Inauguration Day (traditional)
National Disc Jockey Day
National Cheese Lovers Day
U.S. Money History
Source: The U.S. Treasury Department, Bureau of Engraving and Printing
1690: Colonial Notes
In the early days of this nation, before and just after the American Revolution, Americans used English, Spanish, and French currencies. The Massachusetts Bay Colony issued the first paper money in the colonies that would later form the United States.
1775: Continental Currency
American colonists issued paper currency for the Continental Congress to finance the Revolutionary War. The notes were backed by the “anticipation” of tax revenues. Without solid backing and because they were easily counterfeited, the notes quickly became devalued, giving rise to the phrase “not worth a Continental.”
1781: The Nation’s First Bank
The Continental Congress chartered the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the nation’s first “real” bank to give further financial support to the Revolutionary War.
1785: The Dollar
The Continental Congress adopted the dollar as the unit for national currency. At
that time, private bank-note companies printed a variety of notes.
1789: First Bank of the United States
After adoption of the Constitution in 1789, Congress chartered the First Bank of the United States and authorized it to issue paper bank notes to eliminate confusion and simplify trade. The bank served as the U.S. Treasury’s fiscal agent, thus performing the first central bank functions.
1792: U.S. Mint
The Federal Monetary System was established with the creation of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The first American coins were struck in 1793.
1816: Second U.S. Bank
The Second Bank of the U.S. was granted a 20-year charter.
1836: State Bank Notes
With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1,600 state-chartered, private banks issued paper money. State bank notes, with over 30,000 varieties of color and design, were easily counterfeited, which combined with bank failures to cause confusion and circulation problems.
1861: Civil War
On the brink of bankruptcy and pressed to finance the Civil War, Congress authorized the United States Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing Treasury Notes called Demand Notes.
Demand Notes were replaced by United States Notes. Commonly called “greenbacks” because of the green tint introduced to discourage photographic counterfeiting, they were last issued in 1971. The Secretary of the Treasury was empowered by Congress to have notes engraved and printed by private bank note companies. The notes were signed and affixed with seals by six Treasury Department employees.
The design of U.S. currency incorporated a Treasury seal, the fine-line engraving necessary for the difficult-to-counterfeit intaglio printing, intricate geometric lathe work patterns, and distinctive cotton and linen paper with embedded red and blue fibers
1864 – 1873: “In God We Trust” on coinage
The first coin to include the inscription “In God We Trust” was the two-cent coin minted during this period.
1865: Gold Certificates were issued by the Department of the Treasury against gold coin and bullion deposits and were circulated until 1933.
Secret Service : The Department of the Treasury established the United States Secret Service to control counterfeiting. At that time, one-third of all circulating currency was estimated to be counterfeit.
1866: National Bank Notes
National Bank Notes, backed by U.S. government securities, became predominant. By this time, 75 percent of bank deposits were held by nationally chartered banks. As State Bank Notes were replaced, the value of currency stabilized for a time.
1877: Bureau of Engraving and Printing
The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing started printing all U.S. currency.
1878: Silver Certificates
The Department of the Treasury was authorized to issue Silver Certificates in exchange for silver dollars. The last issue was in the Series 1957.
1913: Federal Reserve Act
After the 1893 and 1907 financial panics, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was passed. It created the Federal Reserve System as the nation’s central bank to regulate the flow of money and credit for economic stability and growth. The System was authorized to issue Federal Reserve Notes. Now the only U.S. currency produced, Federal Reserve Notes, represent 99 percent of all currency in circulation.
1929: Standardized Design
Currency was reduced in size by 25 percent, and a consistent design was introduced with uniform portraits on the front and emblems and monuments on the back.
1957: “In God We Trust:” on paper money
Paper currency was first issued with the inscription “In God We Trust” in 1957. The
inscription appears on all currency Series 1963 and later.
1990: Security Thread and Micro-printing
A security thread and micro-printing were introduced to deter counterfeiting by advanced copiers and printers. The features first appeared in Series 1990 $100, $50 and the $20 notes. By Series 1993, the features appeared in all denominations except $1 notes.
1994: Currency Redesign
The Secretary of the Treasury announced that U.S. currency would be redesigned to incorporate a new series of counterfeit deterrents. The newly designed $100 was introduced in 1996, the $50 in 1997, and the $20 in 1998. The new $50 was the first to incorporate a low-vision feature, a large dark numeral on a light background on the lower right corner of the back, to help people with low vision identify the denomination.
1998: 50 State Quarters Program Act
The program is scheduled to run from 1999 until 2008, with five new quarters released every year over ten years. The 50 new quarters will feature a design that honors each state’s unique history and tradition. The quarters are being released in the order that the states joined the union.
2000: Redesign of $5 and $10 bills
The U.S. Treasury introduced redesigned $5 and $10 bills to make counterfeiting more difficult. The new notes feature oversized pictures of Abraham Lincoln and Alexander Hamilton that are slightly off-center. Other anti-counterfeiting measures include watermarks that can be seen under a light, security threads that glow when exposed to ultraviolet light and tiny printing that’s visible with the help of a magnifying glass. The $100, $50 and the $20 bill underwent similar makeovers in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively
There is also a statute making it illegal to damage or deface coins for a fraudulent purpose. However, while the U.S. Mint does not promote coloring, plating, or altering U.S. coins, it is not illegal to do so and there are no sanctions against such activity as long as there is no fraudulent intent.
According to the United States Mint’s 2010 report, the approximate cost of producing U.S. coins is as follows: penny = 1.8 cents; nickel = 9 cents; dime = 4.36 cents; quarter = 4.29 cents; half dollar = 9.63 cents; golden dollar = 29.6 cents.
One more piece of trivia. Using the original copper pennies, a penny standing on its edge is equal to 13 pennies stacked one upon another. Interesting, was this an accident or did someone design that to represent the thirteen colonies?
“We’ve staked our future on our ability to follow the Ten Commandments with all our heart.”
“We must not allow the clock and the calendar to blind us to the fact that each moment of life is a miracle and mystery.”
~ H. G. Wells
bromide BROH-myd, noun
1. A compound of bromine and another element or a positive organic radical.
2. A dose of potassium bromide taken as a sedative.
3. A dull person with conventional thoughts.
4. A commonplace or conventional saying.Bromide was formed from the first element of English bromine and the suffix -ide; the pair of bromine/bromide parallel chlorine/chloride. Bromine itself comes from French brome, from Greek bromos, “bad smell.” The adjective form is bromidic.
250 – Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Pope Fabian is martyred. Afterwards the Donatist controversy over readmitting lapsed Christians disaffects many in North Africa.
1265 – In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, now also known as the “Houses of Parliament”.
1616 – The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
1649 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other “high crimes.”
1777 – Brigadier General Philemon Dickinson leads 400 “raw” men from the New Jersey militia and 50 Pennsylvania riflemen under Captain Robert Durkee in an attack against a group of 500 British soldiers foraging for food led by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Abercromby near Van Nest’s Mills in Millstone, New Jersey.
1783 – The Kingdom of Great Britain signs a peace treaty with France and Spain, officially ending hostilities in the Revolutionary War.
1801 – US Secretary of State John Marshall is appointed the Chief Justice of the United States. Marshall was nominated by President Adams to be chief justice. He was sworn in on Feb. 4, 1801. Marshall effectively created the legal framework within which free markets in goods and services could establish themselves.
1809 – First US geology book published by William Maclure.
1857 – William Kelly patented the blast furnace for manufacturing steel.
1863 – CIVIL WAR: The Mud March- Union General Ambrose Burnside’s Army of the Potomac begins an offensive against General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia that quickly bogs down as several days of heavy rain turn the roads of Virginia into a muddy quagmire. The campaign was abandoned three days later.
1885 – La Marcus Thompson patents the roller coaster. It was called the Gravity Pleasure Switchback Railway. For a five-cent ticket, passengers sat sideways in cars that by gravity descended the gentle waves of the 600-foot wooden mini-railway, reaching a top speed of six miles per hour.
1887 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base from the nation of Hawaii.
1892 – The first official basketball game took place at the YMCA gymnasium in Springfield, Massachusetts. There were two nine-man teams. A soccer ball was used and peach baskets were nailed 10 feet above the floor on the balcony.
1929 – “In Old Arizona“, the first full-length talking film filmed outdoors, is released.
1933 – First radio broadcast of “Lone Ranger” (WXYZ-Detroit)
1937 – Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States. This is the first inauguration scheduled on January 20, following adoption of the 20th Amendment. Previous inaugurations were scheduled on March 4th.
1937 – The Ohio River flood of 1937 took place in late January and February 1937. With damage stretching from Pittsburgh to Cairo, Illinois, one million were left homeless, with 385 dead and property losses reaching $500 million, further worsened by the fact that it occurred during the Great Depression and just a few years after the Dust Bowl. It was so devastating that from then on all new construction had to be above “1937 High Water”.
1941 – Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes swears in U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for his third term.
1942 – Harry Babbitt sang as Kay Kyser and his orchestra recorded, “Who Wouldn’t Love You“, on Columbia Records.
1942 – World War II: Nazis at the Wannsee conference in Berlin decide the “final solution to the Jewish problem”.
1944 – World War II: The Royal Air Force drops 2,300 tons of bombs on Berlin.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces began unsuccessful operations to cross the Rapido River and seize Cassino.
1945 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the only president to be elected to three terms in office, was inaugurated to his fourth term. He died three months later and was succeeded by Vice President Harry Truman.
1945 – Hungary drops out of the Second World War, agreeing an armistice with the Allies.
1946 – The first Kaiser-Frazer automobiles were introduced at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was formed after World War II by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and Joseph W. Frazer, president of the Graham-Paige Motor Company.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “How Soon” by Jack Owens, “Golden Earrings” – Peggy Lee and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all top the charts.
1949 – President Truman was inaugurated for his second term. He presented a 4-point plan for American foreign policy.
1949 – J Edgar Hoover gives Shirley Temple a tear gas fountain pen.
1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated as president. He succeeded Harry S. Truman. TV coverage sent the event to 21 million sets.
1953 – A television show was transmitted from the United States to Canada for the first time. The CBS Television production of “Studio One” was transmitted to CBLT-TV in Canada.
1954 – The National Negro Network is established with 40 charter member radio stations.
1956 – Buddy Holly recorded “Blue Days Black Night” in Nashville.
1958 – The rock ’n’ roll classic, “Get a Job“, by The Silhouettes, was released.
1958 – Elvis Presley got a little greetings from Uncle Sam. The draft board in Memphis, TN ordered the King to report for duty; but allowed a 60-day deferment for him to finish the film, “King Creole“.
1961 – John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President of the United States of America. Robert Frost recited his poem “The Gift Outright” at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy. Although Frost had written a new poem for the occasion, titled “Dedication,” faint ink in his typewriter made the words difficult to read, so he recited “The Gift Outright” from memory. The inauguration ceremonies were held on the newly renovated east front of the Capitol.
1962 – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker topped the charts.
1964 – “Meet the Beatles” (33:25), the first Beatles album in the United States, is released.
1965 – The Byrds record “Mr Tambourine Man“.
1965 – The Rolling Stones and the Kinks made their first appearance on ABC-TV’s “Shindig!”
1965 – Alan Freed, the ‘Father of Rock ’n’ Roll’, died in Palm Springs, CA. Freed was one of the first radio disc jockeys to program black music, or race music, as it was termed, for white audiences.
1965 – Jet Propulsion Labs (JPL) proposes modified Apollo flight to fly around Mars & return.
1968 – Game of the Century, which allowed the NCAA to gradually have influence over college sports broadcasting and introduce NCAA higher education opportunities; also a game that influenced the enactment of Title IX. UCLA Bruins faced the Houston Cougars in the first-ever nationally televised regular season college basketball game.
1969 – The first pulsar is discovered, in the Crab Nebula by University of Arizona.
1969 – Richard Nixon is inaugurated as president of the United States and says, “After a period of confrontation [in Vietnam], we are entering an era of negotiation.” He also said,” in his first inaugural address proclaimed that Americans “cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another.”
1973 – “You’re So Vain” by Carly Simon topped the charts.
1973 – Jerry Lee Lewis makes his debut at the Grand Ole Opry.
1974 – Golfing great Johnny Miller won the Tucson Open Golf Tournament and became the first pro golfer to win four consecutive major tournaments.
1977 – President Jimmy Carter was sworn in and then surprised the nation as he walks from the U.S. Capitol to the White House.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announces US boycott of Olympics in Moscow.
1980 – Super Bowl XIV (Not Available on YouTube) was played between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Los Angeles Rams. The Steelers won with a final score of 31-19. The head coaches were Chuck Noll for Pittsburgh and Ray Malavasi for Los Angeles. The game was played at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, CA before 103, 985 fans and the MVP was Terry Bradshaw, quarterback for the Steelers. The Referee was Fred Silva. Face Value Tickets were $30.00.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do that to Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille, “Cruisin’ “ by Smokey Robinson and “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1981 – Ronald Reagan, former Western movie actor and host of television’s popular “Death Valley Days” is sworn in as the 40th president of the United States. Minutes after Ronald Reagan’s inauguration as the 40th president of the United States, the 52 U.S. captives held at the U.S. embassy in Teheran, Iran, are released, ending the 444-day Iran Hostage Crisis.
1982 – Ozzy Osborne bit the head off of a bat in Des Moines, IA, and was hospitalized to undertake a series of rabies shots.
1985 – Super Bowl XIX (full game not available on YouTube) was played between the San Francisco Giants and the Miami Dolphins. The game was won by the Giants and the final score was 38-16. The head coaches were Bill Walsh for San Francisco and Don Shula for Miami. The game was played in Stanford Stadium in Stanford, CA before 84, 059 and the MVP was Joe Montana quarterback for the Giants. The Referee was Face Value Tickets were $60.00. It was the most-watched Super Bowl game in history including all media, seen by an estimated 115.9 million people.
1986 – Martin Luther King, Jr., day was celebrated as a federal holiday for the first time.
1986 – The United Kingdom and France announce plans to construct the Channel Tunnel.
1986 – New footage of the 1931 horror classic, “Frankenstein”, was found. It depicted the monster, played by Boris Karloff, throwing a girl into a lake and showed a hypodermic needle in the monster’s arm! Yeeeeeow! The scenes had been cut because they were considered too shocking for the 1930’s theatre crowd.
1987 – Church of England envoy Terry Waite is kidnapped. He had he travelled to Lebanon to try to secure the release of four hostages including journalist John McCarthy. He was himself held captive between 1987 and 1991.
1988 – An Arizona House committee opened hearings on the possible impeachment of Gov. Evan Mecham.
1989 – George Bush was sworn in as the 41st president of the United States; Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president. Reagan became the first president elected in a “0” year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
1990 – “How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” by Michael Bolton hits #1.
1990 – The space shuttle Columbia returned from an 11-day mission.
1991 – During the Gulf War, Iraqi missiles were shot down by US Patriot rockets as they approached Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Iraqi television showed interviews with seven downed allied pilots, three of them Americans.
1993 – Bill Clinton was sworn in as the 42nd president of the United States. Al Gore was sworn in as vice president. The Senate confirmed Lloyd Bentsen as treasury secretary, Les Aspin as defense secretary and Warren Christopher as secretary of state.
1994 – Robert B. Fiske Jr. was appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno as the special Whitewater prosecutor to investigate President and Mrs. Clinton’s Arkansas land deals.
1994 – Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to attend classes at The Citadel in South Carolina. She joined the cadet corps in August 1995, under court order, but soon dropped out, citing isolation and stress.
1996 – The space shuttle “Endeavour” landed after a nine-day mission that included snaring a Japanese satellite.
1997 – Comet Hale-Bopp crosses Mars’ orbit
1997 – U.S. President Bill Clinton was inaugurated for his second term in office.
1997 – Edith Haisman (100), the oldest survivor of Titanic, died.
1998 – Cloned calves offer promise of medicines. The calves were cloned from the cells of cow fetuses by University of Massachusetts scientists, James Robl and Steven Stice.
1999 – President Clinton’s legal team argued its case before the Senate, saying that House-passed articles of impeachment were “flawed and unfair.”
2001 – George W. Bush succeeds Bill Clinton, becoming the 43rd President of the United States.
2001 – Michelle Kwan won her fourth straight U.S. Figure Skating Championship title while Timothy Goebel won his first men’s title.
2001 – President Bush suspended all late-term executive orders issued by Pres. Clinton.
2003 – Energizer agreed to buy the Shick-Wilkinson Sword razor business for $930 million from Pfizer as it aimed to expand beyond batteries.
2004 – Salvation Army officials announced a $1.5 billion donation by the late Joan Kroc (d.2003), heiress to the McDonald’s fortune, for 25-30 community centers.
2005 – Mars rover Opportunity uses its spectrometers to prove that Heat Shield Rock is a meteorite, the first to be found on another planet.
2005 – The Walt Disney Company announces that the water park River Country will be closed permanently.
2005 – President George W. Bush is sworn in for his second term, with a pledge to seek “freedom in all the world”.
2005 – Vice President Dick Cheney blames Saddam Hussein for the slow pace of the Iraqi reconstruction: “I think the hundreds of thousands of people who were slaughtered at the time, including anybody who had the gumption to stand up and challenge him, made the situation tougher than I would have thought.”
2006 -At 4 o’clock UTC NASA’s Pluto probe New Horizons crossed the orbit of the Moon, eight hours and thirty-five minutes after launch. This is a new Earth-to-Moon-distance flight record.
2006 – Three former workers at the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in Ohio are indicted for repeatedly falsifying inspection reports and other information to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The plant’s owner, FirstEnergy Corporation, accepts a plea bargain and $28 million in fines in lieu of criminal prosecution.
2006 – Lawrence Franklin, a former U.S. State Department analyst and Iran expert, was sentenced to 12 years in prison for passing classified information to Israel and two pro-Israeli lobbyists.
2007 – U.S. Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., became the first former first lady to seek the U.S. presidency when she entered the race for the 2008 Democratic nomination.
2008 – In the NFL playoffs, the New York Giants defeat the Green Bay Packers 23-20 in overtime and the New England Patriots defeat the San Diego Chargers 21-12 to advance to Super Bowl XLII.
2009 – Barack Hussein Obama inaugurated as the first African-American President of the United States. Barack Obama took the oath of office at the National Mall in Washington before what may be the largest inaugural crowd ever.
2009 – Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy suffers a seizure and collapses during a private inauguration lunch.
2010 – Christopher Speight, an American man suspected of shooting and killing eight people in Appomattox, Virginia, surrenders to police.
2011 – In a blanket assault against seven mob families in New York, New Jersey and Rhode Island, the F.B.I. and local authorities began arresting more than 100 people on charges including murder, racketeering and extortion.
2012 – President Barrack Obama marked the anniversary of Roe v. Wade by cementing one of the biggest attacks on conscience rights the country has ever seen. Starting in 2013, any organization that offers health insurance to employees will be forced to cover birth control, sterilizations, and abortifacients–no matter what their objections.
2012 – Agents of the United States charge 127 alleged mafia members in the northeast of the country.
2012 – The largest rocket ever launched from the west coast of the U.S. is launched carrying a secret payload; speculated to be a spy satellite.
2013 – Joe Flacco threw three second-half touchdown passes to lead the Baltimore Ravens to a 28-13 victory over the New England Patriots in the A.F.C. championship game in Foxborough, Mass.
2013 – San Francisco 49ers beat Atlanta Falcons 28-24 in NFC championship game, advancing to Super Bowl.
2013 – A 15 year-old male shoots and kills kill his mother, father and three younger siblings. He told police he hoped to shoot up a Walmart after the family rampage and cause “mass destruction” near Albuquerque, New Mexico.
2013 – The second inauguration of Barack Obama as the President of the United States takes place in the Blue Room of the White House.
2015 – Deputies in West Florida arrested a 43-year-old man Tuesday after he tackled a man carrying a concealed weapon in Wal-Mart. According to Hillsborough County Sheriff’s Office, Michael Foster saw 62-year-old Clarence Daniels in the Wal-Mart parking lot at 11110 Causeway Blvd. in Tampa Bay with a gun holstered under his coat. Mr. Foster followed Mr. Daniels into the store, put him in a chokehold and brought him to the ground while screaming that he had a gun, police said.
2017 – President Donald J Trump is inaugurated as President of the United States.
2017 – Inauguration Day — the US Debt was resting at a $19,947,304,555,212.40, or $19,947 billion. On February 26th,the debt is $19,935,316,186,835.70, or $19,935 billion. In just one month under the Trump administration, the entirety of the debt has been cut by 0.1 percent ($12 billion — whereas former President Obama grew the debt $200 million in his first month.
1798 – Anson Jones, 5th President of Texas (d. 1858) was a doctor, businessman, congressman, and the last president of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the “Architect of Annexation.”
1837 – David Josiah Brewer, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (d. 1910)He was an American jurist. Brewer authored the unanimous opinion of the Court in Muller v. Oregon (1908), in support of a law restricting working hours for women.
1896 – George Burns (Nathan Birnbaum), American comedian, entertainer.
1926 – Patricia Neal, American actress
1930 – Buzz (Edwin) Aldrin Jr., is an American pilot and astronaut who was the Lunar Module Pilot on Apollo 11, the first lunar landing. He became the second human to set foot on the Moon (after Mission Commander Neil Armstrong).
1958 – Lorenzo Lamas, American actor is an American television and film actor, who is best-known for playing Jane Wyman’s young grandson, Lance Cumson, on “Falcon Crest”.
GOWAN, WILLIAM HENRY
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 2 June 1884, Rye, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 18, 19 March 1909. Citation: For bravery and extraordinary heroism displayed by him during a conflagration in Coquimbo, Chile, January 20th, 1909.
WHEELER, GEORGE HUBER
Rank and organization: Shipfitter First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 26 September 1881, Charleston, S.C. Accredited to: South Carolina. G.O. No.: 18, 19 March 1909. Citation: For bravery and extraordinary heroism displayed by him during a conflagration in Coquimbo, Chile, January 20th, 1909.
Christian Unity Week 18-25
Martin Luther King Day – 2015
Gun Appreciation Day
As we enter flu season, here is a subject that can even save your life. Clean hands saves lives. Cleaning our hands is the single most important thing we can do to keep from getting sick and spreading illness to others. Hand washing is important for food safety, disease prevention, and personal health.
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 78 million people become ill each year from foodborne illness, 5,000 of whom die as a result. The proper steps are: wet your hands with clean, warm running water and apply soap; rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces for twenty seconds; rinse hands well under running water; and dry your hands using a towel or air dryer. How long is twenty seconds? It is the time it takes to sing the first two stanzas of “Mary Had A Little Lamb.” An additional measure is to carry a bottle of hand disinfectant that can be used prior to eating or after handling your own flu or cold symptoms.
Even the Bible speaks of the importance of clean hands. In Psalm 24 it asks:
3Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?
4He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.
5He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.
Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid.
“When angry, count ten before you speak. If very angry, a hundred.”
“Live neither in the past nor in the future, but let each day’s work absorb your entire energies, and satisfy your wildest ambition.”
~ Sir William Osler
1. A squib: a type of firework made with damp powder that makes a hissing sound when exploding. [From fizz, a clipping of fizzle, from fysel (to break wind).]
2. A kind of top spun by pulling a string wound around it.
3. A flirty, frivolous girl. [From Middle English gig (a flighty girl, a whipping-top).]
4. A kind of harpoon with barbs for spearing fish. [From Spanish fisga (fish spear).]
5. A police informer. [Australian slang.]
570 – Mohammed (d.632), “The Prophet”, founder of Islam and speaker in the “Koran,” was born into the Quraysh tribe in Makkah. He was orphaned at an early age and found work in a trade caravan.
1760 – Cherokees unsuccessfully attack Fort Prince George in South Carolina to rescue tribe members held hostage by Governor Lyttleton.
1764 – John Wilkes is expelled from the British House of Commons for seditious libel. He was an English radical, journalist and politician. In the Middlesex election dispute, he fought for the right of voters—rather than the House of Commons—to determine their representatives.
1770 – The Sons of Liberty, led by Alexander McDougall, engage in a skirmish with soldiers on Golden Hill in an attempt to prevent the posting of broadsides by British soldiers stationed in New York.
1783 – William Pitt became the youngest Prime Minister of England at age 24. The major American city of Pittsburgh was named for him. Also, Pittsylvania County, Virginia is named for him.
1788 – Arthur Phillip founds a penal settlement in Sydney.
1793 – King Louis XVI was tried by the French Convention, found guilty of treason and sentenced to the guillotine.
1825 – Ezra Daggett and Thomas Kensett patented a process for canning food in tin containers. Prior to this the containers were steel.
1829 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust Part 1 premieres.
1840 – Captain Charles Wilkes circumnavigates Antarctica, claiming what became known as Wilkes Land for the United States.
1847 – Mexicans in Taos murder the American-born New Mexican governor Charles Bent because of the abusive behavior of American soldiers occupying the city.
1861 – Civil War: Georgia joins South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and Alabama in secession as a special state convention votes 208-89 to leave the Union.
1862 – Civil War: Union General George Thomas defeats Confederates commanded by George Crittenden in southern Kentucky. The battle, also called Mill Springs or Beech Grove, secured Union control of the region and resulted in the death of Confederate General Felix Zollicoffer. It was the Confederacy’s first significant defeat in the conflict.
1883 – The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires, built by Thomas Edison, begins service at Roselle, New Jersey.
1903 – First transatlantic radio broadcast between United States and England. Guglielmo Marconi broadcast the first transatlantic radio message from his station (Marconi Beach) on Cape Cod. It was beamed to King Edward of England from President Theodore Roosevelt.
1903 – New bicycle race “Tour de France” announced. The race initially began as a publicity stunt for the magazine l’ Auto. Sixty riders began the race, and the winner was Maurice Garin.
1915 – World War I: German zeppelins bomb the cities of Great Yarmouth and King’s Lynn in the United Kingdom killing more than 20, in the first major aerial bombardment of a civilian target.
1915 – DOUBLEMINT gum was trademark registered.
1915 – George Claude of Paris France, patented the neon tube advertising sign. His handiwork was regularly seen adorning the Eiffel Tower and many pizza parlors throughout America.
1917 – World War I: German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sends the Zimmermann Telegram to Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican alliance against the United States.
1917 – World War I: Silvertown explosion: 73 are killed and 400 injured in an explosion in a munitions plant in London.
1920 – The United States Senate votes against joining the League of Nations.
1922 – Geological survey says US oil supply would be depleted in 20 years.
1929 – Acadia National Park, Maine, was established.
1935 – Coopers Inc. sold the world’s first briefs. Briefs are a type of Y-shaped underwear and swimwear, as opposed to styles where the material extends down the legs.
1937 – Howard Hughes sets a new air record by flying from Los Angeles to New York City in 7 hours, 28 minutes, 25 seconds.
1938 – General Motors began mass production of diesel engines.
1939 – Ernest Hausen of Wisconsin sets chicken-plucking record-4.4 seconds.
1942 – Executive Order 9066 is issued. It was a presidential executive order issued during World War II by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , using his authority as Commander-in-Chief to exercise war powers to send ethnic groups to internment camps.
1942 – World War II: Japanese forces invade Burma.
1944 – The U.S. federal government relinquished control of the nation’s railroads following settlement of a wage dispute.
1945 – World War II: Holocaust: Soviet forces liberate ghetto of Łódź. Out of 230,000 inhabitants in 1940, less than 900 had survived Nazi occupation.
1946 – General Douglas MacArthur establishes the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo to try Japanese war criminals.
1946 – Staged jointly by the USCG and USN, the first public demonstration of LORAN was held at Floyd Bennett Field in New York. LORAN was a terrestrial radio navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters in multiple deployment to determine the location and speed of the receiver.The current LORAN system has been phased out in the United States and Canada, being replaced by global positioning satellites (GPS).
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “A Gal in Calico” by Johnny Mercer and “Rainbow at Midnight” by Ernest Tubb all topped the charts.
1949 – Cuba recognizes Israel.
1949 – The salary of the President of the United States was increased from $75,000 to $100,000 with an additional $50,000 expense allowance added for each year in office.
1951 – Korean War: Far East Air Forces launched a thirteen-day intensive air campaign, by fighters, light bombers, and medium bombers, to restrict to a trickle the supplies and reinforcements reaching enemy forces in the field.
1952 – Korean War: The U.S. Navy hospital ship USS Repose departed Korean waters after the longest tour of duty for any such vessel during the Korean War — nearly one and one-half years.
1952 – PGA approves allowing Black participants.
1952 – The National Football League (NFL) bought the franchise of the New York Yankees from Ted Collins. The franchise was then awarded to a group in Dallas on January 24.
1953 – Elvis Presley registers for the U.S. Selective Service System. Under the draft system, young men of good health were expected to be available from age 18, to serve in the military for two years of active duty and then four years in the reserves.
1953 – 68% of all United States television sets were tuned in to I Love Lucy to watch Lucy give birth.
1955 – First Presidential news conference filmed for TV (Eisenhower).
1955 – Millionaire TV program premiers.
1955 – “Scrabble” debuts on board game market.
1957 – Pat Boone sang at President Eisenhower’s inaugural ball.
1959 – “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” by the Platters topped the charts.
1961 – First episode for “The Dick Van Dyke Show” (25:14) is filmed.
1963 – The first disco, called “Whiskey-a-go-go,” opened in Los Angeles.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Go Away Little Girl” by Steve Lawrence, “”Hotel Happiness” by Brook Benton, “Tell Him” by The Exciters and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1966 – Indira Gandhi is elected Prime Minister of India.
1968 – Vietnam: “Sky Soldiers” from the 173rd Airborne Brigade begin Operation McLain with a reconnaissance-in-force operation in the Central Highlands.
1970 – The soundtrack of the film, “Easy Rider“, the movie that made a star of Peter Fonda, became a gold record. It was the first pop-culture, film soundtrack to earn the gold award. Full Movie
1970 – President Nixon nominated G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, but the nomination was later defeated because of controversy over Carswell’s past racial views.
1971 – Revival of “No, No, Nanette” premieres at 46th Street Theatre, New York City.
1971 – At the Charles Manson murder trial, the Beatles’ “Helter Skelter” was played. At the scene of one of his gruesome murders, the words “helter skelter” were written on a mirror.
1974 – The UCLA men’s basketball team sees its 88-game winning streak end at the hands of Notre Dame.
1974 – In San Francisco, seven Municipal Railway workers were arrested by police who saw them skimming money from locked fare boxes at the Kirkland yard near Fisherman’s Wharf. Estimates of losses for the year ran from $500,000 to $2 million.
1977 – President Gerald Ford pardons Iva Toguri D’Aquino (a.k.a. “Tokyo Rose”).
1977 – Snow falls in Miami, Florida. This is the only time in the history of the city that snowfall has occurred.
1978 – The last Volkswagen Beetle made in Germany leaves VW’s plant in Emden. Beetle production in Latin America continued until 2003.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter announces the United States boycott of the Summer Olympics in Moscow.
1981 – Iran Hostage Crisis: United States and Iranian officials sign an agreement to release 52 American hostages after 14 months of captivity.
1983 – Klaus Barbie, Nazi war criminal, is arrested in Bolivia.
1983 – The Apple Lisa, the first commercial personal computer from Apple Computer, Inc. to have a graphical user interface and a computer mouse, is announced.
1985 – “Born In The USA” by Bruce Springsteen peaked at #9.
1986 – The first IBM PC computer virus is released into the wild. A boot sector virus dubbed (c)Brain, it was created by the Farooq Alvi Brothers in Lahore, Pakistan, reportedly to deter piracy of the software they had written.
1987 – The SFStory is the first original shared universe to be created on the Internet.
1993 – IBM announces a $4.97 billion loss for 1992, the largest single-year corporate loss in United States history up to that time.
1993 – The first American combat troops flew home from their “humanitarian” mission in Somalia.
1994 – Record cold temperatures across the eastern half of the United States brings temperatures below -20°F in many locations.
1996 – The barge North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island.
1997 – Yasser Arafat returns to Hebron after more than 30 years and joins celebrations over the handover of the last Israeli-controlled West Bank city.
1997 – Balloonist Steve Foster ended his attempt to circle the globe and landed in India as he ran out of gas in his Solo Spirit balloon. He had covered 9,000 miles and floated for 6 days, 2 hours and 54 minutes.
2000 – Michael Skakel, a nephew of Robert F. Kennedy, surrendered to police in Greenwich, Connecticut, to face charges in the 1975 death of a 15-year-old girl.
2000 – Fire at Seton Hall University kills three students and injures 54.
2001 – LEWINSKY SCANDAL: Pres. Clinton admitted that he misled prosecutors about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky and struck a deal with independent counsel Robert Ray to accept a 5-year suspension of his Arkansas law license and pay a $25,000 fine.
2002 – Michael Jordan, formerly of the Washington Wizards, plays his first game in Chicago since rejoining the NBA.
2003 – The Oakland Raiders won the AFC title game, beating the Tennessee Titans 41-24. The Tampa Bay Buccaneers took the NFC Championship game, defeating the Philadelphia Eagles 27-10.
2004 – NASA’s Spirit rover arrives at its initial destination, a rock named “Adirondack”, and prepares for analysis.
2005 – 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake: The number of people known to have died in last month’s Asian tsunami has reached 226,000, following an announcement by Indonesian officials that more than 166,000 had been confirmed dead in their country alone.
2005 – Norma McCorvey, the “Roe” of Roe vs. Wade, asked the Supreme Court to overturn the abortion ruling. Lower courts already blocked her twice.
2005 – Donald Beardslee (61) became the 11th prisoner to be executed in California since the death penalty was reinstated in 1997
2006 – The United States’ largest independent film festival, the Sundance Film Festival, begins in Salt Lake City and Park City, Utah.
2006 – The New Horizons probe was launched by NASA on the first mission to Pluto.
2006 – In West Virginia 19 miners escaped after a conveyor belt caught fire inside Aracoma Coal’s Alma No. 1 mine.
2007 – The Storm Worm Trojan horse infects thousands of computers (mostly private) in Europe and the United States.
2008 – The state of Nevada will hold its presidential caucus, sandwiching itself between what, to date, had been the two earliest votes on the candidacy for US presidents, the Iowa caucus and the New Hampshire primary.
2008 – During the presidential election voters in Nevada and South Carolina went to the polls for the Republican and Democratic parties Mitt Romney won the Nevada Republican caucus while Senator Hillary Clinton won the Democratic caucus. Arizona Senator John McCain wins the South Carolina Republican primary. California Congressman Duncan Hunter withdraws his candidacy.
2009 – President George W. Bush In his final acts of clemency granted early prison releases to Jose Alonso Compean and Ignacio Ramos, two former Texas-based US Border Patrol agents whose convictions for shooting a Mexican drug dealer in 2005 fueled the national debate over illegal immigration.
2010 – A powerful storm in California, United States, causes the evacuation of at least 200 homes in threat of mudslides, and knocks out power for 65,000 customers. One fatality is reported in Kern County.
2010 – The US Supreme Court reverses a decision by the Philadelphia Court of Appeals that had blocked the execution of former Black Panther Party member Mumia Abu-Jamal.
2010 – Massachusetts voters elect Republican Scott Brown to fill the vacant United States Senate seat previously held by Ted Kennedy.
2010 – The British confectioner Cadbury agreed to the deal with the American food giant Kraft after it raised its original offer to about 19 billion dollars, the two companies said. The deal creates the world’s largest confectioner.
2011 – A US Federal grand jury indicts Jared Lee Loughner for attempted murder of Arizona Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and two of her aides with further charges pending.
2011 – Prosecutors in Pennsylvania charge a Philadelphia illegal abortionist, Dr. Kermit Gosnell, with eight counts of murder for killing a patient and seven live-born babies.
2012 – Kodak files for bankruptcy protection.
2012 -The FBI shuts down Megaupload. In response, hacker group Anonymous shuts down the United States Department of Justice website and many websites of the government and entertainment industry.
2012 – Texas Governor Rick Perry drops out of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries and endorses rival candidate Newt Gingrich.
2013 – Four bald eagles—three adults and a juvenile—have been found floating in a lake near Granite Falls in Washington State in an apparent cold-blooded killing, authorities say. The Stillaguamish Tribe has contributed $10,000 to the reward fund for information leading to the apprehension and conviction of those involved.
2014 – New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo says pro-life, pro-Second Amendment, and anti-homosexual marriage advocates should leave the state. He calls such Americans “extreme conservatives.”
2014 – The annual MLK observance at the state house in Columbia, S.C. had an interesting twist this year. The event is held on the north side steps of the statehouse. Prominent at that location is a large bronze statue of George Washington. This year, the NAACP constructed a “box” to conceal the father of our country from view so that participants would not be ‘offended’ by his presence.
2017 – President Barack Obama commuted the sentences of 330 drug criminals in one of his final acts as president. The commutations granted today raised Obama’s total number of commutations to 1,715 in eight years — more than any other president, and more than the 13 prior presidents combined, according to the Washington Examiner. The number included 568 convicts serving life sentences.
2038 – The UNIX timestamp (a format used for decades to store dates on computers) becomes technically obsolete.
1736 – James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine.
1807 – Robert E. Lee, American commander-in-chief of the Confederate armies.
1809 – Edgar Allan Poe, American Poet and writer.
1839 – Paul Cézanne, French painter. He was the leading figure in the revolution toward abstraction in modern painting.
1922 – Guy Madison, Zorro
1923 – Jean Stapleton (Murray), actress
1943 – Janis Joplin, American blues and pop singer.
1946 – Dolly Parton, American songwriter, singer.
1953 – Desi Arnaz, Jr., American actor
Rank and organization: Captain of the Hold, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Cuba. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 82, 23 February 1867. Citation: With Acting Ensign James H. Bunting, during the heavy gale which occurred in Pensacola Bay on the night of January 19th, 1867, Robinson swam ashore with a line for the purpose of sending off a blowcock, which would facilitate getting up steam and prevent the vessel from stranding, thus voluntarily periling his life to save the vessel and the lives of others.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Burnt Ordinary, Va., January 19th, 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: Was one of a small scouting party that charged and routed a mounted force of the enemy six times their number. He led the charge in a most gallant and distinguished manner, going far beyond the call of duty.
Winnie the Pooh Day
Birthday of Winnie’s author A.A. Milne
Frank Parker stands near a trailer court in Green River, Utah, under a sweltering May sun. A stone’s throw away, semis grind by on Interstate 70. Unfazed by the heat, grime and noise, he points down to a low- growing shrub and exults, “Bees!!!”
Frank Parker’s fascination lies with the 30,000 wild bee species that buzz the planet, about 4,000 of which are native to the United States. “There’s more kinds of bees than there are birds and fish put together!” he marvels. Some of them are gorgeous: One orchid bee is metallic gold with a blue abdomen and a red and gold thorax. Some have unusual habitats: Parker and his colleague Terry Griswold found a female of one species that dug nine feet under a sand dune in Utah to lay a single egg. And some are vital to our nation’s economy: Scientists estimate that native bees perform as much as $6.7 billion worth of pollinization annually in the United States.
Few people know more about native bees than Parker. An inveterate collector known to colleagues as “Bring-’em-back-on-pins Parker,” he has found hundreds of new bee species in the United States and Latin America. During his 20 years as head of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory in Logan, Utah, he found that the state is an Eden for bees. A key part of that Eden is near here, in the San Rafael Desert.
It is better to take refuge in the Lord than to trust in princes.
10 All the nations surrounded me, but in the name of the Lord I cut them down.
11 They surrounded me on every side, but in the name of the Lord I cut them down.
12 They swarmed around me like bees, but they were consumed as quickly as burning thorns; in the name of the Lord I cut them down.
“A primary object should be the education of our youth in the science of government. In a republic, what species of knowledge can be equally important? And what duty more pressing than communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?”
~ George Washington
“I am responsible. Although I may not be able to prevent the worst from happening, I am responsible for my attitude toward the inevitable misfortunes that darken life. Bad things do happen; how I respond to them defines my character and the quality of my life. I can choose to sit in perpetual sadness, immobilized by the gravity of my loss, or I can choose to rise from the pain and treasure the most precious gift I have—life itself.”
~ Walter Anderson
Talmi gold (TAL-mee gold) noun
Brass, plated with gold, used in making cheap jewelry.
[After Tallois, the French inventor in the 19th century. The term
comes to English from German Talmigold, a partial translation of
French Tal. mi-or, a contraction of Tallois demi-or, from demi (half)
+ or (gold).]
1486 – English King Henry VII (1457-1509) married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. This ended the Wars of the Roses.
1535 – Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro.
1562 – Pope Pius IV reopens the Council of Trent for its third and final session.
1644 – Perplexed Pilgrims in Boston reported America’s first UFO sighting. The light “flamed up” as it hovered and appeared to be about “three yards square.” As they watched, the light “contracted into the figure of a swine” and moved “swift as an arrow.”
1670 – Pirate Captain Henry Morgan captures Panama.
1733 – First polar bear exhibited in America (Boston).
1775 – The Continental Congress presents its petitions to the British Parliament.
1777 – Representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declare the independence of the Vermont Republic from Britain.
1778 – James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the “Sandwich Islands.”
1787 – The newly activated Massachusetts militia force of 4400 men led by General Benjamin Lincoln assembles to combat the insurgents led by Daniel Shays in Springfield.
1788 – The first 736 convicts banished from England to Australia landed in Botany Bay creating the first Australian Penal Colony.
1803 – President Thomas Jefferson sends a special confidential message to Congress asking for money to fund the journey of Lewis and Clark.
1836 – Jim Bowie arrives at the Alamo to assist its Texas defenders.
1836 – Marines reinforced Army to repulse Indians at Ft. Brooke, Florida the Army’s headquarters during the Second Seminole War.
1840 – “Electro-Magnetic Intelligencer”, first US electrical journal, appeared.
1861 – Civil War: Georgia joins South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, and Alabama in secession from the United States.
1862 – Civil War: Confederate Territory of Arizona formed.
1862 – John Tyler (71), the 10th president of the United States (1841-1845), was buried at Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Va. He drank a mint julep every morning for breakfast. Tyler had joined the Confederacy after his presidency and was designated a “sworn enemy of the United States.”
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Ft. Moultrie, SC.
1871 – Wilhelm I of Germany becomes the first German Emperor.
1886 – Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England.
1896 – First demonstration of an x-ray machine in the US, New York City, NY.
1902 – The Isthmus Canal Commission in Washington shifted its support to Panama as the canal site.
1903 – Theodore Roosevelt, the President of the United States, sends a message of greetings from a Marconi station built near Wellfleet, Massachusetts to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, marking the first transatlantic radio transmission originating in the United States.
1911 – Eugene B. Ely lands on the deck of the USS Pennsylvania stationed in San Francisco harbor, marking the first time an aircraft landed on a ship. Ely brought his 50-hp Curtiss pusher biplane in for a safe landing on a 119-ft wooden platform attached the deck.
1912 – British explorer Robert Falcon Scott arrives at the South Pole only to find that Roald Amundsen, the Norwegian explorer, had preceded them by just over a month.
1915 – The HMS Endurance, under Sir Ernest Shackleton and his 27 man crew, froze into the ice of Antarctica.
1916 – A 1-1/2 pound chondrite type meteorite struck a house near the village of Baxter in Stone County, Missouri.
1918 – World War I : Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech in front of Congress.
1919 – World War I: The Paris Peace Conference opens in Versailles, France. Ignacy Jan Paderewski becomes Prime Minister of the newly independent Poland.
1919 – Bentley Motors Limited is founded.
1929 – “New York Daily Mirror” columnist Walter Winchell made his debut on radio, broadcasting a blend of political commentary and celebrity gossip to “Mr. and Mrs. America…”
1936 – Author Rudyard Kipling (70) died in Burwash, England.
1937 – CBS radio introduced listeners to “Aunt Jenny’s Real Life Stories” for the first time.
1939 – Louis Armstrong records “Jeepers Creepers.”
1943 – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: The first uprising of Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.
1943 – A wartime ban on the sale of pre-sliced bread in the U.S. went into effect. It was aimed at reducing the bakeries’ demand for metal replacement parts.
1943 – World War II – Tiger tanks are used for the first time at Bau Arada, Tunisia. Neither the British nor the US have anything which can face them on equal terms.
1943 – World War II: Two American cruisers and four destroyers bombard Japanese-held Attu Island.
1944 – The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City for the first time hosts a jazz concert; the performers are Louis Armstrong, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, Artie Shaw, Roy Eldridge and Jack Teagarden.
1944 – Soviet forces liberate Leningrad, effectively ending a three year Nazi siege, known as the Siege of Leningrad.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “It Might as Well Be Spring” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra and “You Will Have to Pay” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1948 – Ted Mack’s “The Original Amateur Hour” debuted on the DuMont network.
1949 – Congressman William L. Dawson elected chairman of House Expenditures Committee. He was the first Black to head a standing committee of Congress.
1950 – The federal tax on oleomargarine was repealed.
1951 – Korean War: FEAF Combat Cargo Command flew an extraordinary 109 C-119 sorties to drop more than 550 tons of supplies to front-line troops in Korea.
1951 – NFL rules tackles, guards & centers ineligible for forward pass.
1951 – Joan Blondell made her debut on TV in the “Pot of Gold” episode of “Airflyte Theatre” on CBS-TV.
1953 – The U.S. Coast Guards were dispatched from Sangley Point to save the crew of a Navy Lockheed P2V reconnaissance plane. They landed in 12-foot seas, risking their own crew to save their Navy counterparts. The Coast Guard fished 11 survivors from the wrecked plane. In a second crash during the same operation, seven of the rescued Navy fliers survived but most of the Coast Guard crew was lost.
1957 – The first, non-stop, around-the-world jet flight came to an end at Riverside, CA. Three US Air Force jets (B-52’s), averaging speeds of over 500 miles per hour, complete a nonstop around-the-world flight.
1958 – “At the Hop” by Danny and the Juniors topped the charts.
1958 – Willie O’Ree, the first Black National Hockey League player, makes his NHL debut with the Boston Bruins.
1960 – “Running Bear” by Johnny Preston topped the charts.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Twist” by Chubby Checker, “Peppermint Twist” by Joey Dee & The Starliters, “Can’t Help Falling in Love” by Elvis Presley and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.
1962 – Vietnam: The United States begins spraying foliage with herbicides in South Vietnam, in order to reveal the whereabouts of Vietcong guerrillas.
1964 – Plans are revealed for the World Trade Center in New York City. It was commissioned in 1962 to Minoru Yamasaki.
1964 – “There! I’ve Said it Again” by Bobby Vinton.
1964 – Beatles first appeared on Billboard Chart at #35 for “I Want to Hold Your Hand.” The song hit No. 1 by the end of the month.
1966 – Robert C. Weaver becomes first Black presidential cabinet member when sworn in as Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under the Johnson Administration.
1967 – Albert DeSalvo, the “Boston Strangler,” is convicted of numerous crimes and is sentenced to life in prison.
1969 – “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1969 – A United Airlines Flight 266 crashes into Santa Monica Bay resulting in the loss of all 32 passengers and six crewmembers.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Raindrops Keep Fallin’ on My Head” by B.J. Thomas, “Venus” by The Shocking Blue, “I Want You Back” by The Jackson 5 and “Baby, Baby (I Know You’re a Lady)” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1971 – Two Standard Oil tankers collided in the fog a quarter mile west of the Golden Gate Bridge. The Arizona Standard ripped into the Oregon Standard and caused the spill of some 1.9 million gallons of heavy bunker oil.
1974 – A Disengagement of Forces agreement is signed between the Israeli and Egyptian governments, ending conflict on the Egyptian front of the Yom Kippur War.
1974 – The Six Million Dollar Man debuts on ABC.
1975 – “Mandy” by Barry Manilow topped the charts.
1975 – “The Jeffersons” was seen for the first time on CBS-TV. The show was a spin-off; based on a Black family that moved next door to the bigoted Archie Bunker in “All in the Family”.
1976 – President Gerald Ford signed an executive order prohibiting US officials from plotting or engaging in political assassination.
1976 –Super Bowl X (2:08:22) was played between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Dallas Cowboys. The Steelers won with a final score of 21-17. The head coaches were Tom Landry for Dallas and Chuck Noll for Pittsburgh. The game was played in the Orange Bowl in Miami, FL before 80,187 fans and the MVP was Lynn Swan, Steelers wide receiver. The Referee was Norm Schlacter. Face Value Tickets were $20.00.
1977 – The Trident (C-4) missile development flight test program commenced when C4X-1 was launched from a flight pad at Cape Canaveral, FL.
1977 – Scientists identify a previously unknown bacterium as the cause of the mysterious Legionnaires’ disease.
1977 – President Gerald Ford pardons Tokyo Rose, convicted during WWII for making propaganda broadcasts to US troops.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Baby Come Back” by Player, “Here You Come Again” by Dolly Parton, “You’re in My Heart (The Final Acclaim)” by Rod Stewart and “Take This Job and Shove It” by Johnny Paycheck all topped the charts.
1978 – Center for Disease Control (CDC) isolated the cause of Legionnaire’s disease.
1981 – Grant Fuhr, goalie for the world champion Edmonton Oilers, is picked in the first round of the National Hockey League draft to become the first Black professional hockey player.
1982 – Four Thunderbird USAF pilots died when their T-38 Talon jets crashed at Indian Springs Auxiliary Airfield, NV. Mechanical failure was cited as the cause. Shortly after, the precision flying team began flying F-16 fighter jets.
1983 – The International Olympic Committee restores Jim Thorpe Olympic medals to his family.
1985 – For the first time since joining the World Court in 1946, the United States walks out of a case.
1985 – Mary Decker broke a world, indoor record when she ran the women’s, 2,000-meter race in 5:34.2.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “That’s What Friends are For” by Dionne & Friends, “Talk to Me” by Stevie Nicks, “Burning Heart” by Survivor and “Bop” by Dan Seals all topped the charts. Stevie Nicks Live Full Concert (57:11)
1986 – President Reagan signed a proclamation creating Martin Luther King Jr Day, saying, “This year marks the first observance of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as a national holiday.”
1989 – The US Supreme Court upheld a tough, year-old sentencing system for people convicted of federal crimes, overruling more than 150 trial judges who had struck down the guidelines.
1990 – Washington, DC, Mayor Marion Barry is arrested for drug possession in an FBI sting.
1991 – Eastern Air Lines shuts down after 62 years citing financial problems.
1991 – Iraq starts firing Scud missiles at Israeli cities. Israel refrains from responding at the request of President Bush.
1991- Round-the-clock bombing of Iraqi targets continued in Operation Desert Storm.
1991 – USS Nicholas attacks and captures Iraqi offshore oil platforms.
1991 – Three young people were crushed to death at an AC-DC concert in Salt Lake City.
1993 – For the first time, Martin Luther King Jr. holiday is officially observed in all 50 United States states.
1993 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Scott Pennington was a 17 year old who walked into Deanna McDavid’s seventh period English class at East Carter High School in Grayson, KY and shoots her in the head killing her. He then shoots janitor Marvin Hicks in the abdomen. Pennington was sentenced to life without parole for 25 years.
1995 – In southern France near Vallon-Pont-d’Arc a network of caves are discovered that contain paintings and engravings that are 17,000 to 20,000 years old.
1996 – Lisa Marie Presley-Jackson filed for divorce from Michael Jackson.
1997 – The Phoenix Gazette. Phoenix, AZ’s daily afternoon newspaper (except Sunday) closed its doors.
1997 – Oscar De La Hoya defended his World Boxing Council super lightweight title in Las Vegas. He won a 12-round unanimous decision over Miguel Angel Gonzalez.
1998 – LEWINSKY SCANDAL: Matt Drudge breaks the Bill Clinton – Monica Lewinsky affair story on his website The Drudge Report.
2000 – The Tagish Lake meteorite impacted the Earth. It landed in Tagish Lake in the Yukon.
2000 – A US test missile fired from the Marshall Islands failed to shoot down a mock warhead fired from a California air base.
2001 – Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson revealed an extramarital affair with Karin Stanford, former head of the Rainbow/PUSH Washington office that resulted in the birth of his daughter, Ashley.
2002 – A Canadian Pacific Railway train carrying anhydrous ammonia derails outside of Minot, North Dakota, killing one man and calling into question the maintenance of CP track and the policy of voice-tracking used by Clear Channel Communications.
2002 – Sara Jane Olson, ’70s radical-turned-suburban mother, was sentenced in Los Angeles to 20 years to life in prison for plotting to blow up a pair of police cars in 1975. She was formerly known as Kathleen Ann Soliah and was a member of the Symbionese Liberation Army in the 1970s.
2002 – Talk magazine announced it was shutting down, less than three years after its launch.
2003 – Michelle Kwan won her sixth straight U.S. Figure Skating Championships title and seventh overall; Michael Weiss won his third U.S. men’s title.
2004 – The New England Patriots earned their second trip to the Super Bowl in three seasons by defeating the Indianapolis Colts 24-14 in the AFC championship game; the Carolina Panthers defeated the Philadelphia Eagles, 14-3, in the NFC championship game. The Super Bowl will be played on February 1st.
2005 – Oscar Sanchez, owner of a family restaurant in Dallas, was kidnapped in what police believed was a staged car wreck. His body was found a week later.
2006 – The US Justice Dept. filed a motion requiring Google to disclose information about consumer Web searches. Google refused to comply.
2006 – Two people who conspired to extort money from Wendy’s by planting a severed finger in a bowl of chili and then suing the restaurant are sentenced to ten years each in prison.
2007 – 110th United States Congress: The United States Senate passes ethics and lobbying reform legislation.
2007 – Truck driver Tyrone Williams was spared the death penalty and sentenced in Houston to life in prison for his role in the deaths of 19 illegal immigrants crammed in an overheated tractor-trailer.
2007 – On ABC’s top show, “Grey’s Anatomy,” a controversy boiled over as the network rebuked co-star Isaiah Washington for an anti-gay comment and Washington issued a lengthy apology. So much for free-speech.
2008 – A man wearing a tactical vest and carrying a loaded shotgun is arrested near the United States Capitol.
2009 – Bob May (69), American TV and film actor, died. He donned the Robot’s suit in the hit 1960s television show “Lost in Space” (1965).
2009 – National Football League (2008-09) playoffs were completed. The Arizona Cardinals defeat the Philadelphia Eagles 32-25 in the NFC Championship Game. The Pittsburgh Steelers defeat the Baltimore Ravens 23-14 in the AFC Championship Game. The Super Bowl will be played on February 1st.
2009 – The wreckage of US Airways Flight 1549 is successfully recovered from the Hudson River.
2010 – A meteorite crashed through the roof of a Lorton, Va., doctors’ office. It was identified by scientists in the Division of Mineral Sciences at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History.
2011 – Executive Order 13563 of January 18, 2011 (Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review) was signed by President Barack Obama. It states that our regulatory system must protect public health, welfare, safety, and our environment while promoting economic growth, innovation, competitiveness, and job creation. In an increasingly global economy, international regulatory cooperation, consistent with domestic law and prerogatives and U.S. trade policy.
2012 – Los Angeles police looked for more human body parts near the Hollywood sign after searchers discovered two hands and two feet in the same area of a park where dog walkers found a severed human head inside a plastic bag.
2013 – Ray Nagin, former New Orleans mayor and the “public face” of the battered city in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, has been indicted by a grand jury on 21 federal corruption charges. The indictment alleges Nagin awarded lucrative city contracts to contractors in exchange for more than $200,000 in kickbacks and first-class trips to Hawaii, Jamaica and Las Vegas.
2015 – The Seattle Seahawks and New England Patriots win their respective conference championships to advance to the February 1 Super Bowl XLIX.
2016 – Glenn Frey, a founding member of the Eagles, dies of complications arising from rheumatoid arthritis, colitis and pneumonia.
1779 – Peter Mark Roget, English lexicographer and thesaurus compiler.
1782 – Daniel Webster, American statesman (d. 1852) was a leading American statesman during the nation’s antebellum era.
1854 – Thomas A. Watson, American telephone pioneer and shipbuilder was an assistant to Alexander Graham Bell.
1858 – Daniel Hale Williams, the first physician to perform open heart surgery and founder of Provident Hospital in Chicago, Ill.
1882 – A.A. (Alan Alexander) Milne, British author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various children’s poems.
1892 – Oliver Hardy, American comedian, vaudeville team with Stan Laurel.
1904 – Cary Grant (Archibald Leach), British-born American actor.
1913 – Danny Kaye (David Kominski), American comedian, dancer, singer, actor. Originally David Daniel Kominski (1913–1987)
1933 – Ray Dolby, is the American inventor of the noise reduction system known as Dolby NR. He is the founder and chairman of Dolby Laboratories, and is a certified billionaire.
1955 – Kevin Costner, film actor and director.
*YNTEMA, GORDON DOUGLAS
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company D, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne). Place and date: Near Thong Binh, Republic of Vietnam, January 16th-January 18th, 1968. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 26 June 1945, Bethesda, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Yntema, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while assigned to Detachment A-431, Company D. As part of a larger force of civilian irregulars from Camp Cai Cai, he accompanied two platoons to a blocking position east of the village of Thong Binh, where they became heavily engaged in a small-arms fire fight with the Viet Cong. Assuming control of the force when the Vietnamese commander was seriously wounded, he advanced his troops to within fifty meters of the enemy bunkers. After a fierce thirty- minute fire fight, the enemy forced Sgt. Yntema to withdraw his men to a trench in order to afford them protection and still perform their assigned blocking mission. Under cover of machinegun fire, approximately one company of Viet Cong maneuvered into a position which pinned down the friendly platoons from three sides. A dwindling ammunition supply, coupled with a Viet Cong mortar barrage which inflicted heavy losses on the exposed friendly troops, caused many of the irregulars to withdraw. Seriously wounded and ordered to withdraw himself, Sgt. Yntema refused to leave his fallen comrades. Under withering small arms and machinegun fire, he carried the wounded Vietnamese commander and a mortally wounded American Special Forces advisor to a small gully fifty meters away in order to shield them from the enemy fire. Sgt. Yntema then continued to repulse the attacking Viet Cong attempting to overrun his position until, out of ammunition and surrounded, he was offered the opportunity to surrender. Refusing, Sgt. Yntema stood his ground, using his rifle as a club to fight the approximately fifteen Viet Cong attempting his capture. His resistance was so fierce that the Viet Cong were forced to shoot in order to overcome him. Sgt. Yntema’s personal bravery in the face of insurmountable odds and supreme self-sacrifice were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect the utmost credit upon himself, the 1st Special Forces, and the U.S. Army.
WALKER, FRANK O.
Rank and organization. Private, Company F, 46th Infantry, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Taal, Luzon, Philippine Islands, January 18th, 1900. Entered service at: Burlington, Mass. Birth: South Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 11 March 1902. Citation: Under heavy fire of the enemy he rescued a dying comrade who was sinking beneath the water.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1864, Lynn, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ranger off Ensenada, Mexico, January 18th, 1886. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Enright rescued John Bell, ordinary seaman, and George Svensson, ordinary seaman, from drowning.
Ditch New Years Resolutions Day
Though at least a portion of them are better described as privateers, the Barbary pirates, or corsairs, were pirates that operated out of Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salé and ports in Morocco, preying on shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea from the time of the Crusades as well as on ships on their way to Asia around Africa until the early 19th century. Their stronghold was along the stretch of northern Africa known as the Barbary Coast (a medieval term for the Maghreb after its Berber inhabitants), although their predation was said to extend throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa’s Atlantic seaboard, and into the North Atlantic, purportedly as far north as Iceland. As well as preying on shipping, raids were often made on European coastal towns. The pirates were responsible for capturing large numbers of Christian slaves from Europe, who were sold in slave markets in places such as Morocco.
In 1783 the USA made peace with and was recognized by Britain, and in 1784 the first American ship was captured by pirates from Morocco. The stars and stripes was a new flag to them. After six months of negotiation, a treaty was signed, $60,000 cash was paid, and trade began. Morocco was the first independent nation to recognize the USA.
But Algeria was different. In 1784 two ships (the Maria of Boston and the Dauphine of Philadelphia) were captured, everything sold and their crews enslaved to build port fortifications. Christian slaves were preferred and forced to do degrading work and treated harshly so letters would be written home to prompt the payment of a bigger ransom.
American ships sailing in the Mediterranean chose to travel close to larger convoys of other European powers who had bribed the pirates. President Thomas Jefferson proposed a league of smaller nations to patrol the area, but the USA could not contribute. For the prisoners, Algeria wanted 60,000 dollars, America offered 4000. Jefferson said a million dollars would buy them off, but Congress would only appropriate 80,000. For eleven years Americans who lived in Algeria lived as slaves to Algerian Moors.
For a while, Portugal was patrolling the Straits of Gibraltar and preventing Barbary Pirates from entering the Atlantic. But they made a cash deal with the pirates, and they were again sailing into the Atlantic and engaging in piracy. By late 1793, a dozen American ships had been captured, goods stripped and everyone enslaved.
Portugal had offered some armed patrols, but American merchants needed an armed American presence to sail near Europe. After some serious debate, the United States Navy was born in March, 1794 in Whitehall N.Y. Six frigates were authorized, and so began the construction of the United States, the Constellation, the Constitution and three more. A shipbuilder to match the Founding Fathers was chosen, Joshua Humphreys. And with his assistant Josiah Fox, they designed frigates for America with superior speed and handiness.
This new military presence helped to stiffen American resolve to resist the continuation of tribute payments, leading to a series of wars along the North African coast, starting in 1801. It was not until 1815 that naval victories ended tribute
payments by the U.S., although some European nations continued annual payments
until the 1830s.
The United States Marine Corps actions in these wars led to the line, “to the shores of Tripoli” in the opening of the Marine Hymn.
“The law of nature is universal. For it is true, not only that all men are equally subject to the command of their Maker; but it is true also, that the law of nature, having its foundation in the constitution and state of man, has an essential fitness for all mankind, and binds them without distinction.”
–James Wilson, Lectures on Law, 1791
“Whether it’s praise, love, criticism, money, time, power, punishment, space, sorrow, laughter, need, pain, or pleasure… the more of it that you give, the more of it you will receive.”
~ Mike Dooley
Rip Van Winkle (rip van WING-kuhl) noun
One who fails to keep up with the times.
[After Rip Van Winkle, a character in a story by Washington Irving
(1783-1859). Rip falls asleep for 20 years in the Catskill mountains
and wakes up to discover the world around him has changed. He finds
that the American Revolutionary war has taken place and instead of
being a subject of His Majesty George the Third, he is now a free
citizen of the United States.
1746 – Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, defeats a Hanoverian army at Falkirk in his ultimately unsuccessful campaign to recover the throne for the Jacobite dynasty.
1766 – A committee of English merchants working for the repeal of the Stamp Act presents a petition to Parliament citing the increase in merchant bankruptcies resulting from the colonial non-importation movement.
1773 – Captain James Cook and his ship Resolution becomes the first explorer to cross the Antarctic Circle.
1781 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Cowpens – Under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan the Americans defeat British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton at this battle in South Carolina. Daniel Morgan’s Continental regiments routed British forces at Cowpens, South Carolina. Some 100 British soldiers were killed, 299 wounded and 600 taken prisoner. 12 American were killed.
1806 – James Madison Randolph, the grandson of Thomas Jefferson, becomes the first child born in the White House.
1865 – Civil War: Naval forces, commanded by Lieutenant Moreau Forrest of the Mississippi Squadron, cooperated with Army cavalry in a successful attack on the town of Somerville, Alabama.
1865 – The 170-foot sailing ship Sir John Franklin, a clipper out of Baltimore with 16 people aboard, wrecked near Pescadero, Ca. Capt. Desperaux and 11 crew members were lost.
1871 – San Franciscan Andrew Smith Hallidie patented the first cable car.
1873 – First Battle of the Stronghold in the US-Modoc War. The Modoc War, or Modoc Campaign (also known as the Lava Beds War), was an armed conflict between the Native American Modoc tribe and the United States Army in southern Oregon and northern California from 1872–1873. The Modoc War was the last of the Indian Wars to occur in California or Oregon.
1878 – A treaty between the US and Samoa is ratified by Congress. The harbor of Pago Pago will be given to the US Navy for use as a refueling station.
1882 – Leroy Firman received a patent for the telephone switchboard.
1893 – Hawaii’s monarchy was overthrown by a group of American businessmen and sugar planters, forcing Queen Liliuokalani to abdicate. Hawaii was organized into a formal U.S. territory and in 1959 entered the United States as the 50th state.
1893 – The 19th president of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881), died in Fremont, Ohio, at age 70.
1899 – The United States takes possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.
1900 – The U.S. took Wake Island where there was in important cable link between Hawaii and Manila.
1905 – Punchboards were patented by Charles A. Brewer & C.G. Scannell. Once the boards became cheap to manufacture, they flooded the country. Noted gambling author John Scarne estimates that 30 million punchboards were sold in 1910-15.
1912 – Sir Robert Falcon Scott (Scott of the Antarctic) reaches the South Pole, one month after Roald Amundsen.
1913 – All partner interests in 36 Golden Rule Stores were consolidated and incorporated in Utah into one company. The new corporation was the J.C. Penney Company.
1916 – The Professional Golfers Association (PGA) is formed.
1917 – The United States pays Denmark $25 million for the Virgin Islands.
1926 – George Burns marries Gracie Allen.
1928 – First fully automatic photographic film developing machine patented by Anatol M. Josepho.
1929 – Popeye the Sailor Man, a cartoon character created by Elzie Crisler Segar, first appears in the Comic Strip Thimble Theatre.
1938 – Francis X. Bushman was the star of the program, “Stepmother”, which debuted on CBS radio.
1941 – Gene Krupa and his band recorded the standard, “Drum Boogie“, on Okeh Records.
1943 – World War II: Tin Can Drive Day. A WWII event to collect as much of this metal as possible to help the war effort.
1944 – World War II: Operation Panther, the Allied invasion of Cassino, in central Italy, is launched.
1945 – The American record holder for the indoor one mile run, Gilbert Dodds, announced his retirement from competition to devote his time to running for a higher source.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “There Goes that Song Again” by Russ Morgan, “I’m Making Believe” by Ella Fitzgerald & The Ink Spots and “I’m Wastin’ My Tears on You” by Tex Ritter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: The Nazis begin the evacuation of the Auschwitz concentration camp as Soviet forces close in.
1945 – World War II: Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg disappears in Hungary while in Soviet custody.
1946 – The UN Security Council holds its first session.
1949 – The Goldbergs (24:05), the first sitcom on American television, first airs.
1950 – The Great Brinks Robbery – Eleven thieves steal more than $2 million from an armored car Company’s offices in Boston, Massachusetts.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army re-entered Suwon. This was the most favorable entry in Eighth Army’s journal since the Chinese intervention in the war in late November 1950.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “Midnight” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1953 – GM introduced the first American sports car, the two-seater Corvette at the annual NYC Motorama Show at the Waldorf-Astoria. It was not made available for sale to the public until June 30th.
1955 – Submarine USS Nautilus begins first nuclear-powered test voyage to Puerto Rico.
1959 – “Chipmunk Song” by David Seville and the Chipmunks topped the charts.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert, “Exodus” by Ferrante & Teicher, “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” by The Shirelles and “North to Alaska” by Johnny Horton all top the charts.
1961 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower delivers a televised farewell address to the nation three days before leaving office, in which he warns against the accumulation of power and about the “unwarranted influence” by the “military-industrial complex.” He said, “We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage.
1962 – NASA civilian pilot Neil A Armstrong takes the X-15 to 133,500 feet.
1966 – A B-52 bomber collides with a KC-135 Stratotanker over Spain, dropping three 70-kiloton hydrogen bombs near the town of Palomares and another one into the sea.
1966 – Carl Brashear, the first African-American United States Navy diver, loses his leg in an accident on a routine mission. He then becomes the first amputee, US Navy Diver. Movie
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Heard It Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye, “I’m Gonna Make You Love Me” by Diana Ross & The Supremes & The Temptations, “Wichita Lineman” by Glen Campbell and “Daddy Sang Bass” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1970 – “Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head” by B. J. Thomas topped the charts.
1970 – Silas Trim Bissell (d.2002) and his wife Judith, Weathermen underground members, set a homemade bomb under the steps of the ROTC building at Washington State University.
1970 – Billy Stewart and three of his band members were killed when their car went out of control and off a bridge over the Neuse River in North Carolina.
1971 – Super Bowl V was played between the Baltimore Colts and the Dallas Cowboys. The Colts won with a final score of 16-13. The head coaches were Don McCafferty for Baltimore and Tom Landry for Dallas. The game was played in the Orange Bowl in Miami, FL. Before 79,204 fans. And the MVP was Chuck Howley, the outside linebacker for Dallas. The Referee was Norm Schlacter. Face Value Tickets were $15.00.
1973 – The US Public Health Service linked smoking to fetal and infant risks.
1976 – “I Write the Songs” by Barry Manilow topped the charts.
1977 – Convicted murderer Gary Gilmore is executed by a firing squad in Utah, ending a ten-year moratorium on the death penalty in the United States.
1977 – The TV sitcom “Busting Loose” began with Adam Arkin and ran for 24 episodes.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “You Make Me Feel Like Dancing” by Leo Sayer, “I Wish” by Stevie Wonder, “Car Wash” by Rose Royce and “You Never Miss a Really Good Thing (Till He Says Goodbye)” by Crystal Gayle all top the charts.
1982 – “Cold Sunday” in the United States sees temperatures fall to their lowest levels in over 100 years in numerous cities.
1984 – The US Supreme Court sided with Sony and ruled, 5 to 4, that the private use of home video cassette recorders to tape television programs did not violate federal copyright laws.
1985 – British Telecom announces the retirement of the United Kingdom’s famous red telephone boxes.
1985 – A jury in New Jersey ruled that terminally ill patients have the right to starve themselves.
1988 – The Washington Redskins won the NFC championship by defeating the Minnesota Vikings 17-10; the Denver Broncos beat the Cleveland Browns 38-33 to win the AFC title. The Super Bowl will be played January 31st.
1989 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Five children were shot to death at the Cleveland Elementary School in Stockton, Calif., by a drifter who then killed himself. Patrick Henry Purdy (27), an alcoholic with a gun fetish, had gone to school there.
1991 – Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm began early in the morning. Iraq fires eight Scud missiles into Israel in an unsuccessful bid to provoke Israeli retaliation. Coalition planes struck targets in Iraq and Kuwait.
1992 – President Bush laid a wreath at the crypt of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta.
1993 – The United States, accusing Iraq of a series of military provocations, unleashed Tomahawk missiles against a military complex eight miles from downtown Baghdad. President-elect Clinton, arriving in Washington for his inauguration, backed the action.
1994 – Los Angeles Area residents were shaken by an earthquake at 4:31 a.m. later to become known as the “Northridge earthquake.” The exact epicenter of the earthquake was in Reseda, near the intersection of Reseda Boulevard and Strathern Street. It killed 57 people, injured another 8700 people and caused $13 to $15 billion damage. It closed seven freeway sites and two hospitals.Interestingly the location of the three cities involved also produce 90% of the world’s pornography.
1994 – Allan Odell died at age 90. He and his younger brother Leonard (d.1991) wrote some 7,000 Burma Shave poems beginning in 1925 in rural Minnesota. The Burma-Shave phenomenon faded in 1963, when Phillip Morris bought the company.
1995 – A magnitude 7.3 earthquake (known as “the Great Hanshin earthquake”) hits near Kobe, Japan, causing extensive property damage and killing 6,433 people.
1996 – Pink Floyd was officially inducted into the Rock ‘n’ Roll Hall of Fame.
1997 – A Delta 2 carrying a GPS2R satellite explodes 13 seconds after launch, dropping 250 tons of burning rocket remains around the launch pad.
1997 – The US House ethics committee approved a $300,000 penalty against Speaker Newt Gingrich for ethics violations. Speaker Newt Gingrich agreed to submit to the reprimand.
1997 – A $40 million navigation satellite for the US Air Force blew up on takeoff at Cape Canaveral.
1998 – LEWINSKY SCANDAL: President Bill Clinton gave his deposition in the Paula Jones sexual harassment lawsuit against him. He was the first U.S. President to testify as a defendant in a criminal or civil lawsuit. He also denied that he had engaged in a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
1998 – LEWINSKY SCANDAL: Matt Drudge reported over the Internet that Monica Lewinsky had paid numerous service calls to the White House.
1998 – It was reported that the US military had begun to clear away over 50,000 land mines around Guantanamo Naval base. The base was defended by 400 Marines.
1999 – The defending Super Bowl champion Denver Broncos defeated the New York Jets, 23-10, to win the AFC title; the Atlanta Falcons upset the Minnesota Vikings, 30-27, to win the NFC championship. The Super Bowl will be played January 31st.
1999 – In Bryan, Ohio, three freight trains crashed into each other and two crew members were killed.
1999 – In Tennessee tornadoes left nine people dead and one-hundred injured with extensive damage in twenty-eight counties.
2000 – In Columbia, South Carolina, some 46,000 demonstrators marched on the Statehouse on Martin Luther King Day decrying the Confederate flag as a symbol of slavery and racism and called for the removal on the flag.
2001 – Faced with an electricity crisis, California used rolling blackouts to cut off power to hundreds of thousands of people.
2001 – President Clinton created six new national monuments. In all he created 19 monument areas.
2002 – In Arizona two A-10 Thunderbolt II attack jets collided and one pilot was killed.
2003 – Tom Ridge scotted through Senate confirmation hearings on his way to becoming the nation’s first Homeland Security Department chief.
2003 – Gertrude Janeway (93), the last known widow of a Union veteran from the Civil War, died in Blaine, Tenn. She had married John Janeway in 1927 when he was 81 and she was barely 18.
2006 – California executed Clarence Ray Allen, its oldest death row inmate, minutes after his 76th birthday.
2006 – The US Supreme Court told the Justice Department to butt out of the private decisions of terminally ill patients in Oregon in a 6-3 ruling that Congress hadn’t given the Justice Department authority to take such action.
2007 – Alaska’s newly elected Gov. Sarah Palin (42) delivered her first state speech.
2007 – In Texas James Waller, who spent 10 years behind bars for the rape of a boy, became the 12th person in Dallas County to be cleared by DNA evidence.
2007 – A US snow and ice storm was blamed for at least 64 deaths in nine states. These included 20 deaths in Oklahoma, 9 in Missouri, 8 in Iowa, 4 in New York, 5 in Texas, 4 in Michigan, 3 in Arkansas, and 1 each in Maine and Indiana.
2008 – A US federal judge struck down Texas laws barring out-of-state retailers from shipping wine to consumers.
2009 – President-elect Barack H. Obama rolled into the capital city after pledging to help bring the nation “a new Declaration of Independence” and promising to rise to the stern challenges of the times.
2010 – In Hoover, Alabama, a fire at a Days Inn motel killed four college students from Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Miss.
2010 – Arizona made $735 million by selling more than a dozen state buildings, including the state’s Capitol.
2010 – Glen Bell Jr. (86), founder of the Taco Bell fast food chain (1962), died at his home in Rancho Santa Fe, Ca.
2012 – Jerry Yang, co-founder and former CEO of Yahoo, has resigned from the company’s board of directors. The shares are up about 4% in after-hours trading.
2013 – U.S. cyclist Lance Armstrong is stripped of his bronze medal from the 2000 Summer Olympics by the IOC because of his involvement in doping.
2013 – A group of hostages including several Americans escaped from the natural gas complex that was taken over by Islamist militants. It is reported as many as 20 escaped.
1706 – Benjamin Franklin, American statesman, signer of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States of America, printer, author, publisher, scientist, inventor, founder of the University of Pennsylvania.
1763 – John Jacob Astor, American entrepreneur (d. 1848) was the first of the Astor family dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, making his fortune in the fur trade and real estate industries.
1860 – Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright, short story writer.
1899 – Al Capone, American gangster. popularly known as Al “Scarface” Capone, was an infamous Italian-American gangster in the 1920s and 1930s.
1922 – Betty White, American actress is an Emmy Award-winning television actress with a career spanning 60 years, often referred to as “The first lady of Television” and “America’s Sweetheart”.
1931 – James Earl Jones, American actor is among America’s best known film and stage actors. He is most famous for his deep and authoritative voice and his originally uncredited role as the voice of Darth Vader in the Star Wars films.
1942 – Muhammad Ali (Cassius Clay),. is a retired American boxer. In 1999, Ali was crowned “Sportsman of the Century” by Sports Illustrated.
1962 – Jim Carrey, American actor, comedian. He is best known for his manic, slapstick performances in comedy films such as Ace Ventura: Pet Detective, Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls, Dumb & Dumber, The Mask, Liar Liar, Lemony Snicket’s A Series of Unfortunate Events, and Bruce Almighty.
DONALD P. SLOAT
Rank: Specialist Fourth Class Organization: U.S. Army Company: 3rd Platoon, Delta Company Division: 1st Infantry Regiment, 196th Brigade Born: 2 February 1949, Coweta, Oklahoma Died: 01/17/1970 Entered Service At: March 19, 1959 Date of Issue: 09/15/2014 Accredited To: Oklahoma Place / Date: Hawk Hill Fire Base, Quang Tin, Republic of Vietnam January 17th, 1970 Citation: Sloat’s squad was conducting a patrol, serving as a blocking element in support of tanks and armored personnel carriers from F Troop in the Que Son valley. As the squad moved through dense up a small hill in file formation, the lead Soldier tripped a wire attached to a hand grenade booby-trap, set up by enemy forces. When the grenade rolled down the hill toward Sloat, he had a choice. He could hit the ground and seek cover, or pick up the grenade and throw it away from his fellow Soldiers. After initially attempting to throw the grenade, Sloat realized that detonation was imminent, and that two or three men near him would be killed or seriously injured if he couldn’t shield them from the blast. In an instant, Sloat chose to draw the grenade to his body, shielding his squad members from the blast, and saving their lives. Sloat’s actions define the ultimate sacrifice of laying down his own life in order to save the lives of his comrades. Specialist Four Donald P. Sloat’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service, and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
Rank and organization: Major, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At the Lava Beds, CA., January 17th, 1873. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 18 November 1897. Citation: In order to reassure his command, this officer, in the most fearless manner and exposed to very great danger, walked in front of the line; the command, thus encouraged, advanced over the lava upon the Indians who were concealed among the rocks.
SKINNER, JOHN O.
Rank and organization: Contract Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: At Lava Beds, OR., January 17th,1873. Entered service at: Maryland. Birth: Maryland. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: Rescued a wounded soldier who lay under a close and heavy fire during the assault on the Modoc stronghold after two soldiers had unsuccessfully attempted to make the rescue and both had been wounded in doing so.
Commemorating Religious Freedom Day
Each year, the President declares January 16th to be “Religious Freedom Day,” and calls upon Americans to “observe this day through appropriate events and activities in homes, schools, and places of worship.” The day is the anniversary of the passage, in 1786, of the Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom. Thomas Jefferson drafted the legislation and considered it one of his greatest achievements. It stopped the practice of taxing people to pay for the support of the local clergy, and it protected the civil rights of people to express their religious beliefs without suffering discrimination.
The men who drafted the U.S. Constitution leaned heavily on Jefferson’s statute in establishing the First Amendment’s guarantee of religious freedom.
Today, that protection is as important as ever. In too many instances, public school teachers tell students they cannot include their faith in their homework assignments or classroom in their discussions. The U.S. Department of Education has issued guidelines explaining students’ religious liberties. Talking about religious liberties (especially explaining students’ liberties to parents) will make an administrator’s job easier because it will clarify that schools need not be “religion-free zones.” It is often the case that parents who complain to school officials about what they think are violations of the separation of church and state do not understand the appropriate and lawful place religious expression can have at school.
Religious Freedom Day is not “celebrate-our-diversity day.” Freedom means the freedom to disagree (respectfully). The main message students need to hear is that they shouldn’t feel like they have to be “undercover” about their religion…that somehow they have to be “hush-hush” about their family’s beliefs.
The reason pastors can preach and teach the Word of God each week without fear of imprisonment or death is because of the Religious Liberty we have in America. The reason Christians can gather for prayer and Bible study without the fear of persecution is because of the gift of religious freedom we have that is secured by the 1st Amendment of our Constitution. Not all Christians throughout the world experience this freedom. Let us not take it for granted. It is also important to realize that neglecting your freedom is like not having the freedom at all.
In every year PRAY:
- Praise God for the freedoms we have in America, to be able to worship openly and freely without fear of retribution.
- Pray for continuation of our religious liberties. Pray that this nation will stand on biblical principles of righteousness.
- Pray for those who fight to maintain our liberties. Pray especially for those in the education mountain – administrators, teachers and students – who boldly walk in their religious freedom.
- Pray that more Christians will wake up and rise up and join this ongoing battle for maintaining our religious liberties.
Deuteronomy 32:1-4 New International Version (NIV)
32 Listen, you heavens, and I will speak; hear, you earth, the words of my mouth.
2 Let my teaching fall like rain and my words descend like dew, like showers on new grass, like abundant rain on tender plants.
3 I will proclaim the name of the Lord. Oh, praise the greatness of our God! He is the Rock, his works are perfect, and all his ways are just. A faithful God who does no wrong, upright and just is he.
“[W]e still find the greedy hand of government thrusting itself into every corner and crevice of industry, and grasping the spoil of the multitude. Invention is continually exercised, to furnish new pretenses for revenues and taxation. It watches prosperity as its prey and permits none to escape without tribute.”
–Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, 1791
“One day Alice came to a fork in the road and saw a Cheshire cat in a tree. ‘Which road do I take?’ she asked. ‘Where do you want to go?’ was his response.’ I don’t know’, Alice answered. Then, said the cat, ‘it doesn’t matter.’”
~ Lewis Carroll
“Do not meddle in the affairs of dragons, because you are crunchy and taste good with ketchup.”
~ Bharti Kher
Knocked askew. Alternate spelling of cattywampus, alternate form of Kittywampus.
“I hit my head and started walking all kattywampus.”
1493 – Columbus aboard the Nina departed Hispaniola along with the Pinta to return to Spain.
1605 – The first edition of El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha (Book One of Don Quixote) by Miguel de Cervantes was published in Madrid.
1776 – Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks. This led to the all-black First Rhode Island Regiment, composed of 33 freedmen and 92 slaves, who were promised freedom if they served to the end of the war.
1777 – Vermont declares its independence from New York.
1780 – American Revolution: Battle of Cape St. Vincent. The naval Battle of Cape St Vincent, or Battle of Cape Santa Maria, took place, during the Revolutionary War and was a victory of a British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney over a Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lángara. It is also known as the Moonlight Battle, because it was unusual for naval battles in the age of sail to take place at night.
1786 – The legislature of Virginia adopted a religious freedom statute, drafted by Thomas Jefferson and introduced by James Madison. It was the model for the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America.
1847 – John C. Fremont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory.
1861 – The Crittenden Compromise, the last chance to keep North and South together, dies in the U.S. Senate.
1862 – Civil War: Gunfire and boat crews, including Marines, from U.S.S. Hatteras, destroyed a Confederate battery at Cedar Keys, Florida.
1865 – Civil War: General William T. Sherman begins a march through the Carolinas. During the march Sherman issued Field Order No. 15 that set aside land, “40 acres and a mule,” in Georgia and South Carolina for freed slaves.
1866 – The first roller skate was patented. The inventor was Everett Barney who thought it would be nice to roll without changing ones shoes. His skates clamped to the edges around the soles.
1868 – Refrigerator car patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit.
1883 – The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing the United States Civil Service, is passed.
1896 – The first five-player college basketball game was played at Iowa City, Iowa. The University of Chicago defeated the University of Iowa by the score of 15-12.
1900 – The United States Senate accepts the Anglo-German treaty of 1899 in which the United Kingdom renounces its claims to the Samoan islands.
1909 – Ernest Shackleton’s expedition finds the magnetic South Pole. Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (February 15, 1874 – January 5, 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer, knighted for the achievements of the “British Antartic Expedition” (1907 – 09) under his command, but now chiefly remembered for his Antarctic expedition of 1914–1916 in the ship Endurance.
1915 – Congress authorizes $1 & $50 Panamá-Pacific International Expo gold coin.
1919 – Nebraska, Wyoming and Missouri became the 36th, 37th and 38th states to ratify Prohibition. The 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibiting the “manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors for beverage purposes,” is ratified on this day and becomes the law of the land.
1920 – Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. was established on the campus of Howard University.
1921 – The motion picture, “The Kid”, opened in movie houses. It was Charlie Chaplin’s first full-length movie. It, more than anything else to that date, made Chaplin a living legend.
1932 – Duke Ellington and his Orchestra recorded “It Don’t Mean a Thing.”
1935 – US federal agents killed gangsters Ma Barker and Freddy, one of her four sons, at Lake Weir, Fla.
1936 – First photo finish camera installed at Hialeah Race track in Hialeah FL.
1938 – “The Night Swing Was Born” Benny Goodman plays Carnegie Hall .
1939 – The comic strip “Superman” debuted.
1939 – Franklin D. Roosevelt asked for an extension of the Social Security Act to more women and children.
1941 – US Vice Admiral Bellinger warned of an assault on Pearl Harbor.
1941 – The 99th Pursuit Squadron, an all Black unit is formed and the Tuskegee Training Program is established, the 99th will fly more than 500 missions and more than 3,700 sorties during one year of combat before being combined with the 332nd Fighter Group.
1941 – A Black scientist helped save thousands of lives during World War II. Dr. Charles Richard Drew set up and ran the pioneer blood plasma bank in Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.
1942 – Actress Carole Lombard and her mother were among some 20 people killed when their plane crashed near Las Vegas while returning from a tour to promote war bonds.
1942 – Kay Kyser and the band recorded “A Zoot Suit (For My Sunday Gal)” for Columbia Records.
1942 – World War II: Japan’s advance into Burma begins.
1943 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, American forces advance west and southwest of their perimeter. Japanese positions overlooking the upper part of the Matanikau River are captured.
1944 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower took command of the Allied Invasion Force in London.
1944 – World War II: The U.S. First and Third armies link up at Houffalize, effectively ending the Battle of the Bulge.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters, “Paper Doll” by The Mills Brothers and “Pistol Packin’ Mama” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters all topped the charts.
1945 – Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker. He remains there for 105 days until he commits suicide.
1951 – World’s largest gas pipeline opened from Brownsville Tx, to 134th St, New York City.
1952 – US Standard Board clears Stan Musial to get an $85,000 salary.
1954 – “Oh! My Papa” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1954 – “South Pacific” closed at Majestic Theater, NYC, after 1928 performances.
1954 – Mexico closed its borders to all farm laborers heading for the US following a breakdown in negotiations with the US over renewal of an annual agreement on labor flow.
1955 – A six month period of martial law ends in Phenix City, Russell County, Ala., and the last of about 300 Guardsmen leave for home. Phenix City had a national reputation for gambling, bootleg liquor, prostitution and other vices.
1957 – Three B-52s leave California for first non-stop round the world flights. They completed the world’s first non-stop round-the-world flight by jet aircraft, lasting 45 hours and 19 minutes with only three aerial refuelings en route.
1964 – The musical “Hello, Dolly!,” starring Carol Channing, opened on Broadway at the St. James Theater, beginning a run of 2,844 performances.
1965 – “Come See About Me” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1965 – “Outer Limits” last aired on ABC-TV.
1965 – Eighteen were arrested in Mississippi for the murder of three civil rights workers.
1967 – Lucius D. Amerson, first Black sheriff in the South since Reconstruction, sworn in at Tuskegee (Macon County), Alabama.
1968 – Youth International Party (Yippies) is founded.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hello Goodbye” by The Beatles, “Judy in Disguise (With Glasses)” by John Fred & His Playboy Band, “Woman, Woman” by The Union Gap and “For Loving You” by Bill Anderson & Jan Howard all topped the charts.
1969 – Metroliner train starts running. Metroliner was a premium express train service run by Amtrak between Washington, D.C., and New York City in the United States from 1968 to 2006.
1970 – Buckminster Fuller receives the Gold Medal award from the American Institute of Architects.
1970 – Curt Flood, Cardinals Gold Glove outfielder, files a civil lawsuit challenging ML baseball’s reserve clause, a suit that will have historic implications. Flood refused to report to the Phillies after he was traded by the Cardinals three months ago, contending the baseball rule violates federal antitrust laws.
1971 – “My Sweet Lord” by George Harrison topped the charts.
1972 – Super Bowl IV (2:49:52) was played between the Dallas Cowboys and the Miami Dolphins. The Cowboys won with a final score of 24-3. The head coaches were Tom Landry for Dallas and Don Shula for Miami. The game was played at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans (No Superdome yet) before 81,023 fans and the MVP was Roger Staubach, quarterback for Dallas. The Referee was Jim Tunney. Face Value Tickets were $15.00.
1973 – NBC presents 440th and final showing of “Bonanza“.
1974 – “Jaws” by Peter Benchley is published.
1974 – NY Yankees Mickey Mantle and Whitey Ford were elected to Hall of Fame.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Write the Songs” by Barry Manilow, “Theme from Mahogany (Do You Know Where You’re Going To)” by Diana Ross, “Fox on the Run” by Sweet and “Convoy” by C.W. McCall all topped the charts.
1976 – The TV show “Donny & Marie” premiered on ABC-TV.
1978 – NASA named 35 candidates to fly on the space shuttle, including Sally K. Ride, who became America’s first woman in space, and Guion S. Bluford Jr., who became America’s first Black in space.
1979 – Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the leader of Iran since 1941, was forced to flee the country. Two weeks later, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the spiritual leader of the Islamic revolution, returned after 15 years of exile and took control of Iran.
1981 – Leon Spinks (b.1953), former heavyweight boxing champion (1978), was mugged. His assailants even took his gold teeth.
1982 – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John topped the charts.
1984 – Jim Henson’s copyright claim on “Kermit, the Muppet” was renewed.
1985 – Leonard Nimoy, who roamed among the stars in the “Star Trek” TV series and movies, got his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Live long and prosper, Mr. Spock.
1986 – First meeting of the Internet Engineering Task Force.
1986 – A bronze bust of Martin Luther King, Jr. is the first of any Black leader placed in the Capitol. The first national Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday is celebrated on January 20.
1988 – “Got My Mind Set On You” by George Harrison topped the charts.
1988 – Jimmy “The Greek” Snyder was fired as a CBS sports commentator one day after telling a TV station in Washington, DC, that, during the era of slavery, “blacks” had been bred to produce stronger offspring.
1989 – Three days of rioting erupted in Miami when a police officer fatally shot a African-American motorcyclist, causing a crash that also claimed the life of a passenger.
1990 – The Coast Guard Cutter Mellon fires a Harpoon missile, the first cutter to do so.
1991 – The Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) began, with the first fighter aircraft launched from Saudi Arabia and off U.S. and British aircraft carriers on bombing missions over Iraq. The goal was to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
1993 – US Attorney General-designate Zoe Baird and her husband paid a $2,900 fine for employing illegal aliens in their home. Controversy over the hirings derailed her nomination.
1995 – UPN begins broadcasting.
1995 – In Union, S.C., a prosecutor announced he would seek the death penalty for Susan Smith, the woman accused of drowning her sons, 3-year-old Michael and 14-month-old Alex. Smith was later convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison.
1997 – Bill Cosby’s only son, Ennis, 27, was shot to death while changing a flat tire on a dark road in Los Angeles, CA.
1997 – At the outset of his first term as president, Bill Clinton moved to deregulate the weapons industry.
1997 – In Atlanta, two bomb blasts an hour apart rocked a building containing an abortion clinic, injuring six people.
1997 – US media magnate Ted Turner donates 1 billion US dollars to the United Nations.
1998 – The first woman to enroll at Virginia Military Institute withdrew from the school.
1998 – NASA officially announced that John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, would fly aboard the space shuttle later in the year.
1999 – Closing three days of opening arguments, House prosecutors demanded President Clinton’s removal from office, telling a hushed Senate that otherwise the presidency itself may be “deeply and perhaps permanently damaged.”
1999 – The US and North Korea opened talks on inspections of a suspected underground nuclear facility.
2000 – A commercial truck carrying evaporated milk is driven into the State Capitol building in Sacramento, CA. The driver was killed.
2001 – Dave Winfield and Kirby Puckett were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame on their first try.
2001 – Confirmation hearings for Attorney General-designate John Ashcroft opened in Washington with Senate Democrats throwing jabs at him over abortion and civil rights.
2001 – President Bill Clinton awards former President Theodore Roosevelt a posthumous Medal of Honor for his service in the Spanish–American War.
2002 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Grundy, Va.,a 43-year-old Nigerian former student named Peter Odighizuwa shot and killed the dean, a professor and a student at the Appalachian School of Law following suspension due to low grades. according to eyewitness accounts, law students Tracy Bridges, a county sheriff’s deputy, and Mikael Gross, a police officer, ran to their cars after hearing gunshots and grabbed personally owned firearms. They ordered him to drop his firearm; he did and was subdued by unarmed students. He was later found incompetent to stand trial.
2002 – Richard Reid, the al Qaeda trained shoe-bomber, was indicted on 9 counts in Boston.
2002 – Four former Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) members, Sara Jane Olson, William Harris, Emily Harris and Michael Bortin, were arrested in California for the 1975 murdering of Myrna Lee Opsahl, a Sacramento woman who was delivering her church’s weekend offerings to a bank 27 years ago.
2002 – Mokhtar Haouari was sentenced to 24 years in prison for providing fake ID and $3,000 to Ahmed Ressam in 1999. Ressam planned to detonate explosives at the LA Int’l. Airport during millennium celebrations.
2002 – U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft announced that John Walker Lindh would be brought the the United States to face trial.
2003 – The shuttle Columbia is launched carrying a crew of 7 for a 16-day mission. Col. Ilan Ramon was aboard as Israel’s first astronaut. The mission ended in tragedy on Feb. 1, when the shuttle broke up during its return descent, killing all seven crew members.
2004 – President Bush sidestepped Congress and installed Mississippi judge Charles Pickering to the federal appeals court after a two-year battle filled with racial, religious and regional argument.
2004 – The US Army awarded Halliburton a 2-year contract worth up to $1.2 billion to rebuild the oil industry in southern Iraq.
2006 – The Stardust capsule successfully returned to Earth, carrying dust from a comet, which could shed light on the origins of our planetary system. It ended its six-year mission by entering the atmosphere at 28,860mph – faster than any other man-made object before.
2007 – The US Senate voted to shine more light on thousands of expensive pet projects buried in legislation after the new Democratic majority bowed to a successful push by Republicans to make new disclosure rules even tougher than originally planned.
2008 – A US District court in Kansas City, Mo., unsealed a 42-count indictment that accused the Islamic Relief Agency of paying Mark Deli Siljander, a former Michigan congressman (1981-1987), $50,000 for lobbying funds that were sent to terrorists.
2008 – CIA analyst Tom Donahue revealed that criminals have been able to hack into computer systems via the Internet and cut power to several cities outside the US. He offered few specifics on what actually went wrong.
2008 – In Georgia two off-duty DeKalb County police officers were killed in what appeared to be an ambush at an apartment complex in what residents described as a high-crime neighborhood.
2008 – Three US Army soldiers are killed and another two wounded by small arms fire in the northern Salahuddin province of Iraq.
2009 – Computer worm Conficker infects more than eight million Microsoft Windows-based personal computers.
2009 – A US government watchdog said 83 of the nation’s 100 largest corporations, including Citigroup, Bank of America and News Corp., had subsidiaries in offshore tax havens in 2007, and some of the companies received federal bailout funding.
2009 – Kellogg Co. of Battle Creek, Mich., recalled sixteen products containing peanut butter due to possible salmonella contamination as federal officials confirmed contamination at a Georgia facility that ships peanut products to 85 food companies.
2009 – Circuit City, a bankrupt electronics retailer based in Richmond, Va., said it failed to find a buyer and will liquidate its 567 US stores resulting in the loss of some 30,000 jobs. Circuit city’s last day of sales was on March 8.
2010 – President Barack Obama declared one of the largest relief efforts in US history to help Haiti four days after an earthquake killed up to 200,000 people and devastated the Caribbean nation’s capital.
2010 – A small boat packed with illegal immigrants overturned off the San Diego coast at Torrey Pines State Park. two people died and five were injured. Sixteen people, all Mexican citizens, were accounted for. On Jan 28 two men were indicted on charges of illegal smuggling.
2010 – Discovery News and Popular Science both reported that the first detailed measurements of the melting point of diamond indicate that it behaves similarly to water in that the solid floats on the liquid. The melting point of diamond is 64220F and it boils at 8720.60F. Its freezing point and melting point are the same.
2011 – Members of the House of Representatives today read the Constitution on the floor of the House chamber, marking a first for Congress in the history of our nation.
2011 – The NY Jets upset the New England Patriots at home with a 28-21 victory that set up a matchup with the Pittsburgh Steelers in the A.F.C. championship game.
2012 – The King Center publishes online 200,000 personal papers belonging to Martin Luther King, Jr. to mark his birthday.
2012 – The online shoe retailer Zappos reports that up to 24 million customer accounts may have been accessed by hackers, and has warned its customers to change their passwords.
2013 – In basketball, Miami Heat forward LeBron James becomes the youngest player in NBA history to score 20,000 career points.
2014 – JC Penny announced it was closing 33 under-performing stores and laying off 2,000 employees. It will save the chain $65 million over the next year.
2015 – The movie American Sniper was released. It was a movie about Chris Kyle.
1821 – John C. Breckenridge, Confederate general (d. 1875) was a lawyer, U.S. Representative, Senator from Kentucky, the fourteenth Vice President of the United States, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and the last Confederate Secretary of War. To date, Breckinridge is the youngest vice president in U.S. history, inaugurated at age 36.
1853 – André Michelin, French tire maker, born in Paris, France.
1874 – Robert W. Service, Canadian poet (d. 1958) He is most well known for his writings on the Canadian north, including the poems “The Shooting of Dan McGrew” and “The Cremation of Sam McGee”.
1908 – Ethel Merman, American actress and singer (d. 1984)
1909 – Ethel Merman (Zimmerman), American singer, Tony Award-winning actress.
1910 – Dizzy Dean, American baseball player and Hall of Famer. (d. 1974)
1935 – A.J. Foyt, American race car driver is considered by many as the greatest American automobile racing driver of all time. He holds the all-time USAC career wins record with 159 victories.
1946 – Ronnie Milsap, American singer and pianist. He is credited with six Grammy Awards and forty No. 1 country hits, third to George Strait and Conway Twitty.
1947 – Sara Jane Olson, formerly Kathleen Ann Soliah , was a member of the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) in the 1970s.
1947 – Laura Schlessinger, American physiologist, talk show host, and author.
Scouts. Place and date: At Culis, Bataan Province, Philippine Islands, January 16th, 1942. Entered service at: Fort Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands. Born: 29 December 1907, Barrio Tagsing, Leon, Iloilo, Philippine Islands. G.O. No.: 10, 24 February 1942. Citation: The action for which the award was made took place near Culis, Bataan Province, Philippine Islands, on 16 January 1942. A battery gun position was bombed and shelled by the enemy until one gun was put out of commission and all the cannoneers were killed or wounded. Sgt. Calugas, a mess sergeant of another battery, voluntarily, without orders, ran 1,000 yards across the shell-swept area to the gun position. There he organized a volunteer squad which placed the gun back in commission and fired effectively against the enemy, although the position remained under constant and heavy Japanese artillery fire.
|NEAHR, ZACHARIAH C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 142d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 16th,1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Canajoharie, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1890. Citation: Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading.
Martin Luther King Birthday
Champion of the Month Day
Religious Freedom Sunday
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was a famous leader of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, and a Baptist minister. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races).
On April 4, 1968, Dr. King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1977, he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. In 1986, Martin Luther King Day was established as a United States holiday, only the fourth Federal holiday to honor an individual (the other three being in honor of Jesus of Nazareth, George Washington, and Christopher Columbus). In 2004, King was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. He was known as a great public speaker. Dr. King often called for personal responsibility in fostering world peace. King’s most influential and well-known public address is the “I Have A Dream” speech, delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C..
Full text of the speech
I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.
Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God’s children.
It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.
But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.
We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. They have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.
As we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied, as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “For Whites Only”. We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.
I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.
Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.
This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.
This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with a new meaning, “My country, ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.”
And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!
Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!
Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California!
But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!
Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!
Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.
And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”
GENESIS 4: 2-7
4 This is the account of the heavens and the earth when they were created,when the Lord God made the earth and the heavens.
5 Now no shrub had yet appeared on the earth and no plant had yet sprung up, for the Lord God had not sent rain on the earth and there was no one to work the ground, 6 but streams came up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground. 7 Then the Lord God formed a man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being.
“Is there, at this moment, a nation upon the earth that enjoys this right [freedom, prosperity, and peace], where the true principles of representation are understood and practiced, and where all authority flows from and returns at stated periods to the people? I answer, there is not.”
Charles Pinckney, American politician, signer of the United States Constitution, the 37th Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives.
“The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy”
~ Martin Luther King Jr., Strength to Love, 1963
free·dom /ˈ [free-duhm]–noun
1. the state of being free or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint: He won his freedom after a retrial.
2. exemption from external control, interference, regulation, etc.
3. the power to determine action without restraint.
4. political or national independence
5. personal liberty, as opposed to bondage or slavery: a slave who bought his freedom.
6. exemption from the presence of anything specified (usually fol. by from): freedom from fear.
7. the absence of or release from ties, obligations, etc.
8. ease or facility of movement or action: to enjoy the freedom of living in this country.
9. frankness of manner or speech
10. general exemption or immunity: freedom from taxation.
11. the absence of ceremony or reserve.
12. a liberty taken.
13. a particular immunity or privilege enjoyed, as by a city or corporation: freedom to levy taxes.
14. civil liberty, as opposed to subjection to an arbitrary or despotic government
15. the right to enjoy all the privileges or special rights of citizenship, membership, etc., in a community or the like.
16. the right to frequent, enjoy, or use at will: to have the freedom of a friend’s library.
17. Philosophy. the power to exercise choice and make decisions without constraint from within or without; autonomy; self-determination.
69 – Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaiming himself Emperor of Rome, but only survives for three months before committing suicide.
1535 – Henry VIII assumed the title “Supreme Head of the Church.”
1559 – Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey by Owen Oglethorpe, the Bishop of Carlisle, instead of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1624 – Many riots occur in Mexico when it was announced that all churches were to be closed.
1759 – The British Museum opens.
1762 – Fraunces Tavern opens in New York City. Before the Revolution, the building was one of the meeting places of the Sons of Liberty. During the tea crisis of 1765, the patriots forced a British naval captain who tried to bring tea to New York to give a public apology at the building.
1776 – The British Crown contracts with the German state of Hesse-Cassel for the services of 12,000 mercenaries to assist British forces in the rebellious colonies.
1777 – Revolutionary War: New Connecticut (present day Vermont) declares its independence from New York.
1780 – Continental Congress establishes the court of appeals.
1782 – Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris goes before the U.S. Congress to recommend establishment of a national mint and decimal coinage.
1811 – In a secret session, Congress planned to annex Spanish East Florida.
1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, is captured by a squadron of four British frigates.
1831 – First US-built locomotive to pull a passenger train makes first run.
1844 – University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana.
1861 – Steam elevator patented by Elisha Otis. patent # 31,128
1865 – Civil War: U.S. Marines (365) in naval landing force attacked Fort Fisher at Wilmington, North Carolina.
1865 – Civil War: Fort Fisher in North Carolina falls to Union forces, and Wilmington, the Confederacy’s most important blockade-running port, is closed.
1870 – A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey (“A Live Jackass Kicking a Dead Lion” by Thomas Nast for Harper’s Weekly).
1882 – First US ski club forms (Berlin NH).
1885 – Wilson Bentley takes the first photograph of a snowflake.
1887 – Dan Bogan, cowboy and gunfighter murdered Constable Charles S. Gunn, shooting the onetime Texas Ranger with a revolver. Before he could get away, though, Bogan was himself shot in the shoulder and then captured – although he managed to make a getaway in the midst of a raging blizzard.
1889 – The Coca-Cola Company, then known as the Pemberton Medicine Company, is originally incorporated in Atlanta, Georgia.
1892 – “Triangle” magazine in Springfield, MA, published the rules for a brand new game. The original rules involved attaching a peach baskets to a suspended board. It is now known as basketball and developed by James Naismith.
1907 – 3-element vacuum tube patented by Dr Lee de Forest.
1907 – Gold dental inlays invented by William Taggart.
1908 – Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, the first Greek-letter organization by and for Black college women is established.
1909 – A motorized hearse was used for the first time in a Chicago funeral procession by funeral director H.D. Ludlow.
1910 – Construction ends on the Buffalo Bill Dam in Wyoming. It was the highest dam in the world at the time, at 325 ft.
1911 – First airplane bombing experiments with explosives, San Francisco.
1912 – First Annual Auto Show held in Phoenix, AZ. Vehicles displayed included a Hupmobile delivery wagon priced at $950 and a five passenger, six-cylinder. 30 hp Franklin Model M priced at $3000.
1919 – The Boston Molasses Disaster occurred. The Boston Molasses Disaster which is also known as the Great Molasses Flood or The Great Boston Molasses Tragedy occurred in the North End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts in the United States. A large molasses treacle tank burst and a wave of molasses ran through the streets at an estimated 35 mph (56 km/h), killing 21 and injuring 150. The event has entered local folklore, and residents claim that on hot summer days the area still smells of molasses.
1919 – Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two of the most prominent socialists in Germany, were tortured and murdered by the Freikorps.
1920 – The Dry Law (Prohibition) went into effect in the United States. Selling liquor and beer became illegal under the 18th amendment.
1927 – The Dumbarton Bridge opened in San Francisco carrying the first automobile traffic across the bay.
1930 – Amelia Earhart set an aviation record for women at 171 mph in a Lockheed Vega.
1934 – Patrick O’Malley, US policeman, was killed by John Dillinger.
1936 – The first building to be completely covered in glass is completed in Toledo, Ohio (the building was for the Owens-Illinois Glass Company).
1936 – In London, Japan quits all naval disarmament talks after being denied equality.
1939 – First NFL All-Star game, New York Giants beat All Stars 13-10 in Wrigley Field.
1939 – Municipal Railway & Market St RR began service to Transbay Terminal, San Francisco, CA.
1941 -World War II: Yancey Williams, a Howard University student, asked a federal court to order the secretary of war and other government officials to consider his application for enlistment in the Army Air Corps as flying cadet.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt asks the baseball commissioner to continue baseball during the war.
1942 – World War II:The first “blackout” Cadillacs were completed. Due to restrictions on materials necessary to the war effort, these cars had painted trim rather than chrome. They also lacked spare tires and other luxuries.
1943 – World War II: Japanese driven off Guadalcanal.
1943 – World War II:The world’s largest office building, The Pentagon, is dedicated (Arlington, Virginia). While it has 17.5 miles of corridors it takes a maximum of seven minutes to walk between any two points in the building.
1943 – World War II: Captain Joe Foss shot down three Japanese planes for a record total of 26 kills.
1944 – World War II:The forces of US 2nd Corps (Keyes) capture Monte Trocchio.
1945 – CBS Radio Network debuted “House Party.” The show aired for 22 years. One of its most favorite segments was “Kids Say the Darndest Things.”
1947 – The brutalized corpse of Elizabeth Short (“The Black Dahlia”) is found in Leimert Park, Los Angeles, California. Her murderer has never been found and it has become a notorious case in the history of American crime.
1951 – Ilse Koch, wife of the commandant of the Buchenwald concentration camp, is sentenced to life imprisonment in a court in West Germany.
1951 – Supreme Court ruled that the “clear and present danger” of incitement to riot is not protected speech and can be a cause for arrest.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page, “The Thing” by Phil Harris, “My Heart Cries for You “ by Guy Mitchell and “The Golden Rocket” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1953 – Harry S. Truman became the first U.S. President to use radio and TV to deliver his farewell upon leaving office.
1955 – The first solar-heated and radiation-cooled house in the U.S. started its system. It was built by Raymond W. Bliss in Tucson, Arizona.
1958 – New York Yankees sign million dollar plus deal to show 140 games on WPIX TV.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Chipmunk Song” by The Chipmunks, “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” by The Platters, “My Happiness” by Connie Francis and “City Lights” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1961 – Supremes signed with Motown Records. The Supremes began as a quartet called “The Primettes.”
1962 – Asked at a news conference if U.S. troops are fighting in Vietnam, President John F. Kennedy answers “No.”
1964 – Baseball agrees to hold a free-agent draft in New York City NY.
1964 – The soundtrack album of the musical, “The King and I”, starring Yul Brynner, earned a gold record.
1966 – “We Can Work It Out” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1967 – Super Bowl I (2:42:42) was the first ever Super Bowl. It was played between the Green Bay Packers the Kansas City Chiefs. The Packers won with a final score of 35-10. The head coaches were Vince Lombardi for Green Bay and Hank Stram for Kansas City. The game was played at L.A. Memorial Coliseum, Los Angeles, CA before 61,946 fans and the MVP was Bart Starr, quarterback for Green Bay. The Referee was Norm Schlacter. Face Value Tickets were $10.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Tell It Like It Is” by Aaron Neville, “Good Thing” by Paul Revere & The Raiders and “There Goes My Everything” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1969 – The Soviet Union launches Soyuz 5 and the first docking of two manned spacecraft took place between the Soviet Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5.
1970 – Muammar al-Qaddafi is proclaimed premier of Libya.
1972 – “American Pie” by Don McLean debuts.
1972 – Largest recorded temperature change over a 24-hour period occurred on in Loma, Montana, when the temperature rose from -54 to 49 °F.
1973 – Four Watergate burglars plead guilty in federal court.
1973 – Vietnam War: President of the United States Richard Nixon announces the suspension of offensive action in North Vietnam. His goal was to give peace talks between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho a chance to be successful.
1974 – “Happy Days“ premieres on ABC. It runs for eleven years.
1974 – Expert panel reports 18 1/2-minute gap in Watergate tape, 5 separate erasures.
1974 – Dennis Rader aka the BTK Killer kills his first victims by binding, torturing and murdering Joseph, Joseph II, Josephine and Julie Otero in their house.
1974 – The first group of women ever enlisted as “regulars” in the U.S. Coast Guard began their 10-weeks of basic training at the Coast Guard Training Center in Cape May. Thirty-two women were in the initial group and formed Recruit Company Sierra-89.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by Elton John, “You’re the First, the Last, My Everything” by Barry White, “Junior’s Farm/Sally G” by Paul McCartney & Wings and “Ruby, Baby” by Billy “Crash” Craddock all topped the charts.
1975 – Space Mountain opens at Disneyland.
1976 – Gerald Ford’s would-be assassin, Sara Jane Moore, is sentenced to life in prison.
1977 – Coneheads debut on “Saturday Night Live”. The Coneheads was a recurring sketch on “Saturday Night Live” featuring a family of extraterrestrials with cone-shaped heads, from the planet “Remulak,” posing in the suburban United States as immigrants from France.
1977 – “You Make Me Feel Like Dancing” by Leo Sayer topped the charts.
1978 – Super Bowl XII (3:25:03) was played between the Dallas Cowboys and the Denver Broncos. The Cowboys won with a final score of 27-10. The head coaches were Tom Landry for Dallas and Red Miller for Denver. The game was played at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, LA. before 76,400 fans and for the first time there were two MVP’s, Randy White- defensive tackle and Harvey Martin- defensive end. The Referee was Jim Tunney. Face Value Tickets were $30.
1978 – Lisa Levy and Margaret Bowman, two students at Florida State University in Tallahassee, were murdered in their sorority house. Ted Bundy was later convicted of the crime and was executed.
1981 – The police series “Hill Street Blues” premiered on TV.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Down Under” by Men at Work, “The Girl is Mine” by Michael Jackson /Paul McCartney, “Dirty Laundry” by Don Henley and “I Can’t Even Get the Blues” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1986 – The Living Seas opens at EPCOT Center in Walt Disney World, Florida.
1986 – The HBO and Cinemax pay cable television services initiate scrambling of their national satellite feeds on Galaxy 1 with the Videocipher II system.
1986 – President Reagan signed legislation making Martin Luther King, Jr.’s birthday a national holiday to be celebrated on the third Monday of January.
1988 – Jimmy “The Greek” Snyder made racist remarks about black athletes. The CBS football analyst was fired the next day.
1990 – AT&T’s long distance telephone network suffers a cascade switching failure.
1990 – ‘Big’ George Foreman, on the comeback-trail at 42 years of age, knocked out Gerry Cooney in the second round at Atlantic City, NJ. (Foreman became the oldest [age 45] ever to win the heavyweight title when he knocked out Michael Moorer on Nov 5, 1994.)
1991 – The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.
1993 – Salvatore Riina, the Mafia boss known as ‘The Beast’, is arrested in Sicily after three decades as a fugitive .
1993 – Somalia : Twenty men from 10th Mountain Divisions Echo Company, 2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry kill six Somalis in Bale Dogle. No US casualties.
1995 – The first episode of Star Trek: Voyager airs.
1995 – The San Francisco 49ers beat the Dallas Cowboys 38-28 in the NFC championship game and the San Diego Chargers edged the Pittsburgh Steelers 17-13 in the AFC title game. (The 49ers beat the Chargers 49-26 in Super Bowl XXIX.)
1995 – San Francisco’s I. Magnin store on Union Square closed. The first I. Magnin was founded in 1877 on Market St.
1997 – Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat reached an agreement on the Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank city of Hebron.
1998 – NASA announces John Glenn, 76, may fly in space again.
1998 – Lance Carvin, a stalker of Howard Stern, was sentenced to 2 1/2 years in prison for threatening to kill Stern and his family.
2001 – Wikipedia, a free Wiki content encyclopedia, goes online.
2001 – President-elect Bush marked the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday at an elementary school in Houston, where he promised wary black Americans: “My job will be to listen not only to the successful, but also to the suffering.”
2002 – John Walker Lindh, a 20-year-old American seized with the Taliban in Afghanistan in December, was charged with conspiring to kill U.S. citizens and abetting terrorist groups.
2003 – In a 7–2 decision in the case Eldred v. Ashcroft, the Supreme Court of the United States rules the 1998 Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act constitutional, preventing the expiration of any U.S. copyrights for 20 years from the date the law went into effect.
2004 – U.S. presidential election, 2004: Carol Moseley Braun drops out of the race and endorses Dr. Howard Dean, confirming rumors circulating the night before as she taped an appearance on The Daily Show.
2004 – Iraqi bank notes bearing Saddam Hussein’s portrait became obsolete as a three-month period to exchange old bills for new ones came to an end. The new currency required 27 flights of 747 planes for delivery.
2004 – The NASA Spirit rover rolled onto the surface of Mars for the first time since the vehicle bounced to a landing nearly two weeks earlier.
2005 – An intense solar flare blasted X-rays across the solar system. ESA’s SMART-1 lunar orbiter discovered elements such as calcium, aluminum, silicon, iron, and other surface elements on the moon.
2006 – The NASA space capsule, Stardust, returned safely to Earth in a desert near Salt Lake City with the first dust ever fetched from a comet, a cosmic bounty that scientists hope will yield clues to how the solar system formed.
2007-The death toll from a powerful winter storm rose to 36 across six states as utility crews labored to restore service to hundreds of thousands of Missouri households and businesses.
2008 – Meat and milk from cloned animals were ruled safe for human consumption by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration after years of debate.
2008 – A US District judge ordered the border city of Eagle Pass, Texas, to surrender 233 acres to the federal government for the construction of a border fence by the Homeland Security Dept.
2008 – Citigroup Inc. said it lost $9.8 billion in last year’s final three months, the largest quarterly deficit in its 196-year history.
2008 – Republican Mitt Romney won the Michigan primary with 39.4% of the vote. McCain got 30% and Huckabee 15.4%.
2009 – Eric Holder, Obama’s choice for attorney general, called waterboarding torture and vowed to shut Guantanamo.
2009 – A US Airways Airbus A320 jetliner, piloted by Chesley B. Sullenberger and bound for Charlotte, NC, landed in the Hudson River after both engines failed shortly after takeoff from LaGuardia and an encounter with a flock of geese. All 155 people aboard Flight 1549 survived.
2009 – NASA announces that methane in Mars’ atmosphere “could be produced either by geological activity or by life.”
2010 – Johnson & Johnson issued a massive recall of over-the-counter drugs including Tylenol, Motrin and St. Joseph’s aspirin because of a moldy smell that has made people sick.
2010 – In Arizona an oversight board voted to close thirteen state parks in response to budget cuts. Since July the Legislature has cut 61% of the state parks budget.
2011 -A US Marine shoots and kills an Afghan police officer after the officer advanced on him with his weapon raised.
2011 – An Iraqi soldier opens fire on U.S. troops at a training center, killing two and injuring another before being killed himself.
2011 – The online encyclopedia Wikipedia celebrates its tenth anniversary.
2012 – Jon Huntsman will drop out of the 2012 Republican Party presidential primaries and will endorse rival candidate Mitt Romney.
2013 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Two people are shot dead and another person was wounded at Hazard Community and Technical College in Hazard, Kentucky.
1412 – Saint Joan of Arc (d. 1431)
1716 – Philip Livingston, American founding father (d. 1778) was an American merchant and statesman from New York City. He signed the Declaration of Independence.
1870 – Pierre S. DuPont, American industrialist.
1906 – Aristotle Onassis, Greek businessman (d. 1975) was the most famous shipping magnate of the 20th century.
1908 – Edward Teller, Hungarian-born American scientist known as the “Father of the Hydrogen Bomb.”
1929 – Martin Luther King, Jr., American civil rights leader, minister, and winner of the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize.
1945 – Vince Foster, American lawyer (d. 1993) was a deputy White House counsel during the first term of President Bill Clinton.
JOHNSON, DWIGHT H.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fifth Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 69th Armor, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Dak To, Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, January 15th, 1968. Entered service at: Detriot, Mich. Born: 7 May 1947, Detroit, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp5c. Johnson, a tank driver with Company B, was a member of a reaction force moving to aid other elements of his platoon, which was in heavy contact with a battalion size North Vietnamese force. Sp5c. Johnson’s tank, upon reaching the point of contact, threw a track and became immobilized. Realizing that he could do no more as a driver, he climbed out of the vehicle, armed only with a .45 caliber pistol. Despite intense hostile fire, Sp5c. Johnson killed several enemy soldiers before he had expended his ammunition. Returning to his tank through a heavy volume of antitank rocket, small arms and automatic weapons fire, he obtained a sub-machine gun with which to continue his fight against the advancing enemy. Armed with this weapon, Sp5c. Johnson again braved deadly enemy fire to return to the center of the ambush site where he courageously eliminated more of the determined foe. Engaged in extremely close combat when the last of his ammunition was expended, he killed an enemy soldier with the stock end of his submachine gun. Now weaponless, Sp5c. Johnson ignored the enemy fire around him, climbed into his platoon sergeant’s tank, extricated a wounded crewmember and carried him to an armored personnel carrier. He then returned to the same tank and assisted in firing the main gun until it jammed. In a magnificent display of courage, Sp5c. Johnson exited the tank and again armed only with a .45 caliber pistol, engaged several North Vietnamese troops in close proximity to the vehicle. Fighting his way through devastating fire and remounting his own immobilized tank, he remained fully exposed to the enemy as he bravely and skillfully engaged them with the tank’s externally-mounted .50 caliber machine gun; where he remained until the situation was brought under control. Sp5c. Johnson’s profound concern for his fellow soldiers, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*LANGHORN, GARFIELD M.
Rank and organization: Private First class, U.S. Army, Troop C, 7th Squadron (Airmobile), 17th Cavalry, 1st Aviation Brigade. Place and date: Pleiku province, Republic of Vietnam, January 15th,1969. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 10 September 1948, Cumberland, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Langhorn distinguished himself while serving as a radio operator with Troop C, near Plei Djereng in Pleiku province. Pfc. Langhorn’s platoon was inserted into a landing zone to rescue two pilots of a Cobra helicopter shot down by enemy fire on a heavily timbered slope. He provided radio coordination with the command-and-control aircraft overhead while the troops hacked their way through dense undergrowth to the wreckage, where both aviators were found dead. As the men were taking the bodies to a pickup site, they suddenly came under intense fire from North Vietnamese soldiers in camouflaged bunkers to the front and right flank, and within minutes they were surrounded. Pfc. Langhorn immediately radioed for help from the orbiting gunships, which began to place minigun and rocket fire on the aggressors. He then lay between the platoon leader and another man, operating the radio and providing covering fire for the wounded who had been moved to the center of the small perimeter. Darkness soon fell, making it impossible for the gunships to give accurate support, and the aggressors began to probe the perimeter. An enemy hand grenade landed in front of Pfc. Langhorn and a few feet from personnel who had become casualties. Choosing to protect these wounded, he unhesitatingly threw himself on the grenade, scooped it beneath his body and absorbed the blast. By sacrificing himself, he saved the lives of his comrades. Pfc. Langhorn’s extraordinary heroism at the cost of his life was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
BEYER, ARTHUR O.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company C, 603d Tank Destroyer Battalion. Place and date: Near Arloncourt, Belgium, January 15th,1945. Entered service at: St. Ansgar, Iowa. Born: 20 May 1909, Rock Township, Mitchell County, Iowa. G.O. No.: 73, 30 August 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry in action. His platoon, in which he was a tank-destroyer gunner, was held up by antitank, machinegun, and rifle fire from enemy troops dug in along a ridge about two-hundred yards to the front. Noting a machinegun position in this defense line, he fired upon it with his 76-mm. gun killing one man and silencing the weapon. He dismounted from his vehicle and, under direct enemy observation, crossed open ground to capture the two remaining members of the crew. Another machinegun, about two-hundred fifty yards to the left, continued to fire on him. Through withering fire, he advanced on the position. Throwing a grenade into the emplacement, he killed one crewmember and again captured the two survivors. He was subjected to concentrated small-arms fire but, with great bravery, he worked his way a quarter mile along the ridge, attacking hostile soldiers in their foxholes with his carbine and grenades. When he had completed his self-imposed mission against powerful German forces, he had destroyed two machinegun positions, killed enemy of the enemy and captured eighteen prisoners, including two bazooka teams. Cpl. Beyer’s intrepid action and unflinching determination to close with and destroy the enemy eliminated the German defense line and enabled his task force to gain its objective.
FOSS, JOSEPH JACOB
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. Place and date: Over Guadalcanal, 9 October to 19 November 1942, January 15th, and 23 January 1943. Entered service at: South Dakota. Born: 17 April 1 915, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. Citation: For outstanding heroism and courage above and beyond the call of duty as executive officer of Marine Fighting Squadron 121, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, at Guadalcanal. Engaging in almost daily combat with the enemy from 9 October to 19 November 1942, Capt. Foss personally shot down twenty-three Japanese planes and damaged others so severely that their destruction was extremely probable. In addition, during this period, he successfully led a large number of escort missions, skillfully covering reconnaissance, bombing, and photographic planes as well as surface craft. On January 15th, 1943, he added three more enemy planes to his already brilliant successes for a record of aerial combat achievement unsurpassed in this war. Boldly searching out an approaching enemy force on 25 January, Capt. Foss led his eight F-4F Marine planes and four Army P-38’s into action and, undaunted by tremendously superior numbers, intercepted and struck with such force that four Japanese fighters were shot down and the bombers were turned back without releasing a single bomb. His remarkable flying skill, inspiring leadership, and indomitable fighting spirit were distinctive factors in the defense of strategic American positions on Guadalcanal.
Joe Foss went on to serve beyond these heroic acts. He was a leading “ace” fighter pilot in the United States Marine Corps during World War II, a General in the Air National Guard, the 20th Governor of South Dakota, and the first commissioner of the American Football League.
Fort Fisher, N.C.
The Union army and navy planned several attacks on Fort Fisher and the port of Wilmington, but made no attempt until December 24, 1864. After two days of fighting with little headway, Union commanders concluded that the fort was too strong to assault and withdrew their forces. However, they returned for a second attempt on January 12, 1865. For two and one-half days, Federal ships bombarded the fort on both land and sea face. On the fifteenth, more than 3,300 Union infantry, including the 27th U.S. Colored Troops, assaulted the land face. After several hours of fierce hand-to-hand combat, Federal troops captured the fort that night. At the beginning of the Civil War, the Confederacy took control of a neck of land in southern North Carolina near the mouth of the Cape Fear River and constructed what was to become the largest and one of the most important earthwork fortifications in the South. Two major battles were fought there, and many Union soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor for their gallant participation in that fighting.
The list below is a list of the Union soldiers, sailors and Marines that were presented with those medals for gallant service:
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 142d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th,1865. Entered service at: Ephratah, N.Y. Born: Mexico, Oswego County, N.Y., 9 June 1845. Date of issue: 28 December 1914. Citation: Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1816, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Barnum served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and on 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close in shore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire orders were given by the flagship. Barnum was commended for highly meritorious conduct during this period.
|BARTER, GURDON H.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Williamsburgh, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, L/man Barter advanced to the top of the sandhill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed and wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark, when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms, and its colors.
|BASS, DAVID L.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Seaman Bass advanced to the top of the sand hill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed and wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark, when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms, and its colors.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: Chile, South America. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15th, 1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, O.S. Bazaar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1840, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during the attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864, and 13 to January 15th, 1865. Despite heavy return fire by the enemy and the explosion of the 100-pounder Parrott rifle which killed eight men and wounded twelve more, Sgt. Binder, as captain of a gun, performed his duties with skill and courage during the first two days of battle. As his ship again took position on the 13th, he remained steadfast as the Ticonderoga maintained a well-placed fire upon the batteries on shore, and thereafter, as she materially lessened the power of guns on the mound which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this action the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
|BOWMAN, EDWARD R.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1828, Eastport, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during attacks on Fort Fisher 13 to January 15th, 1865. Despite severe wounds sustained during the action Bowman displayed outstanding courage in the performance of duty as his ship maintained its well-placed fire upon the batteries on shore, and thereafter, as she materially lessened the power of guns on the mound which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this battle the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Wabash in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Burton advanced gallantly through the severe enemy fire while armed only with a revolver and cutlass. This made it impossible to return the fire at that range but Burton succeeded in reaching the angle of the fort and going on, to be one of the few who entered the fort. When the rest of the body of men to his rear were forced to retreat under a devastating fire, he was forced to withdraw through lack of support, and to seek the shelter of one of the mounds near the stockade from which point he succeeded in regaining the safety of his ship.
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Indiana. Accredited to: Indiana. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13 to January 15th,1865. Despite heavy return fire by the enemy and the explosion of the 100-pounder Parrott rifle which killed eight men and wounded twelve more, Campbell, as captain of a gun, performed his duties with skill and courage during the first two days of battle. As his ship again took position on the line of the 13th, he remained steadfast as the Ticonderoga maintained a well-placed fire upon the batteries on shore, and thereafter, as she materially lessened the power of guns on the mound which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this action the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
|CHAPIN, ALARIC B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 142d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th,1865. Entered service at: Pamelia, N.Y. Birth: Ogdensburg, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 December 1914. Citation: Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Ireland. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota, in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Connor charged up to the palisades and, when more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, risked his life to remain with a wounded officer. With the enemy concentrating his fire on the group, he waited until after dark before assisting in carrying the wounded man from the field.
|CURTIS, NEWTON MARTIN
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th, 1865. Entered service at: De Peyster, N.Y. Born: 21 May 1835, De Peyster, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 November 1891. Citation: The first man to pass through the stockade, he personally led each assault on the traverses and was four times wounded.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Scotland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Dempster served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first 2 days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire orders were given by the flagship.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Monadnock in action during several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. With his ship anchored well inshore to insure perfect range against the severe fire of rebel guns, Dunn continued his duties when the vessel was at anchor, as her propellers were kept in motion to make her turrets bear, and the shooting away of her chain might have caused her to ground. Disdainful of shelter despite severe weather conditions, he inspired his shipmates and contributed to the success of his vessel in reducing the enemy guns to silence.
Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1819, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: English served on board the U.S.S. New Iron sides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire orders were given by the flagship.
|FOY, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Birth: Portsmouth, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Rhode Island during the action with Fort Fisher and the Federal Point batteries, 13 to January 15th, 1865. Carrying out his duties courageously during the battle, Foy continued to be outstanding by his good conduct and faithful services throughout this engagement which resulted in a heavy casualty list when an attempt was made to storm Fort Fisher.
|FREEMAN, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 169th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th, 1865. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: Troy, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 May 1905. Citation: Volunteered to carry the brigade flag after the bearer was wounded.
|FRY, ISAAC N.
Rank and organization: Orderly Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during attacks on Fort Fisher, 13 to January 15th, 1865. As orderly sergeant of Marine guard, and captain of a gun, Orderly Sgt. Fry performed his duties with skill and courage as the Ticonderoga maintained a well-placed fire upon the batteries to the left of the palisades during the initial phases of the three-day battle, and thereafter, as she considerably lessened the firing power of guns on the mount which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this action the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Wales. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15th, 1865. As one of a boatcrew detailed to one of the generals on shore, Griffiths bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Haffee served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore, and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire, as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproof to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire orders were given by the flagship.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Harcourt advanced to the top of the sandhill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed and wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men become seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms and its colors.
|HAYDEN, JOSEPH B.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Maryland. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga, as quartermaster in charge of steering the ship into action, during attacks on Fort Fisher, 13 to January 15th, 1865. Hayden steered the ship into position in the line of battle where she maintained a well-directed fire upon the batteries to the left of the palisades during the initial phases of the engagement. Although several of the enemy’s shots fell over and around the vessel, the Ticonderoga fought her guns gallantly throughout three consecutive days of battle until the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1820, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13 to January 15th, 1865. Despite heavy return fire by the enemy and the explosion of the 100-pounder Parrott rifle which killed eight men and wounded twelve more, Jones, as captain of a gun, performed his duties with skill and courage during the first two days of battle. As his ship again took position on the line on the 13th, he remained steadfast as the Ticonderoga maintained a well-placed fire upon the batteries on shore, and thereafter, as she materially lessened the power of guns on the mound which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this action the flag was planted on one side of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Hold, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841 Jersey City, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 84, 3 October 1867. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Nereus during the attack on Fort Fisher, on January 15th, 1865. Kane, as captain of the hold, displayed outstanding skill and courage as his ship maintained its well-directed fire against fortifications on shore despite the enemy’s return fire. When a rebel steamer was discovered in the river back of the fort, the Nereus, with forward rifle guns trained, drove the ship off at the third fire. The gallant ship’s participation contributed to the planting of the flag on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization. Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, Rhode Island. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Lear served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire order was given by the flagship.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 142d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Queensberry, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 December 1914. Citation: Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading.
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838 Maine. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation Milliken served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864_ and 13,14 and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the Ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the cease-fire orders were given by the flagship.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Upster, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota, in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Mills charged up to the palisades and, when more than two thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, risked his life to remain with a wounded officer. With the enemy concentrating his fire on the group, he waited until after dark before assisting the wounded man from the field.
|NEAHR, ZACHARIAH C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 142d New York Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Canajoharie, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1890. Citation: Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th,1865. Entered service at: West Chester, Pa. Born: 1 June 1844, Valley Forge, Pa. Date of issue: 17 August 1891. Citation: Gallantly led the charge over a traverse and planted the colors of one of his regiments. He was severely wounded.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Main Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1827, France. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga during attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13 to January 15th, 1865. Despite heavy return fire by the enemy and the explosion of the 100-pounder Parrott rifle which killed eight men and wounded twelve more, Prance as captain of a gun, performed his duties with skill and courage during the first two days of battle. As his ship again took position on the line on the 13th, he remained steadfast as the Ticonderoga maintained a well placed fire upon the batteries on shore, and thereafter as she materially lessened the power of guns on the mound which had been turned upon our assaulting columns. During this action the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15th, 1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, Province bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1836, County of Monahan, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Cpl. Rannahan advanced to the top of the sandhill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed or wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms and its colors.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1846, Maine. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. When the landing party to which he was attached charged on the fort with a cheer, and the determination to plant the colors on the ramparts, Savage remained steadfast when more than two-thirds of the Marines and sailors fell back in panic during the fight. When enemy fire shot away the flagstaff above his hand, he bravely seized the remainder of the staff and brought his colors safely off.
|SHEPARD, LOUIS C.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Ohio. Accredited to: Ohio. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served as seaman on board the U.S.S. Wabash in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Advancing gallantly through severe enemy fire while armed only with a revolver and cutlass which made it impossible to return the fire at that range, Shepard succeeded in reaching the angle of the fort and in going on, to be one of the few who entered the fort. When the rest of the body of men to his rear were forced to retreat under a devastating fire, he was forced to withdraw through lack of support and to seek the shelter of one of the mounds near the stockade from which point he succeeded in regaining the safety of his ship.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga in the attack upon Fort Fisher on January 15th, 1865. As captain of No. 2 gun, stationed near the 100-pounder Parrott rifle when it burst into fragments, killing eight men and wounding twelve more, Shipman promptly recognized the effect produced by the explosion and, despite the carnage surrounding them, and the enemy’s fire, encouraged the men at their guns by exclaiming “Go ahead, boys! This is only the fortunes of war!”
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1830 Canada. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.. 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota, in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Pvt. Shivers advanced to the top of the sandhill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed or wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms and its colors.
Rank and organization. Chief Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Prussia. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Summers served on board the U.S.S. Ticonderoga in the attacks on Fort Fisher, 13 to January 15th, 1865. The ship took position in the line of battle and maintained a well-directed fire upon the batteries to the left of the palisades during the initial phase of the engagement. Although several of the enemy’s shots fell over and around the vessel, the Ticonderoga fought her guns gallantly throughout three consecutive days of battle until the flag was planted on one of the strongest fortifications possessed by the rebels.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Sweden. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15th, 1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, Swanson bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on January 15th,1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, Swatton bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was one of six men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.
|THOMPSON, HENRY A.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1841, England. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Private Thompson advanced partly through a breach in the palisades and nearer to the fort than any man from his ship despite enemy fire which killed or wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark, when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms and its colors.
|TOMLIN, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1844, Goshen, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: As corporal of the guard on board the U.S.S. Wabash during the assault on Fort Fisher, on January 15th,1865. As one of two-hundred Marines assembled to hold a line of entrenchments in the rear of the fort which the enemy threatened to attack in force following a retreat in panic by more than two-thirds of the assaulting ground forces, Cpl. Tomlin took position in line and remained until morning when relief troops arrived from the fort. When one of his comrades was struck down by enemy fire, he unhesitatingly advanced under a withering fire of musketry into an open plain close to the fort and assisted the wounded man to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Seneca in the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th,1865. Despite severe enemy fire which halted an attempt by his assaulting party to enter the stockade, Tripp boldly charged through the gap in the stockade although the center of the line, being totally unprotected, fell back along the open beach and left too few in the ranks to attempt an offensive operation.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company F, 97th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, N.C., January 15th,1865. Entered service at: West Chester, Pa. Born: 13 July 1839, Syracuse, Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: 24 June 1890. Citation: Gallant and meritorious conduct, where, as first lieutenant, he commanded the regiment.
|WEBSTER, HENRY S.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Stockholm, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 49, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Susquehanna during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. When enemy fire halted the attempt by his landing party to enter the fort and more than two-thirds of the men fell back along the open beach, Webster voluntarily remained with one of his wounded officers, under fire, until aid could be obtained to bring him to the rear.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Gun, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Washington, D.C. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: White served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13,14, and January 15th, 1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ships battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the ceasefire order was given by the flagship.
|WILCOX, FRANKLIN L.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Paris, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Minnesota in action during the assault on Fort Fisher, January 15th, 1865. Landing on the beach with the assaulting party from his ship, Wilcox advanced to the top of the sandhill and partly through the breach in the palisades despite enemy fire which killed and wounded many officers and men. When more than two-thirds of the men became seized with panic and retreated on the run, he remained with the party until dark when it came safely away, bringing its wounded, its arms and its colors.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Norway. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault by the fleet on Fort Fisher, on January 15th, 1865. When the landing party to which he was attached charged on the fort with a cheer, and with determination to plant their colors on the ramparts, Williams remained steadfast when they reached the foot of the fort and more than two-thirds of the Marines and sailors fell back in panic. Taking cover when the enemy concentrated his fire on the remainder of the group, he alone remained with his executive officer, subsequently withdrawing from the field after dark.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, England. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Willis served on board the U.S.S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, 24 and 25 December 1864; and 13, 14 and January 15th,1865. The ship steamed in and took the lead in the ironclad division close inshore and immediately opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well-directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting. Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night, despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy troops came out of their bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship’s battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the ceasefire order was given by the flagship.
Bald Eagle Appreciation Days
National Clean Off Your Desk Day
National Hot Pastrami Sandwich Day
Popeye Characters: Spinach
Popeye the Sailor Man is portrayed as having a strong affinity for spinach, becoming physically stronger after consuming it.
Spinach was first cultivated in Persia. The word itself is derived from the Persian word اسفناج Esfenaj. The Chinese referred to it in 647 as ‘the herb of Persia’.It arrived in North Africa through Syria and Arabia. In 1100, the Moors introduced it to Spain. Over the next century, prickly seeded spinach spread throughout Europe, being grown primarily in monastery gardens. A cookbook dating from 1390, belonging to King Richard II, contains spinach recipes. Smooth seeded spinach seems to have spread through Europe slightly later. Its use in England was first documented in 1551.
In popular folklore, spinach is a rich source of iron. In reality, a 60 gram serving of boiled spinach contains around 1.9 mg of iron (slightly more when eaten raw). A good many green vegetables contain less than 1 mg of iron for an equivalent serving. Hence spinach does contain a relatively high level of iron for a vegetable, but its consumption does not have special health connotations as folklore might suggest.Nutrition
The myth about spinach and its high iron content may have first been propagated by Dr. E. von Wolf in 1870, because a misplaced decimal point in his publication led to an iron-content figure that was ten times too high. In 1937, German chemists reinvestigated this “miracle vegetable” and corrected the mistake. It was described by T.J. Hamblin in British Medical Journal, December 1981.
Spinach also has a high calcium content. The oxalate content in spinach binds with calcium decreasing its absorption. By way of comparison, the body can absorb about half of the calcium present in broccoli, yet only around 5% of the calcium in spinach. Oxalate is one of a number of factors that can contribute to gout and kidney stones. Equally or more notable factors contributing to calcium stones are: genetic tendency, high intake of animal protein, excess calcium intake, excess vitamin D, prolonged immobility, hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis, and excess dietary fiber (Williams, 1993).
Spinach still has a large nutritional value, especially when fresh, steamed, or quickly boiled. It is a rich source of Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and several vital antioxidants. Recently, opioid peptides called rubiscolins have also been found in spinach. It is a source of folic acid, and this vitamin was first purified from spinach. To benefit from the folate in spinach, it is better to steam it than to boil it. Boiling spinach for four minutes can halve the level of folate.
Monticello, February 21, 1825
This letter will, to you, be as one from the dead. The writer will be in the grave before you can weigh its counsels. Your affectionate and excellent father has requested that I would address to you something which might possibly have a favorable influence on the course of life you have to run, and I too, as a namesake, feel an interest in that course. Few words will be necessary, with good dispositions on your part. Adore God. Reverence and cherish your parents. Love your neighbor as yourself, and your country more than yourself. Be just. Be true. Murmur not at the ways of Providence. So shall the life into which you have entered, be the portal to one of eternal and ineffable bliss. And if to the dead it is permitted to care for the things of this world, every action of your life will be under my regard. Farewell.
Letter to his son Thomas Jefferson Smith after his death.
“Many of life’s failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.”
~ Thomas A. Edison
This was used in the early twentieth century America to refer to things whose names were forgotten or unknown. In this usage it was synonymous with thingamajig or whatchamacallit, as in “hand me that hootenanny.” Hootenanny was also an old country word for “party”. Now, most commonly, it refers to a folk-music party.
pule PYOOL, intransitive verb:
To whimper; to whine.
Pule is perhaps from French piauler, “to whine, to pule,” ultimately of imitative origin.
1501 – Martin Luther, 17, enters the University of Erfurt.
1514 – Pope Leo X issues a papal bull against slavery.
1539 – Spain annexes Cuba.
1639 – The “Fundamental Orders“, the first written constitution that created a government, was adopted in Connecticut. At the opening session of the open court, the Reverend Thomas Hooker preached a powerful sermon on the text that “the foundation of authority is laid in the free consent of the people.”
1690 – The clarinet is invented in Nuremberg, Germany.
1699 – Massachusetts holds day of fasting for wrongly persecuting “witches.”
1766 – The English Parliament convenes and immediately begins to reconsider the repercussions of the Stamp Act. Former Chancellor of the Exchequer Greenville advocates enforcement of the act by military force, while William Pitt supports the repeal of the Stamp Act, citing the principle of taxation without representation.
1784 – Revolutionary War: The United States ratifies a peace treaty with England. This ended the Revolutionary War.
1794 – Elizabeth Hog Bennett became the first woman in the U.S. to successfully give birth to a child by a Cesarean section. Her husband, Dr. Jessee Bennett of Edom, Va., performed the operation, though he had no anesthetic to give her.
1799 – Eli Whitney receives government contract for 10,000 muskets.
1861 – Civil War: Union troops garrison Fort Taylor in Key West, Florida.
1863 – First US newspaper printed on wood-pulp paper, Boston Morning Journal.
1864 – Civil War: Union forces under General William T. Sherman occupy Meridian, Mississippi. His forces destroy supplies, bridges and railroads.
1873 – John Wesley Hyatt invented and registered the name “celluloid.” What he had invented was not exactly a new combination of chemicals, but rather a new way of molding the plastic and making it stay hard.
1878 – US Supreme Court ruled that race separation on trains was unconstitutional.
1882 – The Myopia Hunt Club, in Winchester, MA, became the first country club in the United States.
1891 – General Nelson Miles, commander of the U.S. Army troops in South Dakota, reports that the rebellious Sioux are finally returning to their reservation following the bloody massacre at Wounded Knee.
1895 – Employees of the trolley railroad in Brooklyn, New York go on strike. Riots ensue which are eventually suppressed by the New York and Brooklyn militias.
1907 – Dr. Lee De Forest patented the Audion tube.
1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000.
1911 – The USS Arkansas, the largest U.S. battleship, is launched from the yards of the New York Shipbuilding Company.A 26,000 ton Wyoming class battleship, she was built at Camden, New Jersey.
1914 – Henry Ford introduced the assembly line method of manufacturing cars, allowing completion of one Model-T Ford every 93 minutes. It greatly improved its assembly-line operation by employing a chain to pull each chassis along.
1919 – John McGraw, Charles A Stoneham, & Judge McQuade buy New York Giants.
1936 – Harriet Hilliard, vocalist and wife of bandleader Ozzie Nelson, sang, “Get Thee Behind Me Satan.” It was from the 1936 movie, “Follow the Fleet.”
1939 – “Honolulu Bound” was heard on CBS radio for the first time.
1940 – Commissioner Kenesaw Landis gives free agency to 91 Detroit Tigers.
1941 – Paul Brown, then head football coach of Massillon High School, was named head coach of Ohio State’s Buckeyes. In seven years of high school competition, coach Brown’s Massillon High team lost only one game.
1942 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all aliens in the United States to register with the government.
1943 – World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill begin Casablanca Conference to discuss strategy and study the next phase of the war.
1943 – Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the first President of the United States to travel via airplane while in office (Miami, Florida to Morocco to meet with Winston Churchill to discuss World War II).
1944 – World War II: On New Britain, the fighting around the Cape Gloucester bridgehead continues. While the Japanese can score no positive success, they do manage to hold up the US advance.
1945 – World War II: The US 8th Air Force resumes strategic operations after a month-long pause caused by the Battle of the Bulge. Some 600 B-17 and B-24 bombers strike oil targets and encounter heavy resistance from Luftwaffe fighters.
1950 – “I Can Dream, Can’t I?” by the Andrews Sisters topped the charts.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Dinah Shore, “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson and “I Love You Because” by Leon Payne all topped the charts.
1951 – Chinese Communist forces reached their furthest extent of advance into South Korea with the capture of Wonju.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1951 – First NFL Pro Bowl played in Los Angeles. The score was American Conference 28, National Conference 27. The MVP was Otto Graham, the quarterback for the Cleveland Browns. The attendance was 53,676. The Head Coaches were American Conference: Paul Brown, Cleveland and for the National Conference: Joe Stydahar, Los Angeles.
1952 – “The Today Show” premieres with Dave Garroway & on NBC-TV. It was a long running morning news program on NBC, went on the air. It aired at 7:00 A.M. (Eastern Time) as a 2-hour news and information show.
1953 – J Fred Muggs, a chimp, becomes a regular on NBC’s Today Show.
1953 – Today was the first flight of the US Navy Convair F2Y-1: Sea Dart. It was a unique American seaplane fighter aircraft that rode on twin hydro-skis for takeoff. It flew only as a prototype, and never entered production.
1954 – The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator Corporation forming the American Motors Corporation.
1954 – Marilyn Monroe marries baseball star, New York Yankee, Joe DiMaggio. The marriage only lasted nine months.
1956 – “Memories Are Made of This” by Dean Martin topped the charts.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “At the Hop” by Danny & The Juniors, “Stood Up/Waitin’ in School” by Ricky Nelson, “Kisses Sweeter Than Wine” by Jimmie Rodgers and “Great Balls of Fire” by Jerry Lee Lewis all topped the charts.
1960 – Elvis Presley was promoted to Sergeant in the U.S. Army.
1961 – “Wonderland by Night” by Bert Kaempfert topped the charts.
1964 – George Wallace was inaugurated as the governor of Alabama, promising his followers, “Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever!”
1964 – A hootenanny was held for the first time at the White House, as the New Christy Minstrels entertained President and Lady Bird Johnson, as well as Italy’s President.
1966 – “I’m a Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “We Can Work It Out” by The Beatles, “She’s Just My Style” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “Flowers on the Wall” by The Statler Brothers and “Giddyup Go” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1967 – Sonny & Cher release “The Beat Goes On“.
1968 – Super Bowl II was played between the Green Bay Packers and the Oakland Raiders 1st Half (1:26:22) 2nd Half (1:10:32) . The Packers were the winners and the final score was 33-14. The head coaches were Vince Lombardi for Green Bay and John Rauch for Oakland. It was played in the Orange Bowl in Miami, FL before 75, 546 fans and the MVP was Bart Starr, quarterback for the Packers. The Referee was Jack Vest. Face Value Tickets were $12.00. This was Lombardi’s last game as coach of the Packers. The game drew the first $3 million gate in football history.
1968 – Vietnam: U.S. joint-service Operation Niagara is launched to support the U.S. Marine base at Khe Sanh.
1969 – An explosion aboard the USS Enterprise near Hawaii kills 27 people.
1972 – Comedian Redd Foxx, whose last name was really Sanford, debuted on NBC-TV in “Sanford & Son“. Demond Wilson starred as Fred Sanford’s son. Quincy Jones composed the catchy theme song.
1973 – Super Bowl VII (2:02:49) was played between the Miami Dolphins and the Washington Redskins. The Dolphins won with a final score of 14-7 and became the first NFL team to go undefeated in a season. The head coaches were Don Shula for Miami and George Allen for Washington. The game was played at L.A. Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, CA before 90,182 fans and the MVP was Jake Scott, Dolphins safety The Referee was Tom Bell. Face Value Tickets were $15.00.
1975 – The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), created in 1938 to inquire into subversive activities in the US, was terminated following the efforts of the National Committee to abolish HUAC.
1976 – “Bionic Woman,” with Lindsay Wagner, debuted on ABC (later NBC).
1978 – “Baby Come Back” by Player topped the charts.
1979 – President Jimmy Carter proposes Martin Luther King’s birthday be a holiday.
1980 – Gold reached a new record price of more than $800 an ounce.
1980 – “Blues Brothers” movie with Dan Akroyd & John Belushi opens.
1981 – FCC frees stations to air as many commercials an hour as they wish.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Physical” by Olivia Newton-John, “Waiting for a Girl Like You” by Foreigner, “Let’s Groove” by Earth, Wind & Fire and “Fourteen Carat Mind” by Gene Watson all topped the charts.
1984 – Ray Mancini defeats Bobby Chacon by a knockout in three to retain his WBA boxing world Lightweight title in Reno.
1984 – “Say Say Say” by Paul McCartney & Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1985 – Martina Navratilova wins her 100th tournament. She joined Jimmy Connors and Chris Evert Lloyd as the only professional tennis players to win 100 tournaments.
1986 – “Rambo: First Blood, Part II” arrived at video stores. It broke the record set by “Ghostbusters”, for first day orders. 435,000 copies of the video were sold.
1989 – “My Perogative” by Bobby Brown topped the charts.
1989 – President Reagan delivered his 331st and last weekly radio address, telling listeners, “Believe me, Saturdays will never seem the same. I’ll miss you.”
1990 – “Simpsons” premiered on Fox-TV.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Day in Paradise” by Phil Collins, “Pump Up the Jam” by Technotronic featuring Felly, “How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” by Michael Bolton and “It Ain’t Nothin’” by Keith Whitley all topped the charts.
1993 – David Letterman announces he is moving his television talk show from NBC to CBS.
1993 – Somalia : Operation Condor Ratchet. Six UH-60 Blackhawks from the 10th Mountain Division, carrying Alpha Co. 2nd Battalion, 87th Infantry, Air-Assaults in and surrounds Abu Airfield next to village of Afgoy, Somalia.
1993 – Retreating from a campaign promise, President-elect Clinton said he would continue President Bush’s policy of forcibly returning Haitian boat people to Haiti.
1994 – U.S. President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin sign the Kremlin accords.
1996 – The Pittsburgh Steelers defeated the Indianapolis Colts, 20-to-16, to win the AFC championship. The Dallas Cowboys beat the Green Bay Packers, 38-to-27, to win the NFC championship.
1997 – The House Ethics Committee’s ranking Democrat, Jim McDermott of Washington, removed himself from the investigation of Speaker Newt Gingrich, bowing to pressure concerning his role in the handling of an illegally taped phone call involving the House leader.
1997 – The discovery, in Athens, of the Lyceum where the philosopher Aristotle taught 2,500 years ago was confirmed by Greece’s Minister of Culture. In 335 BC, Aristotle opened a Lyceum to rival the academy. For the next 12 years he organised his lyceum as a center for philosophical speculation and scientific research, particularly in biology and history.
1998 – Iraq begins exporting crude oil under the third phase of the United Nations sponsored “Oil-for-Food” program.
1998 – Researchers in Dallas, Texas present findings about an enzyme that slows aging and cell death (apoptosis).
1998 – Whitewater prosecutors questioned Hillary Rodham Clinton at the White House for 10 minutes about the gathering of FBI background files on past Republican political appointees.
1999 – The impeachment trial of President Clinton began in Washington, DC.
2000 – The Dow Jones industrial average hit a new high when it closed at 11,722.98. Earlier in the session, the Dow had risen to 11,750.98. Both records stood until October 3, 2006.
2000 – David Letterman undergoes quintuple heart bypass surgery.
2001 – The matchup for Super Bowl 35 was decided as the New York Giants shut out the Minnesota Vikings, 41-to-0, to win the NFC championship and the Baltimore Ravens beat the Oakland Raiders, 16-to-3, to gain the AFC title.
2002 – US warplanes began to seal caves near Khost, Afghanistan.
2003 – Twenty thousand workers at US industrial giant General Electric go on strike in 23 states over a GE plan to require workers to pay more for health insurance benefits.
2004 – President Bush proposed a new space program that would send humans back to the moon by 2015 and establish a base to Mars and beyond. Bush said he would seek $12 billion for the initial stages of the plan. He also proposed the retirement of the space shuttle fleet by 2010 along with a $1 billion funding increase for NASA.
2004 – In St. Louis, a Lewis and Clark Exhibition opened at the Missouri History Museum. The exhibit featured 500 rare and priceless objects used by the Corps of Discovery.
2004 – The crew of the Coast Guard Cutter Thetis rescued three shrimp fishermen from the fishing vessel Dona Nelly after they were in the water for 45 minutes after their vessel sank 15 miles off the coast of Brownsville, Texas.
2004 – J.P. Morgan Chase strikes a $58 billion merger deal to buy Bank One to create the second-largest bank in the United States.
2005 – A probe, from the Cassini-Huygens mission, sent back pictures during and after landing on Saturn’s moon Titan. The mission was launched on October 15, 1997.
2005 – U.S. Army reservist, Spec. Charles Graner, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for abusing detainees at Iraq’s infamous Abu Ghraib prison. He said he didn’t regret his actions.
2007 – Saddam Hussein’s half brother and the judge who approved the 1982 killing of 148 Shiite men and boys, were executed by hanging in Baghdad. Saddam was hanged two weeks earlier.
2007 – The US military said five Iranians arrested in northern Iraq last week were connected to an Iranian Revolutionary Guard faction that funds and arms insurgents in Iraq.
2008 – The NASA space probe Messenger skimmed 124 miles above Mercury in the first of three passes before it settles into orbit in 2011. It was the second spacecraft to do so and the first in thirty-three years.
2009 – Steve Jobs takes a six-month medical leave of absence as CEO of Apple Inc.
2009 – U.S. Federal Judge Richard J. Leon orders the release of 21-year-old Guantánamo Bay detainee Muhammad Hamid Al Qarani. In 2002 he was imprisoned at the base.
2011 – Nine-year old Christina-Taylor Green, the youngest victim killed in the January 8th, 2011 Tucson shooting of Gabrielle Giffords, is buried.
2013 – Former President George H. W. Bush is released from The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas, after more than seven weeks of treatment for bronchitis.
2014 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Two students are shot and seriously injured at Berrendo Middle School in Roswell, New Mexico, U.S. A 12-year-old male suspect has been apprehended.
2015 – Thomas Jefferson
Monticello, February 21, 1825
This letter will, to you, be as one from the dead. The writer will be in the grave before you can weigh its counsels. Your affectionate and excellent father has requested that I would address to you something which might possibly have a favorable influence on the course of life you have to run, and I too, as a namesake, feel an interest in that course. Few words will be necessary, with good dispositions on your part. Adore God. Reverence and cherish your parents. Love your neighbor as yourself, and your country more than yourself. Be just. Be true. Murmur not at the ways of Providence. So shall the life into which you have entered, be the portal to one of eternal and ineffable bliss. And if to the dead it is permitted to care for the things of this world, every action of your life will be under my regard. Farewell.
Letter to his son Thomas Jefferson Smith after his death.
1741 – Benedict Arnold. He was a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is best known for plotting to surrender the American fort at West Point, New York, to the British during the American Revolution.
1875 – Albert Schweitzer, He was a Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. He was born in Kaysersberg, Alsace-Lorraine, Germany (now in Haut-Rhin, Alsace, France). 1915 – Mark Goodson, was an accomplished American television producer, specializing in game shows. (d. 1992)
1919 – Andy Rooney is an American radio and television writer. He became most famous as a humorist and commentator with his weekly broadcast A Few Minutes With Andy Rooney, a part of the CBS news program 60 Minutes since 1979.
1924 – Guy Williams, American actor (d. 2002) was an American actor and former male fashion model, who played swashbuckling action heroes in the 1950s and 1960s
*WARREN, JOHN E., JR.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company C, 2d Battalion, (Mechanized), 22d Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, January 14th, 1969. Entered service at: New York, N.Y . Born: 16 November 1946, Brooklyn, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Warren, distinguished himself at the cost of his life while serving as a platoon leader with Company C. While moving through a rubber plantation to reinforce another friendly unit, Company C came under intense fire from a well-fortified enemy force. Disregarding his safety, 1st Lt. Warren with several of his men began maneuvering through the hail of enemy fire toward the hostile positions. When he had come to within six feet of one of the enemy bunkers and was preparing to toss a hand grenade into it, an enemy grenade was suddenly thrown into the middle of his small group. Thinking only of his men, 1st Lt. Warren fell in the direction of the grenade, thus shielding those around him from the blast. His action, performed at the cost of his life, saved three men from serious or mortal injury. First Lt. Warren’s ultimate action of sacrifice to save the lives of his men was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
ANDERSON, EVERETT W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Crosbys Creek, Tenn., January 14th, 1864. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Louisiana. Date of issue: 3 December 1894. Citation: Captured, single-handed, Confederate Brig. Gen. Robert B. Vance during a charge upon the enemy.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company K, 3d Wisconsin Cavalry. Place and date: At, Ark., January 14th, 1865. Entered service at: Little Rock, Ark. Birth: England. Date of issue: 8 March 1865. Citation: Remained at his post after receiving three wounds, and only retired, by his commanding officer’s orders, after being wounded the fourth time.
HOWARD, SQUIRE E.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 8th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Bayou Teche, La., January 14th, 1863. Entered service at: Townshend, Vt. Birth: Jamaica, Vt. Date of issue: 29 January 1894. Citation: Voluntarily carried an important message through the heavy fire of the enemy to bring aid and save the gunboat Calhoun.
PALMER, WILLIAM J.
Rank and organization. Colonel, 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Red Hill, Ala., January 14th, 1865. Entered service at. Philadelphia, Pa. Born. 16 September 1836, Leipsic, Kent County, Del. Date of issue. 24 February 1894. Citation: With less than 200 men, attacked and defeated a superior force of the enemy, capturing their field piece and about 100 prisoners without losing a man.
Blame Somebody Else Day
Make Your Dreams Come True Day
Bluto is a cartoon character created in 1933 by Fleischer Studios for its Popeye the Sailor theatrical animated series. The familiar version of Bluto never appeared in the original Thimble Theater comic strip, although a burly villain named “Bluto the Terrible” appears in a 1933 continuing story in the strip.
Bluto is a large, bearded, musclebound man. He mostly uses his physical brawn to accomplish what he is trying to do, but does display some ability for tactical planning. Neither Popeye and Olive Oyl, nor any other characters, think of him as anything more than a worthless scoundrel, although Olive seems to forget this in the beginning of an episode, only to discover it later. However, there are some cartoons that show Popeye and Bluto as friends and navy buddies, with Bluto usually turning on Popeye when an object of interest (usually Olive) is put between them. A prime example of this is the cartoon “On Our Way to Rio.”Bluto is Popeye’s nemesis; he, like Popeye, is attracted to Olive Oyl, and usually attempts to kidnap her. However, with the help of some spinach, Popeye usually ends up defeating him.
After the theatrical Popeye cartoon series went out of production in 1957, Bluto’s name was changed to Brutus because it was believed that Paramount Pictures, distributors of the Fleischer Studios (later Famous Studios) cartoons, owned the rights to the name “Bluto”. “Brutus” appears in the 1960-1962 Popeye television cartoons, but he is again “Bluto” in the 1978 Hanna-Barbera Popeye series and the 1980 Popeye movie. Brutus was also the name Nintendo used for their arcade game based on the property.
Prior to the name change to Brutus, the bearded strongman was known as “The Big Guy Who Hates Popeye”, “Mean Man” and “Sonny Boy” in the comic strip and comic books. The name “Brutus” was first used on Popeye related products in 1960 and in print in 1962. It is generally accepted that Bluto and Brutus are one and the same. However, Ocean Comics published a one-shot “Popeye” comic book where Bluto and Brutus were twin brothers. Bobby London, who drew the “Popeye” daily strip for six years wrote and illustrated “The Return of Bluto” story where the 1932 version of Bluto returns and discovers a number of fat, bearded bullies have taken his place, calling themselves “Brutus” (each one being a different version of Popeye’s rival).
Bluto was voiced by a number of actors, including Billy Bletcher, Pinto Colvig, and Jackson Beck. Beck also supplied the voice for Brutus in the early 1960s.
Popeye’s foe is almost always Bluto, functioning in some capacity—fellow sailor, generic tough, carny hypnotist, Arab sheik, lecherous instructor, etc. Even when the enemy is not Bluto, there is often still a superficial resemblance in face (cf. the blond, beardless lifeguard in “Beach Peach”) or voice.
Philippians 2:14-15 New International Version (NIV)
14 Do everything without grumbling or arguing, 15 so that you may become blameless and pure, “children of God without fault in a warped and crooked generation.”[a] Then you will shine among them like stars in the sky
“To the philosophical mind, how new and awful an instance do the United States at present exhibit in the political world! They exhibit, sir, the first instance of a people, who, being dissatisfied with their government- unattacked by foreign force, and undisturbed by domestic uneasiness – coolly and deliberately resort to the virtue and good sense of their country, for a correction of their public errors.”
Charles Pinckney, American politician, signer of the United States Constitution, the 37th Governor of South Carolina, a Senator and a member of the House of Representatives.
“If you don’t set a baseline standard for what you’ll accept in life, you’ll find it’s easy to slip into behaviors and attitudes or a quality of life that’s far below what you deserve.”
~ Anthony Robbins
a rascal; rogue; scamp.
“The kid was a down right rapscallion who stole fruit from the stands as he would walk by.”
[Origin: 1690–1700; earlier rascallion, based on rascal]
1128 – Pope Honorius II grants a papal sanction to the military order known as the Knights Templar, declaring it to be an army of God.
1559 – Elizabeth I crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey.
1602 – William Shakespeare’s “The Merry Wives of Windsor” is published.
1605 – The controversial play Eastward Hoe by Ben Jonson, George Chapman, and John Marston is performed, landing two of the authors in prison.
1610 – Galileo Galilei discovers Callisto, 4th moon of Jupiter.
1622 – Work on the printing of the First Folio of William Shakespeare is suspended.
1625 – John Milton is admitted to Christ’s College, Cambridge at the age of 16.
1630 – Patent to Plymouth Colony issued. It is commonly known as the Warwick Patent.
1733 – James Oglethorpe and 130 colonists arrive in Charleston, South Carolina.
1776 – British forces raid Prudence Island, Rhode Island, in an effort to steal a large quantity of sheep. The British were ambushed by fifteen Minutemen from Rhode Island’s Second Company led by Captain Joseph Knight, who had been tipped off to the Brits’ plans.
1785 – John Walter publishes first issue of the Daily Universal Register (later renamed The Times).
1794 – U.S. President Washington approved a measure adding two stars and two stripes to the American flag, following the admission of Vermont and Kentucky to the union.
1830 – Great fire of New Orleans, Louisiana begins. It was thought to be set by rebel slaves.
1832 – President Andrew Jackson writes Vice President Martin Van Buren expressing his opposition to South Carolina’s defiance of federal authority in the Nullification Crisis.
1838 – Canadian rebels surrender their arms to US militamen along the Canadian frontier.
1840 – The steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast of Long Island with the loss of 139 lives.
1842 – On this day Dr.William Brydon, a surgeon in the British Army during the First Anglo-Afghan War, became famous for being the sole survivor of an army of 16,500 when he reached the safety of a garrison in Jalalabad.
1846 – Mexican War: President James Polk dispatched General Zachary Taylor and 4,000 troops to the Texas Border as war with Mexico escalated.
1847 – The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the Mexican-American War in California.
1854 – First U.S. patent for an accordion was issued to Anthony Faas of Philadelphia. PA.
1862 – President Lincoln named Edwin M. Stanton Secretary of War for the Civil War.
1862 – Civil War: The Federal army fitted out a steamer with five guns and made a descent upon the Cedar Keys.
1863 – Thomas Crapper pioneers one-piece pedestal flushing toilet.
1864 – Composer Stephen Foster (“My Old Kentucky Home“) died in a New York hospital, three days after he was found sick and almost penniless in a hotel room.
1865 – CIVIL WAR: Union fleet bombed Fort Fisher, NC.
1869 – National convention of black leaders meets in Washington D.C..
1874 – Battle between jobless and police in New York City left hundreds injured.
1888 – National Geographic Society founded in Washington, DC.
1893 – US Marines land in Honolulu from the U.S.S. Boston to prevent the queen from abrogating the Bayonet Constitution.
1898 – Emile Zola publishes his open letter (J’accuse) in defense of Captain Alfred Dreyfus
1906 – Hugh Gernsback, of the Electro Importing Company, advertised radio receivers for sale for the price of just $7.50 in “Scientific American” magazine.
1906 – The Golden Gate Hotel opened on Fremont Street in Las Vegas, Nev..
1910 – Opera was broadcast on the radio for the first time — Enrico Caruso singing from the stage of New York’s Metropolitan Opera House.
1919 – California voted to ratify the Prohibition amendment (18th).
1920 – In an editorial-page feature, the New York Times ridiculed rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard for believing a rocket could operate in a vacuum. They apologized in 1969.
1928 – Ernst F. W. Alexanderson gave the first public demonstration of television. The television sets are installed in three homes in Schenectady, New York. RCA and General Electric installed the sets, which displayed a 1.5-inch-square picture.
1929 – Nearly 50 years after the famous gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Wyatt Earp dies quietly in Los Angeles at the age of 80.
1930 – Mickey Mouse comic strip makes its first appearance.
1931 – The bridge connecting New York and New Jersey was named the George Washington Memorial Bridge.
1933 – Babe (Mildred) Didrikson made her first appearance in professional basketball as the Brooklyn Yankees defeated the Long Island Ducklings.
1937 – The United States bars US citizens from serving in the Spanish Civil War.
1937 – The first shipment of gold is received at the Fort Knox Bullion Depository, the nation’s official gold vault.
1938 – Singer Allan Jones recorded “The Donkey Serenade ” for Victor Records. The song became the one most often associated with the singer.
1938 – Church of England accepts theory of evolution.
1939 – Arthur “Doc” Barker is killed while trying to escape from Alcatraz Prison in San Francisco Bay.
1940 – Earl ‘Fatha’ Hines recorded “Boogie Woogie on St. Louis Blues.”
1941 – The four Modernaires joined to sing with the Glenn Miller Band on a permanent basis beginning this day. They had a ‘solo’ hit in 1946 with “To Each His Own“.
1942 – Henry Ford patents a plastic automobile, which is 30% lighter than a regular car.
1942 – The United States begins Japanese-American internment.
1942 – World War II: German U-Boats begin operations of the US East Coast.
1943 – World War II: US forces on Guadalcanal further develop their offensive, advancing westward along the north coast as well as attacking parallel to this advance further inland.
1945 – World War II: Near the Philippines the escort carrier Salamaua is badly damaged in a Kamikaze attack. These are now becoming rare, however, because most of the Kamikaze aircraft have been lost and the rest withdrawn.
1945 – World War II: In the Ardennes, units of the US First Army and the British XXX Corps from the west reach the Ourthe River between Laroche and Houffalize.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Buttons and Bows” by Dinah Shore, “On a Slow Boat to China” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Harry Babbitt & Gloria Wood), “A Little Bird Told Me“ by Evelyn Knight and “Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Ten Okinawa-based Superfortresses dropped 396 high explosive 500-pound bombs on the railroad bridge east of Sinanju across the Chongchong River, rendering the bridge unserviceable.
1955 – Chase National and the Bank of Manhattan agreed to merge, resulting in the second largest U.S. bank.
1957 – Wham-O began producing “Pluto Platters.” This marked the true beginning of production of the flying disc.
1957 – Elvis recorded “All Shook Up” and “That’s When Your Heartaches Begin.”
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Singing the Blues” by Guy Mitchell, “The Banana Boat Song” by The Tarriers, “Moonlight Gambler” by Frankie Laine and “Singing the Blues” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1958 – Elvis Presley arrives in California to begin pre-production on his fourth movie, “King Creole“. The movie, many consider to be his best, was adapted from the popular Harold Robins novel ‘A Stone For Danny Fisher’ and originally intended for James Dean.
1961 – Golfing great Arnold Palmer scored an embarrassing 12 strokes on one hole in the first round of the Los Angeles Open golf tournament.
1962 – Chubby Checker’s hit “The Twist” becomes the first song to reach the No. 1 spot twice in two years.
1962 – Ernie Kovacs died in a car crash in west Los Angeles, CA. After a light southern California rainstorm, Kovacs lost control of his Chevrolet Corvair station wagon while turning fast, and crashed into a power pole at the corner of Beverly Glen and Santa Monica Boulevards. He was thrown halfway out the passenger side, dying almost instantly from chest and head injuries.
1962 – Vietnam: In the first Farm Gate combat missions, T-28 fighter-bombers are flown in support of a South Vietnamese outpost under Viet Cong attack.
1964 – Capitol Records released the Beatles’ first single in the USA; “I Wanna Hold Your Hand” sold one million copies in the first three weeks.
1965 – Vietnam: Two U.S. planes were shot down in Laos while on a combat mission.
1966 – Robert C. Weaver becomes the first Black Cabinet member by being appointed United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
1966 – Elizabeth Montgomery’s character, Samantha, on “Bewitched,” had a baby. The baby’s name was Tabitha.
1968 – Johnny Cash records his landmark album “At Folsom Prison” (1:15:58) live at Folsom State Prison.
1968 – “Hello, Goodbye” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1968 – Dr. K.C. Pollack of the University of Florida audio lab reported that tests found that the noise levels at rock & roll concerts was harmful to teenage ears.
1969 – Beatles release “Yellow Submarine” album. (45:44)
1972 – Bernice Gera wins her lawsuit against professional baseball. Gera made baseball history as the first female umpire in the sport. Barred by minor league baseball for five years, Gera won a landmark lawsuit allowing her to work as an umpire.
1973 – Carly Simon’s No Secrets was the #1 album in the U.S. for the first of five weeks.
1974 – Super Bowl VIII (2:08:44) was played between the Miami Dolphins and the Minnesota Vikings. The Dolphins were the winners and the final score was 24-7.The head coaches were Don Shula for Miami and Bud Grant for Minnesota. The game was played at Rice Stadium in Houston, TX before 71,882 fans and the MVP was Larry Czonska, running back for the Dolphins. The Referee was Ben Dreith. Face Value Tickets cost $15.00.
1976 – Sarah Caldwell became the first woman to conduct at New York’s Metropolitan Opera House as she led a performance of “La Traviata.”
1979 – The Village People are sued for libel by the Young Men’s Christian Association over their single “YMCA.” The suit is later dropped.
1979 – “Too Much Heaven” by Bee Gees topped the charts.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Just Like) Starting Over” by John Lennon, “Love on the Rocks” by Neil Diamond, “Hungry Heart” by Bruce Springsteen and “I Think I’ll Just Stay Here and Drink” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1982 – Shortly after takeoff, Air Florida Flight 90 737 jet crashes into Washington, DC’s 14th Street Bridge and falls into the Potomac River, killing 78 including four motorists. In a freaky coincidence, a Washington DC Metro Rail train derailed, killing 3 people.
1984 – Wayne Gretzky extended his NHL consecutive scoring streak to 45 games.
1986 – The NCAA adopted the controversial “Proposal 48”, which set standards for Division 1 freshman eligibility.
1986 – “The Wall Street Journal” printed a real picture on its front page. The journal had not done this in nearly 10 years. The story was about artist, O. Winston Link and featured one of his works.
1988 – The US Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that public school officials had broad powers to censor school newspapers, school plays and other “school-sponsored expressive activities.”
1989 – Bernhard H. Goetz was sentenced to one year in prison for possession of an unlicensed gun that he used to shoot four youths he claimed were about to rob him. He was freed the following September.
1990 – “Another Day in Paradise” by Phil Collins topped the charts.
1990 – L. Douglas Wilder becomes the first elected African-American governor as he takes office in Richmond, Virginia.
1992 – Japan apologizes for forcing Korean women into sexual slavery during World War II.
1993 – The Space Shuttle Endeavor blasted off from Cape Canaveral.
1993 – Somalia: Marine Pvt. 1st Class Domingo Arroyo became the first U.S. serviceman to be killed in Somalia.
1995 – The Johnson Grove Baptist Church in Bells, Tenn., burned down as did the Macedonia Baptist Church in Denmark, Tenn. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – U.S. President Bill Clinton awarded the Medal of Honor to seven black soldiers for their courage in action in Italy during World War II. It was the first time the medal was given to black WWII servicemen. The lone survivor, former Lt. Vernon Baker, received his medal at the White House.
1997 – Debbie Reynolds received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
1997 – Supreme Court justices aggressively questioned both sides in a battle over whether a sexual-harassment lawsuit should be allowed to proceed against President Clinton while he was in office. The following May, the justices ruled unanimously that it could.
1998 – NBC agreed to pay almost $13 million for each episode of the TV show E.R. It was the highest amount ever paid for a TV show.
1998 – ABC and ESPN negotiated to keep “Monday Night Football” for $1.15 billion a season.
1998 – Three robbers stole $1.17 million at the World Trade Center in New York city from guards delivering money to a currency exchange center.
1999 – Michael Jordan (Chicago Bulls) announced his retirement from the NBA.
1999 – 60 Minutes II premiered on TV.
1999 – President Clinton’s legal team dispatched a formal trial brief to the Senate, arguing that neither “fact or law” warranted his removal from office; House officials sent the Senate all public evidence in the case.
2000 – Microsoft chairman Bill Gates stepped aside as chief executive and promoted company president Steve Ballmer to the position.
2001 – In Utah a small plane crashed into the Great Salt Lake and all nine people aboard were killed.
2002 – U.S. President George W. Bush fainted after choking on a pretzel.
2002 – The off-Broadway musical “The Fantasticks” was performed for the last time, ending a run of nearly 42 years and 17,162 shows.
2002 – Treasury Secretary Paul O’Neill and Commerce Secretary Don Evans said on talk shows they had never considered intervening in Enron’s spiral toward bankruptcy, nor informed President Bush of requests for help from the fallen energy giant.
2002 – Christian Michael Longo (27), wanted on charges of killing his wife and three children in 2001 and dumping their bodies into coastal waters off Oregon, was arrested in Mexico.
2003 – US warplanes struck an anti-ship missile launcher in southern Iraq. US planes also dropped leaflets over An Najaf, about 85 miles southeast of Baghdad. It was the 14th drop in 3 months.
2003 – The owners of FAO Schwarz filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
2004 – The US Supreme Court endorsed the use of police road blocks as an investigational tool for finding witnesses to recent crimes.
2004 – In Maryland a fiery explosion killed five on the northbound lanes of Interstate 95. A tanker carrying flammable material plunged off an overpass on Interstate 895, landing in the northbound lane of I-95.
2004 – Joe Darby, a US soldier at Abu Ghraib prison, reported US abuses of Iraqi prisoners. Criminal charges were lodged against six soldiers on Mar 20.
2005 – US baseball owners and players agreed to a more stringent drug policy. It would suspend first-time offenders for 10 days and randomly tested players year-round.
2005- A Black Hawk helicopter crashed during a counternarcotics mission in the jungles of southwest Colombia, killing all 20 soldiers aboard.
2006 – NBC’s Nashville affiliate closed “The Book of Daniel” after the show, whose main character is a pill-popping Episcopal priest with a gay son and a pot-dealing daughter, drew thousands of complaints.
2006 – The post-Katrina population of New Orleans was estimated at 40% of its original 460,000.
2006 – Augustine Volcano in Alaska has erupted five times in the past three days, the first eruptions in nearly two decades. The island is uninhabited.
2006 – Tyco International announces that it will split itself into three companies, spinning off Tyco Healthcare and Tyco Electronics.
2007 – The North Carolina state attorney general’s office agreed to take over the sexual assault case against three Duke University lacrosse players at the request of embattled Durham County District Attorney Mike Nifong. All three players were later exonerated.
2007 – Ten former members of the Nazi SS are sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment for their role in the Marzabotto massacre, the worst massacre in Italy during World War II.
2007 – In McDowell County, W.Va., 2 miners were killed when a roof collapsed inside the Brooks Run Mining Company’s Cucumber coal mine.
2008 – New York Times reported that at least 121 Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans have committed a killing or been charged in one in the US after returning from combat.
2008 – University of Minnesota research team announced it had created a beating heart from animal tissues and cells.
2009 – The Pentagon said that sixty-one former detainees from its military prison camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, appear to have returned to terrorism since their release from custody.
2009 – The city of Los Angeles, plagued by 23,000 violent gang crimes since the year 2004, including 784 murders and 12,000 felony assaults, announced that it had won its first civil judgment, for $5 million, against a criminal gang that had dominated the heroin trade downtown for decades.
2010 – In the San Francisco Bay Area aspiring bass player Dewey Tucker (24) of Vallejo, Ca., was shot a killed on I-80 near Crockett. A year later four suspected gang members from Santa Rosa were arrested for his murder.
2011 – United States banks foreclose on a record one million mortgages in 2010.
2011 – Major credit rating agencies Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s warn the U.S. that its increasing national debt may lead to a lowering of the nation’s credit rating.
2012 – Lions Gate Entertainment, the largest independent studio in the United States, purchases Summit Entertainment for US$412.5 million.
2013 – NASA announces new data effectively rules out a 2036 Earth impact for the near-Earth asteroid 99942 Apophis.
2014 – Curtis Reeves, a retired police officer shot and killed a middle-aged father during a 1:20 p.m. showing of “Lone Survivor” at a Wesley Chapel, Florida, movie theater. The shooting escalated from an objection to cell phone use.
1628 – Charles Perrault, lawyer, writer (Mother Goose), was born in France.
1808 – Salmon P. Chase, was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States.
1832 – Horatio Alger, Jr., American minister and author (d. 1899)
1884 – Sophie Tucker, Russian-born singer and American vaudeville singer and comedian.
1885 – Alfred Fuller, American businessman, Fuller,a man of African descent. He started the Fuller Brush Company in Hartford, Connecticut.
1919 – Robert Stack, American actor (d. 2003) was an American stage and movie actor.
1934 – Rip Taylor, is an American actor and comedian known as “The Crying Comic”.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 3d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Elkhorn Creek, Wyo., January 13th, 1877. Entered service at:——. Birth: Reading, Mass. Date of issue: 15 May 1890. Citation. While scouting with four men and attacked in ambush by fourteen hostile Indians, held his ground, two of his men being wounded, and kept up the fight until himself wounded in the side, and then went to the assistance of his wounded comrades.
STEVENS, DANIEL D.
Rank and organization. Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Sagnange, Tenn. Accredited to: Massachusetts. Letter 15 July 1870, Secretary of the Navy to Hon. S. Hooper. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Canonicus during attacks on Fort Fisher, on January 13th,1865. As the Canonicus moved into position at 700 yards from shore, the enemy troops soon obtained her range and opened with heavy artillery fire, subjecting her to several hits and near misses until late in the afternoon when the heavier ships coming into line drove them into their bombproofs. Twice during the battle, in which his ship sustained 36 hits, the flag was shot away and gallantly replaced by Stevens.
National Pharmacist Day
Feast of Fabulous Wild Men
International Kiss-A-Ginger Day
(Watch out Redheads)
Popeye Character: Olive Oyl
Olive Oyl is a cartoon character created by Elzie Crisler Segar for his comic strip Thimble Theater.
Thimble Theater later became Popeye after the sailor character who became the most popular member of the comic strip’s cast. Olive Oyl was a character in the strip for years before the first appearance of Popeye.
The version of Olive Oyl most widely familiar is the version from the theatrical animated cartoons, first created by Fleischer Studios, and then produced by Paramount Pictures. Unlike most modern damsels in distress, Olive Oyl has short hair, is tall, skinny and not particularly attractive. In the films and later television cartoons, Olive Oyl is Popeye’s girlfriend. She constantly gets kidnapped by Bluto (aka Brutus) who is Popeye’s rival for her affections but Popeye always rescues her.
Though Popeye and Bluto both were infatuated with her, Olive wasn’t exactly a particularly attractive individual at times, both physically and personality-wise, as she would be extremely fickle depending on who could woo her the best, who had the flashier possessions, and was prone to get angry over the tiniest things. Yet she always ended up with Popeye at the end, showing that his good nature would always get the ladies’ attention.
In the cartoons, she has a baby named Swee’Pea; it is not made clear if Swee’Pea is Olive Oyl’s own son or an adopted foundling. In the comics, Swee’Pea is a foundling under Popeye’s care.
The voice for Olive Oyl was created by character actress Mae Questel (who also voiced Betty Boop and other characters); Questel styled Olive Oyl’s voice after that of actress ZaSu Pitts; though the first two Popeye cartoons (Popeye The Sailor and I Yam What I Yam) featured Bonnie Poe as the voice of Olive Oyl. In 1938, Margie Hines took over as the voice of Olive Oyl, starting with the cartoon “Bulldozing the Bull”. Questel returned as the voice of Olive Oyl in 1944, starting with the cartoon The Anvil Chorus Girl.
Olive Oyl is named after olive oil, a common cooking ingredient in Italian and Mediterranean dishes. Segar’s newspaper strips also featured a number of her relatives named after other oils, including her brother Castor Oyl, their mother Nana Oyl (after “banana oil”, a mild slang phrase of the time used in the same way as “horsefeathers”, i.e. “nonsense” ), their father, Cole Oyl, and more recently, Olive’s niece, Diesel Oyl (a pun on diesel oil).
Galatians 6:6-8 New International Version (NIV)
6 Nevertheless, the one who receives instruction in the word should share all good things with their instructor.
7 Do not be deceived: God cannot be mocked. A man reaps what he sows.8 Whoever sows to please their flesh, from the flesh will reap destruction;whoever sows to please the Spirit, from the Spirit will reap eternal life.
“The science of government is my duty to study, more than all other sciences; the arts of legislation and administration and negotiation ought to take the place of, indeed exclude, in a manner, all other arts. I must study politics and war, that my sons may have liberty to study mathematics and philosophy. My sons ought to study mathematics and philosophy, geography, natural history and naval architecture, navigation, commerce, and agriculture in order to give their children the right to study painting, poetry, music, architecture, statuary, tapestry and porcelain.”
“Any society that would give up a little liberty to gain a little security will deserve neither and lose both.”
~ Benjamin Franklin
A roll of fat that bulges over the waistband of trousers that are too tight or too low. Appears to be a good replacement for “spare tire.”
49 BC – Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon River signaling a war between Rome and Gaul.
1592 – Titus Andronicus first staged at the Rose Theatre. Shakespeare’s earliest tragedy, it depicts a fictional Roman general engaged in a cycle of revenge with his enemy Tamora, the Queen of the Goths. The play is by far Shakespeare’s bloodiest, taking its inspiration from the Senecan Tragedy of Ancient Rome, the gory theatre that was played to bloodthirsty circus audiences between gladitorial combats.
1493 – This was the last day for all Jews to leave Sicily.
1773 – The first public Colonial American museum opens in Charleston, South Carolina.
1776 – Thomas Paine published “Common Sense,” a scathing attack on King George III’s reign over the colonies and a call for complete independence.
1777 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís, a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order, is founded in what is now called Santa Clara, California.
1819 – Congress fails to endorse a report sponsored by Senator Henry Clay, condemning Andrew Jackson for his conduct in the First Seminole War in Florida.
1828 – The US and Mexico agree to a common border along the Sabine River. The river runs south from River Hill, TX to Port Arthur, TX.
1838 – In order to avoid prosecution under laws banning polygamy, Joseph Smith, Jr. and his followers leave Ohio for Missouri.
1863 – President Davis delivered his “State of Confederacy” address.
1865 – General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick is promoted to major general in the Union army.
1866 – Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London.
1870 – John D. Rockefeller incorporated Standard Oil.
1888 – “Schoolchildren’s Blizzard” kills 235 people, many of whom were children on their way home from school, across the Northwest Plains (Montana through the Dakotas) region of the United States. The storm came with no warning, and some accounts say that the temperature fell nearly 100 degrees in just 24 hours.
1895 – The first performance of King Arthur took place at the Lyceum Theatre.
1896 – First X-ray photo in US (Dr Henry Smith, Davidson, North Carolina)
1900 – The Detroit Automobile Company finished its first commercial vehicle, a delivery wagon. The wagon was designed by a young engineer named Henry Ford.
1901 – The Texas oil boom started in Beaumont.
1904 – Racing driver Barney Oldfield set a new speed record in a stripped-down Ford automobile. Driving across the frozen surface of Lake St. Clair, he reached a top speed of 91.37mph.
1906 – The Dow Jones Average closed at just over 100 (100.25)
1908 – A long-distance radio message is sent from the Eiffel Tower for the first time.
1915 – The Rocky Mountain National Park is formed located in the north-central region of Colorado by an act of U.S. Congress.
1915 – United States House of Representatives rejects proposal to give women the right to vote.
1918 – The Distinguished Service Cross was established by President Woodrow Wilson.
1920 – The League of Nations was established as the Covenant of the League of Nations/Treaty of Versailles went into effect and had its first meeting in Geneva.
1920 – Minor league baseball draft approved
1923 – Four years after the end of World War I, President Warren G. Harding ordered U.S. occupation troops stationed in Germany to return home.
1926 – Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll premiere their radio program “Sam ‘n’ Henry”, a precursor to Amos ‘n’ Andy; possibly the first situation comedy. It debuted on Chicago’s WGN radio station. Two years later it changed its name to “Amos ‘n’ Andy,”
1932 – Hattie W. Caraway becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate.
1932 – Ed Sullivan joined CBS radio in a program of gossip and interviews.
1932 – Oliver Wendell Holmes quit the Supreme Court at age 90.
1937 – The first U.S. patent for a submarine cable plow was issued. It was designed to feed a cable at the same time that it would dig a trench in the ocean bed. The device could be used at depths up to a half mile.
1939 – The Ink Spots gained national attention after five years together, as they recorded “If I Didn’t Care“, Decca record number 2286.
1940 – World War II: Russia bombs cities in Finland.
1942 – President Franklin Roosevelt creates the National War Labor Board.
1942 – The first U.S. Medal of Honor during World War II, Alexander R. “Sandy” Nininger, Jr.
1943 – U.S. wartime Office of Price Administration said standard frankfurters would be replaced during World War II by “Victory Sausages” consisting of a mixture of meat and soy meal.
1944 – World War II: US 5th Army forces (particularly 34th Division) capture Cervaro and advance toward Cassino.
1945 – World War II: The Soviets begin a large offensive in Eastern Europe against the Nazis.
1945 – There are air attacks from the planes of the carriers of Task Force 38 against Japanese installations at the naval base at Camranh Bay and others areas in Indochina.
1946 – NFL champs Cleveland Rams given permission to move to Los Angeles.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “Civilization” by The Louis Prima Orchestra, “I’ll Dance at Your Wedding” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race. (Sipuel v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents)
1949 – “Arthur Godfrey & His Friends” premieres on CBS TV.
1949 – The Chicago-based children’s show, “Kukla, Fran and Ollie“, made its national debut on NBC-TV. Fran Allison was hostess.
1949 – Vinyl records were launched by RCA (45 rpm) and Columbia (33.3 rpm).
1951 – Korean War : After Wonju fell to communist forces, 98th BG sent ten B-29s to attack the occupied city.
1952 – Korean War: F-84s caught three supply trains at Sunchon, racing for the shelter of a tunnel. They blasted the tunnel mouth shut, trapping the trains in the open, then destroyed the boxcars and at least two locomotives.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Memories are Made of This” by Dean Martin, “The Great Pretender” by The Platters, “Lisbon Antigua” by Nelson Riddle and “Sixteen Tons” by Tennessee Ernie Ford all topped the charts.
1958 – NCAA adds two-point conversion to football scoring.
1958 – Syracuse National Dolph Schayes sets NBA record at 11,770 points. He was a member of the 1955 NBA champion Syracuse Nationals and a 12-time All-Star.
1959 – Berry Gordy borrowed $800 to found the Motown record empire.
1960 – Syracuse National Dolph Schayes is first NBA’er to score 15,000 points.
1960 – The San Francisco Chronicle learned that jazz musician Dave Brubeck had lost $40,000 in bookings on a month-long Southern tour by his quartet because the group included black bass player Eugene Wright. Brubeck refused to drop Wright from his group.
1962 – Vietnam War: Operation Chopper, the first American combat mission in the war, takes place.
1962 – Vietnam: Flying C-123 Providers, U.S. personnel dumped an estimated 19 million gallons of defoliating herbicides over 10-20 percent of Vietnam and parts of Laos between 1962-1971. Agent Orange – named for the color of its metal containers – was the most frequently used defoliating herbicide.
1963 – “Go Away Little Girl” by Steve Lawrence topped the charts.
1963 – In Nashville, TN, a raging fire gutted the luxurious home of popular songstress Brenda Lee which resulted in slight injuries to Brenda when she tried in vain to save her famous poodle, Cee Cee, from the soaring flames and smoke. The fire, which was attributed to a faulty electrical wiring with a household appliance, swept the nine-room home, valued at $37,000, leaving all but a single bedroom in total ruin.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “There! I’ve Said It Again” by Bobby Vinton, “Louie Louie” by The Kingsmen, “Popsicles and Icicles” by The Murmaids and “Love’s Gonna Live Here” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – “Hullabaloo“ premiered on NBC TV.
1966 – President Lyndon B. Johnson states that the United States should stay in South Vietnam until Communist aggression there is ended.
1966 – “Batman” (25:06), the TV series, debuts on ABC. The title of this first episode was “Hi Diddle Riddle”. Adam West starred as Batman and Burt Ward was the Bat-Boy.
1966 – Red Auerbach wins his 1,000th game as coach of NBA Boston Celtics.
1967 – Dr. James Bedford becomes the first person to be cryonically preserved with intent of future resuscitation.
1967 – “Dragnet” returned to NBC-TV after being off the network schedule for eight years.
1969 – Led Zeppelin’s debut album released.
1969 – Super Bowl III (2:13:58) was played between the New York Jets and the Baltimore Colts. The Jets were the winner and the final score was 16-7. The head coaches were Weeb Ewbank for NY and Don Shula for the Colts. It was played in the Orange Bowl in Miami, FL before 79,384 fans and the MVP was Joe Namath, Quarterback for the Jets. The Referee was Tom Bell (NFL). Face Value Tickets were $12.00. This game is considered to be one of the greatest upsets in sports history.
1971 – “Masterpiece Theatre” premiered on PBS with host Alistair Cooke introducing a drama series, “The First Churchills.”
1971 – “All in the Family” debuts on CBS.
1971 – Harrisburg Six: The Reverend Philip Berrigan and five others are indicted on charges of conspiring to kidnap Henry Kissinger and of plotting to blow up the heating tunnels of federal buildings in Washington, DC.
1975 – Super Bowl IX (2:02:07) was played between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Minnesota Vikings. The Steelers were the winners and the final score was 16 – 6. The head coaches were Chuck Noll for Pittsburgh and Bud Grant for Minnesota. It was played at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, LA before 80,997 and the MVP was Franco Harris, running back for the Steelers. The Referee was Bernie Ulman. The Face Value Tickets were $20.00.
1975 – Chrysler Corporation offers first car rebates. The Big Three automakers faced soaring stocks of vehicles on dealer lots, due in part to consumer reluctance in the wake of the 1973-74 fuel crisis. Rebates were considered a short-term solution to “temporary” inventory excess.
1976 – UN Security Council votes 11-1 to allow the Palestinian Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate (without voting rights).
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Escape (The Pina Colada Song)” by Rupert Holmes, “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do That To Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille and “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers all topped the charts.
1984 – The United States and the Vatican established full diplomatic relations for the first time in 117 years.
1985 – Bruce Springsteen’s “Born In the USA” topped the charts.
1985 – “Like a Virgin” by Madonna topped the charts.
1986 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61-C mission – Space Shuttle Columbia takes-off with the first American- Hispanic astronaut, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz. It was the last successful mission before STS-51-L. It also carried Congressman Bill Nelson as a Mission Specialist.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “So Emotional” by Whitney Houston, “Got My Mind Set on You” by George Harrison, “The Way You Make Me Feel’ by Michael Jackson and “I Can’t Get Close Enough” by Exile all topped the charts.
1988 – Willie Stargell, a 21-year slugger with the Pittsburgh Pirates, was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, N.Y., in his first year of eligibility.
1990 – Astronauts aboard the space shuttle Columbia retrieved an 11-ton floating science laboratory in a rescue mission that kept the satellite from plunging to Earth.
1990 – Civil Rights activist, The Rev. Al Sharpton was stabbed in the chest as he prepared to lead a protest demonstration through the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn with the parents of Yusuf K. Hawkins, the black youth slain there by a white mob 17 months ago.
1991 – Persian Gulf War: An act of the U.S. Congress authorizes the use of military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.
1995 – Malcolm X’s daughter, Qubilah Shabazz, is arrested for conspiring to kill Louis Farrakhan.
1997 – HAL becomes operational (2001: A Space Odyssey); this date was given as January 12, 1992 on screen, but 1997 is the date used in both the novel and screenplay. The name HAL comes from taking one letter each from IBM (I-1=H, B-1=A and M-1=L)
1997 – Two recently enrolled female cadets at The Citadel announced they were not returning for the spring semester, citing harassment by male cadets.
1997 – The Green Bay Packers defeated the Carolina Panthers, 30-13, to win the NFC Championship, while the New England Patriots beat the Jacksonville Jaguars 20-6 to claim the AFC Championship.
1997 – The Atlantis space shuttle went up for a rendezvous with the MIR space station. Jerry Linenger, physician, was to replace astronaut Jim [John] Blaha.
1998 – The music groups Santana, the Eagles, Fleetwood Mac, the Mamas and the Papas were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
1998 – Nineteen European nations agree to forbid human cloning.
1998 – Linda Tripp provided Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr’s office with taped conversations between herself and former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.
1998 – CBS signed a $4 billion eight-year deal to televise American Football Conference games on Sunday afternoons; Fox signed a $4.4 billion eight-year contract to continue showing National Football Conference games on Sunday afternoons.
1999 – The Supreme Court limited state regulation of voter initiatives, striking down several methods used by Colorado to police such measures.
2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-4 ruling, gave police broad authority to stop and question people who run at the sight of an officer.
2000 – Charlotte Hornets guard Bobby Phills was killed in a crash during a drag race.
2000 – US Attorney General Janet Reno said that the Florida court order granting temporary custody of Elian Gonzalez to his great uncle had no force or effect on the INS decision that the boy should be returned to his father in Cuba.
2001 – American Airlines agreed to buy Trans World Airlines and, in a separate transaction, revealed plans to acquire 20% of US Airways.
2002 – The United States intensified its anti-terror campaign in eastern Afghanistan, dropping bombs on suspected al-Qaida and Taliban hideouts.
2004 – The US Supreme Court refused to hear on appeal by civil liberties groups seeking access to basic data of individuals detained indefinitely by the government after the Sep. 11, 2001, attacks.
2004 – It was reported that a new US Homeland Security program planned to screen airline passengers according to a color code based on computerized data.
2005 – Deep Impact (space mission) launches from Cape Canaveral by a Delta 2 rocket. The spacecraft was planned to impact on Comet Tempel 1 after a six-month, 268 million-mile journey.
2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that federal sentencing guidelines enacted 2 decades ago are unconstitutional. The decision was not retroactive.
2006 – The foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, France, and Germany declare that negotiations with Iran over its nuclear program have reached a dead end and recommend that Iran be referred to the United Nations Security Council.
2006 – Turkey releases Mehmet Ali Ağca from jail after serving 25 years for shooting Pope John Paul II.
2006 – The U.S. Mint began shipping new 5-cent coins to the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks. The coin has an image of Thomas Jefferson taken from a 1800 Rembrandt Peale portrait in which the president is looking forward. Since 1909, when presidents were first depicted on circulating coins, all presidents had been shown in profile.
2006 – Nikon announced that it would no longer make most film cameras. A week later Minolta said it was quitting the camera business.
2008 – America formally opened its new $174 million base at the South Pole. It took almost 20 years to design and build.
2008 – Gunmen smashed windows, burned buses and looted computers belonging to a private American school in Gaza before dawn, an attack officials believed was linked to President Bush’s visit to the West Bank earlier this week.
2009 – Minnesota officials said lab tests had confirmed salmonella bacteria in a five pound container of King Nut brand peanut butter. King Nut of Solon, Ohio, had recalled the product on January 10. At least six people had been killed and over 470 sickened nationwide in 43 states.
2010 – Google threatened to end its operations in China after it discovered that the e-mail accounts of human rights activists had been breached.
2012 – An Alabama judge rules Natalee Holloway legally dead more than six years after the teenager vanished on the Caribbean island of Aruba. She disappeared on a high school graduation trip May 30, 2005. Her body has never been found.
2012 – The U.S. budget deficit hit $86 billion in December, higher than the $78 billion from the same month in 2010, the Treasury Department said. Economists forecast the gap to hit $81 billion.
2013 – The NHL Players’ Association agrees to ratify a new contract reached with the league. NHL training camps are scheduled to open on January 13, with a shortened 48-game regular season to begin on January 19.
2015 – First ever National Collegiate football Championship is played between the #3 Oregon Ducks and the #5 Ohio State Buckeyes. Oregon was 13-2 for the season and Ohio was 14-1. The final score was 42-20 for Ohio. Head Coaches were Mark Helrich for Oregon and Urban Meier for Ohio. MVP’s were #15 RB Ezekiel Elliott, Ohio State for offense and #23 S Tyvis Powell, Ohio State for defense. It was played in the AT&T Stadium, Arlington, TX.
2015 – Crude oil fell below $46 a barrel for the first time since March 2009.
2016 – Internet Explorer 8, 9 and 10 Finally Die today. It’s been a long time coming but, as of today, Microsoft will no longer support Internet Explorer 8, 9 or 10. Rest in peace, IE.
1628 – Charles Perrault, French folklorist (d. 1703) He was a French author who laid foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale.
1729 – Edmund Burke was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher. He is chiefly remembered for his support of the American colonies in the struggle against King George III. “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”; died July 9, 1797)
1737 – John Hancock, American statesman (d. 1793) was President of the Second Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation
1864 – George Washington Carver, American chemist, agronomist.
1876 – Jack London, American author (d. 1916).
1923 – Ira Hayes, U.S. Marine (d. 1955) was a full blood Akimel O’odham, or Pima Indian, and an enrolled member of the Gila River Indian Community. A survivor of World War II’s Battle of Iwo Jima, Hayes was trained as a Paramarine in the United States Marine Corps (USMC), and became one of five Marines, along with a US Navy corpsman, immortalized in the iconic photograph of the flag raising on Iwo Jima.
1944 – Joe Frazier, American boxer is a former world heavyweight boxing champion
1951 – Rush Limbaugh, American radio personality.
*PORT, WILLIAM D.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company C, 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Air Cavalry Division. Place and date: Que Son Valley, Heip Duc Province, Republic of Vietnam, January 12th, 1968. Entered service at: Harrisburg, Pa. Born: 13 October 1941, Petersburg, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Port distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman with Company C, which was conducting combat operations against an enemy force in the Que Son Valley. As Sgt. Port’s platoon was moving to cut off a reported movement of enemy soldiers, the platoon came under heavy fire from an entrenched enemy force. The platoon was forced to withdraw due to the intensity and ferocity of the fire. Although wounded in the hand as the withdrawal began, Sgt. Port, with complete disregard for his safety, ran through the heavy fire to assist a wounded comrade back to the safety of the platoon perimeter. As the enemy forces assaulted in the perimeter, Sgt. Port and three comrades were in position behind an embankment when an enemy grenade landed in their midst. Sgt. Port, realizing the danger to his fellow soldiers, shouted the warning, “Grenade,” and unhesitatingly hurled himself towards the grenade to shield his comrades from the explosion. Through his exemplary courage and devotion he saved the lives of his fellow soldiers and gave the members of his platoon the inspiration needed to hold their position. Sgt. Port’s selfless concern for his comrades, at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest tradition of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
ROSSER, RONALD E.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Heavy Mortar Company, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Vicinity of Ponggilli, Korea, January 12th, 1952. Entered service at: Crooksville, Ohio. Born: 24 October 1929, Columbus, Ohio. G.O. No.: 67, 7 July 1952. Citation: Cpl. Rosser, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry above and beyond the call of duty. While assaulting heavily fortified enemy hill positions, Company L, 38th Infantry Regiment, was stopped by fierce automatic-weapons, small-arms, artillery, and mortar fire. Cpl. Rosser, a forward observer was with the lead platoon of Company L, when it came under fire from two directions. Cpl. Rosser turned his radio over to his assistant and, disregarding the enemy fire, charged the enemy positions armed with only carbine and a grenade. At the first bunker, he silenced its occupants with a burst from his weapon. Gaining the top of the hill, he killed two enemy soldiers, and then went down the trench, killing five more as he advanced. He then hurled his grenade into a bunker and shot two other soldiers as they emerged. Having exhausted his ammunition, he returned through the enemy fire to obtain more ammunition and grenades and charged the hill once more. Calling on others to follow him, he assaulted two more enemy bunkers. Although those who attempted to join him became casualties, Cpl. Rosser once again exhausted his ammunition obtained a new supply, and returning to the hilltop a third time hurled grenades into the enemy positions. During this heroic action Cpl. Rosser single-handedly killed at least thirteen of the enemy. After exhausting his ammunition he accompanied the withdrawing platoon, and though himself wounded, made several trips across open terrain still under enemy fire to help remove other men injured more seriously than himself. This outstanding soldier’s courageous and selfless devotion to duty is worthy of emulation by all men. He has contributed magnificently to the high traditions of the military service.
DAVIS, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Guadalcanal Island, January 12th, 1943. Entered service at: Montgomery, Ala. Birth: Gordo, Ala. G.O. No.: 40, 17 July 1943. Citation: For distinguishing himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy on Guadalcanal Island. On 12 January 1943, Maj. Davis (then Capt.), executive officer of an infantry battalion, volunteered to carry instructions to the leading companies of his battalion which had been caught in crossfire from Japanese machineguns. With complete disregard for his own safety, he made his way to the trapped units, delivered the instructions, supervised their execution, and remained overnight in this exposed position. On the following day, Maj. Davis again volunteered to lead an assault on the Japanese position which was holding up the advance. When his rifle jammed at its first shot, he drew his pistol and, waving his men on, led the assault over the top of the hill. Electrified by this action, another body of soldiers followed and seized the hill. The capture of this position broke Japanese resistance and the battalion was then able to proceed and secure the corps objective. The courage and leadership displayed by Maj. Davis inspired the entire battalion and unquestionably led to the success of its attack.
LAWS, ROBERT E.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 169th Infantry, 43d Infantry Division. Place and date: Pangasinan Province, Luzon, Philippine Islands, January 12th, 1945. Entered service at: Altoona, Pa. Birth: Altoona, Pa. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He led the assault squad when Company G attacked enemy hill positions. The enemy force, estimated to be a reinforced infantry company, was well supplied with machineguns, ammunition, grenades, and blocks of TNT and could be attacked only across a narrow ridge seventy yards long. At the end of this ridge an enemy pillbox and rifle positions were set in rising ground. Covered by his squad, S/Sgt Laws traversed the hogback through vicious enemy fire until close to the pillbox, where he hurled grenades at the fortification. Enemy grenades wounded him, but he persisted in his assault until one of his missiles found its mark and knocked out the pillbox. With more grenades, passed to him by members of his squad who had joined him, he led the attack on the entrenched riflemen. In the advance up the hill, he suffered additional wounds in both arms and legs, about the body and in the head, as grenades and TNT charges exploded near him. Three Japs rushed him with fixed bayonets, and he emptied the magazine of his machine pistol at them, killing two. He closed in hand-to-hand combat with the third, seizing the Jap’s rifle as he met the onslaught. The two fell to the ground and rolled some fifty or sixty feet down a bank. When the dust cleared the Jap lay dead and the valiant American was climbing up the hill with a large gash across the head. He was given first aid and evacuated from the area while his squad completed the destruction of the enemy position. S/Sgt. Laws’ heroic actions provided great inspiration to his comrades, and his courageous determination, in the face of formidable odds and while suffering from multiple wounds, enabled them to secure an important objective with minimum casualties.
*NININGER, ALEXANDER R., JR.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 57th Infantry, Philippine Scouts. Place and date: Near Abucay, Bataan, Philippine Islands, January 12th, 1942. Entered service at: Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Birth: Gainesville, Ga. G.O. No.: 9, 5 February 1942. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Abucay, Bataan, Philippine Islands, on 12 January 1942. This officer, though assigned to another company not then engaged in combat, voluntarily attached himself to Company K, same regiment, while that unit was being attacked by enemy force superior in firepower. Enemy snipers in trees and foxholes had stopped a counterattack to regain part of position. In hand-to-hand fighting which followed, 2d Lt. Nininger repeatedly forced his way to and into the hostile position. Though exposed to heavy enemy fire, he continued to attack with rifle and hand grenades and succeeded in destroying several enemy groups in foxholes and enemy snipers. Although wounded three times, he continued his attacks until he was killed after pushing alone far within the enemy position. When his body was found after recapture of the position, one enemy officer and two enemy soldiers lay dead around him.
International Thank You Day
Step in a Puddle and Splash Your Friend’s Day
Galatians 5:1-5 New International Version (NIV)
5 It is for freedom that Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not let yourselves be burdened again by a yoke of slavery.
“No one more sincerely wishes the spread of information among mankind than I do, and none has greater confidence in its effect towards supporting free and good government.”
Letter to Trustees for the Lottery of East Tennessee College
May 6, 1810
“Recognize that life is what you get when you’re born … living is what you do with it.”
~ Jim Allen
Chimerical ky-MER-ih-kuhl; -MIR-; kih-, adjective:
1. Merely imaginary; produced by or as if by a wildly fanciful imagination; fantastic; improbable or unrealistic.
2. Given to or indulging in unrealistic fantasies or fantastic schemes.
Chimerical is ultimately derived from Greek khimaira, “she-goat” or “chimera,” which in Greek mythology was a monster having the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon.
49 B.C. – Julius Caesar led his army across the Rubicon River, plunging Rome into civil war.
1569 – First recorded lottery in England.
1571 – Austrian nobility is granted freedom of religion.
1693 – Mt. Etna erupts in Sicily, Italy.
1759 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the first American life insurance company is incorporated. The Presbyterian Synods in Philadelphia and New York City created the Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers.
1770- The first shipment of rhubarb was sent to the United States from London. Benjamin Franklin sent the plant to his buddy, John Bartram in Philadelphia.
1775 – Francis Salvador, the first Jewish person to be elected in the Americas, took his seat on the South Carolina Provincial Congress.
1787 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus.
1794 – Robert Forsythe, a US Marshal, was killed in Augusta, Georgia when trying to serve court papers, the first US Marshal to die in action.
1803 – Monroe and Livingston sailed for Paris to buy New Orleans; they ended up buying Louisiana.
1805 – Michigan Territory is created.
1813 – First pineapples planted in Hawaii. It was brought to the islands by Spanish ships.
1815 – U.S. General Andrew Jackson won at the Battle of New Orleans. The War of 1812 had officially ended on December 24, 1814, with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, however, the news of the treaty signing did not reached British troops in time to prevent their attack on New Orleans.
1861 – Alabama secedes from the United States. It becomes the fourth state to secede from the Union when a convention votes 61 to 39 in favor of the measure.
1861 – Civil War: U.S. marine hospital two miles below New Orleans was occupied by Louisiana State troops.
1862 – Civil War: President Lincoln accepted Simon Cameron’s resignation as Secretary of War.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Arkansas Post – General John McClernand and Admiral David Dixon Porter capture the Arkansas River for the Union.
1863 – Civil War: The Confederate ship Alabama under Capt. Semmes flew a British flag and lured the USS Hatteras out of Galveston harbor. The Hatteras was quickly sunk.
1878 – First patent for a milk bottle was the Lester Milk Jar issued in January 1878. Up to that time, moo juice had been ladled out of a container by the milkman, right into the customer’s own container. The first bottled milk was delivered by Alexander Campbell.
1880 – Total solar eclipse blackens the sky of San Francisco one day after the funeral of Emperor Norton. Joshua Abraham Norton, also known as His Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, was a celebrated citizen of San Francisco who, in 1859, proclaimed himself “Emperor of these United States.” Although he had no political power, and his influence extended only so far as he was humored by those around him, he was treated deferentially in San Francisco, and currency issued in his name was honored in the establishments he frequented.
1887 – At Fort Smith, Ark., hang man George Maledon dispatched four more victims in a multiple hanging.
1902 – Popular Mechanics magazine was published for the first time.
1908 – The Grand Canyon National Monument was created with a proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt. It became a national park in 1919.
1912 – Lawrence Textile strike begins in Lawrence, Massachusetts. The strike was a strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts led by the Industrial Workers of the World. It was prompted by one mill owner’s decision to lower wages when a new law shortening the workweek went into effect.
1913 – The world’s first closed production car was introduced: Hudson Motor Car Company’s Model 54 sedan. Earlier automobiles had open cabs, or at most convertible roofs. It went on display at 13th Auto Show (New York City, NY)
1917 – The Kingsland Explosion was an incident that took place during World War I at a munitions factory in Lyndhurst, New Jersey. A fire started in Building 30. In four hours, probably 500,000, three-inch high- explosive shells were discharged. The entire plant was destroyed. It was later established that the fire started at the bench of one of the workers—Fiodoe Wozniak.
1922 – First use of insulin to treat diabetes in a human patient. (Leonard Thompson, 14, of Canada). Before this time, diabetes had inevitably resulted in death within months or even weeks of the diagnosis. Thompson lived another 13 years with the insulin.
1928 – The hit song “Ol’ Man River,” from the musical Showboat, is recorded by Paul Whiteman and his orchestra, with Bing Crosby singing the lead.
1934 – The German police raided the homes of dissident clergy in Berlin.
1935 – Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly solo from Hawaii to California.
1938 – Frances Moulton is the first woman to become president of a U.S. national bank. She served in Limerick, ME.
1940 – Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., became the United States Army’s first Black general.
1941 – World War II: Adolf Hitler ordered forces to be prepared to enter North Africa to assist the Italian effort, marking the establishment of the Afrika Korps.
1942 – World War II- Japan declares war on the Netherlands and invades the Netherlands East Indies.
1942 – World War II: The American carrier Saratoga is severely damaged by Japanese submarine I.6 near Hawaii.
1942 – World War II: The Japanese capture Kuala Lumpur.
1943 – World War II: On Guadalcanal, US forces take the “Sea Horse” position. The Japanese Gifu strongpoint continues to resist American pressure.
1944 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during his State of the Union Address, suggested that the nation had come to recognize, and should now implement, a second bill of rights. Roosevelt’s idea was to create an “economic bill of rights” which would guarantee a job with a living wage, freedom from unfair competition and monopolies, a home, medical care, education and recreation.
1944 – Jerome Morse (d.2001 at 80), B-17 navigator, was shot down over Germany and became a POW for 1 ½ years. In 1959 Pres. Eisenhower demonstrated Morse’s invention of the 1st miniaturized, portable nuclear power generator, used for space vehicles.
1944 – Aircraft from Escort Carrier USS Block Island make first aircraft rocket attack on German submarine.
1945 – World War II: Aircraft from the US 3rd Fleet (Halsey) sink twenty-five ships and damage thirteen others off the coast of Indochina in attacks on four Japanese convoys.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “The Old Lamplighter” by The Sammy Kaye Orchestra (vocal: Billy Williams) and “Divorce Me C.O.D.” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – “The Amazing Mr. Malone” (29:06) (aka “Murder and Mr. Malone”) debuted on ABC radio. The program starred Frank Lovejoy.
1948 – President Harry S Truman proposed free, two-year community colleges for all who wanted an education.
1949 – First recorded case of snowfall in Los Angeles, California. More than a half-inch covered Civic Hall. An Alhambra hardware store put up a sign that said, “Snow Plows for Rent–Hurry!” A snowman appeared in the residential area of Eagle Rock, wearing a sombrero, and the city of Reno, Nev., sent L.A. a snow shovel.
1949 – The Los Angeles Open golf tournament was won by Lloyd Mangrum, who admitted that he wore a lucky pair of pajamas under his pants.
1949 – The first “networked” television broadcasts take place as KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania goes on the air connecting the east coast and mid-west programming.
1955 – Lloyd Conover patented the antibiotic tetracycline.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Mr. Sandman” by The Chordettes, “The Naughty Lady of Shady Lane” by The Ames Brothers, “Hearts of Stone” by The Fontane Sisters and “Loose Talk” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1958 – “Sea Hunt” (26:06).premiered on CBS. Lloyd Bridges starred as Mike Nelson, an ex-Navy frogman who became an underwater trouble shooter, on CBS-TV.
1958 – “At the Hop” by Danny and the Juniors topped the charts.
1959 – Ed Sullivan interviewed Fidel Castro in Cuba shortly after the Batista regime is overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.
1960 – Henry Lee Lucas, once listed as America’s most prolific serial killer with eleven murders, commits his first known murder.
1961 – Riot, University of Georgia. Two Black students Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes were suspended but a federal court ordered them reinstated. They returned to classes on January 16.
1962 – Eruption of the Huascaran volcano in Peru; 4,000 deaths.
1963 – Beatles release “Please Please Me” & “Ask Me Why“. The Beatles performed “Please Please Me” on their second Ed Sullivan Show appearance in 1964. Sullivan was not a fan of many Rock groups, but loved The Beatles and had them on his show whenever he could.
1963 – The Whisky-A-Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened.
1964 – United States Surgeon General Luther Terry reports smoking may be hazardous to health. This was the first such statement from the U.S. government.
1964 – “There! I’ve Said it Again” by Bobby Vinton topped the charts. This was the last US #1 hit before the Beatles took over the charts. When this dropped off, The Beatles came on for 14 weeks, with “I Want To Hold Your Hand” (7 weeks), “She Loves You” (2 weeks), and “Can’t Buy Me Love” (5 weeks).
1969 – “I Heard it Through the Grapevine” by Marvin Gaye topped the charts.
1970 – Super Bowl IV (2:49:51) was played between Kansas City Chiefs and the Minnesota Vikings. The chiefs were the winners and the final score was 23-7. The head coaches were Bud Grant for Minnesota and Hank Stram for Kansas City. It was played at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, LA before 80, 562 fans and the MVP was Len Dawson, Quarterback for the Chiefs. The Referee was John McDonough. Face Value Tickets were $15.00.
1970 – Thanks to his winning the Los Angeles Open golf tournament, Billy Casper was the second golfer in history to top the $1-million mark in career earnings.
1973 – Beginning of the Watergate burglars trial.
1973 – The American League adopted the “designated hitter” rule in baseball.
1974 – The world’s first surviving set of sextuplets are born to Susan Rosenkowitz in Cape Town, South Africa.
1975 – “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” by Elton John topped the charts.
1980 – Nigel Short, 14, is the youngest chess player to be awarded the degree of International Master.
1980 – Honda announced that it would build Japan’s first U.S. passenger-car assembly plant in Ohio.
1981 – The Oakland Raiders defeated the San Diego Chargers 34-27 in the AFC championship game.
1984 – The U.S. Supreme Court reinstated a $10 million award to the family of Oklahoma nuclear worker Karen Silkwood, who died in 1974.
1985 – Reuben V. Anderson is appointed a judge on the Mississippi Supreme Court. He is the first Black named to the court.
1988 – Gregory “Pappy” Boyington (75), World War II flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient, died in Fresno, Calif.
1989 – President Reagan farewell to the nation in an address from the Oval Office.
1993 – Somalia: Operation Nutcracker. 900 Marines sweep through the Bakara bazaar. No casualties on either side.
1993 – Former independent presidential candidate Ross Perot publicly returned to politics, recruiting Americans for a watchdog group that, he told CNN, would counter special interests that were preventing government reform and deficit reduction.
1994 – John Bradley (70), one of the men who raised the US flag at Iwo Jima (1945), died.
1995 – The WB Television Network begins operations.
1996 – Space Shuttle program: STS-72 launches from the Kennedy Space Center marking the start of the 74th Space Shuttle mission and the 10th flight of Endeavour.
1996 – The Little Mt. Zion Baptist Church and the Mt. Zoar Baptist Church in Green Co., Ala., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – The Denver Broncos beat the Pittsburgh Steelers, 24-21, to win the American Football Conference Championship; the Green Bay Packers defeated the San Francisco 49ers, 23-10, to claim the National Football Conference Championship.
1999 – Hillary Clinton unveiled a new silver commemorative dollar in honor of Dolly Madison. The coin, designed by Tiffany, was the first to honor a first lady but was not legal tender.
1999 – President Clinton and House Republicans clashed in impeachment trial papers, with the White House claiming the perjury and obstruction allegations fell short of high crimes and misdemeanors and GOP lawmakers rebutting: “If this is not enough, what is?”
2000 – Pres. Clinton signed a proclamation for the Grand Parashant National Monument with 1.014 million acres along the northern boundary of the Grand Canyon; the 71,100 acre Agua Fria National Monument near Phoenix; and the California Coastal National Monument, which includes thousands of islands, rocks and reefs along the 840 mile California coast.
2000 – Reducing more of the federal government’s power over states, the US Supreme Court ruled, 5-to-4 that state employees cannot go into federal court to sue over age-bias.
2000 – Carlton Fisk and Tony Perez were elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
2000 – The U.S. Postal Service unveiled the second Vietnam Veterans Memorial commemorative stamp in a ceremony at The Wall.
2001 – The Federal Trade Commission approved the merger of AOL and Time Warner to form AOL Time Warner.
2001 – In Oklahoma Wanda Jean Allen (41) was executed for two murders. This was the first execution of an African-American woman since 1954.
2001 – The US Army premiered its new slogan “An Army of One” on the TV sitcom “Friends.”
2001 – James Riady, Indonesian businessman, agreed to pay an $8.6 million US fine and pleaded guilty for arranging $500,000 in illegal donations to Pres. Clinton and others.
2001 – FedEx agreed to handle most of the Postal Services air transportation in a $6.3 billion deal.
2002 – The first planeload of al-Qaida prisoners from Afghanistan arrived at the U.S. military detention camp,The first twenty captives arrive at Camp X-Ray in Guantanamo, Cuba.
2002 – Ford Motor Co. announced it was eliminating 35,000 jobs, closing five plants and dropping four models.
2003 – Declaring the death penalty “arbitrary and capricious, and therefore immoral,” Illinois Governor George Ryan commuted the sentences of 167 condemned inmates, emptying his state’s death row two days before leaving office.
2004 – Democrat Howard Dean defended his record on race in the last debate before the Iowa caucuses, as he was forced to acknowledge that no African-Americans or Hispanics had served in his cabinet during his twelve years as governor of Vermont.
2005 – LeapFrog Enterprises displayed a $99 digital pen that talks, corrects spelling and answers math problems. Sales were to begin in the Fall.
2006 – The US Interior Dept. agreed to open some 400,000 acres on Alaska’s North Slope for exploratory oil drilling.
2007 – A US federal judge ruled that the Vatican can be sued for damages by US victims of clerical sex abuse.
2007 – The Pentagon said it has abandoned its limit on the time a citizen-soldier can be required to serve on active duty, a major change that reflects an Army stretched thin by longer-than-expected combat in Iraq.
2008 – Bank of America said it will buy Countrywide Financial for $4.1 billion in stock, a deal that rescues the country’s biggest mortgage lender and expands the financial services empire of the nation’s largest consumer bank.
2008 – President Bush had tears in his eyes during an hour-long tour of Israel’s Holocaust memorial and told Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice that the US should have bombed Auschwitz to halt the killing.
2009 – A US federal rule took effect allowing visitors to carry a loaded gun into a park or wildlife refuge as long as the person had a permit for a concealed weapon and the state where the park or refuge was located allowed concealed firearms.
2009 – Marcus Schrenker’s plane went down en route to Destin, Fla., from Anderson, Ind. Schrenker (38), an Indiana investment manager, had reported that the windshield imploded and that he was bleeding profusely.
2010 – Fox News announced that Sarah Palin, former Alaska governor and 2008 vice presidential candidate, would become a regular commentator on its cable channel.
2010 – Perry v. Schwarzenegger, a challenge to California Proposition 8 and likely a landmark case regarding same-sex marriage rights in the United States, begins in San Francisco.
2011 – Lawyers for Julian Assange warn that he could be killed if he is extradited to the U.S. from Britain; Assange draws parallels between the rhetoric of the 2011 Tucson shooting and the language used against him by commentators such as Vice President Joe Biden.
2011 – Thousands of airline flights are cancelled in the south, Great Lakes and northeast regions of the United States due to storms.
2012 – The United States denies any involvement in a bomb blast that killed an Iranian scientist.
2012 – Republican candidates for United States President are campaigning in South Carolina for the upcoming South Carolina primaries.
2012 – The F-35B is delivered to the United States Marine Corps. The demo shown here is from the 2014 MCAS Yuma Air Show.
2013 – Three people are injured after a hostage situation takes place in a Nordstrom Rack chain in the neighborhood of Westchester in Los Angeles, California.
2014 – The Maricopa County (AZ) Republican Committee, the state’s largest Republican group, formally censured Senator John McCain for “long and terrible record of drafting, co-sponsoring and voting for legislation best associated with liberal Democrats.” The vote was 1150 for and 351 against.
1630 – John Rogers, American President of Harvard in the US (d. 1684)
1755- Alexander Hamilton, U.S. statesman, first Secretary of the Treasury.
1807 – Ezra Cornell, American businessman and university founder (d. 1874)
1885 – Alice Paul, American, chief strategist for the suffrage movement and author of the Equal Rights Amendment.
1923 – Carroll Shelby, American automobile designer
1925 – Grant Tinker, American television executive is the former chairman and CEO of NBC from 1981 to 1986, co-founder of MTM Enterprises, and television producer. Tinker is the former husband of television actress, Mary Tyler Moore and also known as “the man who saved NBC”.
1946 – Naomi Judd, American singer
1952 – Ben Crenshaw, American golfer
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Troop A, 1st Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Place and date: Binh Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, January 11th, 1969. Entered service at: Milwaukee, Wis. Born: 21 February 1944, Chicago, IL. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. (then 1st Lt.) Fritz, Armor, U.S. Army, distinguished himself while serving as a platoon leader with Troop A, near Quan Loi. Capt. Fritz was leading his seven-vehicle armored column along Highway 13 to meet and escort a truck convoy when the column suddenly came under intense crossfire from a reinforced enemy company deployed in ambush positions. In the initial attack, Capt. Fritz’ vehicle was hit and he was seriously wounded. Realizing that his platoon was completely surrounded, vastly outnumbered, and in danger of being overrun, Capt. Fritz leaped to the top of his burning vehicle and directed the positioning of his remaining vehicles and men. With complete disregard for his wounds and safety, he ran from vehicle to vehicle in complete view of the enemy gunners in order to reposition his men, to improve the defenses, to assist the wounded, to distribute ammunition, to direct fire, and to provide encouragement to his men. When a strong enemy force assaulted the position and attempted to overrun the platoon, Capt. Fritz manned a machine gun and through his exemplary action inspired his men to deliver intense and deadly fire which broke the assault and routed the attackers. Moments later a second enemy force advanced to within two meters of the position and threatened to overwhelm the defenders. Capt. Fritz, armed only with a pistol and bayonet, led a small group of his men in a fierce and daring charge which routed the attackers and inflicted heavy casualties. When a relief force arrived, Capt. Fritz saw that it was not deploying effectively against the enemy positions, and he moved through the heavy enemy fire to direct its deployment against the hostile positions. This deployment forced the enemy to abandon the ambush site and withdraw. Despite his wounds, Capt. Fritz returned to his position, assisted his men, and refused medical attention until all of his wounded comrades had been treated and evacuated. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Capt. Fritz, at the repeated risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect the greatest credit upon himself, his unit, and the Armed Forces.
*GILLILAND, CHARLES L.
Rank and organization: Corporal (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company I, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Tongmang-ni, Korea, 25 April 1951. Entered service at: Yellville (Marion County), Ark. Born: 24 May 1933, Mountain Home, Ark. G.O. No.: 2, 11 January 1955. Citation: Cpl. Gilliland, a member of Company I, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and outstanding courage above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. A numerically superior hostile force launched a coordinated assault against his company perimeter, the brunt of which was directed up a defile covered by his automatic rifle. His assistant was killed by enemy fire but Cpl. Gilliland, facing the full force of the assault, poured a steady fire into the foe which stemmed the onslaught. When two enemy soldiers escaped his raking fire and infiltrated the sector, he leaped from his foxhole, overtook and killed them both with his pistol. Sustaining a serious head wound in this daring exploit, he refused medical attention and returned to his emplacement to continue his defense of the vital defile. His unit was ordered back to new defensive positions but Cpl. Gilliland volunteered to remain to cover the withdrawal and hold the enemy at bay. His heroic actions and indomitable devotion to duty prevented the enemy from completely overrunning his company positions. Cpl. Gilliland’s incredible valor and supreme sacrifice reflect lasting glory upon himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.
*GAMMON, ARCHER T.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 9th Armored Infantry Battalion, 6th Armored Division. Place and date: Near Bastogne, Belgium, January 11th, 1945. Entered service at: Roanoke, Va. Born: 11 September 1918, Chatham, Va. G.O. No.: 18, 13 February 1946. Citation: He charged thirty yards through hip-deep snow to knock out a machinegun and its three-man crew with grenades, saving his platoon from being decimated and allowing it to continue its advance from an open field into some nearby woods. The platoon’s advance through the woods had only begun when a machinegun supported by riflemen opened fire and a Tiger Royal tank sent 88mm. shells screaming at the unit from the left flank. S/Sgt. Gammon, disregarding all thoughts of personal safety, rushed forward, then cut to the left, crossing the width of the platoon’s skirmish line in an attempt to get within grenade range of the tank and its protecting foot troops. Intense fire was concentrated on him by riflemen and the machinegun emplaced near the tank. He charged the automatic weapon, wiped out its crew of four with grenades, and, with supreme daring, advanced to within twenty-five yards of the armored vehicle, killing two hostile infantrymen with rifle fire as he moved forward. The tank had started to withdraw, backing a short distance, then firing, backing some more, and then stopping to blast out another round, when the man whose single-handed relentless attack had put the ponderous machine on the defensive was struck and instantly killed by a direct hit from the Tiger Royal’s heavy gun. By his intrepidity and extreme devotion to the task of driving the enemy back no matter what the odds, S/Sgt. Gammon cleared the woods of German forces, for the tank continued to withdraw, leaving open the path for the gallant squad leader’s platoon.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army Air Corps. Place and date: Over Oschersleben, Germany, January 11th, 1944. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Canton, China. G.O. No.: 45, 5 June 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Oschersleben, Germany, on 11 January 1944. On that day Col. Howard was the leader of a group of P51 aircraft providing support for a heavy bomber formation on a long-range mission deep in enemy territory. As Col. Howard’s group met the bombers in the target area the bomber force was attacked by numerous enemy fighters. Col. Howard, with his group, and at once engaged the enemy and himself destroyed a German ME. 110. As a result of this attack Col. Howard lost contact with his group, and at once returned to the level of the bomber formation. He then saw that the bombers were being heavily attacked by enemy airplanes and that no other friendly fighters were at hand. While Col. Howard could have waited to attempt to assemble his group before engaging the enemy, he chose instead to attack single-handed a formation of more than thirty German airplanes. With utter disregard for his own safety he immediately pressed home determined attacks for some thirty minutes, during which time he destroyed three enemy airplanes and probably destroyed and damaged others. Toward the end of this engagement three of his guns went out of action and his fuel supply was becoming dangerously low. Despite these handicaps and the almost insuperable odds against him, Col. Howard continued his aggressive action in an attempt to protect the bombers from the numerous fighters. His skill, courage, and intrepidity on this occasion set an example of heroism which will be an inspiration to the U.S. Armed Forces.
SHOMO, WILLIAM A.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Army Air Corps, 82d Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron. Place and date: Over Luzon, Philippine Islands, January 11th, 1945. Entered service at: Westmoreland County, Pa. Birth: Jeannette, Pa. G.O. No.: 25, 7 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Maj. Shomo was lead pilot of a flight of two fighter planes charged with an armed photographic and strafing mission against the Aparri and Laoag airdromes. While en route to the objective, he observed an enemy twin engine bomber, protected by twelve fighters, flying about 2,500 feet above him and in the opposite direction Although the odds were 13 to 2, Maj. Shomo immediately ordered an attack. Accompanied by his wingman he closed on the enemy formation in a climbing turn and scored hits on the leading plane of the third element, which exploded in midair. Maj. Shomo then attacked the second element from the left side of the formation and shot another fighter down in flames. When the enemy formed for counterattack, Maj. Shomo moved to the other side of the formation and hit a third fighter which exploded and fell. Diving below the bomber he put a burst into its underside and it crashed and burned. Pulling up from this pass he encountered a fifth plane firing head on and destroyed it. He next dived upon the first element and shot down the lead plane; then diving to three-hundred feet in pursuit of another fighter he caught it with his initial burst and it crashed in flames. During this action his wingman had shot down three planes, while the three remaining enemy fighters had fled into a cloudbank and escaped. Maj. Shomo’s extraordinary gallantry and intrepidity in attacking such a far superior force and destroying seven enemy aircraft in one action is unparalleled in the southwest Pacific area.
MAUS, MARION P.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 1st U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Sierra Madre Mountains, Mex., January 11th, 1886. Entered service at: Tennallytown, Montgomery County, Md. Birth: Burnt Mills, Md. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Most distinguished gallantry in action with hostile Apaches led by Geronimo and Natchez.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Mizzen Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1844, New Orleans, La. Accredited to: Louisiana. G.O. No.: 207, 23 March 1876; 212, 9 June 1876. Second award. Citation: For gallant conduct in jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Benicia, at sea, and rescuing from drowning one of the crew of that vessel on January 11th, 1874.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1812, Maine. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1865. Citation: Served as captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Louisville at the capture of the Arkansas post, January 10th and January 11th, 1863. Carrying out his duties as captain of a 9-inch gun, Talbott was conspicuous for ability and bravery throughout this engagement with the enemy.