seated.
1968 – NBC’s unprecedented on-air announcement, Star Trek will return. Cancelled in 1967 due to low ratings, the fans led by fan Bjo Trimble and supported by a number of vocal science fiction authors, gets a reversal.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1969 – Mickey Mantle of the NY Yankees announced his retirement from baseball.
1971 – A bomb explodes in a men’s room in the United States Capitol: the Weather Underground claims responsibility. Now known to have been planted by Bill Ayres.
1972 – Explosives are set by Kathy Boudin and Bernardine Dohrn, members of the Weathermen, in the first-floor ladies room of the US Capitol building.
1973 – In the Paumanok Handicap at Aqueduct, NYC, Robyn Smith rode North Star to victory, becoming the first woman jockey to win a stakes race.
1974 – Watergate scandal: Seven are indicted for their role in the Watergate break-in and charged with conspiracy to obstruct justice. Indicted are H.R.Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, Charles Colson, Gordon C. Strachan, John N. Mitchell, Robert Mardian and Kenneth Parkinson.
1975 – “Best of My Love” by the Eagles topped the charts.
1975 – 17th Grammy Awards: “I Honestly Love You”, Marvin Hamlisch won.
1977 – Bank of America adopts the name VISA for their credit cards.
1977 – The US 200-mile fishery conservation zone went into effect. The US extended its territorial waters out to 200 miles to stop fishing by boats of foreign nations.
1978 – “Timbuktu!” opened at Mark Hellinger Theater in NYC for 243 performances.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen, “Yes, I’m Ready” by Teri DeSario with K.C., “Longer” by Dan Fogelberg and “I Ain’t Living Long like This” by Waylon Jennings all topped the charts.
1980 – Voyager 1 probe confirms that Janus (moon of Saturn) exists.
1981 – Roberto C. Goizueta (d.1997) was named CEO of Coca-Cola. Under his direction Coke’s value increased from $5 billion to $150 billion.
1983 – A tornado producing F2 damage touched down in St. Louis, Mo. It later strengthened and produced F3 damage in Illinois causing five million dollars in damage.
1984 – NASA launched Landsat-D Prime (Landsat 5) to map the Earth.
1985 – The Pentagon accepted the theory that an atomic war would block the sun, causing a “nuclear winter.”
1986 – “Kyrie” by Mr. Mister topped the charts.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Father Figure” by George Michael, “What Have I Done to Deserve This?” by Pet Shop Boys & Dusty Springfield, “She’s like the Wind” by Patrick Swayze featuring Wendy Fraser and “I Won’t Take Less Than Your Love” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.
1988 – Pontiac announced the end of the Fiero automobile.
1989 – The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
1990 – Steve Jackson Games is raided by the United States Secret Service, prompting the later formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
1990 – The controversial Seabrook, N.H., nuclear power plant won federal permission to go on line after two decades of protests and legal struggles.
1991 – The US military used new ammunition made of depleted uranium. It produced a toxic debris that US soldiers were not informed about at the time.
1993 – George Steinbenner is reinstated as owner of New York Yankees.
1993 – New expansion NHL team, owned by Disney, is named the Mighty Ducks.
1993 – Authorities near Waco, Texas, continued negotiating with Branch Davidians holed up in their bullet-scarred compound, a day after a furious gun battle between the Davidians and federal agents that left ten people dead.
1994 – Falling four votes shy of a two-thirds majority, the US Senate rejected a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution.
1995 – Yahoo! is incorporated.
1996 – Dr. Jack Kevorkian, who reportedly had assisted more than two dozen suicides, was acquitted of murder for a third time.
1996 – Lenny Wilkens, winningest coach in the NBA, coaches his 1,000th victory. He finished up in 2005 with 1332 wins and 1155 losses.
1996 – A new toll-free 888 area code introduced.
1996 – The Food and Drug Administration approved a powerful new AIDS drug, saying ritonavir could prolong slightly the lives of severely ill patients.
1999 – Iraqi War: US warplanes dropped over 30 laser-guided bombs on military targets in northern Iraq.
1999 – The US General Accounting Office released an audit of the Internal Revenue Service which found chronic problems in the agency’s record-keeping.
1999 – The Service Employees International Union (SEIU) announced a major campaign to organize salaried physicians.
2000 – In 2000, in a rare unanimous vote, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill to allow most Social Security recipients to earn as much money as they want without losing any benefits.
2000 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Classes were cancelled at Buell Elementary School in Mount Morris Township, Michigan, a day after six-year-old Kayla Rolland was fatally shot, allegedly by a fellow first-grader.
2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.
2002 – The space shuttle Columbia with seven astronauts blasted into orbit on an eleven-day mission that included work on the Hubble Space Telescope.
2002 – The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 800 kilometers (500 miles) above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8500 kilograms (9.5 tons).
2002 – NASA scientists said that vast ice fields had been detected under the surface of Mars with a gamma ray spectrometer on the Odyssey orbiter.
2002 – Grand American series driver Jeff Clinton was killed during practice in a crash at Homestead-Miami Speedway.
2003 – Management of the United States Customs Service, Immigration and Naturalization and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security.
2003 – Suspected mastermind of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States was captured in Pakistan. Khalid Sheik Mohammed was believed to be the third ranking member of al-Qaida.
2004 – Terry Nichols is convicted of state murder charges and being an accomplice to Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.
2004 – US officials said the United States has turned over seven Russian citizens who were being held at the U.S. detention center at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
2004 – The California Supreme Court ruled a Roman Catholic charity had to offer birth-control coverage to its employees.
2005 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled that execution of juvenile offenders under the age of eighteen is unconstitutional.
2005 – Dennis Rader, the churchgoing family man accused of leading a double life as the BTK serial killer, was charged in Wichita, Kan., with 10 counts of first-degree murder.
2006 – English-language Wikipedia reaches its one millionth article, Jordanhill railway station.
2007 – A violent storm system ripped apart an Alabama high school as students hunkered inside and later tore through Georgia, hitting a hospital and raising the death toll to at least twenty across the Midwest and Southeast. Eight students died when a tornado struck Alabama’s Enterprise High School.
2007 – The US Army general in charge of Walter Reed Army Medical Center was relieved of command after disclosures about dilapidated buildings and inadequate treatment of wounded soldiers.
2007 – An independent commission concluded the US National Guard and Reserves weren’t getting enough money or equipment.
2007 – Deborah Palfrey (1956-2008) of Vallejo, Ca., was indicted in Washington DC for running a $2 million prostitution ring. She threatened to sell detailed phone records of her clients to pay for her defense.
2008 – The Dow Jones Industrials fell 315.17 points and went into March at 12,266.39 after its fourth consecutive monthly drop. Crude oil prices topped $101 a barrel.
2009 – The United States Coast Guard searches Florida’s west coast for a fishing vessel carrying National Football League players Marquis Cooper and Corey Smith.
Their bodies were never found.
2010 – The US Department of Transportation furloughed nearly 2,000 employees without pay as the government began to feel the impact of Republican Sen. Jim Bunning’s one-man blockage of legislation that would keep a host of federal programs operating.
2011 – Archaeologists recover six cannons from the ships of Welsh privateer Henry Morgan off the coast of Panama.
2011 – Actor Charlie Sheen loses custody of his two sons Bob and Max following claims by their mother Brooke Mueller that he made threats of domestic violence.
2012 – T.J. Lane, perpetrator of the Chardon High School shooting, is charged with three counts of aggravated murder, two counts of aggravated attempted murder, and one count of felonious assault.
2012 – Martin O’Malley, the Governor of Maryland, signs a law legalizing gay marriage in that state.
2013 – A presidential-designed sequestration to reduce the cost of government went into effect. First time ever in U.S. history.
1732 – William Cushing, 2nd Chief Justice of the United States. He was the longest-serving of the Court’s original members, sitting on the bench for 21 years. Had he accepted George Washington’s appointment, he would have become the third Chief Justice of the United States. (d. 1810)
1810 – Frédéric Chopin was a composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish composer, and one of music’s greatest tone poets. (d. 1849)
1837 – William Dean Howells, American writer, historian, and politician (d. 1920) 1871 – Ben Harney, American composer and ragtime pianist (d. 1938)
1904 – Paul Hartman, American actor (d. 1973)
1904 – Glenn Miller, American bandleader (d. 1944)
1910 – David Niven, English actor (d. 1983)
1914 – Harry Caray, American sportscaster (d. 1998)
1922 – Yitzhak Rabin, Prime Minister of Israel, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1995)
1926 – Pete Rozelle, American commissioner of the NFL (d. 1996)
1927 – Robert Bork, American legal scholar
1935 – Robert Conrad, American actor
1942 – Richard Bowman Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1944 – Roger Daltrey, English musician (The Who)
1945 – Dirk Benedict, American actor best known for playing the characters Lt. Templeton “The Faceman” Peck in The A-Team television series and Lieutenant Starbuck in the original Battlestar Galactica film and television series.
1946 – Lana Wood, American actress is the younger sister of actress Natalie Wood.
1954 – Catherine Bach, American actress She is best known for playing Daisy Duke in the television series The Dukes of Hazzard
1954 – Ron Howard, American actor and director
1984 – Naima Mora, American model
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters and Service Company, 3d Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and Date: Fire Support Base Tomahawk, Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 1st, 1969. Entered service at: Chicago, 111. Born: 18 May 1950, Michigan City, Ind. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a mortar man with Headquarters and Service Company 3d Battalion, against the enemy. Early in the morning Pfc. Bruce was on watch in his night defensive position at Fire Support Base Tomahawk when he heard movements ahead of him. An enemy explosive charge was thrown toward his position and he reacted instantly, catching the device and shouting to alert his companions. Realizing the danger to the adjacent position with its two occupants, Pfc. Bruce held the device to his body and attempted to carry it from the vicinity of the entrenched Marines. As he moved away, the charge detonated and he absorbed the full force of the explosion. Pfc. Bruce’s indomitable courage, inspiring valor and selfless devotion to duty saved the lives of three of his fellow Marines and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Leap Year Day
February 29 in the Gregorian calendar is a date that occurs only once every four years, in years evenly divisible by 4, such as 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 or 2016 (with the exception of century years not divisible by 400, such as 1900). These are called leap years.The Egyptians were the first to come up with the idea of adding a leap day once every four years to keep the calendar in sync with the solar year. Later, the Romans adopted this solution for their calendar, and they became the first to designate February 29 as the leap day. Roman general Julius Caesar implemented the first leap day in his Julian Calendar, which he introduced in 45 BCE (Before Common Era).
It is however slightly inaccurate to calculate an additional 6 hours each year as the time actually taken for the earth to complete a revolution around the sun is in fact 365 days, 5 hours and 49 minutes. To compensate for the 11 minutes difference, a century year that ends in two zeros is not a leap year unless it is also evenly divisible by 400. This means that 1600 and 2000 were leap years, as will be 2400 and 2800, but 1800 and 1900 were not, and neither will 2100 and 2200 be. To correct the remaining error (which amounts to one day every 3236 years) it has been proposed that years evenly divisible by 4,000 should not be leap years; but this rule has not been officially adopted.Although the modern calendar counts a year as 365 days, a complete revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days and 6 hours. Every four years, as an extra 24 hours have accumulated, one extra day is added to keep the count coordinated with the sun’s apparent position.
Famous Birth Events
According to the Guinness Book of Records, the only verified example of a family producing three consecutive generations born on February 29 is that of the Keogh family in the United Kingdom. Peter Anthony Keogh’s date of birth – 29.02.1940, Peter EricKeogh – date of birth 29.02.1964… Bethany Wealth Keogh – date of birth 29.02.1996!
A Norwegian family named Henriksen from Andenes holds the official record of number of children born on February 29. Mrs. Karin Henriksen gave birth to three children on consecutive February 29th’s; her daughter Heidi in 1960 and her sons Olav and Leif-Martin in 1964 and 1968 respectively.
When Women Ask Men To Marry Them
According to an old Irish legend, or possibly history, St Bridget struck a deal with St Patrick to allow women to propose to men – and not just the other way around – every 4 years. This is believed to have been introduced to balance the traditional roles of men and women in a similar way to how Leap Day balances the calendar.
In some places, Leap Day has been known as “Bachelors’ Day” for the same reason. A man was expected to pay a penalty, such as a gown or money, if he refused a marriage proposal from a woman on Leap Day.
Proverbs 2: 6-9
6 For the Lord grants wisdom! His every word is a treasure of knowledge and understanding. 7-8 He grants good sense to the godly—his saints. He is their shield, protecting them and guarding their pathway. 9 He shows how to distinguish right from wrong, how to find the right decision every time.
“Every man has in politics as well as religion a right to think and speak and act for himself, I must judge for myself, but how can I judge, how can any man judge, unless his mind has been opened and enlarged by reading? A man who can read will find… rules and observations that will enlarge his range of thought and enable him the better to judge who has and who has not that integrity of heart and that compass of knowledge and understanding which form the statesman.”
Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all the others.
~ Marcus Tullius Cicero
A deep narrow wooded valley; dell
45 BC – The first Leap Day was recognized by proclamation of Julius Caesar. Under the old Roman calendar the last day of February was the last day of the year.
1288 – Scotland established this day as one when a woman could propose marriage to a man. In the event that he refused the proposal he was required to pay a fine.
1504 – Christopher Columbus uses his knowledge of a lunar eclipse that night to convince Native Americans to provide him with supplies.
1692 – Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba, an Indian servant, were accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, sparking the hysteria that started the Salem Witch Trials.
1704 – Queen Anne’s War: French forces and Native Americans stage a raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing and capturing 156 men, women, and children.
1780 – The Omicron Delta Omega fraternity was founded by Benjamin Franklin at James Madison University.
1796 – The Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain comes into force, facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
1864 – Civil War: Kilpatrick-Dahlgren Raid fails – Plans to free 15,000 Union soldiers being held near Richmond, Virginia are thwarted.
1864 – Civil War: Lt. William B. Cushing led a landing party from the USS Monticello to Smithville, NC, in an attempt to capture Confederate Brig. Gen. Louis Hebert, only to discover that Hebert and his men had already moved on Wilmington.
1892 – St. Petersburg, Florida incorporated.
1904 – First athletic letters given: to University of Chicago football team.
1904 – Theodore Roosevelt, appoints 7-man Panama Canal Commission to proceed with completing a canal at the Isthmus.
1916 – Child labor: In South Carolina, the minimum working age for factory, mill, and mine workers is raised from twelve to fourteen years old.
1920 – Walt Disney starts first job as an artist; $40 week with Kansas City Slide Co.
1924 – Ice cream cone rolling machine patented by Carl Taylor, Cleveland, OH.
1932 – TIME magazine features eccentric American politician William “Alfalfa Bill” Murray on its cover after Murray stated his intention to run for President of the United States.
1932 – Bing Crosby and the Mills Brothers teamed up to record “Shine” for Brunswick Records.
1936 – Baby Snooks, played by Fanny Brice, debuts on the radio program The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air.
1936 – The Second Neutrality Act is passed, extending the act of 1935 to May 1, 1937 but adding a prohibition against granting any US loans or credits to belligerents.
1940 – “Gone with the Wind” won eight Academy Awards, including best picture of the year – 1939. Victor Fleming was named best director, Vivien Leigh best actress, and Hattie McDaniel best supporting actress for her role as “Mammy“, the first black performer to receive an Oscar.
1940 – United States population: 131,669,275. Black population: 12,865,518 (9.8 per cent).
1940 – In a ceremony held in Berkeley, California, because of the war, physicist Ernest Lawrence receives his 1939 Nobel Prize in Physics from the Sweden’s Consul General in San Francisco.
1944 – World War II: The Admiralty Islands are invaded in the American General Douglas MacArthur-led Operation Brewer. US forces caught Japanese troops off-guard and easily took control.
1944 – The first woman appointed secretary of a national political party was named to the Democratic National Committee. Dorothy McElroy Vredenburgh of Alabama began her new appointment this day.
1944 – The Office of Defense Transportation, for the second year, restricted attendance at the Kentucky Derby to residents of the Louisville area so that the railroads would not be overburdened by passenger traffic during wartime.
1944 – World War II: German forces continue limited attacks on the Anzio beachhead; there is a heavy artillery bombardment. Poor weather prevents a full-scale effort.
1952 – Men’s Figure Skating Championship in Paris won by Richard Button USA.
1952 – In New York City, four signs were installed at 44th Street and Broadway in Times Square that told pedestrians when to walk.
1952 – Owen Lattimore, one of the more famous figures of the “Red Scare” in the United States during the 1950s, testifies before a Senate subcommittee that he might have been inaccurate in some of his previous testimony. In modern parlance he “may have misspoke.”
1956 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower announces to the nation that he is running for a second term.
1960 – The first Playboy Club, featuring waitresses clad in “bunny” outfits, opened in Chicago. Hugh Hefner closed the corporate-owned clubs in 1986, calling them “passe.” It opened in Chicago on 116 E. Walton Street.
1964 – Stanley Kubrick’s “Dr. Strangelove” premieres.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick, “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1968 – At the Grammy Awards, the Fifth Dimension’s “Up, Up and Away” won record of the year for 1967, Beatles’ “Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band” also wins a Grammy.
1968 – National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (the Kerner Commission) said white racism was the fundamental cause of the riots in American cities. The commission said America was “moving toward two societies, one Black, one white, separate and unequal.
1972 – John Lennon’s U.S. immigration visa expired. It was the beginning of a 3 1/2 year fight for Lennon to stay in the U.S.
1972 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization – South Korea withdraws 11,000 of its 48,000 troops from Vietnam.
1972 – “American Pie” by Don McLean topped the charts.
1972 – Henry “Hank” Aaron became the first baseball player to sign a baseball contract for $200,000 a year.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Theme from S.W.A.T.” by Rhythm Heritage, “Love Machine (Part 1)” by The Miracles, “All by Myself” by Eric Carmen and “Good Hearted Woman” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1980 – Buddy Holly’s glasses and the Big Bopper’s wristwatch were found in old police files by the Mason City Sheriff. The items were worn by the men when their plane crashed of February 3, 1959.
1980 – President Carter signed a law that renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Range to the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and more than doubled its size.
1980 – Gordie Howe of the then Hartford Whalers makes NHL history as he scores his 800th goal.
1988 – New York City Mayor Koch called President Reagan a “WIMP” in the War On Drugs.
1988 – “Day by Day” premiered on NBC-TV.
1992 – CHART TOPPERS – “To Be with You” by Mr. Big, “I’m Too Sexy” by R*S*F (Right Said Fred), “Remember the Time” by Michael Jackson and “What’s She Doing Now” by Garth Brooks all topped the charts. This is the last entry of Chart Toppers!!
1996 – Novelist Joan Collins awarded US $1 million from Random House for breach of contract.
2000 – This leap day is the last in a turn-of-the-century leap year until February 29, 2400.
2000 – Six-year-old Dedrick Owens shoots and kills Kayla Rolland, also six-years old, at Theo J. Buell Elementary School in Mount Morris Township, Michigan.Owens fatally shot 6-year-old Kayla Rolland in the presence of a teacher and 22 students while they were moving up a floor on the stairs, saying to her “I don’t like you” before pulling the trigger. Because of his age he was not convicted of murder.
2000 – Sparky Anderson was elected to the baseball Hall of Fame along with Turkey Stearnes of the Negro leagues and 19th-century second baseman Bid McPhee.
2000 – Doris Haddock (90), known as “Granny D.” completed a 3,200 mile trek to Washington from California to urge Congress to enact reforms.
2004 – In the Academy Awards “The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King” (2:58:35) won a record-tying 11 awards, taking best picture and sweeping each of its categories.
2008 – The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the US Navy must protect endangered whales from the potentially lethal effects of underwater sonar during anti-submarine training.
2008 – A divided Virginia Supreme Court affirmed the nation’s first felony conviction for illegal spamming, ruling that Virginia’s anti-spamming law does not violate free-speech rights.
2008 – Ricin is found in a Las Vegas hotel room of a man who was admitted to the hospital in mid-February. The area affected is under quarantine. Officials do not suspect any relation with terrorism.
2008 – A White House official resigns after admitting to plagiarism in columns published by the Fort Wayne, Indiana News-Sentinel.
2012 – Davy Jones of The Monkees dies in Florida of a heart attack.
2012 -Tornadoes hit the midwestern United States with twelve people killed, six in Harrisburg, Illinois.
2012 – A Utah woman gave birth for the third time on a consecutive Leap Day, tying a record set in the 1960s. The only other known case of triple Leap Day babies is from a family in Norway, which recorded Feb. 29 births in 1960, 1964 and 1968, according to the Guinness World Records press office.
2016 – Phoenix, Az broke a new heat record of 86 degrees. The previous record was 84° set in 1976.
1468 – Pope Paul III (d. 1549)
1568 – Juan Bautista Comes, Spanish composer (d. 1643)
1692 – John Byrom, English poet (d. 1763)
1724 – Eva Marie Veigel, ballet dancer and wife of actor David Garrick (d. 1822)
1736 – Ann Lee, American founder of Shakers (d. 1784)
1828 – Emmeline B. Wells, American women’s rights advocate (d. 1921)
1836 – Dickey Pearce, American baseball player and manager (d. 1908)
1860 – Herman Hollerith, American statistician (d. 1929)
1892 – Ed Appleton, American baseball player (d. 1932)
1892 – Augusta Savage, Black sculptor (d. 1962)
1896 – Roy Parker, baseball player (d. 1954)
1896 – William A. Wellman, American film director (d. 1975)
1904 – Jimmy Dorsey, American bandleader (d. 1957)
1904 – Pepper Martin, baseball player (d. 1965)
1908 – Dee Brown, American writer (d. 2002)
1916 – Dinah Shore, American singer and actress (d. 1994)
1920 – Arthur Franz, American actor (d. 2006)
1920 – James Mitchell, American actor (d. 2010)
1920 – Rolland W. Redlin, American politician (d. 2011)
1924 – Al Rosen, American baseball player
1928 – Vance Haynes, American archaeologist
1928 – Tempest Storm, Burlesque star and stripper
1932 – Paul Giel, American baseball player (d. 2002)
1932 – Gene Golub, American mathematician (d. 2007)
1932 – Masten Gregory, American F1 Driver (d. 1985)
1936 – Jack Lousma, American astronaut
1940 – William H. Turner, Jr. American horse trainer
1944 – Dennis Farina, American actor
1944 – Phyllis Frelich, American actress
1944 – Steve Mingori, American baseball player (d. 2008)
1948 – Ken Foree, American actor
1952 – Al Autry, American baseball player
1952 – Sharon Dahlonega Raiford Bush, American TV personality
1952 – Tim Powers, American writer
1952 – Bart Stupak, American congressman
1956 – Jerry Fry, American baseball player
1960 – Bill Long, American baseball player
1960 – Tony Robbins, American motivational speaker
1968 – Chucky Brown, American basketball player
1968 – Bryce Paup, American football player
1988 – Bobby Sanguinetti, American ice hockey player
1992 – Caitlin EJ Meyer, American actress
No Events That Caused the Medal of Honor to be Received Occurred On This Date.
Republican Party Birthplace
On February 28, 1854, some thirty opponents of the Nebraska Act , meeting at a school house in Ripon, WI called for the organization of a new political party and suggested that Republican would be the most appropriate name. The radicals also took a leading role in the creation of the Republican Party in many northern states during the summer of 1854. While conservatives and many moderates were content merely to call for the restoration of the Missouri Compromise or a prohibition of slavery extension, the radicals insisted that no further political compromise with slavery was possible.
The February 1854 meeting was the first political meeting of the group that would become the Republican Party. The first meeting by a group that called itself “Republican” took place later in 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. Both cities, along with Exeter, New Hampshire bill themselves as the “Birthplace of the Republican Party,” however, Jackson is most often associated with this idea, as the event taking place was the first official Republican Party meeting. The modern Ripon Society, a Republican think tank, takes its name from Ripon, Wisconsin.
Jackson is the birthplace of the Republican Party. Undisputed is the fact that the first official meeting of the group, a state convention of anti-slavery men, that actually called itself “Republican”, was held in Jackson MI under the Oaks on July 6, 1854. was held in Jackson to found a new political party. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” had been published two years earlier, causing increased resentment against slavery, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of May, 1854, threatened to make slave states out of previously free territories. Since the convention day was hot and the huge crowd could not be accommodated in the hall, the meeting adjourned to an oak grove on “Morgan’s Forty” on the outskirts of town. Here a state-wide slate of candidates was selected and the Republican Party was born. Winning an overwhelming victory in the elections of 1854, the Republican party went on to dominate national parties throughout the nineteenth century.”Earlier meetings of groups that later formed the Republican Party were held in Ripon, Wisconsin, Exeter, New Hampshire and Crawfordsville, Iowa, and all four cities bill themselves as the “Birthplace of the Republican Party.”
Former New Hampshire governor Hugh Gregg, claimed that the United States Republican Party was born in Exeter on October 12, 1853 at the Squamscott Hotel, but nothing came of the secret meeting of Amos Tuck with other abolitionists that day, and the party was not organized in the state until 1856. John C. Fremont was the first Republican Presidential candidate but did not win. The first to win in 1860 was Abraham Lincoln.
Psalm 119: 33-37
Teach me, O Lord, the way of Your statutes, And I shall keep it to the end.
34 Give me understanding, and I shall keep Your law; Indeed, I shall observe it with my whole heart.
35 Make me walk in the path of Your commandments, For I delight in it.
36 Incline my heart to Your testimonies, And not to covetousness.
37 Turn away my eyes from looking at worthless things, And revive me in Your way.[a]
“Every master of slaves is born a petty tyrant. They bring the judgment of heaven on a Country. As nations cannot be rewarded or punished in the next world they must be in this. By an inevitable chain of causes and effects Providence punishes national sins, by national calamities.”
— George Mason, to the Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia, August 22, 1787
“Never stop. One always stops as soon as something is about to happen.”
~ Peter Brook
Poor choice of words.
From Greek caco- (bad) + -logy (word).
1646 – Roger Scott was tried in Massachusetts for sleeping in church.
1692 – Salem witch hunt begins.The Salem witch trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693. More than 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft—the Devil’s magic—and 20 were executed.
1704 – Indians attacked Deerfield, Mass., killing 40 and kidnapping 100.
1704 – Elias Neau, a Frenchman, opened school for Blacks in New York City.
1708 – A slave revolt in Newton, Long Island, NY, left 11 dead.
1784 – John Wesley charters the Methodist Church. His teaching emphasized field preaching along with piety, probity and respectability.
1787 – Charter granted establishing the institution now known as the University of Pittsburgh.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.
1810 – The first US fire insurance joint-stock company was organized in Philadelphia.
1827 – The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is incorporated. It becomes the first railroad in America that offers commercial transportation of both people and freight.
1844 – A gun, “the Peacemaker”, onboard the USS Princeton explodes while the boat is on a Potomac River cruise. killed in the explosion were Armistead, the slave and personal valet of President John Tyler; David Gardiner, father of Julia Gardiner, President Tyler’s fiancée; Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer; Beverly Kennon, the Navy’s chief of construction; Virgil Maxcy, American chargé d’affaires to Belgium and Secretary of State Abel Upshur. Twenty more were injured.
1847 – Mexican-American War: Colonel Alexander Doniphan and his Missouri Mounted Volunteers were victorious at the Battle of Sacramento during the war.
1848 – The House of Representatives and the Senate, acting on the proposal of President-elect Polk, adopt a joint resolution for the annexation of Texas. This was a procedure to bypass the requirement of a two-thirds vote of the Senate alone to ratify a treaty.
1849 – Regular steamboat service from the west to the east coast of the United States begins with the arrival of the SS California in San Francisco Bay, 4 months 21 days after leaving New York Harbor.
1850 – The University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah.
1854 – The Republican Party was organized in Jackson, Michigan. (Three other cities, including Ripon, Wisconsin, also claim to be the party’s birthplace.) About 50 slavery opponents began the new political group.
1859 – Arkansas legislature required free Blacks to choose between exile and enslavement.
1861 – Colorado is organized as a United States territory.
1863 – Civil War: Four Union gunboats destroyed the CSS Nashville near Fort McAllister, Ga.
1864 – Civil War: A major Union cavalry raid begins when General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick leads 3,500 troopers south from Stevensburg, Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Feb 28-Mar 3, a skirmish took place at Albemarle County, Virginia (Burton’s Ford).
1871 – The Second Enforcement Act set federal control of congressional elections.
1878 – US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate. The Bland-Allison Act required the Treasury to purchase at market levels between two million and four million troy ounces of silver bullion every month to be coined into dollars.
1883 – The first vaudeville theater opens in Boston, Massachusetts. The Bijou Theater, a lavishly appointed, state-of-the-art, fireproof theater, set the standard for the shape of things to come. At the Bijou, Benjamin Franklin Keith established a “fixed policy of cleanliness and order.”
1885 – The American Telephone and Telegraph Company is incorporated in New York State as the subsidiary of American Bell Telephone. (American Bell would later merge with its subsidiary.) It was capitalized on only $100,000 and provided long distance service for American Bell.
1893 – Launching of USS Indiana (BB-1). She was the lead ship of her class and the first battleship in the United States Navy comparable to foreign battleships of the time.
1893 – Edward G. Acheson received his patent for an abrasive called Carborundum.
1916 – Haiti became the first U.S. protectorate.
1924 – U.S. troops were sent to Honduras to protect American interests during an election conflict.
1928 – Marines participated in the Battle of Bromaderos, Nicaragua.
1925 – “Tea For Two” by Marion Harris hit #1.
1928 – Smokey the Bear was created.
1930 – “On the Sunny Side of the Street” is recorded by Ted Lewis and his orchestra.
1932 – African American Richard Spikes invented/patented automatic gear shift.
1933 – Francis Perkins was appointed Secretary of Labor, the first female Cabinet member.
1933 – Gleichschaltung: The Reichstag Fire Decree is passed in Germany a day after the Reichstag fire.
1935 – Nylon is discovered by Wallace Carothers for Dupont.
1936 – Samuel Maverick Jr. (99), San Antonio banker, died. During the Civil War he served in Terry’s Texas Rangers, a Confederate regiment, He was the last surviving member of that organization.
1939 – The word “Dord” is discovered in the Webster’s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, prompting an investigation.
1940 – Basketball is televised for the first time (Fordham University vs. the University of Pittsburgh in Madison Square Garden).
1942 – Race riot at the Sojourner Truth Homes in Detroit.
1942 – World War II: Japanese landed in Java, the last Allied bastion in Dutch East Indies.
1942 – World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Houston (CA-30) is sunk in the Battle of Sunda Strait with 693 crew members killed.
1943 – Porgy and Bess opened on Broadway with Anne Brown and Todd Duncan in starring roles.
1943 – World War II: The Norsk Hydro power station near Ryukan is badly damaged by a sabotage team of Norwegian soldiers who have been parachuted in from Britain. This plant was known to be used by the Germans to produce “heavy water” for atomic research.
1944 – World War II: German forces launch a second offensive against the Anzio beachhead held by forces of the US 6th Corps (Truscott). Four German divisions attack on either side of the Cisterna-Anzio road. Defended by the US 3rd Division. German forces fail to break through.
1945 – World War II: There are America landings at Puerto Princesa on Palawan by 8000 men of 41st Infantry Division (ORARNG). Admiral Fechteler leads a bombardment group of cruisers and destroyers and there is also support from land-based aircraft. There is little Japanese resistance to the landings.
1945 – World War II: U.S. tanks broke the natural defense line west of the Rhine and crossed the Erft River.
1946 – World War II: The U.S. Army declared that it would use the V-2 rocket to test radar as an atomic rocket defense system.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1948 – Bud Gartiser set a world record when he cleared the 50-yard low hurdles in 6.8 seconds.
1953 – James D. Watson and Francis Crick announce to friends that they have determined the chemical structure of DNA; formal announcement April 25 following publication in April Nature (pub. April 2).
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1954 – In San Francisco “Birth of a Planet” was aired. It was the first American phase-contrast cinemicrography film to be presented on television.
1954 – The first color television sets using the NTSC standard are offered for sale to the general public. Not many were sold due to cost. The first national color cast (the 1954 Tournament of Roses Parade) occurred on January 1, 1954, it was not until the mid-1960s that color sets started selling in large numbers.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters, “Melody of Love” by Billy Vaughn, “The Crazy Otto (Medley)” by Johnny Maddox and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – Jay Forrester issued a patent for computer core memory. The magnetic core memory was installed on the Whirlwind computer. Core memory made computers more reliable, faster, and easier to make. Such a system of storage remained popular until the development of semiconductors in the 1970s.
1958 – A school bus in Floyd County, Kentucky hits a wrecker truck and plunges down an embankment into the rain-swollen Levisa Fork River. The driver and 26 children die in what is still one of the worst school bus accidents in American history.
1959 – “Stagger Lee” by Lloyd Price topped the charts.
1959 – Discoverer 1, an American spy satellite that is the first object intended to achieve a polar orbit, is launched. It failed to achieve orbit.
1960 – The United States defeats Czechoslovakia 9-4 in ice hockey to win the gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California.
1962 – The John Glenn for President club was formed by a group of Las Vegas Republicans.
1966 – Sandy Koufax & Don Drysdale begin a joint holdout against Dodgers. Both wanted long-term contracts, and at the time most of the media were against them. They sought a three-year, $1.05 million contract to be divided evenly. Drysdale eventually signed for $110,000 and Koufax for slightly more.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1970 – Bicycles were permitted to cross the Golden Gate Bridge.
1972 – Sino-American relations: The United States and People’s Republic of China sign the Shanghai Communiqué.
1974 – After seven years, the United States and Egypt re-establish diplomatic relations.
1975 – AMC introduced the Pacer, the first wide, small car. (AMC – American Motors).
1979 – Ernest Thompson’s play “On Golden Pond,” premiered in New York City.
1980 – Blue crew of USS Francis Scott Key (SSBN-657) launches 4 Trident I (C-4) missiles in first C-4 Operational Test.
1981 – “I Love a Rainy Night” by Eddie Rabbitt topped the charts.
1982 – The FALN, a Puerto Rican Nationalist Group, bombed Wall Street. Four powerful bombs detonated in front of business institutions in New York’s financial district.
1983 – The final episode of M*A*S*H is broadcast in the USA, becoming the most watched television episode in history, with 106–125 million viewers in the U.S. (estimate varies by source).
1984 – New Hampshire held its presidential primary. Ronald Reagan won with 86.1% of the total vote. Gary Hart won the Democratic tally over Walter Mondale and John Glenn.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Livin’ on a Prayer” by Bon Jovi , “Jacob’s Ladder” by Huey Lewis & The News, “You Got It All” by The Jets and “I Can’t Win for Losin’ You” by Earl Thomas Conley all topped the charts.
1990 – US 65th manned space mission STS 36 (Atlantis 6) launches into orbit.
1991 – First Gulf War ends. A cease-fire was announced in Kuwait.
1993 – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents raid the Branch Davidian church in Waco, Texas with a warrant to arrest the group’s leader David Koresh. Four BATF agents and five Davidians die in the initial raid, starting a 51-day standoff. It ended on April 19th.
1993 – U.S. begins airlift of supplies to besieged Bosnia towns.
1994 – Brady Law, imposing a wait-period to buy a hand-gun, went into effect. It amended a 1968 law that prohibited felons from buying guns and imposed a 5-day waiting period for handgun purchases to allow for a criminal record check.
1995 – Denver International Airport (DIA) opens.
1995 – U.S. Marines swept ashore in Somalia to protect retreating U.N. peacekeepers.
1996 – President Clinton and the Congress agreed on a sanctions bill aimed at driving foreign investors from Cuba.
1997 – In North Hollywood, Calif., two heavily armed masked robbers bungled a Bank of America bank heist and came out firing, unleashing their arsenal on police, bystanders, cars and TV choppers before they were killed. Police borrowed high powered semiautomatic rifles from a local gun store to match the fire power of the robbers.
1997 – Smokers must prove they are over 18 to purchase cigarettes in US.
1997 – US Navy medium attack aircraft were retired by order of President Clinton. Any deep-strike mission would be in the hands of the Air Force. Aircraft retired included the A-1 SkyRaider and the A-6 Intruder.
1997 – Ford announced that it planned to phase out production of the Thunderbird (b.1955) until a new generation model in 2000.
1998 – First flight of RQ-4 Global Hawk, first unmanned aerial vehicle certified to file its own flight plans and fly regularly in U.S. civilian airspace.
1998 – “My Heart Will Go On” by Celine Dion topped the charts. From the theme of Titanic.
1999 – In Colombia three US citizens, Terence Freitas, Ingrid Washinawatok and Lahe’ena’e Gay, were kidnapped by FARC rebels.
2001 – The Nisqually Earthquake measuring 6.8 on the Richter Scale hits the Nisqually Valley and the Seattle, Tacoma, and Olympia area of Washington state. It damaged the Washington state capitol, closed Seattle-Tacoma International Airport and injured at least a dozen.
2002 – It was announced that John Madden would be replacing Dennis Miller on “Monday Night Football.” Madden signed a four-year $20 million deal with ABC Sports.
2003 – The United States 9th Circuit Court, based in San Francisco, California, reaffirmed its ruling that the words “Under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance are unconstitutional and, therefore, could not be recited in public schools. It is expected that the Bush administration will appeal to the Supreme Court.
2003 – The FDA announced that every bottle of ephedra would soon bear stern warnings that the popular herb could cause heart attacks or strokes, even kill.
2003 – NASA released video taken aboard Columbia that had miraculously survived the fiery destruction of the space shuttle with the loss of all seven astronauts; in the footage, four of the crew members can be seen doing routine chores and admiring the view outside the cockpit.
2004 – The Bow Mariner, a 570-foot Singapore-flagged tanker off the coast of Chincoteague, Virginia, was carrying 6.5 million gallons of industrial ethanol when it exploded and sank. The Coast Guard rescued six survivors.Three crewmen were known dead and eighteen crew members were left missing.
2004 – It was reported that 80% of Americans claim to believe in God, compared with 62% of the French and 52% of Swedes.
2004 – It was reported that scientists had measured the shortest time interval ever, a mere 100 attoseconds. The “atto” referred to a billionth of a “nano.” An attosecond is 1,000,000.000,000,000,000th of a second or 1 quintillionth.
2005 – The US Mint began distributing new buffalo nickels to banks. The reverse side showed a bolder profile of Thomas Jefferson.
2005 – Federated Dept. Stores announced the acquisition of May Dept. Stores for $11 billion in cash and stock.
2006 – The US Supreme Court voted 8-0 to bar the use of racketeering laws against anti-abortion protesters.
2006 – The San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a resolution (7-3) asking the city’s Democratic congressional delegation to seek the impeachment of President Bush.
2006 – The first Mardi Gras since Hurricane Katrina drew a smaller-than-usual turnout.
2006 – US coffee giant Starbucks Corp said it planned to begin selling Rwandan specialty coffee in 5,000 outlets across the US from next month.
2007 – Jupiter flyby of the New Horizons Pluto-observer spacecraft.
2007 – The US government said the nation has 754,000 homeless people, filling emergency shelters through the year and spilling into special seasonal shelters in the coldest months.
2007 – A federal judge in Miami ruled that suspected al-Qaida operative Jose Padilla was competent to stand trial on terrorism support charges, rejecting arguments that he was severely damaged by 3 1/2 years of interrogation and isolation in a military brig.
2007 – In Michigan, Thomas Katona, a former county treasurer of a Lake Huron vacation community, was ordered to stand trial on charges that he looted $186,500 in public funds for a Nigerian investment scam.
2008 – The Pew Center on the States reported that 1% of adult Americans are in jail or prison, an all-time high that cost state governments nearly $50 billion a year in addition to over $5 billion spent by the federal government. The US led the world in the percentage of residents incarcerated with China a distant second.
2008 – Under threat of legal action San Francisco returned $2.7 million to the US Justice Dept. and promised to pay the rest. This was half of the $5.4 million it had received from 2004-2006 to prosecute alleged border crimes.
2008 – In Las Vegas two vials of ricin were found by a manager at the Extended Stay America motel. Two days earlier police had found firearms and an “anarchist type textbook” there.
2008 – A large explosion hits a shopping mall in Waukegan, Illinois. It appeared to be a gas explosion.
2009 – Paul Harvey (b.1918), news commentator and talk-radio pioneer, died in Arizona. His staccato style made him one of the nation’s most familiar voices.
2009 – In Louisiana 3 ½ years after Hurricane Katrina, the National Guard pulled the last of its troops out of New Orleans, leaving behind a city still desperate and dangerous.
2009 – A fishing boat from Clearwater, Florida, capsized as the four friends were pulling up the anchor. Nick Schuyler was rescued on March 2. Oakland Raiders linebacker Marquis Cooper, free-agent defensive lineman Corey Smith and former University of South Florida player William Bleakley remained missing. Their bodies were never found.
2011 – The United States freezes $30 billion in Libyan assets.
2011 – Frank Buckles, the last surviving veteran of World War I in the United States, passes away in Charles Town, West Virginia, aged 110. Charles Town was founded by Charles Washington, George Washington’s youngest full brother.
2011 – Hollywood actress and former sex symbol Jane Russell dies at age 89 of respiratory failure in Santa Maria, California.
2011 – Iran threatens to boycott the 2012 Summer Olympics ostensibly because its logo spells Zion.
2012 – A Department of Defense report finds that the partial remains of the victims of the September 11 attacks ended up at a military landfill site.
2012 – Voters in the US states of Michigan and Arizona go to the polls for Republican Party primaries. Mitt Romney wins both states.
2012 – In auto racing, Matt Kenseth wins the Daytona 500 in Daytona, Florida.
2013 – United States v. Manning: Bradley Manning pleads guilty to 10 counts out of 22 against him for leaking classified material in the WikiLeaks case.
2013 – Pope Benedict XVI completes his last day of work before he starts his retirement.
2013 – A Duke research scientist announces that he has successfully connected the brains of two rats in such a way that they share information.
2013 – Revised data indicates that the United States economy grew 0.1% in the fourth quarter of 2012.
2016 – A Baptist pastor was allegedly shot and killed by his brother today during services at his Dayton, Ohio.WDTN-TV. The Rev. William B. Schooler, 70, was fatally shot at St. Peter’s Missionary Baptist Church early Sunday afternoon, according to the Montgomery County Coroner’s Office.
1670 – Benjamin Wadsworth, American President of Harvard University (d. 1737)
1896 – Philip Showalter Hench was an American physician who, with E. C. Kendall, in 1948 successfully applied an adrenal hormone (later known as cortisone) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis at the Mayo Clinic. (d. 1965)
1915 – Zero Mostel was an American actor of stage and screen, best known for his portrayal of comic characters. (d. 1977)
1921 – Pierre Clostermann, French World War II pilot . Along withnumerous French awards he also received the Distinguished Service Cross (USA), Silver Star (USA) and the Air Medal (USA) (d. 2006)
1929 – Hayden Fry, American football coach. He compiled a record of 232 wins, 178 losses, and 10 ties during his 37 year career as a head coach and has been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame.
1930 – Gavin MacLeod, American actor most notable for playing Murray Slaughter on The Mary Tyler Moore Show and Captain Merrill Stubing on The Love Boat.
1940 – Mario Andretti, Italian-American race car driver and one-time F1 world champion
1948 – Steven Chu, American physicist, Nobel laureate and currently the 12th United States Secretary of Energy. As a scientist, Chu is known for his research in cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1997.
1948 – Bernadette Peters, American actress and singer .
1969 – Patrick Monahan, American singer (Train) .
1970 – Daniel Handler, American writer, better known as Lemony Snicket
*ANDERSON, JAMES, JR.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, 2d Platoon, Company F, 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, February 28th, 1967. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 22 January 1947, Los Angeles, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company F was advancing in dense jungle northwest of Cam Lo in an effort to extract a heavily besieged reconnaissance patrol. Pfc. Anderson’s platoon was the lead element and had advanced only about 200 meters when they were brought under extremely intense enemy small-arms and automatic weapons fire. The platoon reacted swiftly, getting on line as best they could in the thick terrain, and began returning fire. Pfc. Anderson found himself tightly bunched together with the other members of the platoon only twenty meters from the enemy positions. As the fire fight continued several of the men were wounded by the deadly enemy assault. Suddenly, an enemy grenade landed in the midst of the Marines and rolled alongside Pfc. Anderson’s head. Unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his personal safety, he reached out, grasped the grenade, pulled it to his chest and curled around it as it went off. Although several Marines received shrapnel from the grenade, his body absorbed the major force of the explosion. In this singularly heroic act, Pfc. Anderson saved his comrades from serious injury and possible death. His personal heroism, extraordinary valor, and inspirational supreme self-sacrifice reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps and upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Suoi Da, Republic of Vietnam, February 28th, 1967. Entered service at: Birmingham, Ala. Born: 26 November 1929, Eutaw, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His platoon was suddenly attacked by a large enemy force employing small arms, automatic weapons, and hand grenades. Although the platoon leader and several other key leaders were among the first wounded, P/Sgt. Leonard quickly rallied his men to throw back the initial enemy assaults. During the short pause that followed, he organized a defensive perimeter, redistributed ammunition, and inspired his comrades through his forceful leadership and words of encouragement. Noticing a wounded companion outside the perimeter, he dragged the man to safety but was struck by a sniper’s bullet which shattered his left hand. Refusing medical attention and continuously exposing himself to the increasing fire as the enemy again assaulted the perimeter, P/Sgt. Leonard moved from position to position to direct the fire of his men against the well camouflaged foe. Under the cover of the main attack, the enemy moved a machine gun into a location where it could sweep the entire perimeter. This threat was magnified when the platoon machine gun in this area malfunctioned. P/Sgt. Leonard quickly crawled to the gun position and was helping to clear the malfunction when the gunner and other men in the vicinity were wounded by fire from the enemy machine gun. P/Sgt. Leonard rose to his feet, charged the enemy gun and destroyed the hostile crew despite being hit several times by enemy fire. He moved to a tree, propped himself against it, and continued to engage the enemy until he succumbed to his many wounds. His fighting spirit, heroic leadership, and valiant acts inspired the remaining members of his platoon to hold back the enemy until assistance arrived. P/Sgt. Leonard’s profound courage and devotion to his men are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and his gallant actions reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Army.
*WILLIS, JOHN HARLAN
Rank and organization: Pharmacist’s Mate First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 10 June 1921, Columbia, Tenn. Accredited to: Tennessee. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Platoon Corpsman serving with the 3d Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, during operations against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, February 28th, 1945. Constantly imperiled by artillery and mortar fire from strong and mutually supporting pillboxes and caves studding Hill 362 in the enemy’s cross-island defenses, Willis resolutely administered first aid to the many Marines wounded during the furious close-in fighting until he himself was struck by shrapnel and was ordered back to the battle-aid station. Without waiting for official medical release, he quickly returned to his company and, during a savage hand-to-hand enemy counterattack, daringly advanced to the extreme frontlines under mortar and sniper fire to aid a Marine Iying wounded in a shellhole. Completely unmindful of his own danger as the Japanese intensified their attack, Willis calmly continued to administer blood plasma to his patient, promptly returning the first hostile grenade which landed in the shell-hole while he was working and hurling back seven more in quick succession before the ninth one exploded in his hand and instantly killed him. By his great personal valor in saving others at the sacrifice of his own life, he inspired his companions, although terrifically outnumbered, to launch a fiercely determined attack and repulse the enemy force. His exceptional fortitude and courage in the performance of duty reflect the highest credit upon Willis and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 16th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: Unknown, 1863-65. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: February 28th, 1870. Citation: Gallantry in various actions during the rebellion.
No Brainer Day
A COWBOY’S TRUCK
You can always tell a cowboy,
By lookin’ at his truck.
It’s like gettin’ on a 2 year old,
You know he’s gonna’ buck.
His truck will have the usual stuff.
But no chrome or fancy wheels.
Just look upon the dash,
And you’ll find his latest deals.
In the back there’ll be a rope, an empty sack,
And maybe a roll or two of wire.
He won’t have a catalytic converter,
‘Cause it may cause a fire.
He’ll have two spares. some used bailer twine,
And half a sack of feed.
His gooseneck hitch is back there too.
For a tail gate, he has no need.
There’ll be some wires runnin’into the side,
Where the trailer lights used to go.
They worked real good one time, but shorted out.
What year he doesn’t know.
The windows aren’t tinted or clean,
And only one of them runs down.
If you look on the floor of the passenger side,
You’ll find a cowboy lost and found.
The rubber cap is off the clutch,
And the windshield, it is cracked.
The rear bumper will have a dent or two.
Where into stuff he’s backed.
The air conditioner; it don’t work,
And hasn’t for sev’ral years.
The last time it was washed,
He paid the help in beers.
But it gets him where ht’s goin’,
And pulls his trailer too.
But since he’s horseback most the time,
For him, it’s good as new!
David J. Dill
Psalm 119: 12 – 16
Blessed are You, O Lord! Teach me Your statutes.
13 With my lips I have declared All the judgments of Your mouth.
14 I have rejoiced in the way of Your testimonies, As much as in all riches.
15 I will meditate on Your precepts, And contemplate Your ways.
16 I will delight myself in Your statutes; I will not forget Your word.
~ Horace Greely
“When I was young, I observed that nine out of 10 things I did were failures, so I did 10 times more work.”
~ George Bernard Shaw
bailiwick \BAY-luh-wik\, noun: A person’s specific area of knowledge, authority, interest, skill, or work.
The office or district of a bailiff.
Bailiwick comes from Middle English baillifwik, from baillif, “bailiff” (ultimately from Latin bajulus, “porter, carrier”) + wik, “town,” from Old English wic, from Latin vicus, “village.”
1560 – The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland.
1776 – A colonial force of North Carolina patriots resoundingly defeats a detachment of Scottish Loyalists at Moore’s Creek Bridge near Wilmington. The battle ended Royal Governor Josiah Martin’s hopes of regaining control of the colony for the British crown.
1782 – In England, the House of Commons votes against waging any further war in America. On March 5th, Parliament enacts legislation empowering the English Crown to negotiate peace with the United States.
1801 – Washington, DC is placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress.
1813 – Congress passed an act to encourage vaccination and appointed a federal agent, Dr. James Smith of Baltimore, Maryland, to distribute smallpox vaccine throughout the country.
1813 – Congress authorizes use of steamboats to transport mail.
1827 – First Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans LA. A street procession in New Orleans was initiated by students, who were home from school in France. They formed a parade of masked marchers on Shrove Tuesday, the day before the period of penance begins on Ash Wednesday.
1836 – Mexican forces under General Jose de Urrea defeated Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio.
1860 – Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union in the city of New York that was largely responsible for his election to the Presidency. “Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith, let us, to the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it.”
1862 – Civil War: Delayed one day by a lack of ammunition for her guns, U.S.S. Monitor, Lieutenant Worden, departed the New York Navy Yard for sea, but was compelled to turn back to the Yard because of steering failure.
1863 – Civil War:Confederate raider William Quantrill and his bushwackers attacked Hickman, Kentucky, shooting women and children.
1864 – Civil War: The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia. It has been described as a “hellhole” and 12,913 of the approximately 45,000 Union prisoners died there because of starvation, malnutrition, and disease.
1864 – Civil War: The sixth and last day of battle at Dalton, Georgia, (about 600 casualties).
1865 – Civil War: A skirmish took place near Sturgeon, Missouri.
1865 – Confederate raider William Quantrill and his bushwackers attacked Hickman, Kentucky, shooting women and children. Entering the town at 10 a.m., the guerrillas plundered stores and homes and abused and beat citizens–women and children included–shooting at them, compelling them to give up their money and setting fire to the buildings.
1867 – Dr. William G. Bonwill invented the dental mallet.
1872 – Charlotte Ray graduates from Howard Law School. She is the first Black lawyer in the U.S.
1879 – Announcement of the discovery of artificial sweetener saccharin.
1883 – Oscar Hammerstein patents first cigar-rolling machine.
1883 – Walter B. Purvis patented hand stamp.
1896 – The “Charlotte Observer” published a picture of an X-ray photograph made by Dr. H.L. Smith. The photograph showed a perfect picture of all the bones of a hand and a bullet that Smith had placed between the third and fourth fingers in the palm.
1900 – Felix Hoffman patented acetyl salicylic acid –aspirin.
1901 – National League Rules Committee decrees that all fouls are to count as strikes except after two strikes. Foul ball records are not kept, but baseball author Bill James once wrote that Roy Thomas, who played in the National League from 1899 to 1911, fouled off 22 pitches in one at-bat.
1908 – Baseball’s sacrifice fly adopted (repealed in 1931, reinstated 1954).
1908 – The forty-sixth star was added to the U.S. flag, signifying Oklahoma’s admission to statehood.
1920 – The Boys’ and Girls’ Bureau, formed in 1919 and headed by Theodore N. Vail, president of AT&T, changed its name to the Junior Achievement Bureau.
1922 – A challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States in Leser v. Garnett.
1925 – Hitler resurrected the NSDAP (Nazi) political party in Munich.
1927 – For the second Sunday in a row golfers in South Carolina were arrested for violating the Sabbath.
1931 – Congress overrides President Herbert Hoover’s veto of the Bonus Loan Bill which allows veterans to obtain cash loans of up to 50% of the value of the veterans’ bonus certificates they had been issued in 1924.
1932 – The Glass-Steagall Act was passed, giving the Federal Reserve the right to expand credit in order to increase money circulation. It separated regular banks from investment banks.
1932 – Explosion in coal mine in Boissevain, Virginia, left 38 dead.
1933 – Reichstag fire: Germany’s parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire. The Reichstag fire was an arson attack. The event is seen as pivotal in the establishment of Nazi Germany.
1939 – Sit-down strikes for civil-rights are outlawed by the US Supreme Court.
1940 – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discovered carbon-14.
1942 – The first observation of radio emission from the sun was made by J.S. Hey.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Java Sea began. Thirteen US warships sank two Japanese war ships.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: The first transport of French Jews left to Nazi Germany.
1943 – The Smith Mine #3 in Bearcreek, Montana, explodes, killing 74 men.
|1943 – The Rosenstrasse protest starts in Berlin. This was a nonviolent protest in Rosenstrasse (“Rose street”) in Berlin in February and March 1943, carried out by the non-Jewish (“Aryan”) wives and relatives of Jewish men who had been arrested for deportation. The protests escalated until the men were released. It was a significant instance of opposition to the events of the Holocaust.
1946 – The fourth “Road” film, “Road to Utopia” (1:25:51) premieres. This typical Bob Hope & Bing Crosby ‘road’ comedy naturally also features Dorothy Lamour. This time, the trio are in Alaska with a map to a gold mine. The map had been stolen from Lamour’s father by two well known thugs from the region.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe, “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1948 – The Federal Trade Commission issued a restraining order, preventing the Willys-Overland Company from representing that it had developed the Jeep. Willys-Overland did, in fact, end up producing the Army vehicle that would come to be known as the Jeep; but it was the Bantam Motor Company that first presented the innovative design to the Army.
1951 – The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, is ratified.
1952 – Korean War: The destroyer USS Shelton sustained three hits from shore batteries. Eleven sailors are wounded, three seriously.
1953 – F-84 Thunderjets raided North Korean base on Yalu River. A year after leaving West Point, Lt. Joe Kingston was en route to Korea, where he, like a lot of others, found himself retreating and advancing in a single day.
1953 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Coos Bay, on Ocean Station Echo, about half-way between Bermuda and the Azores, rescued the entire crew of ten from the US Navy patrol plane that was forced to ditch in the Atlantic Ocean.
1956 – Elvis Presley releases “Heartbreak Hotel“.
1956 – Specialty Records released Little Richard’s “Slippin’ and Slidin’.”
1957 – “Xavier Cugat Show” premieres on NBC.
1959 – Boston Celtic Bob Cousy sets NBA record with 28 assists Boston Celtics score 173 points against Minneapolis Lakers.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – The Miracles made their first TV appearance on “American Bandstand.”
1960 – “Family Circle” comic strip debuted in newspapers. When “Family Circle” magazine complained, cartoonist Bil Keane renamed it “The Family Circus”.
1961 – “Pony Time” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1963 – Mickey Mantle of New York Yankees sign a baseball contract worth $100,000.
1963 – The USSR said that 10,000 troops would remain in Cuba.
1964 – “What Makes Sammy Run?” opened at 84th St Theater in NYC for 540 performances.
1965 – “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & the Playboys topped the charts.
1968 – CBS News anchorman Walter Cronkite‘s commentary on the progress of the Vietnam War solidified President Lyndon B. Johnson‘s decision not to seek reelection in 1968.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)/Everybody is a Star” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Hey There Lonely Girl” by Eddie Holman, “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel and “It’s Just a Matter of Time” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1970 – Jefferson Airplane was fined $1,000 for using profanity during a concert in Oklahoma City.
1971 – “One Bad Apple” by the Osmonds topped the charts.
1973 – The American Indian Movement occupies Wounded Knee, South Dakota. This was the site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux men, women and children. They protested illegal and discriminatory acts on the part of the Pine Ridge Sioux Tribal Council.
1973 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a Virginia pool club could not bar residents because of color.
1974 – People magazine is published for the first time.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Just the Way You Are” by Billy Joel and “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Margo Smith all topped the charts.
1979 – Jane M. Byrne confounded Chicago’s Democratic political machine as she upset Mayor Michael A. Bilandic to win their party’s mayoral primary. Byrne went on to win the election.
1981 – Greatest passenger load on a commercial airliner-610 on Boeing 747.
1981 – Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder record “Ebony & Ivory“.
1981 – Chrysler Corporation was granted an additional $400 million in federal loan guarantees. Chrysler had posted a loss of $1.7 billion in 1980.
1982 – Wayne B. Williams was found guilty of murdering two young black people. 28 bodies had been found in the Atlanta area over a period of 22 months.
1982 – “Centerfold” by the J. Geils Band topped the charts.
1984 – A Pepsi commercial featuring the Jackson’s premiered on MTV.
1985 – In San Francisco the Irwin Memorial Blood Bank said that 80 Bay Area residents have received blood since 1979 from donors who are known to have contracted AIDS.
1986 – The United States Senate allows its debates to be televised on a trial basis.
1987 – NCAA cancels SMU’s entire 1987 football schedule for gross violations of NCAA rules regarding athletic corruption.
1988 – “Father Figure” by George Michael topped the charts.
1988 – Debi Thomas of the United States won the Bronze Medal in women’s figure skating at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada . Debi Thomas became the first African American to win a medal at the Winter Olympics.
1990 – The Exxon Corporation and Exxon Shipping were indicted on five criminal counts in reference to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in1989.
1990 – The US Supreme Court ruled that prison officials could force inmates to take powerful anti-psychotic drugs without a judge’s consent.
1991 – U.S. President George H. W. Bush announces that “Kuwait is liberated.”
1991 – In San Francisco wrecking balls began demolishing the Embarcadero Freeway. The road had been destroyed by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.
1992 – A 79 year-old woman bought a cup of coffee from a McDonalds in Albuquerque, N.M. She was sitting in the passenger seat and in attempting to open the cup, she placed the cup between her knees. The coffee spilled and she suffered shock and third-degree burns to her groin area.
1992 – Tiger Woods (16) became the youngest PGA golfer in 35 years.
1997 – A jury in Fayetteville, N.C., convicted former Army paratrooper James N. Burmeister of murdering a black couple so he could get a skinhead tattoo. He was later sentenced to life in prison.
1998 – The US certified Mexico as a fully cooperating partner in the war on drugs.
1998 – Apple discontinues developing Newton computer. The Newton was an early line of personal digital assistants developed, manufactured and marketed by Apple Computer from 1993 to 1998.
1998 – The journal Science reported that scientists suspected an unknown “repulsive force” to be acting against gravity and speeding the expansion of the universe.
1999 – While trying to circumnavigate the world in a hot air balloon, Colin Prescot and Andy Elson set a new endurance record after being in a hot air balloon for 233 hours and 55 minutes.
2000 – In Germany three teenagers of American soldiers hurled large stones off a pedestrian bridge in Darmstadt and killed Sandra Ottman (20) and Karin Rothermel (41). The teens were convicted of murder and sentenced up to 8 ½ years in prison.
2000 – ABC-TV aired the “The Beach Boys – Endless Summer” TV movie.
2001 – President Bush went before Congress with a $1.9 trillion spending plan that would sharply reduce growth in many government programs while leaving room to give Americans the biggest tax cut in two decades.
2001 – A new US law took effect that granted citizenship to foreign-born children of US citizens.
2002 – In Boston, twenty people working at Logan International Airport were charged with lying to get their jobs or security badges.
2002 – US officials announced a $5 million reward for information in the kidnap-murder in Pakistan of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2003 – Fred Rogers, the host of Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, dies of stomach cancer in his Pittsburgh home at the age of 74. |
2003 – The US Coast Guard Cutter Dallas was ordered to deploy overseas to support Operation Enduring Freedom and to prepare for future contingencies.
2006 -A US soldier was killed by small-arms fire west of Baghdad. At least 2,292 members of the US military have died since the war began, according to an AP count.
2007 – CompUSA said it will close 126 retail stores by the end of May. The restructure would leave 103 stores and include a $440 million cash infusion from parent company US Commercial Corp.
2007 – The Dow Jones industrial average dropped 416.02 points, the worst drop since the 2001 terrorist attacks.
2007 – In San Francisco, a 75-foot wide chunk of Telegraph Hill slid down a granite and sandstone slope above Broadway following recent rains. 120 residents were forced to leave their homes pending repair of the hillside, which could take months.
2007 – A suicide bomber attacked the entrance to the main US military base in Afghanistan during a visit by VP Dick Cheney, killing up to twenty-three people and wounding twenty.
2009 – The government announced that revised statistics showed that the G.D.P. shrank at 6.2% rate at end of 2008.
2009 – President Barack Obama outlined his plan for withdrawing combat troops from Iraq by Aug. 31, 2010.
2009 – The US government said it will exchange up to $25 billion in emergency bailout money it provided Citigroup Inc. for as much as a 36% equity stake in the struggling bank.
2010 – President Barack Obama signed a one-year extension of several provisions in the nation’s main counterterrorism law, the Patriot Act.
2010 – In New York City, a new visitor center opened near the rediscovered cemetery from the 17th and 18th centuries to celebrate the ethnic Africans who had helped to make New York the nation’s commercial capital.
2011 – Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport in Birmingham, AL is evacuated following the discovery of a suspicious package.
2011 – The 83rd Academy Awards are held to honor the best films in 2010 at the Kodak Theater in Hollywood. The King’s Speech won the Academy Award for Best Picture.
2011 – The Wisconsin AFL-CIO warns that hundreds of unionists will risk arrest in trying to prevent police clearing the Wisconsin State Capitol in Madison.
2012 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: T.J. Lane, 18, allegedly entered Chardon High School in Ohio with a .22 caliber handgun and a knife. He shot four students in the cafeteria and one in the hallway before walking out, leaving three dead. Police detained him within a mile of the school. Three students are killed and two injured.
2012 – The 2012 Daytona 500 is postponed to be run at 7pm Monday due to heavy rain in Daytona.
2013 – A Texas high school student has filed a federal lawsuit against her school and her teachers after she was punished for refusing to salute and recite the Mexican pledge of allegiance. Brenda Brinsdon, who is the daughter of a Mexican immigrant and an American father, refused. She believed it was un-American to pledge a loyalty oath to another country. Ironically, the school district has a policy that prohibits a school from compelling students to recite the American Pledge of Allegiance.
2013 – The Kentucky State Senate passed SB129 declaring any new Obama gun law unconstitutional and void. SB129 prohibits any federal agents from enforcing such laws and makes it a crime for them to do so.
2014 – The Kepler telescope discovers 715 new planets. Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars.
1691 – Edward Cave, English editor and publisher. In The Gentleman’s Magazine he created the first general-interest “magazine” in the modern sense. (d. 1754)
1807 – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet (d. 1882)
1831 – Hiram Bond Everest, American cofounder of The Vacuum Oil Company. The Vacuum Oil Company was incorporated in 1866, after obtaining a patent for a new method of distilling kerosene in a vacuum that produced a high-quality lubricant. (d. 1913)
1886 – Hugo Black, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1971) was born in Alabama. He became the 78th Supreme Court Justice (1937-71) and wrote opinions forbidding prayer in schools (Sen-D-Ala).
1892 – William Demarest was an American actor. His most famous TV role was in the ABC sitcom My Three Sons from 1965 to 1972, playing Uncle Charley and having replaced William Frawley, whose failing health had made procuring insurance impossible. (d. 1983)
1896 – The “Charlotte Observer” published a picture of an X-ray photograph made by Dr. H.L. Smith. The photograph showed a perfect picture of all the bones of a hand and a bullet that Smith had placed between the third and fourth fingers in the palm.
1897 – Marian Anderson, American contralto (d. 1993)
1899 – Charles Best – Canadian medical scientist. He was one of the co-discoverers of insulin. (d. 1978)
1902 – Gene Sarazen, American golfer (d. 1999)
1902 – John Steinbeck, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1968)
1907 – Mildred Bailey, American singer (d. 1951)
1910 – Joan Bennett, American actress (d. 1990)
1910 – Clarence “Kelly” Johnson, American aircraft engineer (Lockheed Skunk Works; d. 1990)
1917 – John Connally, Governor of Texas. Connally was a passenger in the car in which President Kennedy was assassinated, and he was seriously wounded in the shooting. (d. 1993)
1927 – Guy Mitchell, American singer (d. 1999)
1928 – Ariel Sharon, former Prime Minister of Israel
1930 – Joanne Woodward, American actress
1932 – Elizabeth Taylor, British-American actress
1934 – Ralph Nader, American consumer activist
1959 – Johnny Van Zant, American singer (Lynyrd Skynyrd)
1980 – Chelsea Clinton, daughter of Bill and Hillary Clinton
*ROOKS, ALBERT HAROLD
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 December 1891, Colton, Wash. Appointed from: Washington. Citation: for extraordinary heroism, outstanding courage, gallantry in action and distinguished service in the line of his profession, as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Houston during the period February 4th to February 27th, February 1942, while in action with superior Japanese enemy aerial and surface forces. While proceeding to attack an enemy amphibious expedition, as a unit in a mixed force, Houston was heavily attacked by bombers; after evading 4 attacks, she was heavily hit in a fifth attack, lost 60 killed and had 1 turret wholly disabled. Capt. Rooks made his ship again seaworthy and sailed within 3 days to escort an important reinforcing convoy from Darwin to Koepang, Timor, Netherlands East Indies. While so engaged, another powerful air attack developed which by Houston’s marked efficiency was fought off without much damage to the convoy. The commanding general of all forces in the area thereupon canceled the movement and Capt. Rooks escorted the convoy back to Darwin. Later, while in a considerable American-British-Dutch force engaged with an overwhelming force of Japanese surface ships, Houston with H.M.S. Exeter carried the brunt of the battle, and her fire alone heavily damaged 1 and possibly 2 heavy cruisers. Although heavily damaged in the actions, Capt. Rooks succeeded in disengaging his ship when the flag officer commanding broke off the action and got her safely away from the vicinity, whereas one-half of the cruisers were lost.\
*WALLACE, HERMAN C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 301st Engineer Combat Battalion, 76th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Prumzurley, Germany, February 27th, 1945. Entered service at: Lubbock, Tex. Birth: Marlow, Okla. G.O. No.: 92, 25 October 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity. While helping clear enemy mines from a road, he stepped on a well-concealed S-type antipersonnel mine. Hearing the characteristic noise indicating that the mine had been activated and, if he stepped aside, would be thrown upward to explode above ground and spray the area with fragments, surely killing 2 comrades directly behind him and endangering other members of his squad, he deliberately placed his other foot on the mine even though his best chance for survival was to fall prone. Pvt. Wallace was killed when the charge detonated, but his supreme heroism at the cost of his life confined the blast to the ground and his own body and saved his fellow soldiers from death or injury.
*WALSH, WILLIAM GARY
Rank and organization: Gunnery Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 7 April 1922, Roxbury, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: For extraordinary gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as leader of an assault platoon, attached to Company G, 3d Battalion, 27th Marines, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces at Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands on February 27th, 1945. With the advance of his company toward Hill 362 disrupted by vicious machinegun fire from a forward position which guarded the approaches to this key enemy stronghold, G/Sgt. Walsh fearlessly charged at the head of his platoon against the Japanese entrenched on the ridge above him, utterly oblivious to the unrelenting fury of hostile automatic weapons fire and handgrenades employed with fanatic desperation to smash his daring assault. Thrown back by the enemy’s savage resistance, he once again led his men in a seemingly impossible attack up the steep, rocky slope, boldly defiant of the annihilating streams of bullets which saturated the area. Despite his own casualty losses and the overwhelming advantage held by the Japanese in superior numbers and dominant position, he gained the ridge’s top only to be subjected to an intense barrage of handgrenades thrown by the remaining Japanese staging a suicidal last stand on the reverse slope. When one of the grenades fell in the midst of his surviving men, huddled together in a small trench, G/Sgt. Walsh, in a final valiant act of complete self-sacrifice, instantly threw himself upon the deadly bomb, absorbing with his own body the full and terrific force of the explosion. Through his extraordinary initiative and inspiring valor in the face of almost certain death, he saved his comrades from injury and possible loss of life and enabled his company to seize and hold this vital enemy position. He gallantly gave his life for his country .
WATSON, WILSON DOUGLAS
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, February 26th and February 27th, 1945. Entered service at: Arkansas. Born: 18 February 1921, Tuscumbia, Ala. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as automatic rifleman serving with the 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division, during action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 26 and 27 February 1945. With his squad abruptly halted by intense fire from enemy fortifications in the high rocky ridges and crags commanding the line of advance, Pvt. Watson boldly rushed 1 pillbox and fired into the embrasure with his weapon, keeping the enemy pinned down single-handedly until he was in a position to hurl in a grenade, and then running to the rear of the emplacement to destroy the retreating Japanese and enable his platoon to take its objective. Again pinned down at the foot of a small hill, he dauntlessly scaled the jagged incline under fierce mortar and machinegun barrages and, with his assistant BAR man, charged the crest of the hill, firing from his hip. Fighting furiously against Japanese troops attacking with grenades and knee mortars from the reverse slope, he stood fearlessly erect in his exposed position to cover the hostile entrenchments and held the hill under savage fire for 15 minutes, killing sixty Japanese before his ammunition was exhausted and his platoon was able to join him. His courageous initiative and valiant fighting spirit against devastating odds were directly responsible for the continued advance of his platoon, and his inspiring leadership throughout this bitterly fought action reflects the highest credit upon Pvt. Watson and the U.S. Naval Service.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1804, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon during the battle of New Orleans, 24 and 25 April 1862; and in the engagement at Fort McAllister, February 27th, 1863. Going on board the U.S.S. Wissahickon from the U.S.S. Don where his seamanlike qualities as gunner’s mate were outstanding, Shutes performed his duties with skill and courage. Showing a presence of mind and prompt action when a shot from Fort McAllister penetrated the Wissahickon below the water line and entered the powder magazine, Shutes contributed materially to the preservation of the powder and safety of the ship.
National Chili Day
Levi Strauss Day
Chili is a spicy stew and is often called chili con carne. The name of the dish derives from the Spanish chile con carne, “chili pepper with meat”. The traditional style is made from chili peppers, garlic, onions, and cumin, along with chopped or ground beef. Beans and tomatoes were not originally included but are certainly now. There are numerous ways to make chili and it is a dish that can stand a lot of changes based on both geographic and personal bases. Other meats that work well are sausage, chirizo, steak and also have a variety of other ingredients. It can be found in many countries in local variations and also in certain American-style fast food restaurants. In Cincinnati, OH It has a unique favor and style of delivery.
The first documented recipe for chili con carne is dated September 2, 1519. The ingredients were boiled tomatoes, salt, chiles and meat. Bernal Diaz del Castillo, one of Hernan Cortez’s Captains and the source of the recipe, states in his book, that the Cholulan Indians, allied with the Aztecs, were so confident of victory in a battle against the Conquistadors the following day that they had “already prepared cauldrons of tomatoes, salt and chiles” in anticipation of a victory feast. The one missing ingredient, the meat, was to be furnished by the Conquistadors themselves: their own flesh. (The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico–Bernal Diaz del Castillo)
The recipe used by American frontier settlers consisted of dried beef, suet, dried chili peppers and salt, which were pounded together, formed into bricks and left to dry, which could then be boiled in pots on the trail.
The San Antonio Chili Stand was in operation at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and helped people from other parts of the country taste and appreciate chili. San Antonio was a significant tourist destination and helped Texas-style chili con carne spread throughout the South and West. Chili con carne is the official dish of Texas as designated by the House Concurrent Resolution Number 18 of the 65th Texas Legislature during its regular session in 1977.
During the 1880s, brightly dressed Mexican women known as “chili queens” began to operate around Military Plaza and other public gathering places in downtown San Antonio. They appeared at dusk, when they built charcoal or wood fires to reheat cauldrons of pre-cooked chili. They sold it by the bowl to passersby. The aroma was a potent sales pitch; mariachi street musicians joined in to serenade the eaters.
In September 1937, the San Antonio Health Department implemented new sanitary regulations that required the chili queens to adhere to the same standards as indoor restaurants. Unable to provide lavatory facilities, the queens and their “street chili” culture disappeared overnight. Although Mayor Maury Maverick reinstated the queens’ privileges in 1939, the city reapplied the more stringent regulations permanently in 1943.
Before World War II, hundreds of small, family-run chili parlors (also known as “chili joints”) could be found throughout Texas and other states, particularly those in which émigré Texans had made new homes. Each establishment usually had a claim to some kind of “secret recipe.”
As early as 1904, chili parlors were opening outside of Texas. After working at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Charles Taylor opened a chili parlor in Carlinville, Illinois, serving “Mexican Chili”. In the 1920s and 1930s chains of diner-style “chili parlors” grew up in the Midwest. As of 2005, one of these old-fashioned chili parlors still exists on Pine Street in downtown St. Louis. It features a chili-topped dish called a “slinger”: two hamburger patties topped with melted American cheese and two eggs, then smothered in chili, all topped off with shredded cheese.
One of the best-known Texas chili parlors, in part because of its downtown location and socially connected clientele, was Bob Pool’s “joint” in Dallas, just across the street from the headquarters of the elite department store Neiman Marcus. Stanley Marcus, president of the store, frequently ate there. He also bought Pool’s chili to send by air express to friends and customers across the country. Several members of General Dwight Eisenhower’s SHAPE staff during the early 1950s were reported to have arranged regular shipments of chili from Pool’s to their Paris quarters.
Here is an authentic chili recipe that gets its regional twist by adding cinnamon. It is typically served over spaghetti and topped with kidney beans, Cheddar cheese and onions.
Makes 8 servings.
Prep Time: 15 minutes
Cook Time: 40 minutes
Cincinnati Spice Blend:
2 tablespoons McCormick® Chili Powder
2 teaspoons sugar
1 1/2 teaspoons McCormick® Cinnamon, Ground
1 teaspoon McCormick® Garlic Powder
1 teaspoon salt
1 1/2 pounds ground beef
1 1/2 cups chopped onions, divided
2 cups water
1 can (15 ounces) tomato sauce
8 ounces spaghetti, cooked
1 can (15 ounces) kidney beans, drained and rinsed
1/2 to 1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
1. For the Spice Blend, mix chili powder, sugar, cinnamon, garlic powder and salt in small bowl. Set aside.
2. Cook ground beef and 1 cup of the onions in large saucepan on medium-high heat until beef is no longer pink; drain fat. Add Spice Blend, water and tomato sauce; bring to boil. Reduce heat to low; simmer, uncovered, 30 minutes, stirring occasionally.
3. Serve chili over spaghetti. Top with kidney beans, cheese and remaining 1/2 cup onions, as desired.
Nutrition per serving
Fat: 12 g
Carbohydrates: 34 g
Cholesterol: 57 mg
Sodium: 712 mg
Fiber: 4 g
Protein: 24 g
Psalm 37: 5-6
Commit your way to the Lord, Trust also in Him, And He shall bring it to pass.
6 He shall bring forth your righteousness as the light, And your justice as the noonday.
“The man who is possessed of wealth, who lolls on his sofa or rolls in his carriage, cannot judge the wants or feelings of the day-laborer. The government we mean to erect is intended to last for ages.”
– James Madison.
“I can change. I can live out my imagination instead of my memory. I can tie myself to my limitless potential instead of my limiting past.”
~ Stephen Covey
quandary KWAHN-duh-ree; -dree,
A state of difficulty, perplexity, doubt, or uncertainty.
1616 – Spanish Inquisition delivers injunction to Galileo. The censure was passed by the theologians based on the concepts of Galileo, to the effect that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable from its place and tells him to abandon the idea.
1732 – First mass celebrated in American Catholic church, (St Joseph’s Church, Philadelphia)
1773 – Construction authorized for Walnut St jail in Philadelphia. It was the first with a built-in solitary.
1775 – British forces land at Salem, Massachusetts to capture the colonists’ arsenal. They are repulsed with no casualties.
1793 – Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury, submits to the Senate the first list of cutters with stations, officers names, rank and dates of commission.
1834 – New York and New Jersey ratified the first US interstate crime compact.
1862 – Civil War: The 2nd Kentucky Cavalry’s Battle of Woodburn, KY.
1863 – President Abraham Lincoln signs the National Banking Act into law.
1863 – In support of the Union, the Cherokee Indian National Council repeals its ordinance of secession.
1864 – Civil War: Boat expedition under the command of Acting Master E. C. Weeks, U.S.S. Tahoma, destroyed a large salt works belonging to the Confederate government on Goose Creek, near St. Marks, Florida.
1869 – The House of Representatives passed the 15th Amendment on February 25, 1869, by a vote of 144 to 44, and the Senate passed the 15th Amendment on February 26. The 15th Amendment stated that “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
1870 – In New York City, the first pneumatic-subway opens. The tunnel was only a block long, and the line had only one car.
1891 – The first buffalo was purchased for Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, . A pair of bison, named Benjamin Harrison and Sarah Bernhardt, was settled in Golden Gate Park following reports that only 1000 were left in the US. As of 2012, there were still bison in the park.
1893 – Two Clydesdale horses set record by pulling 48 tons on a sledge at Nester, Michigan. The load was made up of 50 logs of white pine, piled on a special sledge and pulled across snow for a distance of 284 yards. The logs totalled 36,055 board feet of timber.
1895 – Michael Owens of Toledo, OH patents a glass-blowing machine.
1897 – Sigma Pi Fraternity, International was founded at Vincennes University.
1901 – Boxer Rebellion leaders Chi-Hsin (Chi-hsui) and Hsu-Cheng-Yu were publicly executed in Peking.
1907 – US Congress raised their own salaries to $7500.
1915 – World War I: The first flame-thrower was used by the Germans at Malancourt, Argonnen.
1916 – World War I: General Henri Philippe Petain took command of the French forces at Verdun. A line of bayonets protruding from the earth still testifies to French valor at Verdun in World War I.
1916 – World War I: Germans sank the French transport ship Provence II, killing 930.
1917 – World War I: President Wilson publicly asked Congress for the power to arm merchant ships.
1917 – The Original Dixieland Jazz Band records the first ever jazz record for the Victor Talking Machine Company in New York.
1919 – An act of the U.S. Congress establishes most of the Grand Canyon as a National Park.
1925 – Glacier Bay National Monument established in Alaska.
1926 – Carter G. Woodson started Negro History Week. This week would later become Black History Month.
1929 – Under U. S. Public Law 810, approved by the 17th Congress, the War Department was directed to erect headstones and recognize Confederate grave sites as U.S. War Grave Sites.
1929 – The Grand Teton National Park is created by President Calvin Coolidge.
1930 – First red & green traffic lights installed (Manhattan, New York City.)
1933 – Ground was broken for the Golden Gate Bridge at Crissy Field in San Francisco. Russell Cone was hired to oversee the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge.
1935 – Nazi leader Adolf Hitler signs a secret decree authorizing the founding of the Reich Luftwaffe as a third German military service to join the Reich army and navy.
1935 – New York Yankees release Babe Ruth, he signs with Boston Braves. The Yankees refused to take anything for Ruth — they were happy to give him his release and wished him well in Boston.
1935 – RADAR-Radio Detection & Ranging first demonstrated (Robert Watson-Watt.)
1938 – First passenger ship equipped with radar.
1938 – US female Figure Skating championship was won by Joan Tozzer. US male Figure Skating championship was won by Robin Lee.
1939 – Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of F.D.R. resigned from the Daughters of the American Revolution when it barred the world-renowned singer Marian Anderson, a Black American, from performing at its Constitution Hall in Washington, DC.
1940 – The U.S. Air Defense Command was established at Mitchell Field, Long Island, NY.
1941 – Cowboys’ Amateur Association of America was organized in California.
1942 – World War II: Battle of the Java Sea, Allied Naval Force attacks Japanese invasion convoy.
1942 – World War II: Werner Heisenberg informed Nazis about uranium project “Wunderwaffen.”
1943 – World War II: U.S. Flying Fortresses and Liberators pound German docks and U-boat lairs at Wilhelmshaven, the chief German naval base on the North Sea until the end of World War II, after which its naval installations were dismantled.
1944 – World War II: Allied aircraft raid Rabaul, on New Britain, destroying Japanese munitions dumps.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Accentuate the Positive” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “I Dream of You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Freddy Stewart), “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – In the U.S., a nationwide midnight curfew went into effect.
1945 – World War II: An ammunition dump on the Philippine island of Corregidor is blown up by a remnant of the Japanese garrison, causing more American casualties on the eve of U.S. victory there.
1945 – World War II: During the day, US 8th Air Force bombers drop about 3000 tons of bombs on Berlin; some 500,000 incendiaries are among the bombs.
1945 – The US 1st and 9th Army units are moving rapidly from their bridgeheads over the Our River, along the German-Belgian border,
1946 – A race riot in Columbia, TN, killed 2 people and 10 wounded.
1949 – AQ B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II of the 43rd Bombardment Group, takes off for the first non-stop around-the-world flight from Carswell Air Force Base, Fort Worth, TX. The 23,452 mile journey took 94 hours 1 minute.
1949 – “Powder Your Face With Sunshine“ by Evelyn Knight topped the charts.
1951 – In the US the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, limiting a president to two terms of office, was ratified.
1952 – United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill announces that his nation has an atomic bomb.
1952 – Korean War: Ten Superfortresses, using radar aiming methods, dropped one-hundred tons of bombs on the Sinhung-dong rail road bridge near Huichon in north central Korea, knocking out two spans.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1954 – First typesetting machine (photo engraving) used, Quincy MA.
1954 – Rock and Roll had just been born when Michigan congresswoman Ruth Thompson introduced a bill in the House that would prohibit mailing any pornographic recording. The offense would be punishable by five years imprisonment and a $5,000 fine. Just who would decide what is pornographic, is unclear.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1955 – Billboard reported that the 45rpm single format was outselling the 78s for the first time.
1955 – G.F. Smith became the first aviator to bail out at supersonic speed.
1962 – US Supreme Court disallows race separation on public transportation.
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain of NBA Philadelphia Warriors scored 67 points vs. New York.
1962 – After becoming the first American to orbit the Earth, John Glenn told a joint meeting of Congress, “Exploration and the pursuit of knowledge have always paid dividends in the long run.”
1964 – Lyndon B. Johnson signed a tax bill with $11.5 billion in cuts. It was initially proposed by Pres. Kennedy in Dec, 1962. It slashed the top marginal income tax rate to 70% in 1965 from 91% in 1963.
1964 – Kentucky boxer known to all as Cassius Clay, changed his name to Muhammad Ali as he accepted Islam and rejected Christianity.
1965 – Jimmy Page released his first solo single, “She Just Satisfies.”
1965 – Norman Butler was arrested for the murder of Malcolm X.
1965 – The first contingent of South Korean troops arrives in Saigon.
1966 – Apollo Program: Launch of AS-201, the first flight of the Saturn IB rocket.
1966 – “These Boots Are Made for Walkin‘” by Nancy Sinatra topped the charts.
1966 – Andrew Brimmer becomes the first African American governor of the Federal Reserve Board when he is appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
1968 – Vietnam War: Allied troops who had recaptured the imperial capital of Hue from the North Vietnamese during the Tet Offensive discover the first mass graves in Hue. It was discovered that communist troops who had held the city for 25 days had massacred about 2,800 civilians.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Build Me Up Buttercup” by The Foundations, “Can I Change My Mind” by Tyrone Davis and “Until My Dreams Come True” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1970 – National Public Radio incorporates as a non-profit corporation.
1970 – Beatles release “Beatles Again” (32:50) aka “Hey Jude” album.
1972 – “Without You” by Nilsson topped the charts.
1972 – A coal sludge spill killed 125 people and swallowed 500 homes in Buffalo Creek, W. Va. Over 132 million gallons of water and mud hit 17 little towns along Buffalo Creek.
1973 – Triple Crown horse Secretariat bought for a record $5.7million.
1973 – First airborne mine sweep in a live minefield took place in the Haiphong, Vietnam ship channel by helicopters from Helicopter Mine Countermeasures Squadron Twelve on board USS New Orleans.
1975 – Harry Chapin’s revue “The Night That Made America Famous” opened on Broadway.
1975 – First televised kidney transplant (Today Show).
1976 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “New Kid in Town” by the Eagles, “Love Theme from “A Star is Born” (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand, “Fly like an Eagle” by Steve Miller and “Say You’ll Stay Until Tomorrow” by Tom Jones all topped the charts.
1977 – The Eagles’ “Hotel California” was released.
1977 – The first flight of Space Shuttle Enterprise atop a Boeing 747 took place.
1979 – A total solar eclipse cast a moving shadow 175 miles wide from Oregon to North Dakota before moving into Canada. Last total eclipse of Sun in 20th century for continental US.
1979 – “Flatbush” debuted on CBS-TV.
1983 – Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” (42:24) album goes to #1 & stays #1 for 37 weeks
1984 – US troops withdraw from Beirut. President Ronald Reagan had sent the troops as a peacekeeping force in August 1982.
1984 – Reverend Jesse Jackson acknowledged that he had called New York City: “Hymietown”. Hymie is a offensive slang term used as a disparaging term for a person of Jewish descent.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Careless Whisper” by Wham! featuring George Michael, “Loverboy” by Billy Ocean, “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon and “Baby’s Got Her Blue Jeans On” by Mel McDaniel all topped the charts.
1985 – Chuck Berry received a Lifetime Achievement Grammy.
1985 – At the Grammy Awards ceremony, African-American musicians won awards in several categories. Lionel Richie’s ‘Can’t Slow Down‘ won best album of 1984. Tina Turner’s ‘What’s Love Got to Do With It‘ took the best record slot and earned her the title Best Female Pop Vocalist. The Pointer Sisters won best Pop Group for ‘Jump.’
1987 – Iran-Contra affair: The Tower Commission rebukes American President Ronald Reagan for not controlling his national security staff.
1987 – NBA’s Michael Jordan’s scored 58 points for a Chicago Bull record.
1987 – First release of Beatles compact discs.
1990 – The Sandinistas are defeated in Nicaraguan elections.
1991 – Tim Berners-Lee introduces WorldWideWeb, the first web browser.
1991 – A cease-fire was called by President Bush after 100 hours of ground combat. Following the cease-fire a retreating Iraqi unit stumbled into the Gen. McCaffrey’s 24th infantry division and some 400 Iraqis were reported killed. Army investigations concluded that the Iraqis started the Rumaylah battle.
1991 – Kuwaiti resistance leaders declared themselves in control of their capital, following nearly seven months of Iraqi occupation.
1991 – Gulf War: On Baghdad Radio Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
The aftermath of the first World Trade Center bombing.
1993 – World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center explodes, killing 6 and injuring over a thousand.
1994 – A jury in San Antonio acquitted eleven followers of David Koresh (Branch Davidians)of murder, rejecting claims they had ambushed federal agents; five were convicted of manslaughter.
1997 – President Clinton defended White House fund-raising tactics as “entirely appropriate,” a day after the disclosure of documents putting Clinton at the center of all-out fund-raising efforts.
1997 – US smokers were required proof of age over 18 to purchase cigarettes.
1998 – In Oregon, a health panel rules that taxpayers must help to pay for doctor-assisted suicides.
1998 – A Texas jury rejected an $11 million lawsuit by Texas cattlemen who blamed Oprah Winfrey for price drop after on-air comment about mad-cow disease.
1998 – The US certified Mexico as a fully cooperating partner in the war on drugs.
2000 – Jose Imperatori, vice consul at the Cuban interests section in Washington, was expelled from the US after he refused to leave voluntarily under charges of spying.
2000 – In New York City thousands of people marched to protest the acquittal in Albany of four police officers for the 1999 shooting of Amadou Diallo. Diallo’s parent filed a $61 million suit in April.
2001- Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar ordered the destruction of all statues including the Buddha statues carved into the stone cliffs of Bamiyan, Afghanistan.
2002 – Pharmacist Robert R. Courtney pleaded guilty in Kansas City, Mo., to watering down chemotherapy drugs. Courtney was later sentenced to 30 years in prison.
2003 – Supreme Court ruled that federal racketeering and extortion laws had been wrongly used to try to stop blockades, harassment and violent protests outside clinics.
2003 – To replace the Twin Towers, New York City chose an airy spire that stands taller than any other building in the world at a height of 1,776 feet, designed by Daniel Libeskind.
2004 – The United States lifts a ban on travel to Libya, ending travel restrictions to the nation that had lasted for 23 years.
2004 – A mail bombing injured Don Logan, the diversity director in Scottsdale, Arizona. In 2009 Illinois twins Dennis and Daniel Mahon (58) were indicted for the bombing. They had allegedly intended to promote racial discord on behalf of the White Aryan Resistance.
2005 – Addressing the nation’s governors, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates delivered a scathing critique of U.S. high schools, calling them obsolete and saying that elected officials should be ashamed of a system that leaves millions of students unprepared for college and for technical jobs.
2009 – President Barack Obama unveiled a $3.6 trillion budget and promised to slash federal spending by $2 trillion, even as the administration initially invests large sums of money to revive the faltering economy. The budget included $630 billion to start pushing toward a national health insurance program. Defense Secretary Robert Gates said the Obama administration is reversing an 18-year ban on news coverage of the return of war dead, allowing photographs of flag-covered caskets when families of the fallen troops agree.
2011 -The shuttle Discovery docked with the International Space Station for the last time.
2012 – The 54th Daytona 500 was postponed for the first time in history and will be run the 27th at 12 PM/ET. It was caused by rain.
2013 – Great Plains blizzard: A 71-year-old man is killed in Woodward, Oklahoma, when his roof collapses after a powerful winter storm affecting much of the central United States.
2013 – Chuck Hagel is confirmed by the Senate as the US Secretary of Defense.
2013 – United States researchers announce a flexible battery that can be charged wirelessly and will continue to work when folded, twisted, or stretched.
1564 – Christopher Marlowe, English dramatist (d. 1593)
1672 – Antoine Augustine Calmet, French theologian (d. 1757)
1802 – Victor Hugo, French writer (d. 1885)
1829 – Levi Strauss, German-born clothing designer (d. 1902)
1846 – William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody, American pioneer, officer, and hunter (d. 1917)
1852 – John Harvey Kellogg, American surgeon, advocate of dietary reform. He was an advocate of vegetarianism and is best known for the invention of the corn flakes breakfast cereal with his brother, Will Keith Kellogg. (d. 1943 )
1866 – Herbert Henry Dow, American chemical industrialist (d. 1930)
1882 – Husband E. Kimmel, American admiral (d. 1968)
1887 – William Frawley, American actor. Frawley acted in over 100 films, he achieved his greatest fame playing landlord Fred Mertz on the landmark American television sitcom I Love Lucy. (d. 1966)
1908 – Tex Avery, American cartoonist (d. 1980)
1914 – Robert Alda was an American actor. He was the father of actor Alan Alda. (d. 1986)
1916 – Jackie Gleason, American actor, writer, composer, and comedian (d. 1987)
1918 – Otis Ray Bowen, He served as Governor of Indiana from 1973 to 1981 and as the 4th Secretary of Health and Human Services from 1985 to 1989.
1920 – Tony Randall, American actor (d. 2004)
1921 – Betty Hutton, American actress and singer (d. 2007)
1927 – Tom Kennedy, American game show host
1928 – Fats Domino, American musician
1932 – Johnny Cash, American singer (d. 2003)
1934 – Robert Novak, American political columnist
1945 – Mitch Ryder, American musician (The Detroit Wheels)
1951 – Lee Atwater, American political operative (d. 1991)
1985 – Alexandria Hilfiger, American actress, daughter of Tommy Hilfiger
SWANSON, JON E.
Rank and Organization: Captain, United States Army Place and Date: February 26, 1971 in support of ARVN Task Force 333 in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Entered Service: Denver, CO Born May 1, 1942 Denver, CO. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Captain Jon E. Swanson distinguished himself by acts of bravery while flying an OH-6A aircraft .With two well-equipped enemy regiments known to be in the area, Captain Swanson was tasked with pinpointing the enemy’s precise positions. Captain Swanson flew at treetop level at a slow airspeed, making his aircraft a vulnerable target. The advancing ARVN unit came under heavy automatic weapons fire from enemy bunkers 100 meters to their front. Exposing his aircraft to enemy anti-aircraft fire, Captain Swanson immediately engaged the enemy bunkers with concussion grenades and machine gun fire. After destroying five bunkers and evading intense ground-to-air fire, he observed a .50 caliber machine gun position. With all his heavy ordnance expended on the bunkers, he did not have sufficient explosives to destroy the position. Consequently, he marked the position with a smoke grenade and directed a Cobra gun ship attack. After completion of the attack, Captain Swanson found the weapon still intact and an enemy soldier crawling over to man it. He immediately engaged the individual and killed him. During this time, his aircraft sustained several hits from another .50 caliber machine gun. Captain Swanson engaged the position with his aircraft’s weapons, marked the target, and directed a second Cobra gun ship attack. He volunteered to continue the mission, despite the fact that he was now critically low on ammunition and his aircraft was crippled by enemy fire. As Captain Swanson attempted to fly toward another .50 caliber machine gun position, his aircraft exploded in the air and crashed to the ground, causing his death. Captain Swanson’s courageous actions resulted in at least eight enemy killed and the destruction of three enemy anti-aircraft weapons. Captain Swanson’s extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 9th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Phu Hoa Dong, Republic of Vietnam, February 26th,1967. Entered service at: Eugene, Oreg. Born: 29 January 1932, Lodi, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Sgt. Yabes distinguished himself with Company A, which was providing security for a land clearing operation. Early in the morning the company suddenly came under intense automatic weapons and mortar fire followed by a battalion sized assault from three sides. Penetrating the defensive perimeter the enemy advanced on the company command post bunker. The command post received increasingly heavy fire and was in danger of being overwhelmed. When several enemy grenades landed within the command post, 1st Sgt. Yabes shouted a warning and used his body as a shield to protect others in the bunker. Although painfully wounded by numerous grenade fragments, and despite the vicious enemy fire on the bunker, he remained there to provide covering fire and enable the others in the command group to relocate. When the command group had reached a new position, 1st Sgt. Yabes moved through a withering hail of enemy fire to another bunker fifty meters away. There he secured a grenade launcher from a fallen comrade and fired point blank into the attacking Viet Cong stopping further penetration of the perimeter. Noting two wounded men helpless in the fire swept area, he moved them to a safer position where they could be given medical treatment. He resumed his accurate and effective fire killing several enemy soldiers and forcing others to withdraw from the vicinity of the command post. As the battle continued, he observed an enemy machinegun within the perimeter which threatened the whole position. On his own, he dashed across the exposed area, assaulted the machinegun, killed the crew, destroyed the weapon, and fell mortally wounded. 1st Sgt. Yabes’ valiant and selfless actions saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers and inspired his comrades to effectively repel the enemy assault. His indomitable fighting spirit, extraordinary courage and intrepidity at the cost of his life are in the highest military traditions and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
INGMAN, EINAR H., JR.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Cpl.), U.S. Army, Company E, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Maltari, Korea, February 26th, 1951. Entered service at: Tomahawk, Wis. Born: 6 October 1929, Milwaukee, Wis. G.O. No.: 68, 2 August 1951. Citation: Sgt. Ingman, a member of Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. The two leading squads of the assault platoon of his company, while attacking a strongly fortified ridge held by the enemy, were pinned down by withering fire and both squad leaders and several men were wounded. Cpl. Ingman assumed command, reorganized and combined the two squads, then moved from one position to another, designating fields of fire and giving advice and encouragement to the men. Locating an enemy machine gun position that was raking his men with devastating fire he charged it alone, threw a grenade into the position, and killed the remaining crew with rifle fire. Another enemy machine gun opened fire approximately fifteen yards away and inflicted additional casualties to the group and stopped the attack. When Cpl. Ingman charged the second position he was hit by grenade fragments and a hail of fire which seriously wounded him about the face and neck and knocked him to the ground. With incredible courage and stamina, he arose instantly and, using only his rifle, killed the entire gun crew before falling unconscious from his wounds. As a result of the singular action by Cpl. Ingman the defense of the enemy was broken, his squad secured its objective, and more than one hundred hostile troops abandoned their weapons and fled in disorganized retreat. Cpl. Ingman’s indomitable courage, extraordinary heroism, and superb leadership reflect the highest credit on himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the infantry and the U.S. Army.
JACOBSON, DOUGLAS THOMAS
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 23d Marines, 4th Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, February 26th, 1945. Entered service at: New York. Born: 25 November 1925, Rochester, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with the 3d Battalion, 23d Marines, 4th Marine Division, in combat against enemy Japanese forces during the seizure of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Island, 26 February 1945. Promptly destroying a stubborn 20mm. antiaircraft gun and its crew after assuming the duties of a bazooka man who had been killed, Pfc. Jacobson waged a relentless battle as his unit fought desperately toward the summit of Hill 382 in an effort to penetrate the heart of Japanese cross-island defense. Employing his weapon with ready accuracy when his platoon was halted by overwhelming enemy fire on 26 February, he first destroyed two hostile machinegun positions, then attacked a large blockhouse, completely neutralizing the fortification before dispatching the five-man crew of a second pillbox and exploding the installation with a terrific demolitions blast. Moving steadily forward, he wiped out an earth-covered rifle emplacement and, confronted by a cluster of similar emplacements which constituted the perimeter of enemy defenses in his assigned sector, fearlessly advanced, quickly reduced all six positions to a shambles, killed ten of the enemy, and enabled our forces to occupy the strong point. Determined to widen the breach thus forced, he volunteered his services to an adjacent assault company, neutralized a pillbox holding up its advance, opened fire on a Japanese tank pouring a steady stream of bullets on one of our supporting tanks, and smashed the enemy tank’s gun turret in a brief but furious action culminating in a single-handed assault against still another blockhouse and the subsequent neutralization of its firepower. By his dauntless skill and valor, Pfc. Jacobson destroyed a total of sixteen enemy positions and annihilated approximately seventy-five Japanese, thereby contributing essentially to the success of his division’s operations against this fanatically defended outpost of the Japanese Empire. His gallant conduct in the face of tremendous odds enhanced and sustained the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
International Sword Swallowers Day
Pistol Patent Day (Samuel Colt)
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It did not start that way though because there is no such thing as “pure aluminum”. It was discovered less than 200 years ago and occurs in most kinds of rock but most of the aluminum extracted is taken from bauxite. Of the metallic elements, it is the most abundant, 7.3% by mass of the total crust. Aluminum’s high affinity to bind with oxygen is not found in its naturally occurring elemental state, but only in combined forms such as oxides or silicates.
After oxygen and nitrogen it is the third most common element in the earth. It is one of the lightest metals and a good conductor of heat and electricity. To make it stronger, it is mixed with other metals to make alloys for constructing automobiles, aircraft, and other machines. Because aluminum does not rust, it is easy to melt and reuse. Aluminum can be recycled for less than 5 percent of the cost of making new aluminum. Aluminum can recycling provides over half the aluminum used in making new cans and recycling of all aluminum scrap equals almost half of total aluminum production.
The metal originally obtained its name from the Latin word for alum, alumen. The name alumina was proposed by L. B. G. de Moreveau, in 1761 for the base in alum, which was positively shown in 1787 to be the oxide of a yet to be discovered metal. Finally, in 1807, Sir Humphrey Davy proposed that this still unknown metal be referred to as aluminum. This was then altered further to that of aluminium so to agree with the “ium” spelling that ended most of the elements. This is the spelling that is generally used throughout the world. That is, until the American Chemical Society in 1925 officially reverted the spelling back to aluminum, which is how it is normally spelled in the United States.
Hans Christian Oersted is now generally credited with having been the first to prepare metallic aluminum. He accomplished this in 1825 by heating anhydrous aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam and distilling off the mercury.Frederick Wöhler improved the process between 1827 and 1845 by substituting potassium for the amalgam and by developing a better method for dehydrating aluminum. In 1854 Henri Sainte-Claire Deville substituted sodium for the relatively expensive potassium and, by using sodium aluminum chloride instead of aluminum chloride, produced the first commercial quantities of aluminum in a pilot plant near Paris. Several plants using essentially this process were subsequently built in Great Britain, but none survived for long the advent in 1886 of the electrolytic process, which has dominated the industry ever since.
At one time aluminum was so rare that it was considered a precious metal. Before current process of making it was developed, aluminum was very difficult to extract from its various ores. This made pure aluminum more valuable than gold. Bars of aluminum were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle of 1855, and Napoleon III was said to have reserved a set of aluminum dinner plates for his most honored guests.
As we move toward today we find that aluminum has an on-going and historical presence in the US today. In 1783, a thankful U.S. Continental Congress passed a resolution to keep alive the achievements and memory of George Washington by authorizing the erection of an equestrian statue in his honor. The subsequent history of this seemingly simple commemorative intent is fraught with the foibles of human endeavor. Suffice to say that nothing of substance was done. Finally, in 1848 a consensus among many involved groups was achieved, and the cornerstone of the Washington Monument was laid. It took another 37 years for the monument to be completed and dedicated in 1885.
Just as the Washington Monument is an important symbol for the people of the United States, so also is the aluminum pyramid cap at its apex a symbol for the aluminum industry. Fifty years after its placement by Edgar H. Dix, then chief metallurgist of the Aluminum Company of America (now Alcoa) gave this high accolade when he declared “the crown jewel of the aluminum industry is the cap of the Washington Monument.”
The capping ceremony of December 6, 1884, and the formal dedication of the monument on February 21, 1885, were given front-page publicity in the nation’s newspapers and the aluminum point or apex was creditably described. Hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of people who had never before even heard about aluminum now knew what it was.
Psalm 119: 1-3
Blessed are the undefiled in the way, Who walk in the law of the Lord!
2 Blessed are those who keep His testimonies, Who seek Him with the whole heart!
3 They also do no iniquity; They walk in His ways.
— Alexander Hamilton.
“Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome.”
~ Booker T. Washington
1. To split or divide. (past tense: clove or cleft or cleaved; past participle: cloven or cleft or cleaved)
2. To stick, cling. (past tense and past participle: cleaved)
1779 – The British surrendered the Illinois country to Lieutenant George Rogers Clark at Vincennes, Indiana.
1781 – General Nathanael Greene crossed the Dan River on his way to his March 15th confrontation with Lord Charles Cornwallis at Guilford Court House, N.C.
1791 – The First Bank of the U.S. at Philadelphia became the first national bank chartered by Congress.
1793 – George Washington holds the first Cabinet meeting as President of the United States.`
1799 – First federal forestry legislation authorizes purchase of timber land.
1811 – Congress authorizes first naval hospital.
1836 – Samuel Colt receives an American patent for the Colt revolver. U.S. Patent No. X9430.
1836 – US Showman Phineas Taylor Barnum exhibits Black slave Joice Heth.
1837 – The first practical electric motor in the US is patented by Thomas Davenport.
1837 – Cheyney University was established in Pennsylvania through the bequest of Richard Humphreys, and became the oldest institution of higher learning for Blacks.
1861 – Civil War: The Confederate Marine Corps was organized in Richmond, Virginia.
1862 – Congress establishes the US Bureau of Engraving & Printing. The beginning can be traced to an Act of Congress passed today, 12 Stat. 345 the Legal Tender Act, authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to issue a new currency–United States notes.
1862 – Civil War: U.S.S. Monitor commissioned in New York, Lieutenant John L. Worden commanding. Captain Dahlgren described Monitor as ”a mere speck, like a hat on the surface.”
1862 – Civil War: Confederate troops abandoned Nashville, Tenn., in the face of Grant’s advance. This was the first southern state capital to fall to Union troops. Captain William flew “Old Glory” as the troops entered the city.
1863 – Civil War: Confederates worked feverishly to raise ex-U.S.S. Indianola. They had seen a monstrous gunboat coming down the Mississippi and they blew up the Indianola to prevent its capture. Later they discovered it was a disguised barge.
1863 – Congress creates national banking system and a comptroller of currency. The the new Comptroller of the Currency placed a 10 percent tax on state bank notes to drive them out of business and establish a federal monetary monopoly.
1865 – Civil War: C.S.S. Chickamauga was burned and sunk by her own crew in the Cape Fear River just below Indian Wells, North Carolina.
1866 – Miners in Calaveras County, California, discover what is now called the Calaveras Skull, human remains that supposedly indicated that man, mastodons, and elephants had co-existed.
1870 – Hiram Rhodes Revels, a Republican from Mississippi, is sworn into the United States Senate, becoming the first Black ever to sit in the U.S. Congress. He was sworn in to complete the unexpired term of Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy.
1881 – Phoenix AZ incorporates. “The Phoenix Charter Bill” was passed by the 11th Territorial Legislature. The bill made Phoenix an incorporated city and provided for a government consisting of a mayor and four council members. It was signed by Governor John C. Fremont.
1885 – US Congress condemns barbed wire around government grounds.
1898 – Assistant Secretary of the navy, Theodore Roosevelt sends a highly confidential order to Commodore George Dewey, leader of the Asiatic Squadron, to go to Hong Kong. Dewey is to be prepared to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines should war be declared.
1901 – J.P. Morgan incorporates the United States Steel Corporation.
1902 – John Holland was granted a patent for a submarine.
1908 – First tunnel under the Hudson River (railway tunnel) opens.
1913 – The Sixteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, authorizing the income tax, went into effect.
1919 – Oregon places a 1 cent per U.S. gallon tax on gasoline, becoming the first U.S. state to levy a gasoline tax.
1924 – Ty Cobb, one of the legends of baseball, issued an edict to his team, the Detroit Tigers that forbid players to play the game of golf during training camp.
1925 – Glacier Bay National Monument (now Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve) is established in Alaska.
1928 – Charles Jenkins Laboratories of Washington, DC becomes the first holder of a television license from the Federal Radio Commission.
1930 – The first bank check photographing device patent was issued in the U.S. to its inventor, George Lewis McCarthy, who called it a Checkograph.
1932 – Adolf Hitler obtains German citizenship by naturalization, which allows him to run in the 1932 election for Reichspräsident. He was born in Austria. The German title Reichspräsident literally means Realm President (reich is a German word that roughly means “country”, “realm” or the central or federal level of government).
1933 – The USS Ranger is launched, becoming the first custom-built aircraft carrier.
1933 – Major NFL rule changes (hash mark 10 yards in, posts on goal line).
1940 – First televised (W2XBS, NYC) hockey game (Rangers vs Canadiens) .
1940 – The American envoy Sumner Welles arrives at the start of his European peace mission.
1941 – February strike: First general & physical protest against Nazi anti-Jewish behavior & -laws (Amsterdam).
1942 – Wartime port security delegated to Coast Guard by Executive Order 9074.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters and “Ration Blues” by Louis Jordan all topped the charts.
1944 – Sue Sophia Dauser, Superintendent of the Navy’s Nurse Corps is first woman in Navy to receive rank of Captain.
1944 – World War II: U.S. forces destroyed 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.
1945 -World War II: Aircraft from the carriers of US Task Force 58 again raid Tokyo. Poor weather conditions hinders the effectiveness of the attacks.
1945 – World War II: Turkey declares war on Germany.
1948 – Martin Luther King ordained as a Baptist minister.
1949 – The US launches the WAC-Corporal at White Sands, New Mexico, achieving a record missile altitude of 250 miles.
1950 – “Your Show of Shows” starring Sid Caesar, Imogene Coca, Carl Reiner, and Howard Morris debuted on TV.
1950 – “Rag Mop” by the Ames Brothers topped the charts.
1951 – The first Pan American Games are held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1952 – The complete choreographic score of Cole Porter’s “Kiss Me Kate” became the first musical choreography score given a copyright. The work was the effort of Hanya Holm.
1953 – The musical, “Wonderful Town“, opened at the Winter Garden Theatre in New York City. The show was based on the book, “My Sister Eileen”, and the ran for 559 performances.
1956 – “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle topped the charts.
1957 – Buddy Holly & the Crickets record “That’ll Be the Day“.
1957 – The US Supreme Court, in Butler v. Michigan, overturned a Michigan statute making it a misdemeanor to sell books containing obscene language that would tend to corrupt “the morals of youth.”
1957 – US Supreme Court decided 6-3 that baseball is the only antitrust exempt pro sport.
1959 – USS Galveston fires first Talos surface-to-air missile.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith, “Handy Man” by Jimmy Jones, “What in the World’s Come Over You” by Jack Scott and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk topped the charts.
1961 – Paul Bikle in a glider climbs to 46, 267 feet.
1963 – Beatles release their first single in US “Please Please Me“.
1964 – Cassius Clay dethroned world heavyweight boxing champ Sonny Liston in a seventh-round technical knockout. The fight (43:04) was held at Convention Hall, Miami Beach, Florida. Clay then announced his conversion to Islam, changing his name to Muhammad Ali.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. warships began shelling Vietnam.
1967 – “Kind of a Drag” by the Buckinghams topped the charts.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “(Theme From) Valley of the Dolls” by Dionne Warwick, “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1969 – Vietnam War: Navy Lt. Bob Kerry (25) took part in a SEAL raid in the Mekong Delta where over a dozen women, children and old men were killed in the village of Thanh Phong.
1971 – “Oh, Calcutta” opened at the Belasco Theater.
1971 – Vietnam War: In both houses of Congress, legislation is initiated to forbid U.S. military support of any South Vietnamese invasion of North Vietnam without congressional approval.
1972 – Vietnam War: U.S. troops clash with North Vietnamese forces in a major battle 42 miles east of Saigon, the biggest single U.S. engagement with an enemy force in nearly a year.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon, “Theme from S.W.A.T.” by Rhythm Heritage, “Love Machine (Part 1)” by The Miracles and “Good Hearted Woman” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1976 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states may ban the hiring of illegal aliens.
1977 – New Orleans’ Pete Maravich sets NBA record for a guard with 68 points.
1978 – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1984 – Michael Spinks defeated Eddie Davis in a unanimous decision to retain the light heavyweight championship; in 12 rounds in Atlantic City, NJ.
1987 – US Supreme Court upheld affirmative action with a 5-4 vote.
1987 – US Supreme Court ruled that California cannot bar gambling on Indian tribal land. This win by the Cabazon tribe opened the door to Indian gambling nationwide.
1988 – The Coast Guard commissioned LT Samone Vasser as a flight officer. She was the first female flight officer in the Coast Guard.
1989 – Dallas Cowboys fire Coach Tom Landry after a 29-year career. Landry was the NFL’s third-winningest coach of all time, compiling a 270-178-6 record in 29 seasons.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1989 – Boxer Mike Tyson becomes the undisputed Heavyweight Champion of the World by defeating challenger Frank Bruno of England. (18:35)
1991 – Gulf War: An Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 28 U.S. Army Reservists from Pennsylvania. Adrienne Mitchell, first African American woman to die in combat was among the reservists.
1991 – Gulf War: As the Persian Gulf War ground assault continued, Iraq ordered its forces to withdraw from Kuwait.
1991 – Gulf War: In the most decisive actions of the Gulf War, VII Corps, moving directly east with three heavy divisions abreast, attacked the elite Iraqi Republican Guard units.
1992 – The US Supreme Court ruled prison guards who use unnecessary force against inmates may be violating the Constitution’s ban on cruel and unusual punishment even if they inflict no serious injuries.
1995 – “Take a Bow” by Madonna topped the charts.
1998 – The US Congress for the first time reversed President Clinton’s line item veto and restored 38 military projects. It was later ruled “unconstitutional”.
1999 – Cuba cut phone service to AT&T and MCI WorldCom for $19 mil in unpaid bills. The phone companies were withholding payments pending a lawsuit by relatives of 4 Cuban Americans, whose aircraft were shot down in Feb 1996.
2001 – The commander of the U.S. submarine that struck and sank a Japanese trawler off Hawaii expressed his “most sincere regret.” Cmdr. Scott Waddle stopped short of an apology.
2002 – In New York City, after a 35-year plot to accept bribes and cheat the city out of tax revenues, sixteen tax assessors were arrested and charged with altering values of over 500 properties worth some $8 billion.
2003 – NASA reports that the space probe Pioneer 10 finally ceased its transmissions from deep space, after more than thirty years of a mission which was originally intended to last less than two.
2003 – Chief U.N. weapons inspector Hans Blix said Iraq was showing new signs of real cooperation, but President Bush was dismissive, predicting Saddam Hussein would try to “fool the world one more time.”
2003 – Gulf War: The US military says that warplanes have conducted strikes at five missile systems, including four surface-to-surface rocket launchers in the north and south of Iraq.
2003 – 6,000 US Marines have arrived in Kuwait, bringing the Marine force there to nearly full strength.
2003 – The Bush administration has sent supplies of humanitarian aid to the Gulf region to cope with refugees and displaced people.
2004 – The Mel Gibson film “Passion of Christ” premiered on Ash Wednesday.A woman in Wichita, Kansas, collapses and dies of a massive heart attack while viewing the harrowing Crucifixion scene. Full Movie (1:57:52)
2004 – The US Supreme Court ruled that states may withhold scholarships from students preparing for the ministry.
2004 – It was reported that a biologist had confirmed the sighting of a real Michigan wolverine, about 200 years after the species was last seen in the state that uses the small but ferocious animal as its unofficial nickname.
2005 – Dennis Rader was arrested near his home for the BTK serial killings that terrorized Wichita, Kansas between 1974 and 1991.
2005 – Bank of America reported the loss of computer tapes containing personal information on 1.2 million federal employees including some US Senate members.
2006 – The world’s estimated population reaches 6.5 billion.
2006 – A New Jersey company is accused of harvesting body parts from New York funeral homes for transplants. An estimated 12,000 people received the body parts.
2006 – It was reported that there were 691 billionaires worldwide, compared with 423 in 1996.
2008 – In Connecticut five former insurance company executives were found guilty of a scheme to manipulate the financial statements of the world’s largest insurance company, American International Group Inc. (AIG)
2009 – A Federal Grand Jury returned a single count indictment charging Kody Ray Brittingham (20) of Camp Lejeune, NC, with threatening the President-Elect of the United States, in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 871, which has a maximum penalty of 5 years imprisonment followed by up to three years of supervised release and a fine of up to $250,000. In August Brittingham pleaded guilty to charges of threatening to kill President Obama and armed robbery.
2009 – The US Supreme Court ruled that the Summum group does not have a right to erect the “Seven aphorism” of its beliefs in Pleasant Gove City, Utah, park just because the Ten Commandments are displayed there.
2009 – President Barack Obama nominates former Washington Governor Gary Locke to serve as the next Secretary of Commerce.
2009 – Mexico’s government said it will deploy extra troops and federal police to Ciudad Juarez across the border from Texas, where the police chief recently bowed to crime gang demands that he resign.
2010 – In Texas a copy of the 1939 comic book, Detective Comics No. 27, in which Batman makes his debut, sold at a Dallas auction for more than $1 million, breaking a record set just three days earlier by a Superman comic. A copy of the first comic book featuring Superman, a 1938 edition of Action Comics No. 1, sold on Feb 22 for $1 million.
2010 – In California Rick Ray Liles (51) shot and killed deputy Joel Wahlenmaier (49) in Minkler, Fresno County, during an investigation of arson blazes in the village. Liles took his own life in the gunbattle at his mobile home.
2011 – A United States district court approves a $624 million payout to former investors in Countrywide Financial.
2013 – Scientists announce they have found fragments of Rodinia, an ancient “lost” continent, in what is now the Indian Ocean.
2014 – The US Supreme Court has ruled that police may search a home without obtaining a warrant despite the objection of one occupant if that occupant has been removed from the premises.
1682 – Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Italian anatomist. He is celebrated as the father of the modern anatomical pathology. (d. 1771)
1841 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French painter, graphic artist and sculptor (d. 1919) 1888 – John Foster Dulles, U.S. Secretary of State (d. 1959)
1901 – Zeppo Marx, American actor (d. 1979)
1908 – Frank G. Slaughter, American novelist (d. 2001)
1910 – Millicent Fenwick, American fashion editor and politician (d. 1992)
1913 – Jim Backus, American actor (d. 1989)
1918 – Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
1928 – Larry Gelbart began as a writer at the age of sixteen for Danny Thomas’ radio show during the 1940s and also wrote for Jack Paar and Bob Hope. On 1950s television, he worked for Sid Caesar on Caesar’s Hour, along with the other gifted comedy writers Neil Simon, Mel Brooks, Woody Allen, and Carl Reiner.1929 – Christopher George, American actor (d. 1983)
1929 – Tommy Newsom, American bandleader (d. 2007)
1934 – Tony Lema, American golfer (d. 1966)
1935 – Sally Jessy Raphaël, American talk show host
1937 – Bob Schieffer, American broadcast journalist
1958 – Kurt Rambis, American basketball player
1965 – Carrot Top, American comedian
1966 – Nancy O’Dell, American reporter and television personality
1975 – Chelsea Handler, American comedian and actress
1976 – Rashida Jones, American actress, writer, model, and musician
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 3d Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Quang Nag Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 25th, 1966. Entered service at: South Orange, NJ. Born: 4 September 1932, Orange, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against enemy Viet Cong forces at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Leading his platoon on a search and destroy operation in an area made particularly hazardous by extensive cave and tunnel complexes, S/Sgt. Connor maneuvered his unit aggressively forward under intermittent enemy small-arms fire. Exhibiting particular alertness and keen observation, he spotted an enemy spider hole emplacement approximately fifteen meters to his front. He pulled the pin from a fragmentation grenade intending to charge the hole boldly and drop the missile into its depths. Upon pulling the pin he realized that the firing mechanism was faulty, and that even as he held the safety device firmly in place, the fuse charge was already activated. With only precious seconds to decide, he further realized that he could not cover the distance to the small opening of the spider hole in sufficient time, and that to hurl the deadly bomb in any direction would result in death or injury to some of his comrades tactically deployed near him. Manifesting extraordinary gallantry and with utter disregard for his personal safety, he chose to hold the grenade against his body in order to absorb the terrific explosion and spare his comrades. His act of extreme valor and selflessness in the face of virtually certain death, although leaving him mortally wounded, spared many of his fellow Marines from death or injury. His gallant action in giving his life in the cause of freedom reflects the highest credit upon the Marine Corps and the Armed Forces of the United States.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Company H, 2d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 25th, 1969. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 17 September 1947, Pittsburgh, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader with Company H, in operations against the enemy. While participating in Operation DEWEY CANYON southeast of Vandergrift Combat Base, one of the squads of Cpl. Morgan’s platoon was temporarily pinned down and sustained several casualties while attacking a North Vietnamese Army force occupying a heavily fortified bunker complex. Observing that two of the wounded Marines had fallen in a position dangerously exposed to the enemy fire and that all attempts to evacuate them were halted by a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and rocket-propelled grenades. Cpl. Morgan unhesitatingly maneuvered through the dense jungle undergrowth to a road that passed in front of a hostile emplacement which was the principal source of enemy fire. Fully aware of the possible consequences of his valiant action, but thinking only of the welfare of his injured companions, Cpl. Morgan shouted words of encouragement to them as he initiated an aggressive assault against the hostile bunker. While charging across the open road, he was clearly visible to the hostile soldiers who turned their fire in his direction and mortally wounded him, but his diversionary tactic enabled the remainder of his squad to retrieve their casualties and overrun the North Vietnamese Army position. His heroic and determined actions saved the lives of two fellow Marines and were instrumental in the subsequent defeat of the enemy. Cpl. Morgan’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Services. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Pancakes & crepes
Did you know that the first pancake-type foods were eaten by ancient peoples? They were not the same pancakes we eat today. They were simple, fried concoctions of milk, flour, eggs and spices and were called “Alita Dolcia” (Latin for “another sweet”) by the Ancient Romans. Depending upon the proportion of ingredients and method of cooking, the finished product might have approximated pancakes, fritters, omlettes, or custard. Some of these dishes were sweet (fruit, nuts, honey); others were savory (cheese, fish, meat). These ancient recipes are also thought to be the relatives of waffles, cakes, muffins, fritters, spoonbread and doughnuts. Pancakes, as we Americans know them today, were “invented” in Medieval Europe.
Throughout history, pancake ingredients (finest available wheat flour, buckwheat, cornmeal, potatoes), cooking implements (ancient bakestones, medieval hearths, pioneer griddles perched on campfire embers, microwave ovens), social rituals (Shrove Tuesday crepes, Chanukah latkes, mass quantities for community fundraisers) and final product (thick or thin, savory or sweet, slathered with butter and smothered with syrup, or gently rolled around delicate fruit) have reflected regional cuisine and local customs. Old English batter was mixed with ale. German and French pancakes, leavened by eggs and much beating, are baked very thin
and served with jam or jelly. The French crěpe suzette is folded or rolled and heated in a sauce of butter, sugar, citrus juice, and liqueur. Russian blintzes, usually prepared with buckwheat, are thin, crisp pancakes, and commonly served with caviar and sour cream or folded over and filled with cream cheese or jam. Mexico has its tortilla,which is often served folded over a bean or meat filling and topped by tomato sauce. In the United States pancakes are sometimes called battercakes, griddlecakes, or flapjacks and are usually leavened with baking powder or baking soda and are served with syrup. A pioneer favorite, still surviving in some localities, is the buckwheat cake.
“The griddle method of cooking is older than oven baking, and pancakes are an ancient form. The first pancakes clearly distinguishable from plain griddle breads are sweet ones mentioned by Apicius; these were made from a batter of egg, mixed milk and water, and a little flour, fried and served with pepper and honey. An English culinary manuscript of about 1430 refers to pancakes in a way which implies that the term was already familiar, but it does not occur often in the early printed cookery books.
Pancakes are cooked one side at a time on a griddle and flipped halfway through the cooking process to cook the other side of the pancake. The process of tossing or flipping is part of the essence of the pancake, and one of the skills that separates the experienced cook from the beginner. It is traditional to turn pancakes over by tossing them in the air using the pan and without using any other implements. This is a tricky maneuver that requires practice to perfect.
Pancakes today are still very popular and come with interesting variations but using the same ingredients. For example, with a special “tool”, pancakes become waffles. A pancake wrapped around a sausage instantly becomes a “pig in a blanket.” Three of those can become a full breakfast.
Psalm 39: 7-11
“And now, Lord, what do I wait for? My hope is in You.
8 Deliver me from all my transgressions; Do not make me the reproach of the foolish. 9 I was mute, I did not open my mouth, Because it was You who did it.
10 Remove Your plague from me; I am consumed by the blow of Your hand.
11 When with rebukes You correct man for iniquity, You make his beauty melt away like a moth; Surely every man is vapor. Selah
“That these are our grievances which we have thus laid before his majesty, with that freedom of language and sentiment which becomes a free people claiming their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate.”
– Thomas Jefferson
“Make the most of yourself, for that is all there is of you.”
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
quiddity (KWID-i-tee) noun:
The essence of someone or something.
A trifling point.
From Latin quid (what) which also gave us quidnunc (“What’s new?”) and quid pro quo (what) pro (for) quo (what)
303 – Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire.
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII announces the Gregorian calendar.
1616 – Qualifiers of the Holy Office concluded that a sun-centered theory was “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, inasmuch as it expressly contradicts the teachings of many passages of Holy scriptures.”
1607 – L’Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi, one of the first works recognized as an opera, premieres.
1711 – The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage.
1719 – Thomas Fleet publishes “Mother Goose’s Melodies For Children”
1761 – James Otis voices opposition to English colonial rule in a speech before the Supreme Court of Massachusetts.
1796 – The Baltimore Monitor was the first US newspaper to appear on Sunday.
1799 – George Washington’d body is buried at Mt. Vernon. He died of a throat infection December 14, 1799. For months the Nation mourned him.
1803 – The Supreme Court of the United States, in Marbury v. Madison, establishes the principle of judicial review.
1813 – Off Guiana’s Demerara River, the American 18-gun sloop Hornet under Captain James Lawrence sinks the 20-gun British sloop Peacock.
1821 – Mexico rebels proclaimed the “Plan de Iguala,” their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California. It was short-lived because California became a state in September 1850.
1831 – The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, the first removal treaty in accordance with the Indian Removal Act, is proclaimed. The Choctaws in Mississippi cede land east of the river in exchange for payment and land in the West.
1835 – “Siwinowe Kesibwi” (The Shawnee Sun) was issued as the first Indian language monthly publication in the U.S.
1836 – Texan Colonel William Travis sends a desperate plea for help for the besieged defenders of the Alamo, ending the message with the famous last words, “Victory or Death.”
1839 – William Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel.
1839 – John William Draper took a daguerreotype of the moon, the first celestial photograph made in the U.S. He exposed the plate for 20 minutes using a 5-inch telescope and produced an image one inch in diameter.
1857 – First perforated US postage stamps delivered to the government.
1857 – The Los Angeles Vineyard Society was organized. Land was purchased from Pacifico Ontiveros for $2 per acre.
1863 – Arizona is organized as a United States territory. The U.S. acquired the region under the terms of the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the 1853 Gadsden Purchase. Arizona became the 48th state in 1912.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest made a raid on Brentwood, TN.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Tunnel Hill, GA (Buzzard’s Roost).
1864 – Rebecca Lee Crumpler becomes the first Black woman to receive an M.D. degree. She graduated from the New England Female Medical College. She worked from 1852-1860 as a nurse in Massachusetts.
1865 – Civil War: Captain Henry S. Stellwagen in the U.S.S. Pawnee sent Ensign Allen K. Noyes with the U.S.S. Catalpa and Mingoe up the Peedee River to accept the surrender of the evacuated city of Georgetown.
1866 – In Washington, DC, an American flag made entirely of American bunting was displayed for the first time.
1867 – The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Andrew Johnson.
1868 – The first parade to have floats is staged at Mardi Gras in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1868 – Andrew Johnson becomes the first President of the United States to be impeached by the United States House of Representatives. He is later acquitted in the Senate. He had attempted to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in alleged violation of the Tenure of Office Act.
1893 – The American University is chartered by an act of the Congress of the United States of America.
1895 – Revolution breaks out in Baire, a town near Santiago de Cuba, beginning the second war for Cuban independence, which ended with the Spanish-American War in 1898. Cuban insurgents were supplied with money by US sugar planters in a move designed both to assist overthrow Spanish domination of Cuba and to prevent the insurrectionists from burning the sugar plantations.
1899 – Western Washington University is established.
1900 – New York City Mayor Van Wyck signed the contract to begin work on New York’s first rapid transit tunnel. The tunnel would link Manhattan and Brooklyn. The ground breaking ceremony was on March 24, 1900.
1903 – In Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, an area was leased to the U.S. for a naval base.
1909 – The Hudson Motor Car Company is founded.
1912 – The Jewish organization Hadassah was founded in New York City.
1916 – Jules Verne’s “20,000 Leagues Under the Sea” opened in New York.
1917 – World War I: The U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom is given the Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany pledges to ensure the return of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona to Mexico if that country declares war on the United States.
1920 – The Nazi Party is founded.
1924 – Johnny ‘Tarzan’ Weissmuller broke the world’s record in the 100-meter swimming event. He did it in 57 2/5 seconds.
1925 – A thermite (magnesium) bomb is used for the first time to break up a 250,000-ton ice jam clogging the St. Lawrence River near Waddington, New York.
1928 – In its first show to feature an Black artist, the New Gallery of New York exhibited works of Archibald Motley.
1932 – Malcolm Campbell drives record speed (253.96 mph) at Daytona. The “car” was a “Bluebird” and an aircraft engine.
1938 – A nylon-bristle toothbrush becomes the first commercial product (DuPont) to be made with nylon yarn.
1938 – The role of Dorothy in “Wizard of Oz” was given to Judy Garland.
1940 – Frances Langford records “When You Wish Upon a Star“. It later became a trademark song for Disney. Performed by Kate Smith.
1942 – World War II: The U.S. Government stopped shipments of all 12-gauge shotguns for sporting use for the wartime effort.
1942 – World War II: Admiral Halsey on board the USS Enterprise leads task force in a successful attack on Wake Island.
1942 – World War II: Approximately 1,600 Pittsburg, CA, residents of Italian descent were evacuated. Nationwide some 600,000 of 5 million Italians were undocumented and deemed “enemy aliens” until Oct 12.
1942 – The Voice of America went on the air for the first time with broadcasts in German. The US State Dept. made William Winter (d.1999) its first Voice of America three months before the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
1943 – In baseball, the Texas League announces it will quit for the duration of WWII.
1944 – World War II: Maj. Gen. Frank Merrill’s guerrilla force, nicknamed “Merrill’s Marauders,” begin a campaign in northern Burma.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, forces of US 5th Amphibious Corps continue to advance northward and capture part of the island’s second airfield.
1945 – World War II: U.S. troops liberated the Philippine city of Manila from the Japanese.
1949 – V-2/WAC-Corporal first rocket to outer space, White Sands NM. Between April 16, 1946 and September 19, 1952, von Braun and General Electric launched more than sixty V2s from the White Sands Proving Grounds as a part of Project Hermes.
1951 – Korean War: Army Major General Bryant E. Moore, commander of IX Corps, died suddenly of a heart attack. Major General O. P. Smith assumed command, becoming the only Marine to command a major Army unit during the Korean War.
1951 – Korean War: The 315th Air Division dropped a record 333 tons of cargo to front-line troops using 67 C-119 and two C-46 aircraft.
1952 – Korean War: The U.S. 40th Infantry Division (CAARNG) launched the largest tank raid since the beginning of the Korean War. It was the largest deployment of armor without infantry support in a single engagement during the war.
1955 – The Cole Porter musical “Silk Stockings” opened at the Imperial Theater on Broadway for 461 performances.
1955 – President Eisenhower met with newspaper publisher Roy Howard and expressed his resistance under pressure to commit American troops to Vietnam. The conversation was recorded on a dictabelt machine that Eisenhower had secretly installed in the president’s office.
1956 – The city of Cleveland, OH invoked a 1931 law that barred people under the age of 18 from dancing in public without an adult guardian.
1957 – Buddy Holly and the Crickets began recording “That’ll Be the Day.”
1958 – “Get a Job” by the Silhouettes topped the charts.
1962 – “Duke of Earl” by Gene Chandler topped the charts.
1962 – New York police seized $20 million worth of heroin.
1964 – The Beatles appeared for the third time on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They appeared via tape.
1965 – The Beach Boys recorded “Help Me Rhonda“.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams, “Love is Here and Now You’re Gone” by The Supremes, “The Beat Goes On” by Sonny & Cher and “Where Does the Good Times Go” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – First pulsar discovered. It was identified as CP 1919 by Jocelyn Burnell at Cambridge.
1968 – Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive is halted; South Vietnam recaptures Hué.
1969 – Johnny Cash recorded his second live prison performance. It was at San Quentin, CA and the song “A Boy Named Sue” was introduced.
1969 – The US Supreme Court in the Tinker vs. Des Moines School District case ruled that students had the right to express opinions at odds with the government.
1970 – National Public Radio (NPR) is founded in the United States.
1973 – “Killing Me Softly with His Song” by Roberta Flack topped the charts.
1977 – President Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations.
1979 – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart topped the charts.
1979 – “Roxanne” was released by The Police.
1980 – NBC premiered the TV movie “Harper Valley P.T.A.” (1:41:43)
1980 – USA Olympics hockey team beats Finland (4-2) & wins the gold medal.
1981 – Buckingham Palace announces the engagement of The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer.
1981 – A jury in White Plains, New York, found Jean Harris guilty of second-degree murder in the fatal shooting of “Scarsdale Diet” author Dr. Herman Tarnower.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, “Stray Cat Strut” by Stray Cats and “Faking Love” by T.G. Sheppard & Karen Brooks
1983 – A special commission, Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, of the U.S. Congress releases a report that condemns the practice of Japanese internment during World War II.
1983 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed above the 1100 mark for the first time.
1984 – Last of U.S. Marines are withdrawn from Lebanon.
1985 – Yul Brynner reprised his role in “The King and I” — setting a box office record for weekly receipts.
1986 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional an Indianapolis law that defined pornography as discrimination against women.
1987 – Coast Guard attorney LCDR Robert W. Bruce, Jr., became the first member of the armed forces to argue a case before the Supreme Court in uniform.
1987 – Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, of the Los Angeles Lakers, scores his 36,000th NBA point.
1987 – An exploding supernova was discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy.This was the first time since 1604 that such an event could be seen with the naked eye.
1988 – U.S. Supreme Court defended the right to satirize public figures when it voted 8-0 to overturn a $200,000 settlement awarded the Rev. Jerry Falwell over the parody of him in Hustler Magazine.
1988 – Alice Cooper announced he would run for Governor of Arizona as a member of the “Wild Party”.
1989 – In Utah a 150-million-year-old fossil egg, still inside the mother, was found by CAT scan to contain the oldest dinosaur embryo.
1989 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini offers a USD $3 million bounty for the death of The Satanic Verses author Salman Rushdie.
1989 – United Airlines Flight 811, bound for New Zealand from Honolulu, Hawaii, rips open during flight, sucking nine passengers out of the business-class section.
1991 – U.S.-led forces began a lightning, multipronged ground assault against Iraq after six weeks of intensive bombing.
1992 – Tracy Gold began working on the set of “Growing Pains” again. She had left the show due to anorexia.
1992 – General Motors announced a record $4.5 billion loss in 1991 and said it will close 21 plants and idle 74,000 workers over four years.
1992 – U.S Postal Service unveiled two designs for a commemorative stamp honoring Elvis Presley — one showing him as young rock-and-roll singer, the other at the height of his success in Las Vegas.
1992 – “Wayne’s World” opened in U.S. theaters.
1994 – US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders labeled smoking an “adolescent addiction” and accused the tobacco industry of trying to convince teen-agers that cigarettes will make them sexy and successful.
1995 – Diver Greg Louganis, who won four gold medals in the Olympic Games in 1984 and 1988, revealed he had AIDS.
1994 – In Los Angeles, Garrett Morris was shot during a robbery attempt. He eventually recovered from his injury. Garrett was one of the original cast members on “Saturday Night Live.”
1995 – Under pressure from farm-state Republicans, House leaders abandoned a campaign promise to disband the food stamp program.
1995 – The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified.
1996 – Cuba shot down two unarmed planes flown by pilots belonging to a Cuban exile group who were looking for boat people to rescue. Cuba claimed the planes violated Cuban airspace. Four men were killed and three were US citizens.
1997 – The Food and Drug Administration named six brands of birth control as safe and effective “morning-after” pills for preventing pregnancy.
1999 – The Senate voted overwhelmingly to give the nation’s military the biggest benefits increase since the early 1980s.
1999 – The State of Arizona executes Karl LaGrand, a German national involved in a bungled armed robbery where a bank manager was killed and a female teller was seriously injured , in spite of Germany’s legal action to attempt to save him. The bank was a Valley National Bank housed in a double-wide mobile home in Marana, AZ.
2000 – In Arizona, Salvatore Gravano, “Sammy the Bull,” was arrested for financing a drug ring led by Michael Papa, the founding member of a white supremacist gang.
2000 – The state of Texas executed Betty Lou Beets, 62, by injection for the 1983 murder of her fifth husband. Governor George W. Bush refused to intervene. She was the 2nd woman executed in Texas since the Civil War.
2001 – Colin Powell arrived in the Middle East on his first overseas trip as U.S. secretary of State.
2001 – The US Navy and Coast Guard captured ten men and 8.8 tons of cocaine on a Belize-flagged fishing boat 250 miles west of Acapulco.
2002 – The Winter Olympics concluded at Salt Lake City with the United States winning thirty-four medals, ten of them gold, its most medals in Winter Games history and one fewer than medals champ Germany.
2003 – Dan Rather interviewed Saddam Hussein via satellite and Hussein proposed a live debate with Pres. Bush.
2004 – U.S. President George Bush called for a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages in the United States.
2004 – The first charges were filed against two detainees in Guantanamo.
2005 – In Ohio, Rosemarie Essa was killed in a car crash after losing consciousness. Her husband was convicted of lacing her calcium supplement with cyanide so that he could be with his mistress.
2006 – Judge Walter Steed, a small-town judge with three wives, was ordered removed from the bench by the Utah Supreme Court for violating the state’s bigamy law.
2006 – South Dakota lawmakers approved a ban on nearly all abortions.
2007 – “Better late than never”, The Virginia General Assembly passed a resolution expressing “profound regret” for the state’s role in slavery.
2007 – In Arkansas tornado winds injured forty people and damaged dozens of homes and businesses. Much of the town of Dumas was destroyed. The Midwest storm system was blamed for eight traffic deaths, seven in Wisconsin and one in Kansas.
2007 – Broncos running back Damien Nash (24) collapsed and died after a charity basketball game in suburban St. Louis.
2007 – In the 27th annual Razzie Awards the film “Basic Instinct 2” was named worst picture of the year.
2008 – The Cuban National Assembly named Raúl Castro, the 76-year-old armed forces minister, to succeed Fidel Castro, his brother, as president.
2009 – Obama addressed the US Congress and the American people to tap the deep well of American optimism. Themes of responsibility, accountability and, above all, national community rang throughout an address carefully balanced by the gravity of its times. Republican leaders called his plan irresponsible and certain to increase taxes and federal debt.
2009 – A rocket carrying a NASA satellite crashed near Antarctica after a failed launch, ending a $280 million mission to track global warming from space.
2010 – In San Jose, Ca., stealth start-up Bloom Energy publicly unveiled an innovative fuel cell that promises to deliver affordable, clean energy to even remote corners of the world.
2010 – In Orlando, Florida, SeaWorld trainer Dawn Brancheau was killed after Tilikum, a 12,000 pound killer whale, grabbed her hair and pulled her under water.
2011 – Toyota recalls more than two million vehicles in the United States to address problems with accelerator pedals being trapped in floormats.
2011 – US authorities arrest more than sixty suspected members of Mexican drug cartels following the execution of a US Drug Enforcement Administration agent in Mexico last week.
2011 – The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off for its final mission.
2011 – President Obama informed Congress that he would not enforce the laws with which he disagreed. He issues executive orders instead of requesting Congressional action.
2012 – At least twelve people are killed in the deadliest day of protests so far resulting from U.S. soldiers incineration of copies of the Koran in Afghanistan.
2013 – Jimmie Johnson wins the 2013 Daytona 500. Pole winner Danica Patrick finishes eighth, marking the highest ever finish by a woman.
1709 – Jacques de Vaucanson, French inventor who is credited with creating the world’s first true robots, as well as for creating the first completely automated loom. (d. 1782)
1723 – John Burgoyne, British general, politician and dramatist. During the American War of Independence, on October 17, 1777, at the Saratoga he surrendered his army of 9,000 men. (d. 1792)
1786 – Wilhelm Grimm, German philologist and folklorist the younger of the Brothers Grimm. (d. 1859)
1786 – Martin W. Bates, American lawyer and politician (d. 1869)
1836 – Winslow Homer (d.1910), American painter, was born. He began his career as an illustrator for Harper’s Weekly during America’s CIVIL WAR. He is believed to have died a virgin and took up a hermit’s life in his mid 40s.
1885 – Chester Nimitz, U.S. admiral who held the dual command of Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (“CinCPac” pronounced “sink-pack”), for U.S. naval forces and Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CinCPOA), for U.S. and Allied air, land, and sea forces during World War II. (d. 1966)
1921 – Douglass Watson, American actor. Before his acting career, he received two Purple Heart awards for his service in World War II.
1925 – Bud Day, American pilot and colonel, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 2013)
1933 – Judah Folkman is best known for his research on angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, processes where tumors generate tiny blood vessels to nourish themselves.
1938 – Phil Knight, American sportswear manufacturer, the co-founder and Chairman of Nike, Inc.
1942 – Joe Lieberman, American politician
1943 – Terry Semel is an American corporate executive who was the chairman and CEO of Yahoo! Incorporated.
1955 – Steve Jobs, American computer pioneer (co-founder (Apple Computer))
1956 – Paula Zahn, American journalist
1966 – Billy Zane, American actor
|1968 – Mitch Hedberg, American comedian (d. 2005)
1970 – Kienast quintuplets, American quintuplets
1977 – Floyd Mayweather Jr, is an undefeated American professional boxer who has a record of 39-0 (25 KOs).
LEVITOW, JOHN L.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Air Force, 3d Special Operations Squadron. Place and date: Long Binh Army post, Republic of Vietnam, February 24th, 1969. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Born: 1 November 1945, Hartford, Conn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Levitow (then A1c.), U.S. Air Force, distinguished himself by exceptional heroism while assigned as a loadmaster aboard an AC-47 aircraft flying a night mission in support of Long Binh Army post. Sgt. Levitow’s aircraft was struck by a hostile mortar round. The resulting explosion ripped a hole two feet in diameter through the wing and fragments made over thirty-five hundred holes in the fuselage. All occupants of the cargo compartment were wounded and helplessly slammed against the floor and fuselage. The explosion tore an activated flare from the grasp of a crewmember who had been launching flares to provide illumination for Army ground troops engaged in combat. Sgt. Levitow, though stunned by the concussion of the blast and suffering from over forty fragment wounds in the back and legs, staggered to his feet and turned to assist the man nearest to him who had been knocked down and was bleeding heavily. As he was moving his wounded comrade forward and away from the opened cargo compartment door, he saw the smoking flare ahead of him in the aisle. Realizing the danger involved and completely disregarding his own wounds, Sgt. Levitow started toward the burning flare. The aircraft was partially out of control and the flare was rolling wildly from side to side. Sgt. Levitow struggled forward despite the loss of blood from his many wounds and the partial loss of feeling in his right leg. Unable to grasp the rolling flare with his hands, he threw himself bodily upon the burning flare. Hugging the deadly device to his body, he dragged himself back to the rear of the aircraft and hurled the flare through the open cargo door. At that instant the flare separated and ignited in the air, but clear of the aircraft. Sgt. Levitow, by his selfless and heroic actions, saved the aircraft and its entire crew from certain death and destruction. Sgt. Levitow’s gallantry, his profound concern for his fellowmen, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*WILBANKS, HILLIARD A.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Air Force, 21st. Tactical Air Support Squadron, Nha Trang AFB, RVN. Place and date: Near Dalat, Republic of Vietnam, February 24th, 1967. Entered service at: Atlanta, Ga. Born: 26 July 1933, Cornelia, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. As a forward air controller Capt. Wilbanks was pilot of an unarmed, light aircraft flying visual reconnaissance ahead of a South Vietnam Army Ranger Battalion. His intensive search revealed a well-concealed and numerically superior hostile force poised to ambush the advancing rangers. The Viet Cong, realizing that Capt. Wilbanks’ discovery had compromised their position and ability to launch a surprise attack, immediately fired on the small aircraft with all available firepower. The enemy then began advancing against the exposed forward elements of the ranger force which were pinned down by devastating fire. Capt. Wilbanks recognized that close support aircraft could not arrive in time to enable the Rangers to withstand the advancing enemy, onslaught. With full knowledge of the limitations of his unarmed, unarmored, light reconnaissance aircraft, and the great danger imposed by the enemy’s vast firepower, he unhesitatingly assumed a covering, close support role. Flying through a hail of withering fire at treetop level, Capt. Wilbanks passed directly over the advancing enemy and inflicted many casualties by firing his rifle out of the side window of his aircraft. Despite increasingly intense antiaircraft fire, Capt. Wilbanks continued to completely disregard his own safety and made repeated low passes over the enemy to divert their fire away from the rangers. His daring tactics successfully interrupted the enemy advance, allowing the rangers to withdraw to safety from their perilous position. During his final courageous attack to protect the withdrawing forces, Capt. Wilbanks was mortally wounded and his bullet-riddled aircraft crashed between the opposing forces. Capt. Wilbanks’ magnificent action saved numerous friendly personnel from certain injury or death. His unparalleled concern for his fellow man and his extraordinary heroism were in the highest traditions of the military service, and have reflected great credit upon himself and the U.S. Air Force.
COOLEY, RAYMOND H.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lumboy, Luzon, Philippine Islands, February 24th, 1945. Entered service at: Richard City, Tenn. Born: 7 May 1914, Dunlap, Tenn. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a platoon guide in an assault on a camouflaged entrenchment defended by machineguns, rifles, and mortars. When his men were pinned down by two enemy machineguns, he voluntarily advanced under heavy fire to within twenty yards of one of the guns and attacked it with a hand grenade. The enemy, however, threw the grenade back at him before it could explode. Arming a second grenade, he held it for several seconds of the safe period and then hurled it into the enemy position, where it exploded instantaneously, destroying the gun and crew. He then moved toward the remaining gun, throwing grenades into enemy foxholes as he advanced. Inspired by his actions, one squad of his platoon joined him. After he had armed another grenade and was preparing to throw it into the second machinegun position, six enemy soldiers rushed at him. Knowing he could not dispose of the armed grenade without injuring his comrades, because of the intermingling in close combat of the men of his platoon and the enemy in the melee which ensued, he deliberately covered the grenade with his body and was severely wounded as it exploded. By his heroic actions, S/Sgt. Cooley not only silenced a machinegun and so inspired his fellow soldiers that they pressed the attack and destroyed the remaining enemy emplacements, but also, in complete disregard of his own safety, accepted certain injury and possible loss of life to avoid wounding his comrades.
There are six Flag Raisers on the photo. Four in the front line and two in back.
The front four are (left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin Sousley, John Bradley and Harlon Block.
The back two are Michael Strank (behind Sousley) and Rene Gagnon (behind Bradley).
Strank, Block and Sousley would die shortly afterwards. Bradley, Hayes and Gagnon became national heroes within weeks.
Oral History- Iwo Jima Flag Raising
Related Resource: Battle for Iwo Jima, 1945
Recollections of the flag raising on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima by Pharmacist Mate Second Class John H. Bradley, USN, with the 5th Marine Division.
Adapted from John Bradley interview in box 3 of World War II Interviews, Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center.
I was attached to the 5th Marine Division on Iwo Jima and I was a member of the 28th Marine Regiment who raised the American flag on the highest point on that island which is Mount Suribachi. The company that I was assigned to hit the beach, (we were in the 9th wave); we hit the beach approximately H-Hour plus 45, which would be 45 minutes after H-hour [H-Hour was scheduled for 9:00 a.m.; the first assault wave of armored tracked landing vehicles began landing at 8:59 a.m. on 19 Feb. 1945]. When we hit the beach I was a little bit too busy to do any sight seeing at the time because we had a lot of casualties around the beach. In our company we went right up in the front lines about 45 minutes after we bit the beach and we stayed there. The 28th Marines sector of that island was the southern tip of Iwo Jima which Mount Suribachi was on.
In the morning of D plus 4 [23 Feb.] we organized a patrol of approximately 40 men [from Company E]. And myself and another hospital corpsmen by the name of Zimik (?), Pharmacist’s Mate, 2/c [Second Class] were the [medical] corpsmen attached to that patrol. At that time we didn’t know if we were going to be able to plant the American flag on the top of Mount Suribach. but previous to that the Navy [warships] gave the mountain a terrific bombarding, assisted by the Navy, Army and Marine Corps fighter planes.
We started up the mountain immediately after the Naval barrage and plane strafing was over and we reached the top. And I might add that the reason we reached the top of Mount Suribachi without a single enemy shot being fired was because the Japs were still in their caves waiting for the bombardment to be lifted. When we reached the top we formed our battle line [the platoon moved from the column formation used to climb the mountain trail to one with the squads and fireteams on line] and we all went over the top [attacked] together and much to our surprise we didn’t find a Jap in sight. If one Jap had been up there manning one of his guns I think he could have pretty well taken care of our 40-man patrol.
Well, the minute we got up on top we set our line of fire [defensive perimeter firing positions] up, the Lieutenant in charge placed the machine guns where he wanted them, had our rifle men spotted [positioned] and immediately we sent patrols to the right and to the left [on the slopes]. We went up the mountain almost in the middle so consequently we sent patrols around to the right and left to take care of any Japs that might come out. When we got there I was with the group that swung to the left and immediately the Lieutenant sent a man around to look for a piece of staff [i.e., a flagpole] that we could put the American flag on. And the Japs had some old pipes that were laying around there, they used these pipes to run water down below the mountain. And we used this Jap pipe and we attached the American flag on there and we put it up. And Joe Rosenthal happened to be there at the right time. He came up a little while after we were on top and much to his surprise the picture that is now so famous….the Flag Raising on Mount Suribachi.
After the flag was raised we went back to work taking care of [i.e., killing] the Japs that were here and there and we found many of them in caves. In fact in one cave we counted 142 Japs. And the flame throwers did a fine job on top of the mountain. We tried to talk them out. They wouldn’t come out so then we used the flame throwers as a last resort. There were numerous caves all. around there and we didn’t have one single casualty on top of that mountain. [Flame throwers were first used in modern warfare by the Germans in World War I. The flame throwers used by the Marines in this action were carried by one Marine on his back and shot a stream of flaming fuel – standard gasoline or thickened “napalm” gasoline – from 20-40 yards against enemy caves/pillboxes to kill the enemy by burning, suffocation, or shock.]
Mount Suribachi was a [volcanic] mountain approximately 560 feet high and at the top it was a hollow…it was hollow on top, with about a 20, oh, I’d say a 20-foot ledge that you could walk all a-way around before this crater sank in. This crater was, oh, I’d say approximately 50 to 60 feet deep and it was down in this crater that the Japs were honeycombed in these caves. They had the caves dug in all the way around this crater. Suribachi was inactive at the time but we noticed smoke, sort of a vapor coming out of the ground up on this crater but it was purely inactive. The surface of that crater down below was warm but according to the north end that our regiment went on later, it was cold compared to that north end because that north end was really hot. In fact some of the boys received burns just from sleeping on the ground.
Bradley, in the picture which man are you?
I’m the one that’s second from the right as you’re looking at the picture. And right next to me there you can see a man’s helmet sticking up, that’s Pfc. [Private First Class Rene A.] Gagnon [USMC]. The man bending over nearest to the ground is [Corporal Harlon Henry Block] [USMC]. And the one in back of us with the rifle slung on his shoulder is Pfc. Ira Hayes [USMC]. He is also a survivor. And the one in back of Hayes, is Pfc. [Frank R.] Sousley [USMC] who was later killed in action on the north end [of the island]. And there’s two men that you can hardly see in the picture, they are from, the one on the right hand side is Pfc. Rene Gagnon who is a survivor of the flag raising. And the other one in back of Gagnon is Sergeant [Michael] Strank [USMC] who was killed later in action on the north end of Iwo Jima.
Was this your first invasion?
Yes it was, that was my first invasion with these Marines.
Did you go up the seaward side of Mount Suribachi or the other side?
We went facing the south….we went like I said before, it was in the middle of the mountain, it wasn’t on the seaward side, [but the] land side.
Some Naval officers that have been back said that the Naval ships let a great cheer or salute when they noticed the flag up. Could you hear anything of that demonstration or see anything of it?
Well, at that time we didn’t think of the significance of the flag raising but they’ve told me that they did and it seems to me that I can recall something of that. We men up on top of the mountain weren’t thinking of anything like that at the time. In fact we were all worried.
I understand this is the second flag raising that occurred there.
That’s right. The first flag was a smaller flag and it was put up by Platoon Sergeant [a Staff Noncommissioned Officer rank above that of sergeant] Ernest I. [“Boots”] Thomas of Tallahassee, Florida. He was the Platoon Sergeant in charge of the 40-man patrol [not factually correct – PlSgt Thomas was the senior enlisted man in the platoon and his duty was to assist the Platoon Commander, a commissioned officer]. He put up that flag about one half hour before this larger one was put up. It was so small that it couldn’t be seen from down below so our Battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Chandler W. Johnson [USMC] sent a four-man patrol up with this larger flag which is the flag you see on the poster for the 7th war Loan Drive.
None of these six men in the picture then actually carried the flag up?
No sir, the flag was carried by the Lieutenant in charge of the patrol. That was the first flag. And the second flag that want up was carried, in the patrol, there was Sergeant Strank who was in the second flag raising and whose picture is on it and Pfc. Hayes and Pfc. Sousley, They were in the group of the four men that the Battalion Commander sent up with the second flag.
Do you care to identify your Lieutenant in charge of your patrol?
The Lieutenant in charge of that 40-man patrol was First Lieutenant [Harold] Shrier [USMC]. He is one of Carlson’s Old Second Raiders [i.e., 1stLt Shrier was a former member the 2nd Raider Battalion, which was formed and commanded by LtCol Evans F. Carlson USMC from 1942-1943, when it was disbanded and the officers and men transferred to other Marine combat units] and he worked up from an enlisted man and he’s now a First Lieutenant. And he happened to be Executive Officer [second in command] of E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Marines.
Do you care to tell us how you got hurt later?
None of the boys got hurt or killed in action at time of the flag raising. All this took place when we received orders to go down to the north end [of the island, where the Marines were fighting to eliminate remaining Japanese-held pockets of resistance] and help them out with the fighting down there. My injury took place on March 12th which was the 22nd day of The operation. It was just about evening. I was getting things squared around my fox hole [a one or two-man fighting hole dug deep enough to protect the user from artillery fire and tanks and still permit him to stand within and fire his weapon over the top edge], getting my medical gear and personal gear arranged so that at night if we got the word to move out I’d know just where everything was and while I was arranging that–things were entirely quiet up to this time. While I was arranging this a Jap mortar shell lit [hit, or exploded] several feet from me and it caught four men and I happened to be one of them. I received wound fragments in both legs and one fragment hit my foot and it broke a bone in my foot. [Mortars are anti-personnel weapons designed to fire explosive or illumination shells at high angles over ranges up to 4,000 yards – the projectiles are fired at a high angle in order to clear obstacles between the mortar and the target, and projectiles plunge almost straight down into the target, thus hitting behind protective fortifications. Mortars were located in infantry company and battalion weapons platoons.]
I received very good medical care. Just as soon as I was hit the corpsmen were there to fix me up and the battalion surgeon sent his men up to evacuate me back to the battalion aid station, received supplementary treatment there and in a matter of three-quarters of an hour after I was hit I was back in the field hospital. The next morning I was put on a plane and flown to a rear area hospital which was at Guam. From Guam I was evacuated to Pearl Harbor. From Pearl Harbor to Oakland, California and then I received my orders to report to Washington, D.C. At this time I am a patient at the National Naval Medical Center at Bethesda, Maryland.
How long were you on top of Mount Suribachi?
We stayed there approximately three days, a little over three days and then we received our orders to go to the north end.
How long did the flag stay up?
The flag stayed up all the while. That flag was never taken down.
The first flag, measuring 54×28 inches, was obtained from attack transport USS Missoula (APA-211), and raised on a 20-foot section of pipe at 10:20 a.m. Several hours later, an 8-foot-long battle ensign, obtained from tank landing ship LST-779, was raised, resulting in Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal’s famous photograph of the flag raising. This photograph inspired the bronze monument to the Marine Corps by Felix de Welden located near Arlington National Cemetery.
For a detailed description of the struggle for Suribachi see: Garand, George W. and Truman R. Strobridge. Western Pacific Operations. vol.4 of History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Washington DC: Historical Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1971.
For the official US Navy history of the battle, including a description of the flag raising, see: Morison, Samuel Eliot. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. Vol.14 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II.Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1961.
Psalm 37: 25-26
I have been young, and now am old; Yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken, Nor His descendants begging bread.
26 He is ever merciful, and lends; And His descendants are blessed.
“I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in opinion of the means. I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I traveled much, and I observed in different countries, that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and of course became poorer. And, on the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and became richer.”
–Benjamin Franklin, On the Price of Corn and Management of the Poor, 1766
“In all things, be willing to listen to people around you. None of us is really smart enough to go it alone.”
~ John Clendenin
1 : drunk enough to be emotionally silly
2 : weakly and effusively sentimental
155 AD – Polycarp, disciple of Apostle John, was arrested and burned at stake.
303 – Roman Emperor Diocletian orders the destruction of the Christian church in Nicomedia, beginning eight years of Diocletianic Persecution.
1455 – Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed from movable type.
1540 – Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest.
1778 – American Revolution: Baron von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to help to train the Continental Army.
1792 – The Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated. It erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners.
1795 – U.S. Navy Office of Purveyor of Supplies is established. This is the Navy Supply Corps Birthday.
1821 – The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries established the first pharmacy college, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.
1822 – Boston is incorporated as a city.
1822 – Congress authorized the Revenue Cutter Service to protect the natural environment by preventing “scoundrels” from cutting live oak on Florida public lands.
1836 – The Battle of the Alamo begins in San Antonio, Texas. Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna had arrived at the Alamo with his army. That army badly outnumbered the Texans (then called Texians). There were only about 200 men defending the Alamo.
1837 – Congress called for an inspection of the coast from Chesapeake Bay to the Sabine River “with regard to the location of additional light-houses, beacons, and buoys.”
1839 – In Boston, MA, William F. Harnden organized the first express service between Boston and New York City. It was the first express service in the U.S.
1846 – The Liberty Bell tolled for the last time, to mark George Washington’s birthday. A hairline fracture had developed since 1817 and a failed attempt to repair it resulted in the crack.
1847 – Mexican-American War: Battle of Buena Vista – In Mexico, American troops under General Zachary Taylor defeat Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna.
1848 – John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829), died of a stroke at age 80.
1861 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrives secretly in Washington, D.C., after an assassination attempt in Baltimore, Maryland. Allen Pinkerton, head of a private detective agency, had uncovered a plot to assassinate Lincoln when he passed through Baltimore on his way to the capital.
1861 – Texas became the 7th state to secede from the Union.
1865 – Fort White, guarding the entrance to Winyah Bay leading to Georgetown, S.C., was evacuated upon the approach of the naval squadron and was occupied by a detachment of Marines.
1886 – London Times publishes world’s first classified ad.
1870 – Military control of Mississippi ends and it is readmitted to the Union.
1883 – Alabama becomes the first U.S. state to enact an antitrust law.
1883 – American Anti-Vivisection Society was organized in Philadelphia. Organization works to end using animals in research.
1885 – John “Babbacombe” Lee survived three attempts to hang him in Exeter Prison, as the trap failed to open. His sentence was changed to life imprisonment.
1886 – Charles Martin Hall produced the first samples of man-made aluminum, after several years of intensive work. He was assisted in this project by his older sister Julia Brainerd Hall. Prior to this pure aluminum was so rare that it was considered a precious metal.
1893 – Rudolf Diesel received a German patent for the diesel engine.
1896 – Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield. He named the candy after a nickname of “Tootsie” for his five-year-old daughter, Clara. He was America’s first candy maker to individually wrap penny candy.
1898 – Émile Zola is imprisoned in France after writing “J’accuse”, a letter accusing the French government of anti-Semitism and wrongfully placing Captain Alfred Dreyfus in jail.
1900 – In the Philippines, Marine Captain Draper arranged with the gunboat USS Nashville, when it next came by on patrol, to shell the village of Benictican in retaliation for a raid on a Marine water party six days before that had killed two Marines.
1903 – Cuba leases Guantanamo Bay to the United States “in perpetuity”.
1904 – The United States gains control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
1905 – Chicago attorney Paul Harris and three other businessmen meet for lunch to form the Rotary Club, the world’s first service club. The name came from the practice of “rotating” the meetings from office to office.
1910 – In Philadelphia, PA, the first radio contest was held.
1915 – Nevada began enforcing convenient divorce law.
1915 – World War I: Germany sank US ships Carib & Evelyn and torpedoed the Norwegian ship Regin.
1916 – Secretary of State Lansing hinted that the U.S. might have to abandon the policy of avoiding “entangling foreign alliances”.
1916 – The McKinley gold dollar commemorative was issued to honor the President, who had been assassinated, and funds from the sale were used to build a memorial at his birthplace in Niles, Ohio.
1921 – First US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in New York.
1926 – President Calvin Coolidge opposed a large air force, believing it would be a menace to world peace.
1927 – The Federal Radio Commission (later renamed the Federal Communications Commission) begins to regulate the use of radio frequencies. It was established by President Calvin Coolidge.
1936 – First rocket air mail flight, Greenwood Lake NY. Two rocket airplanes flew across this lake, about 100 yards.
1937 – Bing Crosby sang with Lani McIntyre and his band as “Sweet Leilani” was recorded.
1940 – Walt Disney’s animated movie “Pinocchio” was released.
1940 – Woody Guthrie dated his song “This Land Is Your Land” to this day. His original title was “God Bless America.”
1941 – Plutonium was first produced and isolated by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg.
1942 – World War II: First attack by the Japanese on the U.S. mainland occurred near Santa Barbara, California. The Imperial Japanese Navy’s submarine I-17, under the command of Commander Nishino Kozo, surfaced and shelled the oil refinery nearby.
1944 – World War II: American aircraft raid Rota, Tinian and Saipan. The US forces are from Task Group 58.3 (Sherman) and Task Group 58.2 (Montgomery). The attack sinks 20,000 tons of Japanese shipping.
1945 – World War II: During the Battle of Iwo Jima, a group of United States Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion,28th Regiment of the Fifth Marine Division and a commonly forgotten U.S. Navy Corpsman, reach the top of Mount Suribachi on the island and are photographed raising the American flag. The photo would later win a Pulitzer Prize.
1945 – World War II: A major new offensive by US First and Ninth Armies begins with heavy attacks along the Roer, especially in the Julich and Duren areas.
1945 – World War II: The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by American forces.
1945 – World War II: The 11th Airborne Division, with Filipino guerrillas, free the captives of the Los Baños internment camp.
1945 – World War II: The German town of Pforzheim is completely destroyed by a raid of 379 British bombers.
1945 – World War II: The Verona Philharmonic Theatre is bombed by Allied forces. It would later be re-opened in 1975.
1946 – Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged in Manila, the Philippines, for war crimes.
1947 – The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is founded.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Bing Crosby, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson and “Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Air Force Major William T. Whisner, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying his F-86 Sabre “Elenore E,” destroyed his fifth MiG-15 to become the war’s seventh ace and his wing’s first.
1954 – The first mass inoculation of children against polio with the Salk vaccine began in Pittsburgh, PA.
1957 – “Too Much” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Sail Along Silvery Moon/Raunchy” by Billy Vaughn, “Short Shorts” by The Royal Teens and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – Demolition begins on Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field (opened in 1913).
1960 – Whites joined Black students in a sit-in at a Winston-Salem, N.C. Woolworth store.
1963 – The 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. It prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.
1963 – The Chiffons recording of “He’s So Fine” was released.
1963 – “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula topped the charts.
1965 – Constance Baker Motley elected Manhattan Borough president, the highest elective office held by a Black woman in a major American city.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lightnin’ Strikes” by Lou Christie, “These Boots are Made for Walkin’” by Nancy Sinatra, “My World is Empty Without You” by The Supremes and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Jim Ryun set a record in the half-mile run when he ran it in 1:48.3.
1968 – Wilt Chamberlain becomes first NBA player to score 25,000 points.
1970 – Ringo Starr guest starred on “Laugh-In.” It was his first solo TV appearance.
1971 – Vietnam War: Lt. William Calley confessed and implicated Captain Ernest Medina in My Lai massacre. Lt. Calley was the only one to be court-martialed.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand, “Seasons in the Sun” by Terry Jacks, “Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)” by Aretha Franklin and “Another Lonely Song” by Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1974 – The Symbionese Liberation Army demands $4 million more to release kidnap victim Patty Hearst.
1974 – Columbia Records released Billy Joel’s “Piano Man.”
1975 – In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly two months early in the United States.
1979 – Frank E. Peterson Jr. was the first African-American Marine Corps aviator and the first African-American Marine Corps general. He retired in 1988.
1980 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini states that Iran’s parliament would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages.
1980 – “Crazy Little Thing Called Love” by Queen topped the charts.
1983 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces its intent to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community of Times Beach, Missouri.
1985 – US Senate confirmed Edwin Meese III as attorney general.
1985 – Legendary Indiana basketball coach Bobby Knight gets mad at the referees and throws a chair on the court before getting ejected in a game against Purdue.
1985 – The TV show “Gimme a Break” was broadcast live before a studio audience. It was the first TV sitcom to be seen live since the 1950s.
1987 – Supernova 1987a: A supernova is seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud. First “naked-eye” supernova sighting since 1604.
1988 – Chicago gives Cubs right to install lights & play up to 18 night games.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair, “Two to Make It Right” by Seduction, “Escapade” by Janet Jackson and “On Second Thought” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1991 – Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabia border and enter Iraq, thus starting the ground-phase of the war. (because of the time difference, it was already the early morning of February 24th in the Persian Gulf).
1991 – “All the Man That I Need” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1993 – Little Richard received a Lifetime Achievement Grammy.
1994 – The ground breaking ceremony for the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas occurred.
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average gains 30.28 to close at 4,003.33, closing above 4,000 for the first time.
1996 – Former National Security Agency employee Robert Stephan Lipka was arrested and charged with espionage. This was 30 years after Lipka stopped working for NSA and 22 years after his last contact with the KGB.
1997 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Ali Hassan Abu Kamal, a Palestinian teacher, opened fire on the 86th-floor observation deck of New York City’s Empire State Building. He killed one person and wounded six more before killing himself.
1997 – A large fire occurs in the Russian Space station, Mir.
1997 – NBC TV shows “Schindler’s List”, completely uncensored, 65 million watch.
1997 – Scientists in Scotland announced they succeeded in cloning an adult mammal.
1997 – In Philadelphia a group of white men attacked a black family in the Grays Ferry section. Nine men were tried in 1998 and 6 were convicted on a variety of felony accounts.
1998 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that anybody can sue a corner store or gas station for selling cigarettes to minors.
1998 – Kissimmee Tornado Outbreak: Tornadoes in central Florida destroy or damage 2,600 structures and kill 42.
1998 – Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders. The Al Quds Al-Arabi newspaper published a statement that announced an alliance between Dr. Zawahri, head of the Egyptian Jihad, and Osama bin Laden. “We—with God’s help—call on every Muslim…to comply with God’s order to kill Americans.”
1999 – White supremacist John William King was found guilty of kidnapping and murdering James Byrd Jr. Byrd was dragged behind a truck for two miles on a country road in Texas.
2000 – At Pelican Bay State Prison in California guards shot and killed one prisoner and wounded 15 others as they quelled a prison yard riot between some 150 black and Latino inmates.
2004 – The US Army cancelled a $39 billion Comanche helicopter program after spending $6.9 billion. Boeing and Sikorsky were the main contractors.
2004 – US Education Secretary Rod Paige likened the National Education Association, the nation’s largest teachers union, to a “terrorist organization” during a private White House meeting with governors.
2005 – The New York, NY, city medical examiner’s office announced that it had exhausted all efforts to identify the remains of the people killed at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, due to the limits of DNA technology. About 1,600 people had been identified leaving more than 1,100 unidentified.
2006 – A US federal judge ordered the Pentagon on to release the identities of hundreds of detainees at Guantanamo Bay to The Associated Press by March 3, a move which would force the government to break its secrecy and reveal the most comprehensive list yet of those who have been imprisoned there.
2006 – In New York City Michael Mastromarino, owner of Biomedical Tissue Services in New Jersey, was charged along with three others of selling body parts for use in transplants across the US.
2007 – Iraq War: Democratic Party members of the United States Senate are planning a challenge to the authority given to President Bush in 2002.
2007 – A Mississippi grand jury refused to bring any new charges in the 1955 slaying of Emmett Till, a black teenager who was beaten and shot after whistling at a white woman, declining to indict the woman, Carolyn Bryant Donham, for manslaughter.
2007 – Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport became the first in the United States to begin testing new X-ray screening technology that can see through people’s clothes.
2008 – A B-2 Spirit of the USAF crashes at Guam. The crew survived but the aircraft was written off, making it the most expensive air crash in human history (the aircraft alone cost $1.2B).
2009 – The FBI said it has rescued more than 45 suspected teenage prostitutes, some as young as 13, in a nationwide 3-night sweep, Operation Cross Country, to remove kids from the illegal sex trade and punish their accused pimps.
2009 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 250.89 (3.4%) to 7114.78, nearly half the peak it hit 16 months ago, and its lowest close in over 11 years.
2009 – Ford Motor Co. said it has reached a tentative deal with the United Auto Workers union on changes to retiree health care, becoming the first Detroit automaker to secure union concessions on the key issue.
2010 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Littleton, Colorado, gunman Bruco Strongeagle Eastwood (32) wounded two students at Deer Creek Middle School before math teacher David Benke (57) subdued him.
2011 – In Texas Khalid Ali-M Aldawasari (20), a native of Saudi Arabia and student at South Plains College, was arrested on a federal charge of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction in connection with purchases of chemicals and equipment necessary to make an improvised explosive device. His potential targets included the home of George W. Bush in Dallas and at least 12 reservoir dams.
2011 – The Obama administration decided to stop defending a 1996 federal law banning marital benefits for same-sex couples.
2012 – Wikileaks suspect United States Army Private Bradley Manning is formally charged ahead of a court martial.
2013 – The US Air Force grounds its entire fleet of 51 $400 million F-35 jets due to a major engine technical issue. During a routine inspection of the aircraft, maintenance personnel detected a cracked engine blade.
2013 – Six tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington state are leaking radioactive waste, but the leak has not posed an immediate public health risk.
2013 – A violent Daytona wreck ‘injures multiple fans’. A huge multi-car wreck at the Daytona 500 saw one car ripped in half and debris tear through the safety fence into the crowd causing injuries to several spectators. Fourteen were treated at the Speedway, and another 14 transported to local hospital facilities.
2013 – Space tourist Dennis Tito founds “Inspiration Mars Foundation” and announces plans for a privately funded manned trip to Mars in 2018.
2014 – The family of professional bass angler Jimmy Johnson, who was killed October 13, 2013, by a robber in the parking lot of Motel 6 on I-55 in Jackson, has filed a lawsuit for inadequate security against the motel owners. (See October 13)
1680 – Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, French colonizer and Governor of Louisiana (d. 1767)
1685 – Georg Friedrich Handel, German/British Baroque composer (d. 1759)
1729 – Josiah Hornblower, American statesman and entrepreneur. He built the first stamping mill ( a stamping mill crushes ore to a finer product for further processing) and served as the representative to the Continental Congress from New Jersey in 1785 and 1786. He was also the son of Johnathan Hornblower, the steam power pioneer. (d. 1809)
1868 – W.E.B. DuBois, American civil rights leader (d. 1963)
1904 – William L. Shirer, American historian. His greatest achievement was his 1960 book, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, originally published by Simon & Schuster. (d. 1993)
1915 – Paul Tibbets, US Air Force retired Brigadier General and Pilot of B-29 “Enola Gay” over Hiroshima (d. 2007)
1940 – Peter Fonda, American actor. He is best known for the 1968 movie “Easy Rider” about two long-haired bikers traveling through the southwest and southern United States. It was an intolerant and violent world.
1943 – Fred Biletnikoff, American football player and coach. He spent the majority of his professional playing and coaching days with the Oakland Raiders. Biletnikoff retired as a pro football player after the 1980 season.
1951 – Ed “Too Tall” Jones, American football player in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. His nickname came from his height 6’9”.
1951 – Patricia Richardson, American actress. She is best known for her role as Jill Taylor on Home Improvement.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company E, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division, (Rein), FMF. Place and date: West of Da Nang, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Phoenix, Ariz. Born: 15 January 1948, Nacogdoches, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an assistant machine gunner with Company E, in connection with operations against enemy forces. During the early morning hours Pfc. Austin’s observation post was subjected to a fierce ground attack by a large North Vietnamese Army force supported by a heavy volume of hand grenades, satchel charges, and small arms fire. Observing that one of his wounded companions had fallen unconscious in a position dangerously exposed to the hostile fire, Pfc. Austin unhesitatingly left the relative security of his fighting hole and, with complete disregard for his safety, raced across the fire-swept terrain to assist the Marine to a covered location. As he neared the casualty, he observed an enemy grenade land nearby and, reacting instantly, leaped between the injured Marine and the lethal object, absorbing the effects of its detonation. As he ignored his painful injuries and turned to examine the wounded man, he saw a North Vietnamese Army soldier aiming a weapon at his unconscious companion. With full knowledge of the probable consequences and thinking only to protect the Marine, Pfc. Austin resolutely threw himself between the casualty and the hostile soldier, and, in doing, was mortally wounded. Pfc. Austin’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*DAHL, LARRY G.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, 359th Transportation Company, 27th Transportation Battalion, U.S. Army Support Command. Place and date: An Khe, Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1971. Entered service at: Portland, Oreg. Born: 6 October 1949, Oregon City, Oreg. Citation: Sp4c. Dahl distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity while serving as a machine gunner on a gun truck near An Khe, Binh Dinh Province. The gun truck in which Sp4c. Dahl was riding was sent with two other gun trucks to assist in the defense of a convoy that had been ambushed by an enemy force. The gun trucks entered the battle zone and engaged the attacking enemy troops with a heavy volume of machine gun fire, causing a large number of casualties. After a brief period of intense fighting the attack subsided. As the gun trucks were preparing to return to their normal escort duties, an enemy hand grenade was thrown into the truck in which Sp4c. Dahl was riding. Instantly realizing the great danger, Sp4c. Dahl called a warning to his companions and threw himself directly onto the grenade. Through his indomitable courage, complete disregard for his safety, and profound concern for his fellow soldiers, Sp4c. Dahl saved the lives of the other members of the truck crew while sacrificing his own. Sp4c. Dahl’s conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the cost of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit and the U.S. Army.
*HARTSOCK, ROBERT W.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 44th Infantry Platoon, 3d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia, Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Fairmont, W. Va. Born: 24 January 1945, Cumberland, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Hartsock, distinguished himself in action while serving as section leader with the 44th Infantry Platoon. When the Dau Tieng Base Camp came under a heavy enemy rocket and mortar attack, S/Sgt. Hartsock and his platoon commander spotted an enemy sapper squad which had infiltrated the camp undetected. Realizing the enemy squad was heading for the brigade tactical operations center and nearby prisoner compound, they concealed themselves and, although heavily outnumbered, awaited the approach of the hostile soldiers. When the enemy was almost upon them, S/Sgt. Hartsock and his platoon commander opened fire on the squad. As a wounded enemy soldier fell, he managed to detonate a satchel charge he was carrying. S/Sgt. Hartsock, with complete disregard for his life, threw himself on the charge and was gravely wounded. In spite of his wounds, S/Sgt. Hartsock crawled about five meters to a ditch and provided heavy suppressive fire, completely pinning down the enemy and allowing his commander to seek shelter. S/Sgt. Hartsock continued his deadly stream of fire until he succumbed to his wounds. S/Sgt. Hartsock’s extraordinary heroism and profound concern for the lives of his fellow soldiers were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S.
*WEBER, LESTER W.
Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 23rd, 1969. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 30 July 1948, Aurora, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machinegun squad leader with Company M, in action against the enemy. The 2d Platoon of Company M was dispatched to the Bo Ban area of Hieu Duc District to assist a squad from another platoon which had become heavily engaged with a well entrenched enemy battalion. While moving through a rice paddy covered with tall grass L/Cpl. Weber’s platoon came under heavy attack from concealed hostile soldiers. He reacted by plunging into the tall grass, successfully attacking one enemy and forcing eleven others to break contact. Upon encountering a second North Vietnamese Army soldier he overwhelmed him in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Observing two other soldiers firing upon his comrades from behind a dike, L/Cpl. Weber ignored the frenzied firing of the enemy and racing across the hazardous area, dived into their position. He neutralized the position by wrestling weapons from the hands of the two soldiers and overcoming them. Although by now the target for concentrated fire from hostile riflemen, L/Cpl. Weber remained in a dangerously exposed position to shout words of encouragement to his emboldened companions. As he moved forward to attack a fifth enemy soldier, he was mortally wounded. L/Cpl. Weber’s indomitable courage, aggressive fighting spirit and unwavering devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*GRABIARZ, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army. Troop E, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands, February 23rd, 1945. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Birth: Buffalo, N.Y. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was a scout when the unit advanced with tanks along a street in Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands. Without warning, enemy machinegun and rifle fire from concealed positions in the Customs building swept the street, striking down the troop commander and driving his men to cover. As the officer lay in the open road, unable to move and completely exposed to the pointblank enemy fire, Pfc. Grabiarz voluntarily ran from behind a tank to carry him to safety, but was himself wounded in the shoulder. Ignoring both the pain in his injured useless arm and his comrades’ shouts to seek the cover which was only a few yards distant, the valiant rescuer continued his efforts to drag his commander out of range. Finding this impossible, he rejected the opportunity to save himself and deliberately covered the officer with his own body to form a human shield, calling as he did so for a tank to maneuver into position between him and the hostile emplacement. The enemy riddled him with concentrated fire before the tank could interpose itself. Our troops found that he had been successful in preventing bullets from striking his leader, who survived. Through his magnificent sacrifice in gallantly giving his life to save that of his commander, Pfc. Grabiarz provided an outstanding and lasting inspiration to his fellow soldiers.
WILLIAMS, HERSHEL WOODROW
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, February 23rd, 1945. Entered service at: West Virginia. Born: 2 October 1923, Quiet Dell, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as demolition sergeant serving with the 21st Marines, 3d Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 23 February 1945. Quick to volunteer his services when our tanks were maneuvering vainly to open a lane for the infantry through the network of reinforced concrete pillboxes, buried mines, and black volcanic sands, Cpl. Williams daringly went forward alone to attempt the reduction of devastating machinegun fire from the unyielding positions. Covered only by four riflemen, he fought desperately for four hours under terrific enemy small-arms fire and repeatedly returned to his own lines to prepare demolition charges and obtain serviced flamethrowers, struggling back, frequently to the rear of hostile emplacements, to wipe out one position after another. On one occasion, he daringly mounted a pillbox to insert the nozzle of his flamethrower through the air vent, killing the occupants and silencing the gun; on another he grimly charged enemy riflemen who attempted to stop him with bayonets and destroyed them with a burst of flame from his weapon. His unyielding determination and extraordinary heroism in the face of ruthless enemy resistance were directly instrumental in neutralizing one of the most fanatically defended Japanese strong points encountered by his regiment and aided vitally in enabling his company to reach its objective. Cpl. Williams’ aggressive fighting spirit and valiant devotion to duty throughout this fiercely contested action sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
George Washington was commander in chief of the Continental army during the American Revolution and first president of the United States (1789-97).
Early Life and Career.
Born in Westmoreland County, Va., on Feb. 22, 1732, George Washington was the eldest son of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, who were prosperous Virginia gentry of English descent. George spent his early years on the family estate on Pope’s Creek along the Potomac River. His early education included the study of such subjects as mathematics, surveying, the classics, and “rules of civility.” His father died in 1743, and soon thereafter George went to live with his half brother Lawrence at Mount Vernon, Lawrence’s plantation on the Potomac. Lawrence, who became something of a substitute father for his brother, had married into the Fairfax family, prominent and influential Virginians who helped launch George’s career. An early ambition to go to sea had been effectively discouraged by George’s mother; instead, he turned to surveying, securing (1748) an appointment to survey Lord Fairfax’s lands in the Shenandoah Valley. He helped lay out the Virginia town of Belhaven (now Alexandria) in 1749 and was appointed surveyor for Culpeper County. George accompanied his brother to Barbados in an effort to cure Lawrence of tuberculosis, but Lawrence died in 1752, soon after the brothers returned. George ultimately inherited the Mount Vernon estate.
By 1753 the growing rivalry between the British and French over control of the Ohio Valley, soon to erupt into the French and Indian War (1754-63), created new opportunities for the ambitious young Washington. He first gained public notice when, as adjutant of one of Virginia’s four military districts, he was dispatched (October 1753) by Gov. Robert Dinwiddie on a fruitless mission to warn the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf against further encroachment on territory claimed by Britain. Washington’s diary account of the dangers and difficulties of his journey, published at Williamsburg on his return, may have helped win him his ensuing promotion to lieutenant colonel. Although only 22 years of age and lacking experience, he learned quickly, meeting the problems of recruitment, supply, and desertions with a combination of brashness and native ability that earned him the respect of his superiors.
French and Indian War.
In April 1754, on his way to establish a post at the Forks of the Ohio (the current site of Pittsburgh), Washington learned that the French had already erected a fort there. Warned that the French were advancing, he quickly threw up fortifications at Great Meadows, Pa., aptly naming the entrenchment Fort Necessity, and marched to intercept advancing French troops. In the resulting skirmish the French commander the sieur de Jumonville was killed and most of his men were captured. Washington pulled his small force back into Fort Necessity where he was overwhelmed (July 3) by the French in an all-day battle fought in a drenching rain. Surrounded by enemy troops, with his food supply almost exhausted and his dampened ammunition useless, Washington capitulated. Under the terms of the surrender signed that day, he was permitted to march his troops back to Williamsburg.
Discouraged by his defeat and angered by discrimination between British and colonial officers in rank and pay, he resigned his commission near the end of 1754. The next year, however, he volunteered to join British general Edward Braddock’s expedition against the French. When Braddock was ambushed by the French and their Indian allies on the Monongahela River, Washington, although seriously ill, tried to rally the Virginia troops. Whatever public criticism attended the debacle, Washington’s own military reputation was enhanced, and in 1755, at the age of 23, he was promoted to colonel and appointed commander in chief of the Virginia militia, with responsibility for defending the frontier. In 1758 he took an active part in Gen. John Forbes’s successful campaign against Fort Duquesne. From his correspondence during these years, Washington can be seen evolving from a brash, vain, and opinionated young officer, impatient with restraints and given to writing admonitory letters to his superiors, to a mature soldier with a grasp of administration and a firm understanding of how to deal effectively with civil authority.
Feeling that the Virginia frontier was safe from French attack, Washington left the army in 1758 and returned to Mount Vernon, directing his attention toward restoring his neglected estate. He erected new buildings, refurnished the house, and experimented with new crops. With the support of an ever-growing circle of influential friends, he entered politics, serving (1759-74) in Virginia’s House of Burgesses. In January 1759 he married Martha Dandridge Custis, a wealthy and attractive young widow with two small children. It was to be a happy and satisfying marriage. After 1769, Washington became a leader in Virginia’s opposition to Great Britain’s colonial policies. At first he hoped for reconciliation with Britain, although some British policies had touched him personally. Discrimination against colonial military officers had rankled deeply, and British land policies and restrictions on western expansion after 1763 had seriously hindered his plans for western land speculation. In addition, he shared the usual planter’s dilemma in being continually in debt to his London agents. As a delegate (1774-75) to the First and Second Continental Congress, Washington did not participate actively in the deliberations, but his presence was undoubtedly a stabilizing influence. In June 1775 he was Congress’s unanimous choice as commander in chief of the Continental forces.
Washington took command of the troops surrounding British-occupied Boston on July 3, devoting the next few months to training the undisciplined 14,000-man army and trying to secure urgently needed powder and other supplies. Early in March 1776, using cannon brought down from Ticonderoga by Henry Knox, Washington occupied Dorchester Heights, effectively commanding the city and forcing the British to evacuate on March 17. He then moved to defend New York City against the combined land and sea forces of Sir William Howe. In New York he committed a military blunder by occupying an untenable position in Brooklyn, although he saved his army by skillfully retreating from Manhattan into Westchester County and through New Jersey into Pennsylvania. In the last months of 1776, desperately short of men and supplies, Washington almost despaired. He had lost New York City to the British; enlistment was almost up for a number of the troops, and others were deserting in droves; civilian morale was falling rapidly; and Congress, faced with the possibility of a British attack on Philadelphia, had withdrawn from the city.
Colonial morale was briefly revived by the capture of Trenton, N.J., a brilliantly conceived attack in which Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776 and surprised the predominantly Hessian garrison. Advancing to Princeton, N.J., he routed the British there on Jan. 3, 1777, but in September and October 1777 he suffered serious reverses in Pennsylvania–at Brandywine and Germantown. The major success of that year–the defeat (October 1777) of the British at Saratoga, N.Y.–had belonged not to Washington but to Benedict Arnold and Horatio Gates. The contrast between Washington’s record and Gates’s brilliant victory was one factor that led to the so-called Conway Cabal–an intrigue by some members of Congress and army officers to replace Washington with a more successful commander, probably Gates. Washington acted quickly, and the plan eventually collapsed due to lack of public support as well as to Washington’s overall superiority to his rivals. After holding his bedraggled and dispirited army together during the difficult winter at Valley Forge, Washington learned that France had recognized American independence. With the aid of the Prussian Baron von Steuben and the French marquis de LaFayette, he concentrated on turning the army into a viable fighting force, and by spring he was ready to take the field again. In June 1778 he attacked the British near Monmouth Courthouse, N.J., on their withdrawal from Philadelphia to New York. Although American general Charles Lee’s lack of enterprise ruined Washington’s plan to strike a major blow at Sir Henry Clinton’s army at Monmouth, the commander in chief’s quick action on the field prevented an American defeat.
In 1780 the main theater of the war shifted to the south. Although the campaigns in Virginia and the Carolinas were conducted by other generals, including Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan, Washington was still responsible for the overall direction of the war. After the arrival of the French army in 1780 he concentrated on coordinating allied efforts and in 1781 launched, in cooperation with the comte de Rochambeau and the comte d’Estaing, the brilliantly planned and executed Yorktown Campaign against Charles Cornwallis, securing (Oct. 19, 1781) the American victory.
Washington had grown enormously in stature during the war. A man of unquestioned integrity, he began by accepting the advice of more experienced officers such as Gates and Charles Lee, but he quickly learned to trust his own judgment. He sometimes railed at Congress for its failure to supply troops and for the bungling fiscal measures that frustrated his efforts to secure adequate materiel. Gradually, however, he developed what was perhaps his greatest strength in a society suspicious of the military–his ability to deal effectively with civil authority. Whatever his private opinions, his relations with Congress and with the state governments were exemplary–despite the fact that his wartime powers sometimes amounted to dictatorial authority. On the battlefield Washington relied on a policy of trial and error, eventually becoming a master of improvisation. Often accused of being overly cautious, he could be bold when success seemed possible. He learned to use the short-term militia skillfully and to combine green troops with veterans to produce an efficient fighting force.
After the war Washington returned to Mount Vernon, which had declined in his absence. Although he became president of the Society of the Cincinnati, an organization of former Revolutionary War officers, he avoided involvement in Virginia politics. Preferring to concentrate on restoring Mount Vernon, he added a greenhouse, a mill, an icehouse, and new land to the estate. He experimented with crop rotation, bred hunting dogs and horses, investigated the development of Potomac River navigation, undertook various commercial ventures, and traveled (1784) west to examine his land holdings near the Ohio River. His diary notes a steady stream of visitors, native and foreign; Mount Vernon, like its owner, had already become a national institution.
In May 1787, Washington headed the Virginia delegation to the Constitutional Convension in Philadelphia and was unanimously elected presiding officer. His presence lent prestige to the proceedings, and although he made few direct contributions, he generally supported the advocates of a strong central government. After the new Constitution was submitted to the states for ratification and became legally operative, he was unanimously elected president (1789).
Taking office (Apr. 30, 1789) in New York City, Washington acted carefully and deliberately, aware of the need to build an executive structure that could accommodate future presidents. Hoping to prevent sectionalism from dividing the new nation, he toured the New England states (1789) and the South (1791). An able administrator, he nevertheless failed to heal the widening breach between factions led by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Because he supported many of Hamilton’s controversial fiscal policies–the assumption of state debts, the Bank of the United States, and the excise tax–Washington became the target of attacks by Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans.
Washington was reelected president in 1792, and the following year the most divisive crisis arising out of the personal and political conflicts within his cabinet occurred–over the issue of American neutrality during the war between England and France. Washington, whose policy of neutrality angered the pro-French Jeffersonians, was horrified by the excesses of the French Revolution and enraged by the tactics of Edmond Genet, the French minister in the United States, which amounted to foreign interference in American politics. Further, with an eye toward developing closer commercial ties with the British, the president agreed with the Hamiltonians on the need for peace with Great Britain. His acceptance of the 1794 Jay’s Treaty, which settled outstanding differences between the United States and Britain but which Democratic-Republicans viewed as an abject surrender to British demands, revived vituperation against the president, as did his vigorous upholding of the excise law during the WHISKEY REBELLION in western Pennsylvania.
Retirement and Assessment
By March 1797, when Washington left office, the country’s financial system was well established; the Indian threat east of the Mississippi had been largely eliminated; and Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) with Spain had enlarged U.S. territory and removed serious diplomatic difficulties. In spite of the animosities and conflicting opinions between Democratic-Republicans and members of the Hamiltonian Federalist party, the two groups were at least united in acceptance of the new federal government. Washington refused to run for a third term and, after a masterly Farewell Address in which he warned the United States against permanent alliances abroad, he went home to Mount Vernon. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Federalist John Adams.
Although Washington reluctantly accepted command of the army in 1798 when war with France seemed imminent, he did not assume an active role. He preferred to spend his last years in happy retirement at Mount Vernon. In mid-December, Washington contracted what was probably quinsy or acute laryngitis; he declined rapidly and died at his estate on Dec. 14, 1799.
Even during his lifetime, Washington loomed large in the national imagination. His role as a symbol of American virtue was enhanced after his death by Mason L. Weems, in an edition of whose Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington (c.1800) first appeared such legends as the story about the cherry tree. Later biographers of note included Washington Irving (5 vols., 1855-59) and Woodrow Wilson (1896). Washington’s own works have been published in various editions, including The Diaries of George Washington, edited by Donald Jackson and Dorothy Twohig (6 vols., 1976-79), and The Writings of George Washington, 1745-1799, edited by John C. Fitzpatrick (39 vols., 1931-44).
Psalm 37: 23-24
The steps of a good man are ordered by the Lord, And He delights in his way.
24 Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down; For the Lord upholds him with His hand.
“A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship. The average age of the world’s greatest civilizations has been 200 years.”
Alexis de Tocqueville
“Skill in the art of communication is crucial to a leader’s success. He can accomplish nothing unless he can communicate effectively.”
~ Norman Allen
pignus (PIG-nuhs) noun, plural pignora
1. A pledge.
2. Something held as security for a debt.[From Latin pignus (pledge).]
1295 BC – The coronation of Ramses II, on whose face the sun’s rays fall each year in Abu Simbel temple.
1630 – Popcorn was introduced to English colonists by Quadequine, brother of Massasoit.
1632 – Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published. It was a 1632 book by Galileo, comparing the Copernican system, and the traditional Ptolemaic system. In the Copernican system, the Earth and other planets orbit the Sun, while in the Ptolemaic system everything in the Universe circles around the Earth. The Dialogue was published in Florence under a formal license from the Inquisition. In 1633, Galileo was convicted of “grave suspicion of heresy” based on the book, which was then placed on the Index of Forbidden Books, from which it was not removed until 1835 (after the theories it discussed had been permitted in print in 1822). In an action that was not announced at the time, the publication of anything else he had written or ever might write was also banned.
1656 – New Amsterdam (New York) was granted a Jewish burial site.
1732 – George Washington, was born at his parents’ plantation at Bridges Creek in the Virginia Colony.
1784 – “Empress of China”, a U.S. merchant ship, left New York City for the Far East.
1786 – John Adams meets with the ambassador of Tripoli in order to negotiate a settlement to end piracy on American shipping in the Mediterranean Sea and off the coasts of Portugal and Spain (Barbary Pirates). The negotiations fail.
1819 – By the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain sells Florida to the United States for five million U.S. dollars.
1847 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Buena Vista – Mexican General Santa Anna surrounds the outnumbered forces of U.S. General Zachary Taylor at the Angostura Pass in Mexico and demands an immediate surrender. Taylor refused, allegedly replying, “Tell him to go to hell.” Five thousand American troops drive off 15,000 Mexicans.
1853 – The Washington University is founded in St. Louis as Eliot Seminary.
1855 – The Pennsylvania State University is founded. It was started as the Farmers’ High School of Pennsylvania
1855 – The U.S. Congress voted to appropriate $200,000 for continuance of the work on the Washington Monument. The next morning the resolution was tabled and it would be 21 years before the Congress would vote on funds again. Work was continued by the Know-Nothing Party in charge of the project.
1856 – The Republican Party opens its first national meeting in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1860 – Organized baseball’s first game was played in San Francisco, CA.
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis was sworn in as the permanent president of the Confederate States of America on Washington’s birthday.
1862 – Civil War: Union naval vessels entered Savannah River through Wall’s Cut, isolating Fort Pulaski.
1862 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis is officially inaugurated for a six-year term as the President of the Confederate States of America in Richmond, Virginia.
1865 –Civil War: Rear Admiral Porter’s gunboats’ bombardment cause surrender of Wilmington, NC.
1865 – Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery.
1872 – The Prohibition Party holds its first national convention in Columbus, Ohio, nominating James Black as its presidential nominee. It is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. It is the oldest existing third party in the US. It still exists but only garnered 519 votes in 2012.
1876 – Johns Hopkins University is founded in Baltimore, Maryland.
1879 – In Utica, New York, Frank Woolworth opens the first of many of 5 and 10-cent Woolworth stores. The original name was “Woolworth’s Great Five Cent Store”. This store soon failed. Frank opened his first successful “Woolworth’s Great Five Cent
Store” on July 18, 1879, in Lancaster, PA. The chain went out of business in July 1997.
1881 – President Hayes, whose wife is nicknamed Lemonade Lucy because she serves no alcohol in the White house, declares that no alcoholic beverages are to be sold on military posts.
1886 – “The Times” newspaper published a classified personal column, the first newspaper to do so.
1888 – John Reid of Scotland demonstrated golf to Americans at Yonkers, NY. Reid converted his lawn to six hole for golf in Yonkers N.Y., the first golf course in the US.
1889 – President Grover Cleveland signs a bill admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Washington as U.S. states.
1898 – A black postmaster was lynched and his wife and 3 daughters were shot in Lake City, SC.
1900 – Hawaii became a US territory.
1901 – The steamer Rio de Janeiro piled up on rocks at Fort Point at the bay entrance of San Francisco and some 130 people died. 80 people were rescued, mostly by Italian fishing boats and many of the dead were Chinese immigrants.
1902 – A fistfight broke out in the Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman suffered a bloody nose for accusing Senator John McLaurin of bias on the Philippine tariff issue.
1903 – Due to drought the US side of Niagara Falls, the river ran short of water.
1907 – It was reported that workers at the refugee camp in San Francisco’s Ingleside district had agreed the comply with a directive by commander C.M. Wallenberg to work one day per week for the betterment of the camp or miss their allotment of free tobacco.
1909 – The sixteen battleships, the Great White Fleet returned to Norfolk, Va., from an around-the-world show of naval power. It was the first US fleet to circle the globe.
1915 – World War I : Germany institutes unrestricted submarine warfare.
1916 – Ernst Alexanderson was issued a patent for a selective radio tuning system.
1918 – World War I: Caused by hysterical fears of treacherous German spies and domestic labor violence, the Montana legislature passes a Sedition Law that severely restricts freedom of speech and assembly.
1920 – In Emeryville, California, the first dog race track to employ an imitation rabbit opens.
1922 – Congress authorizes Grant Memorial $1 gold coin.
1922 – WOR-AM in New York City NY begins radio transmissions.
1923 – The United States begins the first transcontinental air mail route. In order to keep the pilots on track, the federal government built a series of concrete arrows 50 to 70 feet long from coast to coast.
1923 – First successful chinchilla farm in US in Los Angeles CA.
1924 – Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President of the United States to deliver a radio broadcast from the White House.
1931 – Maurice Chevalier recorded “Walkin’ My Baby Back Home” for Victor Records in New York City.
1932 -Purple Heart award re-instituted.
1932 – Adolf Hitler was the Nazi Party candidate for the presidential elections in Germany. The election of Hitler was supposed to mark the beginning of the Thousand-Year Reich.
1933 – Nazi Herman Goring formed SA/SS-police.
1934 – “It Happened One Night” opens at New York’s Radio City Music Hall. It was directed by Frank Capra and the leading man role was surprisingly filled by Clark Gable who was on loan from another studio. He starred opposite of Claudette Colbert. Full Movie
1935 – All plane flights over the White House were barred because they disturbed President Roosevelt’s sleep.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders General Douglas MacArthur out of the Philippines as American defense collapses.
1943 – The battleship USS Iowa, the first in the Navy’s 45,000 ton class, was commissioned. The ship carried Pres. Roosevelt to Tehran in Nov. and was decommissioned in 1990.
1943 – World War II: The Coast Guard Cutter USS Campbell, rammed the U-606 in the North Atlantic after the U-boat was forced to surface after having been attacked by the Polish destroyer Burza.
1943 – World War II: Members of White Rose are executed in Nazi Germany. White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a World War II non-violent resistance group in Germany famous for a leaflet campaign in which they called for active opposition to the Nazi regime.
1944 – World War II: In the Marianas, Japanese bombers and torpedo planes attack the ships of US Task Force 58.
1944 – World War II: General Truscott takes full command of VI Corps at Anzio, replacing General Lucas.
1944 – World War II: US forces land on Parry Island, in the Eniwetok Atoll. There is heavy Japanese resistance.
1945 – World War II: US 5th Army makes some gains in mountain fighting high up in the Reno Valley.
1945 – World War II: The US 20th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) achieves most of its objectives in the area between the Saar and Moselle rivers.
1945 – World War II: The naval gun and air bombardment (by US Task Forces 52, 54 and 58) continues. Elements of the US 5th Amphibious Corps continue to make slow progress toward Mount Suribachi to the south and the airfield to the north (most of which has now been captured). There are Japanese counterattacks and infiltration attempts during the night.
1945 – World War II: German Ju88 bombers sink the SS Henry Bacon. This is the last Allied merchant ship to be sunk by German aircraft during the war.
1946 – Dr. Selman Abraham Waksman announced his discovery of streptomycin, an antibiotic.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1949 – Grady the Cow, a 1,200-pound cow gets stuck inside a silo on a farm in Yukon, Oklahoma and garners national media attention. The story goes that Grady The Cow gave birth to a stillborn calf. When the doctor removed the calf, Grady was not happy. She broke away from her attending physician and jumped into a nearby silo.
1951 – The Atomic Energy Commission disclosed information about the first atom-powered airplane.
1953 – General Mark Clark, commander in chief U.N. Command, proposed an exchange of sick and wounded prisoners. The North Koreans charged the United Nations with germ warfare.
1954 – Radio’s “Breakfast Club” simulcast on TV.|
1955 – In Operation Teapot’s second detonation, codenamed Moth, the total device weight was 445 lb (the lightest complete fission device yet fired).
1956 – Elvis Presley enters the music charts for the first time, with “Heartbreak Hotel“.
1956 – In Montgomery, Alabama, 80 participants in the three month old bus boycott voluntarily gave themselves up for arrest after an ultimatum from white city leaders. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks were among those arrested.
1958 – Roy Hamilton’s record, “Don’t Let Go” was the first stereo record to chart. Hamilton rose to fame in the mid-1950’s with big ballad hits like “You’ll Never Walk Alone,” “Hurt,” and the seminal version of “Unchained Melody.”
1958 – Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic.
1958 – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1959 – Lee Petty wins the first Daytona 500. His winning speed was 135.521 MPH.
1960 – “Theme From A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts
1962 – Wilt Chamberlain sets NBA record with 34 free throw attempts.
1964 – “I Saw Her Standing There” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “My Girl” by The Temptations, “The Jolly Green Giant” by The Kingsmen and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam: General William Westmoreland, commander of Military Assistance Command Vietnam, cables Washington, D.C., to request that two battalions of U.S. Marines be sent to protect the U.S. airbase at Da Nang.
1967 – National Football League standardizes sling-shot goal post & 6′ wide border around field.
1969 – Barbara Jo Rubi wins a United States thoroughbred horse race making history as the first woman to do so.
1969 – The last time all four Beatles were together for a recording session.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John, “Oh, Babe, What Would You Say?” by Hurricane Smith, “Dueling Banjos” by Eric Weissberg & Steve Mandell and “I Wonder if They Ever Think of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1973 – After President Richard Nixon’s visit to the People’s Republic of China, the two countries agree to establish liaison offices.
1973 – United States v. Enmons, 410 U.S. 396 (1973) i decided by the Supreme Court granted union bosses immunity from prosecution under federal law for acts of violence and vandalism orchestrated in the so-called “pursuit of legitimate union objectives.”
1974 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Samuel Byck tries and fails to assassinate President Richard Nixon. He was an unemployed former tire salesman who attempted to hijack a plane flying out of Baltimore-Washington International Airport. He intended to crash into the White House in hopes of killing the President. Byck committed suicide by shooting himself in the head during the hijacking attempt.
1974 – LtJG Barbara Ann Allen becomes first Navy designated female aviator.
1978 – US Dept. of Defense launched the first of the satellites that later made the backbone of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
1982 – Alan C. Nelson (1933-1997) became US Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (INS) and served to 1989. In 1994 he co-authored California’s Proposition 187, an initiative to deny health and education benefits to illegal immigrants.
1983 – The notorious Broadway flop “Moose Murders” opens and closes on the same night at the Eugene O’Neill Theatre.
1984 – The U.S. Census Bureau statistics showed that the State of Alaska was the fastest growing state of the decade with an increase in population of 19.2 percent.
1984 – A 12-year-old Houston boy known publicly only as “David,” died fifteen days after being removed from the bubble for a bone-marrow transplant. He had spent most his life in a plastic bubble because he had no immunity to disease.
1986 – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1991 – The US invaded Kuwait in the Gulf War Desert Storm and quickly chased out the Iraqi forces.
1992 – President Bush renewed his attack on a Democratic tax plan, saying in a radio address that congressional Democrats were choosing “politics over duty.”
1992 – At the Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, American speedskater Cathy Turner won the women’s 500-meter race.
1994 – Aldrich Ames and his wife are charged by the United States Department of Justice with spying for the Soviet Union.
1995 – France accused four American diplomats and a fifth U.S. citizen of spying, and asked them to leave the country.
1995 – The Corona reconnaissance satellite program, in existence from 1959 to 1972, is declassified. The Corona satellites were used for photographic surveillance of the Soviet Union (USSR), the People’s Republic of China, and other areas.
1996 – The space shuttle “Columbia” blasted into orbit on a mission to unreel a satellite on the end of a 12.8-mile cord.
1997 – “Wannabe” by Spice Girls topped the charts.
1998 – The revival of “King & I,” closed at Neil Simon Theater in New York City after 781 performances.
1998 – In Peoria, Ill., United Auto Workers rejected a new contract with Caterpillar Inc. The dispute was into its sixth year.
1999 – In New York City, Mayor Giuliani put into effect a plan that allowed police to seize the vehicles of drunken drivers.
1999 – Levi Strauss, falling victim to a fashion generation gap, announced that it would close 11 of 22 US plants and lay off 5,900 factory workers.
1999 – The Pinkerton Security was sold to the Swedish company Securitas AB for $384 million.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of 6 returned to Cape Canaveral with over a week’s worth of radar images to map Earth.
2000 – In Jordan a 15-year-old boy, acting under Sharia Law, strangled his sister (14) in a “crime of honor” because he considered her to have shamed his family. An autopsy revealed that the girl was a virgin.
2002 – The California state Supreme Court struck down the “Son of Sam” law that required felons to turn over profits from books and movies to their victims.
2002 – A New Jersey teenager (16) was arrested for killing 6 people in a 2-day shooting spree on the outskirts of Philadelphia.
2002 – An Alabama jury found Monsanto and its corporate successors (Solutia Inc.) guilty of releasing tons of PCBs in Anniston between 1935-1979. In 2004 some 18,447 plaintiffs were scheduled to an average of $7,725, while 27 lawyers were scheduled to receive over $4 million each.
2003 – Jesica Santillan, who was made critically ill after receiving donor organs of the wrong blood type in a medical accident during a heart-lung transplant, is taken off life support after being declared brain dead after a second heart-lung transplant operation at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina..
2004 – The final TV episode of “Sex and the City” aired after a 6-season run.
2004 – In San Jose, Ca., Ranbir Singh (43) opened fire a group of Sikh men playing cards and killed three. Singh was killed after the group turned on him.
2004 – Same-sex marriage in the United States: Saying he will defend California’s laws limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples, state attorney general Bill Lockyer dismisses California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s “order” in the San Francisco marriage licenses debate, saying his office is independent of gubernatorial power.
2005 – ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: A Virginia man was charged with plotting with al-Qaida to kill President Bush. Ahmed Omar Abu Ali was convicted on all counts in November 2005. Originally sentenced to 30 years in prison, in 2009, his sentence was increased to life.
2005 – Researchers at Texas Tech Univ. reported that the rocket fuel perchlorate has been found in women’s breast milk at five times the average level found in dairy milk.
2006 – In Lincoln, Nebraska, eight workers at a meat processing plant claimed the record $365 million Powerball jackpot.
2006 – South Dakota’s Senate advanced a law banning abortion in virtually all cases, with the intention of forcing the Supreme Court to reconsider its 1973 decision legalizing the procedure.
2007 – The US General Accountability Office said it will cost at least $ 12 billion to clean up contamination from tens of thousands of gasoline storage tanks that were leaking underground.
2008 – The White House announces that U.S. Army National Guard Master Sergeant Woodrow W. Keeble will posthumously receive the Medal of Honor for his service in the Korean War, becoming the first Sioux to receive the award. (U.S. Army)
2008 – Arizona Republican Rep. Rick Renzi was indicted on charges of extortion, wire fraud, money laundering and other matters in an Arizona land swap scam that allegedly helped him collect hundreds of thousands of dollars in payoffs.
2008 – John Heath (81) was sentenced In Los Angeles to 28 years in prison in an investment scam that prosecutors say seeped across half the country and bilked 1,800 people, many of them elderly, of about $190 million.
2008 – In Texas three British bankers were sentenced to just over three years in prison for their roles in a fraudulent scheme with former Enron Chief Financial Officer Andrew Fastow.
2008 – A United States Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bomber crashes at Anderson Air Force Base on Guam. The two pilots ejected, with one hospitalized. It is the first B-2 to crash.
2009 – Mississippi Gov. Barbour said he would join Louisiana Gov. Jindal in turning down federal incentives to expand unemployment insurance coverage.
2010 – President Barack Obama put forward a nearly $1 trillion, 10-year compromise that would allow the government to deny or roll back egregious insurance premium increases that infuriated consumers.
2010 – A Delaware grand jury returned an indictment on pediatrician Dr. Earl Bradley of Lewes with 471 counts of sexual crimes against 103 children.
2011 – Militant Shawna Forde of the Minutemen Civil Defense Corps is sentenced to death in Arizona for her role in the murders of Raul and Brisenia Flores.
2011 – The Iran Navy sends two ships through the Suez Canal for the first time since the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
2011 – The Democrats in the Indiana House of Representatives leave for other states in the U.S. rather than vote on anti-union legislation.
2012 – A judge in Los Angeles declared the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act unconstitutional and ordered the federal government to ignore the statute and provide health benefits to the wife of a lesbian federal court employee.
2012 – Seven US Marines die in a helicopter crash on the border of the states of California and Arizona.
2012 – The United States Embassy in Kabul goes into lockdown as a result of the protests.
2012 – In Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S., former University of Virginia men’s lacrosse player George Huguely is found guilty of second-degree murder in the death of former UVA women’s lacrosse player Yeardley Love in 2010.
2013 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves Kadcyla, a new drug manufactured by Roche, for treating late-stage breast cancer.
2016 – Full Snow Moon
1732 – George Washington, First President of the United States (d. 1799)
1839 – Francis Pharcellus Church, American editor and publisher. He was a lead editorial writer on his brother’s newspaper, the New York Sun, and it was in that capacity that in 1897 he wrote his most famous editorial, Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. (d. 1906)
1857 – Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, English founder of the Boy Scouts (d. 1941)
1857 – Heinrich Hertz, German physicist. He was the first to satisfactorily demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic waves by building an apparatus to produce and detect VHF or UHF radio waves. (d. 1894)
1889 – Olave Baden-Powell, English founder of the Girl Guide and wife of Robert Baden-Powell (d. 1977)
1892 – Edna St. Vincent Millay, American writer who was an American lyrical poet and playwright and the first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. (d. 1950)
1907 – Robert Young, American actor who was best known for his leading roles of Jim Anderson, the father of Father Knows Best (NBC and then CBS) and physician Marcus Welby in Marcus Welby, M.D. (ABC). (d. 1998)
1932 – Ted Kennedy, American politician is the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts and a member of the Democratic Party.(d.2009)
1934 – Sparky Anderson, American baseball manager. He managed the National League’s Cincinnati Reds to the 1975 and 1976 championships, then added a third title in 1984 with the Detroit Tigers of the American League.
1950 – Julius Erving, American basketball player commonly known by the nickname Dr. J, is a retired American basketball player who helped launch a modern style of play that emphasizes leaping and playing above the rim.
1952 – Bill Frist is an American physician, businessman, and politician. Frist served two terms as a United States Senator where he became the Republican Majority Leader from 2003 until his retirement in 2007.
1962 – Steve Irwin, Australian herpetologist known simply as Steve Irwin and nicknamed “The Crocodile Hunter”, was a television personality, wildlife expert, and conservationist. (d. 2006)
1975 – Drew Barrymore is an American actress and film producer. She is the youngest member of the Barrymore family of American actors.
|FOX, WESLEY L.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, February 22nd, 1969. Entered service at: Leesburg, Va. Born: 30 September 1931, Herndon, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as commanding officer of Company A, in action against the enemy in the northern A Shau Valley. Capt. (then 1st Lt.) Fox’s company came under intense fire from a large well concealed enemy force. Capt. Fox maneuvered to a position from which he could assess the situation and confer with his platoon leaders. As they departed to execute the plan he had devised, the enemy attacked and Capt. Fox was wounded along with all of the other members of the command group, except the executive officer. Capt. Fox continued to direct the activity of his company. Advancing through heavy enemy fire, he personally neutralized 1 enemy position and calmly ordered an assault against the hostile emplacements. He then moved through the hazardous area coordinating aircraft support with the activities of his men. When his executive officer was mortally wounded, Capt. Fox reorganized the company and directed the fire of his men as they hurled grenades against the enemy and drove the hostile forces into retreat. Wounded again in the final assault, Capt. Fox refused medical attention, established a defensive posture, and supervised the preparation of casualties for medical evacuation. His indomitable courage, inspiring initiative, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger inspired his marines to such aggressive action that they overcame all enemy resistance and destroyed a large bunker complex. Capt. Fox’s heroic actions reflect great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps, and uphold the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.