Unerased History – February 16th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 16, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Famous Amos Cookies

Wally Amos is one of the most famous black entrepreneurs in America. He sometimes calls himself the Jackie Robinson of the theatrical business. It was Amos who “discovered” Simon and Garfunkel in a Manhattan Club. Amos was known for promoting talent at the William Morris Agency.

One evening a friend of Amos came over and with him brought a batch of chocolate chip cookies. Amos wanted to know how to make them himself and the friend said, Simple, the recipe is on the back of the bag of Nestles chocolate chips. After months of making cookies for his friends and making the recipe his own, Amos was ready to introduce his new discovery to the world.

It was opening night in Los Angeles. Two thousand people were sent special invitations. A red carpet adorned the sidewalk. Celebrities arrived in limousines. Music was playing and champagne were flowing. It was the opening night of the “Famous” Amos first chocolate chip cookie store.

Within five years, annual sales went to five million dollars annually. What’s out there waiting to be “discovered?” Look around it could the simplest, everyday thing that you could improve to the “world’s best!”


“The thoughts we choose to think are the tools we use to paint the canvas of our lives.”

~Louise Hay

overweening oh-ver.-WEE-ning, adjective:

1. Overbearing; arrogant; presumptuous.
2.Excessive; immoderate; exaggerated.

Overweening is from Middle English overwening, present participle of overwenen, “to be arrogant,” from over + wenen “to ween,” from Old English wenan.


600 – Pope Gregory the Great decreed “God bless You” as the religiously correct response to a sneeze.
659- First known check (£400) – on display at Westminster Abbey (did it bounce?)

1741- Benjamin Franklin published America’s second magazine, “The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle”. It beat the first magazine by lasting twice as long. The first, Bradford’s American Magazine, lasted only three issues and Franklin’s lasted six.
1751 – Thomas Gray’s poem “Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard” was first published.
1760 – Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George by South Carolina Governor Lyttleton are killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements that broke a peace treaty of December 1759.
1804 – During the First Barbary War, Stephen Decatur (USMC) leads a raid to burn the pirate-held frigate USS Philadelphia (1799). The First Barbary War (1801–1805) was the first of two wars fought between the United States and the Northwest African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States.
1838 Kentucky passes law permitting widows with children the right to vote in school board elections.

1840 – American Charles Wilkes discovers Shackleton Ice Shelf, Antarctica
1852 – Studebaker Brothers Wagon Company, precursor of the automobile manufacturer, is established.
1857 – The National Deaf Mute College was incorporated in Washington, DC. It was the first school in the world for advanced education of the deaf. The school was later renamed Gallaudet College.
1857 – Frederick Douglass elected President of Freedman Bank and Trust.
1859 – The French Government passes a law to set the A-note above middle C to a frequency of 435 Hz, in an attempt to standardize the pitch.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Donelson, Tennessee and aapproximately 14,000 Confederate soldiers surrendered.
1862 – Civil War:  Gunboats of Flag Officer Foote’s force destroyed the “Tennessee Iron Works” above Dover on the Cumberland River.
1864 – Civil War: Union naval forces, composed of double-ender U.S.S. Octorara, converted ferryboat U.S.S. J. P. Jackson and six mortar schooners, began bombarding the Confederate works at Fort Powell. Six months later this would result in the closing of Mobile Bay.
1865 – Civil War:  Columbia, S.C., surrendered to Federal troops.
1868 – In New York City, the Jolly Corks organization is renamed the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks.
1878 – Silver dollar became US legal tender.
1883 – “Ladies Home Journal” began publication. It started as a women’s supplement to the Tribune and Farmer. The following year it became an independent publication.
1909 – First subway car with side doors goes into service in New York City.
1909 – The San Francisco Citizens Health Committee declared San Francisco free of bubonic plague.
1913 – President Taft agrees not to intervene in Mexico
1914 – The first airplane flight between Los Angeles and San Francisco took place.
1923 – Black singer Bessie Smith makes her first recording, “Down Hearted Blues,” which sells 800,000 copies for Columbia Records. Her music reflected the Depression era.
1923 – Howard Carter unseals the burial chamber of Pharaoh Tutankhamun. On the 17th he entered the chamber with several invited guests. He had originally found the tomb on November 4, 1922.
1926 – Congress authorized Secretary of Treasury to acquire a site at New London, CT, without cost to United States, and construct thereon buildings for the United States Coast Guard Academy at a total cost not to exceed $1,750,000.
1932 – The first fruit tree patent was issued to James E. Markham for a peach tree which ripens later than other varieties.
1936 – 4th Winter Olympic games close at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
1937 – Wallace H. Carothers receives a patent for nylon. Carothers was a research chemist for Du Pont.
1938 – The U.S. Federal Crop Insurance program was authorized.
1940 – World War II: Altmark Incident: The German tanker Altmark is boarded by sailors from the British destroyer HMS Cossack. 299 British prisoners are freed.
1942 – Shep Fields and his orchestra recorded “Jersey Bounce.”
1942 – German submarines attacked an Aruba oil refinery and sank the tanker Pedernales.
1943 – Sign on Munich facade: “Out with Hitler! Long live freedom!” was posted by the “White Rose” student group. They were caught on 2/18 and beheaded on 2/22.
1943 – World War II: The Soviet troops reenter Kharkov.
1944 – World War II: Justo Gonzalez became the first Hispanic-American to make the rank of chief petty officer when the Coast Guard promoted him to Chief Machinist’s Mate.
1944 – World War II: German forces begin a new attack on the Allied forces on the Anzio beachhead.
1945 – World War II: Two American battalions, one seaborne and one dropped by parachute, land on Corregidor Island in Manila Bay.
1945 – World War II: Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines is occupied by American troops, almost three years after the devastating and infamous Bataan Death March.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58, part of US 5th Fleet (Spruance), with 12 fleet carriers and 4 light carriers, conducts air raids on Tokyo. The aircraft carriers are escorted by 8 battleships, 15 cruisers and 83 destroyers as well as numerous support ships.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 54 (Admiral Rodgers), with 5 cruisers and 16 destroyers, as well as the 10 escort carriers of TF52 begin the preliminary bombardment of Iwo Jima.
1946 – The first commercial helicopter, the four-seat Sikorsky S51, single rotor helicopter first flew. It could carry 3 passengers over 250 miles at a speed of 100 miles per hour.
1948 -  The first U.S. newsreel telecast to be presented daily was the 20th Century-Fox Movietone News.
1948 – NBC-TV began airing its first nightly newscast, “The Camel Newsreel Theatre”, which consisted of Fox Movietone newsreels.
1948 – Miranda, famous moon of Uranus, photographed for the first time
1950 – Longest-running prime-time game show (17 years), “What’s My Line” begins on CBS. “That’s three down. We move now to Arlene Francis.” Arlene Francis, Dorothy Kilgallen, humorist Hal Block, and Louis Untermeyer joined host John Daly.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Heart Cries for You” by Guy Mitchell, “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page, “If” by Perry Como and “There’s Been a Change in Me” (not on You-Tube) by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The 861-day naval siege of Wonsan began. This was one of the largest blockade and bombardment efforts ever initiated by the U.S. Navy.
1951 – NYC passes bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
1952 – “Slow Poke” by Pee Wee King topped the charts.
1952 – The FBI arrested ten members of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina.
1953 – Korean War: Marine Corps Captain Ted Williams, future baseball hall of famer, had his F9F Panther jet fighter badly damaged by anti-aircraft fire. Instead of ditching the aircraft, Captain Williams opted to return to base, an action that required exceptional skill and daring. He received the Air Medal for his actions. Williams walked away from the wheels-up landing.
1953 – Air Force Captain Joseph C. McConnell, Jr., 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, flying his F-86 “Beauteous Butch” shot down his fifth MiG. He is recognized as the 27th ace of the war.
1953 – First man-made diamonds. The diamond crystals, the size of grains of sand, were produced in Sweden in a high pressure press by subjecting graphite to 83,000 atmospheres pressure and about 2000 degrees C for an hour.
1957 – “Young Love” by Tab Hunter topped the charts.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stagger Lee” by Lloyd Price, “16 Candles” by The Crests, “The All American Boy” by Bill Parsons and “Billy Bayou” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1959 – Leonard Spigelgass’ “Majority of One,” premiered in New York City.
1959 – The US House Committee on Un-American Activities has charged that an “elite corps” of Communist lawyers is promoting the party’s cause in the courts, Congress and government agencies.
1959 – Fidel Castro becomes Premier of Cuba after dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown on January 1.
1960 – The U.S.S. Triton began the first circumnavigation of the globe under water. The trip ended on May 10.
1961 – Explorer 9 (S-56a) is launched.The Explorer program was a United States space exploration program that provides flight opportunities for physics, heliophysics, and astrophysics investigations from space
1961 - The DuSable Museum of African American History is chartered.
1962 – Jimmy Bostwick defeated his brother, Pete, to win the U.S. Open Court-Tennis championships for the third time.
1963 – First round-trip swim of Straits of Messina, Italy, was made by Mary Revell of US.
1963 – Beatles top British rock charts with “Please, Please Me.”  Full Album
1963 – “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula topped the charts.
1964 – The Beatles performed for the second time on “The Ed Sullivan Show.” They had made their first appearance on the show only a week before.
1965 – Pegasus 1 launched. Pegasus was a series of three satellites, which were launched 1965 to study the frequency of micrometeorite impacts. All three Pegasus satellites were launched by Saturn 1 rockets, and remained connected with the upper stage.
1965 – Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Georgy Girl” by The Seekers, “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams and “Don’t Come Home a’Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1967 – Operation River Raider begins in Mekong Delta.
1968 – In Haleyville, Alabama, the first 9-1-1 emergency telephone system goes into service.
1968 – Elvis Presley receives gold record for “How Great Thou Art.
1970 – Joe Frazier began his reign as the undefeated heavyweight world champion when he knocked out Jimmy Ellis in five rounds. He lost the title on January 22, 1973, when he lost for the first time in his professional career to George Foreman.
1970 – In San Francisco, a homemade bomb exploded outside the police Park Station on Waller St. Sgt. Brian McDonnell (44) died 2 days later and 8 other officers were injured. Black Panthers were suspected, but a later investigation suggested it was the work of the Weather Underground.
1971 – Aretha Franklin recorded “Spanish Harlem.”
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain (Los Angeles Lakers) reached the 30,000-point mark in his NBA career during a game against the Phoenix Suns. He was the first NBA player to do so.
1974 – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand’s topped the charts.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’re No Good” by Linda Ronstadt, “Pick Up the Pieces” by AWB, “Best of My Love” by The Eagles and “Devil in the Bottle” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1978 – The first computer bulletin board system is created (Ward & Randy’s CBBS) in Chicago, Illinois. (CBBS stood for  Computerized Bulletin Board System.)
1980 –  “Do That to Me One More Time” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Down Under” by Men at Work, “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band and “’Til I Gain Control Again” by Crystal Gayle all topped the charts.
1984 – Bill Johnson becomes first American to win Olympic downhill skiing gold.
1984 – Musician Jerry Lee Lewis surrendered to federal authorities to answer income tax evasion charges. He was later acquitted.
1985 – “Careless Whisper” by George Michael topped the charts.
1985 – “Kojak” returned to network television after an absence of seven years with the CBS-TV special, “Kojak: The Belarus File.”
1985 – Ray ‘Boom Boom’ Mancini lost the World Boxing Association lightweight championship crown to Livingstone Bramble. The fighter retired in August, 1985.
1985 – Coach Lefty Driesell got his 400th career victory as the University of Maryland defeated Davidson by a score of 65-63.
1987 – The trial of John Demjanjuk, accused of being a Nazi guard dubbed “Ivan the Terrible” in Treblinka extermination camp, starts in Jerusalem.
1988 – First documented combat action by U.S. military advisors in El Salvador.
1989 – Investigators in Lockerbie, Scotland, announced that a bomb hidden inside a radio-cassette player was the reason that Pan Am Flight 103 was brought down the previous December. All 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground were killed.
1988 – MASS SHOOTING: Richard Wade Farley gunned down seven people at ESL Corp. during an office rampage in Sunnyvale, Calif. Farley was later convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)” by C & C Music Factory featuring Freedom Williams, “All the Man that I Need” by Whitney Houston, “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, and “Brother Jukebox” by Mark Chesnutt all topped the charts.
1991 – US female Figure Skating championship won by Tonya Harding.
1992 – Former silver Goodyear blimps are now painted yellow & blue.
1993 - Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton’s economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address last night.
1994 - Figure skaters Tonya Harding and Nancy Kerrigan encountered each other at the Winter Olympic Games in Norway before posing for the U.S. team photograph.
1996 - World chess champion Garry Kasparov won for the second time against IBM supercomputer “Deep Blue” in the fifth game of their match in Philadelphia (Kasparov had drawn twice and lost once).
1996 - A commuter train slammed into Amtrak’s Capital Limited an Silver Spring, Md., and killed 11 people. It was later claimed that a new warning system was partly to blame.
1997 – At age 25, Jeff Gordon is youngest winner in Daytona 500 history.
1998 - Mr. Jefferson, the first cloned calf, was born in Virginia.
1999 - The Chinese Lunar New Year began the Year of the Rabbit.
1999 – Testimony began in the Jasper, TX, trial of John William King. He was charged with murder in the gruesome dragging death of James Byrd Jr. King was later convicted and sentenced to death.
2000 - In New York City, Lucy Edwards (41), a former Bank of New York executive, and her husband, Peter Berlin (46), pleaded guilty to laundering over $7 billion from Russian bankers in exchange for $1.8 million.
2001 – Two dozen US and British aircraft bombed 5 radar and other anti-aircraft sites around Baghdad with guided missiles. A number of new guided bombs, AGM-154A priced from $250-700k, missed their targets.
2002 – In Noble, Ga., officials found 334 decomposing bodies at the Tri-State Crematory, where the furnace had not worked for years. Ray Brent Marsh (28), manager of the family operation, was arrested and charged with five counts of theft by deception.
2003 - Michael Waltrip raced past leader Jimmie Johnson to win the rain-shortened Daytona 500 for the second time in three years.
2004 – In Ohio a crane collapsed at an I-80 bridge near Toledo and three workers were killed.
2004 - L. Paul Bremer, the United States administrator of Iraq states he will veto any interim constitution that would make Islam “the chief source of law”, as opposed to “a source of inspiration for the law.”
2005 – The Kyoto Protocol comes into force, following its ratification by Russia.
2005 – The National Hockey League (NHL) cancels the entire 2004-2005 regular season and playoffs, becoming the first major sports league in North America to do so over a labor dispute.
2006 – The last Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) is decommissioned by the United States Army.
2006 - Pennsylvania Senator Arlen Specter asked the Senate Ethics Committee to investigate whether a top aide improperly helped direct nearly $50 million in Pentagon spending to clients represented by her husband.
2007 – An annual survey released Forbes.com said Raleigh, North Carolina, topped the list of the best US cities for getting a job.
2007 - The Democrat-controlled US House of Representatives voted 246-182 for a non-binding resolution opposing President Bush’s Surge plan to send 21,500 more troops to Iraq. Seventeen Republicans voted in favor.
2007 - Francisco Castaneda, an illegal immigrant from El Salvador, died of penile cancer that went undiagnosed for more than a year while he was in state and federal custody in California. In 2010 a Los Angeles jury awarded his family $1.73 million.
2008 – In Maryland a car plowed into a crowd that had gathered to watch a drag race on a suburban road, killing eight people and injuring at least four.
2008 - A student dies of unknown causes while competing at the Harvard National Speech and Debate Tournament.
2008 – A company source said Toshiba Corp is planning to give up on its HD DVD format for high-definition video, conceding defeat to the competing Blu-Ray technology backed by Sony Corp.
2009 – In Kansas,  Republican legislators blocked an effort by Democratic Gov. Kathleen Sebelius to transfer funds to allow the state to pay its bills. Income tax refunds were suspended and the state payroll was threatened.
2009 –   In Stamford, Connecticut, a 200-pound domesticated chimpanzee  was shot dead by police after a violent rampage that left a friend of its owner badly mauled. Travis (15) had once starred in TV commercials for Old Navy and Coca-Cola. Charla Nash lost her hands, nose, lips and eyelids in the attack. Doctors later said she will be blind for life.
2010 –  New US Treasury data said China’s holdings of US Treasury bonds tumbled in December, allowing Japan to take over as the top holder of American government debt.
2010 – In New Jersey Shamsid-Din Abdul-Raheem (21) threw his 3-month-old daughter off the Garden State Parkway Driscoll Bridge after the mother filed a restraining order against him. The body of the infant was found on April 24.
2011 –  Borders Group, the second largest bookstore chain in the United States, files for bankruptcy with plans to sell at least 200 stores.
2011 – The West Virginia Gazette reported that three U.S. marshals were shot in Elkins, West Virginia, while trying to serve a warrant, resulting in the death of one marshal and the shooter.
2012 - Two time Pulitzer Prize winner Anthony Shadid dies suddenly at age 43 of an acute asthma attack.
2012 - Four World Trade Center’s construction crane snaps while lifting a steel beam.
2013 -Two firefighters are killed and two others are injured extinguishing an inferno at a Knights of Columbus fraternal lodge in Bryan, Texas.


1698 – Pierre Bouguer was a French mathematician and astronomer. He is also known as “the father of naval architecture”. (d. 1758)
1812 – Henry Wilson, 18th Vice President of US (d. 1875) He served under President Ulysses S Grant. He was a leading Republican who committed himself to the destruction of what he called the Slave Power. This was a conspiracy of slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty.
1826 – Julia Grant, First Lady of the United States (d. 1902)
1866 – Billy Hamilton (baseball player), MLB Hall of Fame Outfielder (d. 1940)
1887 – Kathleen Clifford, American actress (d. 1962)
1901 – Wayne King, American musician and orchestra leader (d. 1985)
1901 – Chester Morris, American film actor (d. 1970) He is most famous for his role in the Boston Blackie detective series of the 1940s.
1903 – Edgar Bergen, American ventriloquist (d. 1978)
1906 – Vera Menchik, British-Czech chess player, the first Women’s World Champion in chess (d. 1944)
1909 – Hugh Beaumont, American actor (d. 1982) is best known for his portrayal of Ward Cleaver, the husband of June Cleaver (Barbara Billingsley) and the father of Wally (Tony Dow) and Beaver (Jerry Mathers) on the television series, Leave It to Beaver (1957–1963).
1909 – Richard McDonald, American fast food pioneer (d. 1998)He was one of the early American fast food pioneers, originally from Manchester, New Hampshire, who established the first McDonald’s restaurant in San Bernardino, California in 1940.
1918 – Patty Andrews, American singer and one of the famous Andrew Sisters.
1920 – Anna Mae Hays, American army general. She was the first woman in the U.S. Military to be promoted to a general officer rank.
1934 – Herbie & Harold Kalin, American singers (d. 2005-Harold / 2006-Herbie) The twins were a pop music recording duo and remain the archetypal one-hit wonders with the 1958 song “When”.
1935 – Sonny Bono, American entertainer & U.S. Congressman (d. 1998)
1951 – William Katt, American actor.  He is best known as the star of The Greatest American Hero.
1954 – Margaux Hemingway, American actress and model (d. 1996)
1957 – LeVar Burton, American actor. He is most well-known for his portrayal of Geordi La Forge on Star Trek: The Next Generation, and as the host of the PBS children’s program Reading Rainbow.
1958 – Ice-T, American rapper, songwriter, and actor
1959 – John McEnroe, American tennis player
1967 – Keith Gretzky, former hockey player; brother of Wayne Gretzky





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 3d Force Reconnaissance Company, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, 16 February 1968. Entered service at: New York Born: 6 July 1945, Corpus Christi, Tex. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a platoon commander with the 3d Force Reconnaissance Company. While on a long-range reconnaissance mission, 2d Lt. Graves’ eight-man patrol observed seven enemy soldiers approaching their position. Reacting instantly, he deployed his men and directed their fire on the approaching enemy. After the fire had ceased, he and two patrol members commenced a search of the area, and suddenly came under a heavy volume of hostile small arms and automatic weapons fire from a numerically superior enemy force. When one of his men was hit by the enemy fire, 2d Lt. Graves moved through the fire-swept area to his radio and, while directing suppressive fire from his men, requested air support and adjusted a heavy volume of artillery and helicopter gunship fire upon the enemy. After attending the wounded, 2d Lt. Graves, accompanied by another Marine, moved from his relatively safe position to confirm the results of the earlier engagement. Observing that several of the enemy were still alive, he launched a determined assault, eliminating the remaining enemy troops. He then began moving the patrol to a landing zone for extraction, when the unit again came under intense fire which wounded two more Marines and 2d Lt. Graves. Refusing medical attention, he once more adjusted air strikes and artillery fire upon the enemy while directing the fire of his men. He led his men to a new landing site into which he skillfully guided the incoming aircraft and boarded his men while remaining exposed to the hostile fire. Realizing that one of the wounded had not embarked, he directed the aircraft to depart and, along with another Marine, moved to the side of the casualty. Confronted with a shortage of ammunition, 2d Lt. Graves utilized supporting arms and directed fire until a second helicopter arrived. At this point, the volume of enemy fire intensified, hitting the helicopter and causing it to crash shortly after liftoff. All aboard were killed. 2d Lt. Graves’ outstanding courage, superb leadership and indomitable fighting spirit throughout the day were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country .






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and Date: Binh Duong province, Republic of Vietnam, 16 February 1969. Entered service at: Roanoke, Va. Born: 19 March 1947, Covington, Va. Citation: For conspicuous intrepidity and gallantry in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. First Lt. Miller, Infantry, Company A, was serving as a platoon leader at night when his company ambushed a hostile force infiltrating from Cambodian sanctuaries. After contact with the enemy was broken, 1st Lt. Miller led a reconnaissance patrol from their prepared positions through the early evening darkness and dense tropical growth to search the area for enemy casualties. As the group advanced they were suddenly attacked. First Lt. Miller was seriously wounded. However, the group fought back with telling effect on the hostile force. An enemy grenade was thrown into the midst of the friendly patrol group and all took cover except 1st Lt. Miller. who in the dim light located the grenade and threw himself on it, absorbing the force of the explosion with his body. His action saved nearby members of his patrol from almost certain serious injury. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by this officer were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and Date: Bong Son, Hoai Nhon Province, Republic of Vietnam, 16 February 1967. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 17 October 1944, Aurora, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. His platoon was deployed in a night ambush when the position was suddenly subjected to an intense and accurate grenade attack, and one foxhole was hit immediately. Responding without hesitation to the calls for help from the wounded men Pfc. Monroe moved forward through heavy small-arms fire to the foxhole but found that all of the men had expired. He turned immediately and crawled back through the deadly hail of fire toward other calls for aid. He moved to the platoon sergeant’s position where he found the radio operator bleeding profusely from fragmentation and bullet wounds. Ignoring the continuing enemy attack, Pfc. Monroe began treating the wounded man when he saw a live grenade fall directly in front of the position. He shouted a warning to all those nearby, pushed the wounded radio operator and the platoon sergeant to one side, and lunged forward to smother the grenade’s blast with his body. Through his valorous actions, performed in a flash of inspired selflessness, Pfc. Monroe saved the lives of two of his comrades and prevented the probable injury of several others. His gallantry and intrepidity were in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army, and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.





Rank and organization: Platoon Sergeant (then S/Sgt.), U.S. Army, 1st Platoon, Company C, 2d Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, 16 February 1967. Entered service at: Honolulu, Hawaii. Born: 27 July 1935, Honolulu, Hawaii. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During a reconnaissance patrol, his platoon was suddenly engaged by intense machinegun fire hemming in the platoon on three sides. A defensive perimeter was hastily established, but the enemy added mortar and rocket fire to the deadly fusillade and assaulted the position from several directions. With complete disregard for his safety, P/Sgt. Smith moved through the deadly fire along the defensive line, positioning soldiers, distributing ammunition and encouraging his men to repeal the enemy attack. Struck to the ground by enemy fire which caused a severe shoulder wound, he regained his feet, killed the enemy soldier and continued to move about the perimeter. He was again wounded in the shoulder and stomach but continued moving on his knees to assist in the defense. Noting the enemy massing at a weakened point on the perimeter, he crawled into the open and poured deadly fire into the enemy ranks. As he crawled on, he was struck by a rocket. Moments later, he regained consciousness, and drawing on his fast dwindling strength, continued to crawl from man to man. When he could move no farther, he chose to remain in the open where he could alert the perimeter to the approaching enemy. P/Sgt. Smith perished, never relenting in his determined effort against the enemy. The valorous acts and heroic leadership of this outstanding soldier inspired those remaining members of his platoon to beat back the enemy assaults. P/Sgt. Smith’s gallant actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and they reflect great credit upon him and the Armed Forces of his country.






Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Kamil-ni, Korea, 16 February 1951. Entered service at: Racine, W. Va. Born: 1 June 1918, Jenkins, Ky. G.O. No.: 17, 1 February 1952. Citation: 2d Lt. Kyle, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. When his platoon had been pinned down by intense fire, he completely exposed himself to move among and encourage his men to continue the advance against enemy forces strongly entrenched on Hill 185. Inspired by his courageous leadership, the platoon resumed the advance but was again pinned down when an enemy machine gun opened fire, wounding six of the men. 2d Lt. Kyle immediately charged the hostile emplacement alone, engaged the crew in hand-to-hand combat, killing all three. Continuing on toward the objective, his platoon suddenly received an intense automatic-weapons fire from a well-concealed hostile position on its right flank. Again leading his men in a daring bayonet charge against this position, firing his carbine and throwing grenades, 2d Lt. Kyle personally destroyed four of the enemy before he was killed by a burst from an enemy submachinegun. The extraordinary heroism and outstanding leadership of 2d Lt. Kyle, and his gallant self-sacrifice, reflect the highest credit upon himself and are in keeping with the esteemed traditions of the military service.




Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 503d Parachute Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Corregidor, Philippine Islands, 16-19 February 1945. Entered service at: Tacoma, Wash. Born: 11 May 1917, St. Maries, Idaho. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He was a scout with the regiment which seized the fortress of Corregidor, Philippine Islands. Shortly after the initial parachute assault on 16 February 1945, he crossed thirty yards of open ground under intense enemy fire, and at pointblank range silenced a machinegun with hand grenades. On the afternoon of 18 February he killed six snipers. That evening, when a large force attempted to bypass his company, he voluntarily moved to an exposed area and opened fire. The enemy attacked his position repeatedly throughout the night and was each time repulsed. By 2 o’clock in the morning, all the men about him had been wounded; but shouting encouragement to his comrades and defiance at the enemy, he continued to bear the brunt of the attack, fearlessly exposing himself to locate enemy soldiers and then pouring heavy fire on them. He repeatedly crawled back to the American line to secure more ammunition. When his submachine gun would no longer operate, he seized an automatic rifle and continued to inflict heavy casualties. This weapon, in turn, became too hot to use and, discarding it, he continued with an M-l rifle. At dawn the enemy attacked with renewed intensity. Completely exposing himself to hostile fire, he stood erect to locate the most dangerous enemy positions. He was seriously wounded; but, though he had already killed more than thirty of the enemy, he refused to evacuate until he had pointed out immediate objectives for attack. Through his sustained and outstanding heroism in the face of grave and obvious danger, Pvt. McCarter made outstanding contributions to the success of his company and to the recapture of Corregidor.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 4 June 1873, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 55, 19 July 1901. Citation: Served in battle against the enemy at 16 February 1900. Throughout this action and in the presence of the enemy, Harvey distinguished himself by meritorious conduct.

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Unerased History – February 15th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 15, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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National Gum Drop Day
Susan B. Anthony Day

Invention of the Outboard Motor

Ole Evinrude was born in in 1877 in  Norway.. In October 1881 his father emigrated to America, followed the next year by his wife and three children. Three additional children were born in America. The family settled on a farm in Ripley Lake near Cambridge, Wisconsin. At age sixteen Evinrude went to Madison, where he worked in machinery stores and studied engineering on his own. He became a machinist while working at various machine tool firms in Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.

Necessity is the mother of invention  and she could not have found a better person
to appear to than Ole Evinrude. 1n 1893, on a nice warm day in Wisconsin, Ole, some of his friends and the love of his life, Bess Cary rowed out to an island on Oconomowoc Lake, just outside Milwaukee. As the day warmed up even more, it would have been nice to have something cool. Bess said she would like to have some ice cream. Eager to please, Ole jumped into his rowboat and took off. The wind was favorable to the trip going to land and the trip did not take long. The trip back, however, was much tougher because the trip was into the wind. The result was ice cream soup. Regardless, they enjoyed it but Ole said to himself, “Never again.”

He had owned a company that had made small gasoline engines but it had failed. He had helped a young man named Arthur Davidson make an air-cooled engine and watch as he went on to Harley-Davidson fame and he now thought that this was the way to propel a small boat.

In 1900, Evinrude co-founded the custom engine firm Clemick & Evinrude. In 1907, he invented the first practical and reliable outboard motor, which was built of steel and brass, and had a crank on the flywheel to start the two-cycle engine. On his first test he amazed the deckhands at the river by skimming across the water at about five miles per hour. After some cosmetic changes, he made engine #2. He gave it to a friend who then immediately bought ten engines.

By 1912, the firm employed 300 workers. Ole then formed the Evinrude Outboard Motors, which he sold in 1913 in order to look after his sick wife.

In 1919, Evinrude invented a more efficient and lighter two-cylinder motor. Having sold his part in Clemick & Evinrude, he founded ELTO or the Elto Outboard Motor Company. (ELTO was an acronym for “Evinrude Light Twin Outboard”.) Although ELTO faced stiff competition from other companies, such as Johnson Motor Company of South Bend, Indiana, Evinrude’s company survived through acquisitions, eventually forming the Outboard Marine Corporation.The advertising went in to effect. It began with, “DON’T ROW, use the Evinrude Detachable Row Boat Motor.”

His wife Bess died in 1933, at only 48 years old, and Ole Evinrude died the following year, 57 years old. After Evinrude died, his son, Ralph Evinrude, took over day-to-day management of the company, eventually rising to Chairman of the Board. The company is now called Evinrude Outboard Motors, and is owned by Bombardier Recreational Products.


“If you wish the world to become loving and compassionate, become loving and compassionate yourself. If you wish to diminish fear in the world, diminish your own. These are the gifts that you can give.”

~ Gary Zukav


omphaloskepsis(om-fuh-lo-SKEP-sis) noun

Contemplation of one’s navel.[From Greek omphalos (navel) + skepsis (act of looking, examination).
Ultimately from the Indo-European root spek- (to observe) which is
also the ancestor of suspect, spectrum, bishop (literally, overseer),
despise, espionage, telescope, spectator, and spectacles.]


399 BC – Socrates was condemned to death on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods into Greek thought. A tribunal of 501 citizens found Socrates guilty of the charge of impiety and corruption of youth.
1758 – The first mustard, made by Benjamin Franklin was put on sale in America.

1762 – The British capture Fort Martiniqe, the main French port in the West Indies, and then St. Lucia and Grenada. Later in the year, Britain will also overrun the Spanish colonial outposts of Cuba and of Manila in the Philippines.
1764 – St Louis (MO) founded as a French trading post by Pierre Laclade Ligue.
1798 – The first serious fist fight occurred in Congress.Roger Griswold (CT-Federalist) v. Matthew Lyon (VT- Republican)
1799 – Printed ballots were authorized for use in elections in the State of Pennsylvania.
1803 – Marbury v. Madison decided. It is a landmark case in United States law. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.
1804 – New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish slavery.
1805 – Harmony Society officially formed. The Society was founded and led by Johann Georg Rapp (1757–1847) and his adopted son, Frederick (Reichert) Rapp (1775–1834), and lasted for 100 years –until 1905.
1838 – In defiance of the new “gag rule” adopted 19 December 1837, Representative John Quincy Adams introduces 350 petitions against slavery into the House. The petitions were all tabled.
1842 – First adhesive postage stamps in US (private delivery company), New York, NY.
1847 – The House of Representatives approves a bill for negotiations to purchase occupied territory from Mexico. Several attempts were made to exclude slavery but they all failed.
1848 – Sarah Roberts was barred from a white school in Boston. Boston required Sarah Roberts, a five-year-old Black, to enroll in an all-black public elementary school. Benjamin Roberts, Sarah’s father and one of the nation’s first Black American printers, challenged the Boston School Committee’s policy of racial segregation.
1851 – Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
1856 – USS Supply, commanded by LT David Dixon Porter, sails from Smyrna, Syria, bound for Indianola, Texas, with a load of 21 camels intended for experimental use in the American desert west of the Rockies.
1861 – Civil War: Ft. Point in the San Francisco Bay area was completed and garrisoned to defend San Francisco Bay against hostile warships. It never fired a cannon in anger.
1862 – Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant attacks Fort Donelson, Tennessee.
1862 – Civil War: Four Confederate gunboats under Commodore Tattnall attacked Union batteries at Venus Point, on Savannah River, Georgia, but were forced back to Savannah. Tattnall was attempting to effect the passage of steamer Ida from Fort Pulaski to Savannah.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Forest Rose came to the relief of Union soldiers who were hard pressed by attacking Confederate troops at Waterproof, Louisiana.
1869 – Charges of treason against Jefferson Davis were dropped.
1870 – Ground was broken for Northern Pacific Railway near Duluth, Minn.
1876 – Historic Elm at Boston blown down. On the first complete map of Boston, drafted by Captain John Bonner in 1722, is a record of three trees only, standing at the time the first settlers came. One of these, represented as the largest, was the Old Elm on Boston Common.
1879 – President Rutherford B. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the Supreme Court of the United States.
1895 – Nine inches of snow falls on New Orleans.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The USS Maine explodes and sinks in Havana harbor in Cuba, killing more than 260 of the 400 men on board.  On April 25, the U.S. Congress declared war on Spain to the shouts of “Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!” The true cause of the explosion that sank the battleship Maine remains a mystery.
1903 – Morris Michtom and his wife Rose introduce the first teddy bear in America.
1911 – Congress transferred Fort Trumbull, New London, CT from War Department to Treasury Department for the use of the USRCS (US Revenue Cutter Service).
1912 – The Fram reached latitude 78ø 41′ S, farthest south ever by ship. The Fram (“Forward”) was a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions between 1893 and 1912.
1917 – The Main Branch of the SF Public Library at the Civic center was dedicated.
1918 – The 1st WW I US army troopship was torpedoed & sunk off Ireland by Germany.
1919 – American Legion organizes in Paris.
1926 – Contract air mail service begins in US.
1930 – Wenona beat Toluca in an Illinois Basketball Tournament in 10 overtimes.
1931 – First Dracula movie released.
1931 – Spring training site of New York Yankees in St Petersburg is renamed Miller Huggins Field in honor of the team’s late manager.
1932 – George Burns and Gracie Allen debuted as regulars on “The Guy Lombardo Show” on CBS radio.
1932 – US bobsled team member Eddie Eagan became the only athlete to win gold in both Summer & Winter Olympics (1920 boxing gold).
1933 – In Miami, Florida, Giuseppe Zangara attempts to assassinate President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, but instead shoots Chicago, Illinois Mayor Anton J. Cermak, who dies of his wounds on March 6, 1933.
1934 – America was plagued by poverty and unemployment, prompting President Franklin Roosevelt to call on Congress to establish a Federal institution for doling out funds to the nation’s needy. The result was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA).
1939 – Lillian Hellman’s “Little Foxes,” premiered in New York City.
1940 – World War II: Europe – Hitler ordered that all British merchant ships would be considered warships.
1941-Duke Ellington first records “Take the “A” Train“.
1942 – World War II: The Fall of Singapore. Following an assault by Japanese forces, the British General Arthur Percival surrenders. About 80,000 Indian, United Kingdom and Australian soldiers become prisoners of war, the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. The Sook Ching massacre begins.
1943 – World War II: North Africa – The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
1943 – World War II: PacificWomen’s camp Tamtui on Ambon (Moluccas) was hit by allied air raid.
1943 – “My True Story” was heard for the first time on ABC radio.
1944 – World War II: The assault on Monte Cassino, Italy begins.
1944 – World War II: British bombers attacked Berlin.
1945 – World War II: During the day, the US 8th Air Force raids Dresden where the fire storm continues.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month. They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – World War II: A regiment from US 11th Corps is landed at the southern tip of Bataan on Luzon to help in the operations of the remainder of the corps. The fighting in Manila continues.
1946 -  ENIAC, the first electronic general-purpose computer, is formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
1946 – Edith Houghton, at age 33, was signed as a baseball scout by the Philadelphia Phillies becoming the first female scout in the major leagues.
1950 – Walt Disney’s “Cinderella” released.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Bing Crosby, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin and “Chattanooga Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley
1951 – Korean War: The communists were defeated at Chipyong-ni by the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division’s 23rd Infantry Regimental Combat Team (RCT) and the French Battalion.
1953 – Korean War: Radio Pyongyang went off the air when B-29s attacked the nearby Pingjang-ni communications center, damaging power lines and Twenty-two F-84s from the 474th Fighter-Bomber Wing bombed the generators at the Sui-ho hydroelectric plant.
1953 – Seventeen-year-old Tenley Albright becomes the first American to win the world figure skating championship.
1954 – An ocean exploration depth record of 13,287 feet (4,050 meters, over 2,000 fathoms, or over 2-1/2 miles) in FNRS III was set when two French Navy officers, Lt. Commander Georges Houot and Lt. Pierre Willm, reached the Atlantic Ocean floor, 120 miles southwest of Dakar, Senegal, Africa, in the tropical Atlantic Ocean.
1954 -  Canada and the United States agree to construct the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic regions of Canada and Alaska.
1955 – First pilot plant to produce man-made diamonds announced.
1956 – Pirates & Kansas City A’s cancel an exhibition game in Birmingham AL, because of local ordinance barring black from playing against white
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Get a Job” by The Silhouettes, “Catch a Falling Star/Magic Moments” by Perry Como and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1960 – US nuclear submarine USS Triton set off on underwater round-world trip.
1961 – Sabena Flight 548 crashes in Belgium, killing 73, with the entire 18 – member US Figure Skating team, several coaches & family.
1962 – CBS-TV bought the exclusive rights to college football games from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) for $10 million.

1964 – “I Saw Her Standing There” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Love” by Petula Clark, “Lightnin’ Strikes” by Lou Christie, “Uptight (Everything’s Alright)” by Stevie Wonder and “Giddyup Go” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War : Thirteen U.S. helicopters were shot down in one day in Vietnam.
1967 – The first anti-bootleg recording laws were enacted.
1968 – Anaheim’s Les Salvage scored 10, 3-pt baskets in an ABA game vs. Denver.
1969 – “Everyday People” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1970 – William Kunstler, Chicago defense attorney, got a four-year sentence on contempt charges for his conduct during the Chicago Seven trial.
1972 -  Sound recordings are granted U.S. federal copyright protection for the first time.
1972 – William Kolff obtained a patent for the soft shell mushroom shaped artificial heart.
1973 - Friendsville Academy in Tenn. ended a 138-game basketball losing streak. It beat a small catholic school from West Virginia who had a similar record with 70 straight losses. Neither team ever played basketball again.
1973 - The US and Cuba reached an anti-hijacking agreement.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love’s Theme” by Love Unlimited Orchestra, Americans” by Byron MacGregor, “Until You Come Back to Me (That’s What I’m Gonna Do)” by Aretha Franklin and “World of Make Believe” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1974 – US gasoline stations threatened to close because of federal fuel policies.
1975 – “You’re No Good” by Linda Ronstadt topped the charts.
1975 -In local elections 78.8% of the residents approved a covenant under which the Northern Marianas would become a US Commonwealth. In 1976 the US Congress approved a covenant whereby Saipan became the capital of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Today (2014), the Marianas Islands are composed of two U.S. jurisdictions: the territory of Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
1976 - David Pearson survived a last lap chaos with Richard Petty and limped his car to victory lane to win his only Daytona 500 victory in one of NASCAR’s amazing endings.

1978 – Boxer Leon Spinks defeated Muhammad Ali to win the heavyweight boxing crown.
1978 - Ted Bundy (1946-1989), American escaped serial killer, was recaptured in Pensacola, Fla. Bundy eventually confessed to 29 murders.
1979 – The Temple City Kazoo Orchestra appeared on the Mike Douglas Show. (See YouTube)
1981 – A rocket-powered ice sled attained 399 kph on Lake George, NY.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Centerfold” by The J. Geils Band, “Harden My Heart” by Quarterflash, “Open Arms” by Journey and “Someone Could Lose a Heart Tonight” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1982 – The drilling rig Ocean Ranger sinks during a storm off the coast of Newfoundland, killing 84 rig workers.
1982 – Sugar Ray Leonard, the welterweight boxing champion, knocked out Bruce Finch in the third round of a fight in Reno, NV. Leonard was injured in the second round and underwent retinal surgery in May.
1985 – The STS 51-E vehicle was moved to the launch pad.
1985 – The Center for Disease Control reported that more than half of all nine-year-olds in the U.S. showed no sign of tooth decay.
1986 – “How Will I Know” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 - ABC-TV began broadcasting “Amerika” mini-series.
1989 – Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan: The Soviet Union officially announces that all of its troops had left Afghanistan.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair, Two to Make It Right” by Seduction, “Janie’s Got a Gun” by Aerosmith and “Southern Star” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1990 – Professional Baseball owners lock out players.
1991 – Iraq: Iraq proposed a conditional withdrawal from Kuwait, an offer dismissed by President Bush as a “cruel hoax.”
1992 – One hundredth episode of “Cops” aired on the Fox network.
1992 - A Milwaukee jury found that Jeffrey Dahmer was sane when he killed and mutilated 15 men and boys.
1993 – President Clinton issued an economic “call to arms,” asking Americans to accept a painful package of tax increases and spending cuts.
1994 – Navy chief Adm. Frank Kelso II agreed to early retirement because of criticism over the Tailhook sex abuse scandal.
1995 – Kevin Mitnick is arrested for computer hacking by the FBI and charged with breaking into some of the United States’ most “secure” computer systems. He did five years in prison.
1996 – Mortar attack on the US Embassy in Athens, Greece.
1996 – A federal judge temporarily blocked the Communications Decency Act, saying the government had to explain what material it considered indecent before it could enforce the law, designed to protect children from sexually explicit material on computer networks.
1997 - Tara Lipinski upset Michelle Kwan at the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Nashville, Tenn., becoming the youngest gold medalist at the nationals.
1999 – Coast Guard recruiting ads began appearing on World Wrestling Federation cable television programs.
1999Carole Sund (42), Julie Sund (15) and Silvina Pelosso were last seen at the Cedar Lodge motel in Portal, Ca. The trio were visiting the area from Eureka. Carole Sund’s wallet and credit cards were found in Modesto on Feb 19. Cary Stayner, motel maintenance man, later admitted to the murders and faced trial in 2002.
2000 – Indian Point II nuclear power plant in New York State vents a small amount of radioactive steam when a steam generator fails.
2000 -  Fox aired “Who Wants to Marry a Multimillionaire?,” a TV special which drew huge ratings.
2001 - First draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.
2002 – President George W. Bush approved Nevada’s Yucca Mountain as a site for long-term disposal of radioactive nuclear waste.
2002 – Globalstar, a satellite telephone company, filed for bankruptcy. The company had spent $4 billion to launch a network of 48 communications satellites.
2002 – At the Tri-State Crematory in La Fayette, Georgia, investigators find uncremated bodies disposed of in the woods and buildings on the crematorium’s property. The discovery reveals one of the worst incidents of abuse in the funeral service industry.
2003 – American warplanes bombed two anti-aircraft missile sites in southern Iraq.
2004 - Scientists at the California Institute of Technology announce the discovery of a galaxy which is the farthest known object in the universe. The galaxy was found with the help of the magnification effect from the Abell 2218 galaxy cluster.
2004 - Dale Earnhardt Jr. won the Daytona 500 on the same track where his father was killed three years earlier.
2004 – Iraqi police arrested No. 41 on the American military’s most-wanted list, Baath Party official Mohammed Zimam Abdul-Razaq.
2005 – - YouTube, a popular video-sharing Web site, is started.
2005 - The United States recalls its ambassador to Syria, Margaret Scobey, in protest of alleged Syrian involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.
2005 - Microsoft announces its intentions to release Internet Explorer version 7.0.
2006 – Robert Rich (92), inventor of frozen non-dairy topping, died. In 1990 he was among the 1st 4 people inducted into the Frozen Food Hall of Fame.
2006 - A US Republican-led House committee report, “A Failure of Initiative,” cited major failures at all levels of government in the handling of Hurricane Katrina.
2007 – Top US auditors told Congress that over $10 billion paid to military contractors for Iraq reconstruction and troop support was either excessive or unsupported by documents.
2007 - Democratic Party officials in the U.S. Congress have warned President Bush that he does not have the authority to go to war with Iran.
2007 – In another case of “Corporate Flight”, Hershey Co. said it would cut about 11 percent of its workforce and reduce the number of production lines it operates by more than a third as it spends as much as $575 million to overhaul its manufacturing. The Chicago-based US chocolate maker also said it will build a new, cost-efficient manufacturing plant in Monterrey, Mexico.
2007 – A new version of the US $1 coin, paying tribute to American presidents, went into general circulation. A unknown number were mistakenly struck without their edge inscription “In God We Trust.” George Washington appeared on the first coin.
2007 – Hundreds of drivers became stranded on a stretch of eastern Pennsylvania that had been hit by a monster storm. The National Guard was called in to deliver food and other necessities to a 50-mile line of vehicles trapped on I-78.
2008 - A Cook County, Illinois, probate judge declares adventurer Steve Fossett to be legally dead five months after he disappeared in the Nevada desert.
2008 – It was reported that a new computer virus called Mocmex, identified as a Trojan Horse from China, had been discovered in digital photo frames. It recognized and blocked antivirus software from over 100 security vendors and collected passwords for online games.
2009 - NASCAR driver Matt Kenseth wins the rain-shortened 2009 Daytona 500 at Daytona International Speedway after 152 of 200 laps.
2009 –  In Washington State a 16-year-old girl was found dead and another teenage girl was discovered unconscious in a barracks at Fort Lewis Army base south of Tacoma. In March, Army authorities charged Pvt. Timothy E. Bennitt (19) if the drug overdose of his girlfriend.
2009 –  Illinois Republicans called for the resignation of Democratic Sen. Roland Burris following reports of contradicting statements regarding conversations with close associates of former Gov. Rod Blagojevich.
2010 –  Astronauts successfully attached a fancy new observation deck to the International Space Station after a long, frustrating night spent dealing with stuck bolts and wayward wiring.
2011 –  Secretary of State Hillary Clinton outlines a new policy on Internet freedom.
2011 –  Two U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers are shot while travelling between Monterrey and Mexico City with one officer dying.
2012 –  Sony admits it increased the price of two Whitney Houston albums hours after she was found in the bathtub of her hotel room last Saturday. Fans react with outrage.
2012 –  The Kellogg Company purchases snack maker Pringles from Procter & Gamble for $2.7 billion.
2012 –  Seventeen students at Texas Christian University in the U.S., including four members of the school’s football team, are arrested on drug charges.
2013 - Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 with an estimated diameter of about 50 160 ft comes within 17,200 miles  from the Earth’s surface. This distance is a record close approach for a known object of such size
2013 - Former Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. is charged with misusing campaign funds while in office.


1564 – Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer and physicist (d. 1642)

1725 – Abraham Clark, American founding father, Declaration of Independence signer (d. 1794)
1734 – William Stacy, Continental Army officer, and pioneer to the Ohio Country (d. 1802)
1809 – Cyrus McCormick, American inventor (d. 1884)
1812 – Charles Lewis Tiffany, American jeweler (d. 1902)
1820 – Susan B. Anthony, American suffragist (d. 1906)
1825 – Carter Harrison, Sr., (d. 1893) was an American politician who served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1879 until 1887;
1877 – Louis Renault, French automobile executive (d. 1944)
1882 – John Barrymore, American actor (d. 1942)
1892 – James Forrestal, United States Secretary of Defense (d. 1949) U.S.S. Forrestal named after him.
1893 – Walter Donaldson, American songwriter “Carolina in the Morning” “How Ya Gonna Keep ‘Em Down on the Farm?” “Yes Sir, That’s My Baby”  (d. 1947)
1907 – Cesar Romero, American actor (d. 1994)
1911 – Leonard Woodcock, American labor union official and diplomat (d. 2001)
1916 – Mary Jane Croft, was an American actress best known for her role as Mary Jane Lewis on The Lucy Show and Here’s Lucy. (d. 1999)
1927 – Harvey Korman, American actor and comedian (d. 2008)
1929 – James Schlesinger, American politician
1935 – Roger Chaffee, astronaut (d. 1967)
1947 – David Brown, American musician (Santana) (d. 2000)
1947 – Rusty Hamer, American actor. Hamer grew up on TV as Rusty Williams, the freckle-faced son of TV Dad, Danny Thomas, on Make Room for Daddy (1953–1964) (d. 1990)
1964 – Chris Farley, American actor and comedian (d. 1997)
1973 – Amy Van Dyken, is an American swimmer who has six career Olympic gold medals. Four of these gold medals came in the 1996 Summer Olympics, making her the first American woman to accomplish such a feat.
1974 – Seattle Slew, American racehorse (d. 2002)






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, 15 February 1967. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 19 June 1945, Brooklyn, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Willett distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company C, during combat operations. His squad was conducting a security sweep when it made contact with a large enemy force. The squad was immediately engaged with a heavy volume of automatic weapons fire and pinned to the ground. Despite the deadly fusillade, Pfc. Willett rose to his feet firing rapid bursts from his weapon and moved to a position from which he placed highly effective fire on the enemy. His action allowed the remainder of his squad to begin to withdraw from the superior enemy force toward the company perimeter. Pfc. Willett covered the squad’s withdrawal, but his position drew heavy enemy machinegun fire, and he received multiple wounds enabling the enemy again to pin down the remainder of the squad. Pfc. Willett struggled to an upright position, and, disregarding his painful wounds, he again engaged the enemy with his rifle to allow his squad to continue its movement and to evacuate several of his comrades who were by now wounded. Moving from position to position, he engaged the enemy at close range until he was mortally wounded. By his unselfish acts of bravery, Pfc. Willett insured the withdrawal of his comrades to the company position, saving their lives at the cost of his life. Pfc. Willett’s valorous actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company B, 358th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Place and date: Heckhuscheid, Germany, February 1945 (Exact day is unknown). Entered service at: Middleport, Ohio. Birth: Middleport, Ohio. G.O. No.: 95, 30 October 1945. Citation: He was advancing with Company B across open ground to assault Heckhuscheid, Germany, just after dark when vicious enemy machinegun fire from a house on the outskirts of the town pinned down the group and caused several casualties. He began crawling to the edge of the field in an effort to flank the house, persisting in this maneuver even when the hostile machine gunners located him by the light of burning buildings and attempted to cut him down as he made for the protection of some trees. Reaching safety, he stealthily made his way by a circuitous route to the rear of the building occupied by the German gunners. With his trench knife he killed a sentry on guard there and then charged into the darkened house. In a furious hand-to-hand struggle he stormed about a single room which harbored seven Germans. Three he killed with rifle fire, another he clubbed to death with the butt of his gun, and the three others he dispatched with his .45 caliber pistol. The fearless initiative, stalwart combat ability, and outstanding gallantry of Cpl. Bennett eliminated the enemy fire which was decimating his company’s ranks and made it possible for the Americans to sweep all resistance from the town.





Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy, Commanding U.S.S. Barb. Place and date: Along coast of China, 19 December 1944 to 15 February 1945. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: S October 1913, Washington, D.C. Other Navy award: Navy Cross with 3 Gold Stars. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Barb during her eleventh war patrol along the east coast of China from 19 December 1944 to 15 February 1945. After sinking a large enemy ammunition ship and damaging additional tonnage during a running two-hour night battle on 8 January, Comdr. Fluckey, in an exceptional feat of brilliant deduction and bold tracking on 25 January, located a concentration of more than thirty enemy ships in the lower reaches of Nankuan Chiang (Mamkwan Harbor). Fully aware that a safe retirement would necessitate an hour’s run at full speed through the uncharted, mined, and rock-obstructed waters, he bravely ordered, “Battle station–torpedoes!” In a daring penetration of the heavy enemy screen, and riding in five fathoms of water, he launched the Barb’s last forward torpedoes at 3,000-yard range. Quickly bringing the ship’s stern tubes to bear, he turned loose four more torpedoes into the enemy, obtaining eight direct hits on six of the main targets to explode a large ammunition ship and cause inestimable damage by the resultant flying shells and other pyrotechnics. Clearing the treacherous area at high speed, he brought the Barb through to safety and four days later sank a large Japanese freighter to complete a record of heroic combat achievement, reflecting the highest credit upon Comdr. Fluckey, his gallant officers and men, and the U.S. Naval Service.



Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, commander of Catalina patrol plane. Place and date: Bismarck Sea, 15 February 1944. Entered service at: Arkansas. Born: 4 September 1916, Morrilton, Ark. Citation: For extraordinary heroism above and beyond the call of duty as commander of a Catalina patrol plane in rescuing personnel of the U.S. Army 5th Air Force shot down in combat over Kavieng Harbor in the Bismarck Sea, 15 February 1944. On air alert in the vicinity of Vitu Islands, Lt. (then Lt. j.g.) Gordon


INTERIM 1871-1898

Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1847, Canada. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For jumping overboard from the U.S.S. Tennessee at New Orleans, La., 15 February 1881, and sustaining, until picked up by a boat’s crew, N. P. Petersen, gunner’s mate, who had fallen overboard.




Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Crystal Lake, Minn. Birth: Austria. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Burger was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.


His grandson was United States Supreme Court Justice Warren E. Burger.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Shelbyville, Minn. Birth: Pennsylvania. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863.. Entered service at: Louisville, Scott County, Minn. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Henderson, Minn. Birth: Lickland County, Ohio. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.



Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Mankato, Minn. Birth: Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.




Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Mankato, Minn. Born: 21 October 1844, LeRoy Township, Jefferson County, N.Y. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 2d Iowa Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Donelson, Tenn., 15 February 1862. Entered service at: Keosauqua, Van Buren County, Iowa. Birth: Van Buren County, Iowa. Date of issue: 12 March 1897. Citation: Took the colors after three of the color guard had fallen, and although most instantly knocked down by a spent ball, immediately arose and bore the colors to the end of the engagement.



Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Rochester, Minn. Birth: England. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.



Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 2d Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Nolensville, Tenn., 15 February 1863. Entered service at: Swan Lake, Minn. Birth: Indiana. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Was one of a detachment of sixteen men who heroically defended a wagon train against the attack of one hundred twenty-five Confederate cavalry, repulsed the attack and saved the train.




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Unerased History – February 14th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 14, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Valentine’s Day

National Have A Heart Day

 Valentine’s Day

Every February we celebrate Valentine’s Day by giving flowers, candy and cards to those we love. We do this in honor of Saint Valentine. You may be wondering, “Who is St. Valentine”? Time to brush up on your Valentine’s history!

One legend has it that Valentine was an imprisoned man who fell in love with his jailer’s daughter. Before he was put to death he sent the first ‘valentine’ himself when he wrote her a letter and signed it ‘Your Valentine’, words still used on cards today.

Another story which made Saint Valentine famous is this story. In ancient times, Saint Valentine was a person who helped people and heard their problems to find solutions. The main story started when the emperor of the time Claudius banned all marriages and engagements. The reason behind such act was that at that times, the war was ON and emperor thought was depressed due to the less participation of the young men. So he sorted out the problem by banning marriages so as the young men do not fall in love and hence will join the emperor’s army to fight. Valentine was helping the young couples to marry and when emperor sorted out St. Valentine, he ordered his men to throw Valentine into prison where he died on the 14th February 270 AD. From then, the day is celebrated as the Valentine’s Day.The other story related to the Valentine’s day is that Saint Valentine was a bishop who was killed by the emperor.

Perhaps we’ll never know the true identity and story behind the man named St. Valentine, but this much is for sure…February has been the month to celebrate love for a long time, dating clear back to the Middle Ages. In fact, Valentines ranks second only to Christmas in number of greeting cards sent.

The Valentine Week starts from the blossomy Rose Day followed by the Propose DayChocolate DayTeddy DayPromise DayKiss Day & Hug Day (21st) sequentially. The Valentine’s Day ends the Valentine Week on 14 February.

Another valentine gentleman you may be wondering about is Cupid (Latin cupido, “desire”). In Roman mythology Cupid is the son of Venus, goddess of love. His counterpart in Greek mythology is Eros, god of love. Cupid is often said to be a mischievous boy who goes around wounding both gods and humans with his arrows, causing them to fall in love.

When love is not madness, it is not love.  ~Pedro Calderon de la Barca

Anyone can catch your eye, but it takes someone special to catch your heart.

~ Scriptor Incompertus


A bell is no bell ’til you ring it,
A song is no song ’til you sing it,
And love in your heart
Wasn’t put there to stay -
Love isn’t love
‘Til you give it away.
~Oscar Hammerstein, Sound of Music, “You Are Sixteen (Reprise)”


 Love noun  adoration 

Synonyms: adulation, affection, allegiance, amity, amorousness, amour, appreciation, ardency, ardor, attachment, cherishing, crash, crush, delight, devotedness, devotion, emotion, enchantment, enjoyment, fervor, fidelity, flame, fondness, friendship, hankering, idolatry, inclination, infatuation, involvement, like, liking, mad for, mash, partiality, pash, passion, piety, rapture, regard, relish, respect, sentiment, soft spot, taste, tenderness, the hots, weakness, “wild for”, worship, yearning and zeal

1349 – Two thousand Jews were burned at the stake in Strasbourg, Germany.

1688 – The Carolina colonial assembly denies the power of the Lords Proprietor, agents of the King, to invalidate the Fundamental Constitutions of 1669.
1778 – Our flag, “Stars & Stripes” arrives in foreign port for first time (France). This was the first time that the Stars and Stripes, the flag of the new nation, was officially recognized by a foreign government. A nine gun salute to USS Ranger, commanded by John Paul Jones.
1779 – Capt. James Cook is killed by Native Hawaiians near Kealakekua on the Island of Hawaii (then called the Sandwich Islands).
1779 – Revolutionary War – American Loyalists are defeated by Patriots at Kettle Creek, Ga.
1794 – First US textile machinery patent granted, to James Davenport. His patent for “weaving and beating sail duck,” was the first one issued in the United States.
1803 – Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress which conflicts with the Constitution is void.
1803 – The first American patent for an apple peeler was issued to Moses Coates of Chester Co., Pennsylvania.
1813 – Essex becomes first U.S. warship to round Cape Horn and enter the Pacific Ocean.
1814 – USS Constitution captures British Lovely Ann and Pictou.
1840 – Officers from USS Vincennes make first landing in Antarctica on floating ice.
1849 – James Polk became the first U.S. president to be photographed while in office. The photographer was Mathew Brady, who later became famous for his Civil War pictures.
1854 – Texas linked by telegraph with the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
1854 – Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson patented a firearm. Their first pistol was  known as the “Smith & Wesson Model 1.”
1859 – Oregon admitted as the 33rd U.S. state.
1861 -  First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor occurred in what would become Arizona on the night of 2/13-14. The medal went to Army Assistant Surgeon Bernard J.D. Irwin. He rescued the 60 soldiers of 2nd Lt. George Bascom’s unit at Apache Pass, AZ. (recorded on both the 13th & 14th)
1862 – Galena, the first US iron-clad warship for service at sea, was launched in CT.
1862 – Civil War: Gunboats U.S.S. St. Louis, Carondelet, Louisville, Pittsburg, Tyler, and Conestoga under Flag Officer Foote joined with General Grant in attacking Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.
1867 – Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. issued its first policy. It is now “The Hartford”.
1870 – Esther Morris became the world’s first female justice of the peace. She began term in South Pass City, WY but only served nine months. She “filled in” after R.S. Barr resigned in protest for the passage of the WY women’s suffrage amendment.
1876 – Alexander Graham Bell applies for a patent for the telephone,as does Elisha Gray.
1886 – First trainload of oranges left Los Angeles via the transcontinental railroad.
1895 – First performance of Oscar Wilde’s last play, “The Importance of Being Earnest” at the St James’s Theatre in London.
1899 – Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections.
1903 – The United States Department of Commerce and Labor is established (later split into Dept. of Commerce and Dept. of Labor).
1904 – “The Missouri Kid” (AKA William Rudolph, AKA Charles Gorney. He was credited with numerous highway robberies, bank robberies, and murder.) was captured in Kansas.
1912 – Arizona admitted as the 48th U.S. state.
1912 – In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned.
1918 – Tarzan of the Apes, the first movie featuring Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan character, is released.
1918 – Sigmund Romberg’s musical “Sinbad,” premiered in New York City.
1919 – United Parcel Service forms.
1920 – The League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago, Illinois. Its first president was Maude Wood Park.
1921 – Skeezix of “Gasoline Alley” discovered on Wallet’s doorstep. This was the day Gasoline Alley entered history as the first comic strip in which the characters aged normally.
1921 – The Little Review faced obscenity charges in NY for publishing “Ulysses” by James Joyce. Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap were convicted and fined $50 each.
1924 – The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is founded by Thomas Watson.
1929 – St. Valentine’s Day Massacre: Seven gangster rivals of Al Capone are murdered in Chicago, Illinois. Seven members of Moran’s gang were lined up against a wall , then shot and killed by five members of Al Capone’s gang.
1932 – The U.S. won the first bobsled competition at the Winter Olympic Games at Lake Placid, NY.
1933 – An eight-day bank holiday was declared in Michigan in a Depression-era move to avert a financial panic. A total of $50 million was rushed to Detroit to bolster bank assets.
1939 – German battleship Bismarck was launched.
1940 – The first porpoise born in captivity arrived at Marineland in Florida.
1941 – WW II: German Africa Corps lands in Tripoli, Libya.
1941 – 1,000,000th vehicle traverses the New York Midtown Tunnel.
1941 – Frank Leahy was named head football coach at the University of Notre Dame. Leahy coached at Notre Dame for 11 years, from 1941-1943, and 1946-1953. His record of thirty-nine straight, undefeated games still stands as a Notre Dame record. Coach Leahy’s overall college football record was 107 wins, 13 losses, and 9 ties.
1942 – World War II: This Is War, a 13-week anti-fascist radio series, debuted in the midst of World War II.
1943 – World War II: Battle of the Kasserine Pass – German General Erwin Rommel and the Afrika Korps launch an offensive against Allied defenses in Tunisia.
1944 – World War II: American and New Zealand forces land on the Green Islands.
1945 – WW II: On the second day of the Bombing of Dresden , the British Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces begin fire-bombing Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony. 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany .The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people.
1945 – American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month (2/19). They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt meets with King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia aboard the USS Quincy, officially starting the U.S.-Saudi diplomatic relationship.
1946 – ENIAC (for “Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer”), the first general-purpose electronic computer, unveiled at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and around 5 million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 30 short tons, was roughly 8.5 by 3 by 80 feet, took up 680 square feet and consumed 150 kW of power.
1949 – The Knesset (Israeli parliament) first convenes.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting and “I Love You So Much It Hurts” by Jimmy Wakely all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: Operation ROUNDUP officially concluded and the 30-day battle of Wonju began as the 2nd Infantry Division repelled repeated attacks from seven Chinese divisions.
1952 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – VI Olympic Winter Games open in Oslo, Norway.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Colonel Royal N. “The King” Baker, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, downed his tenth enemy aircraft and became the third double ace of the war. (An ace has five enemy kills.)
1953 – “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer topped the charts.
1954 – Senator John F. Kennedy appears on “Meet the Press”.
1954 – The TV show “Letter to Loretta” changed its name to “The Loretta Young Show.” The show premiered on September 20, 1953.
1955 – Elvis Presley performs the first show booked by his new manager, “Col.” Tom Parker, at Lubbock’s Fair Park Coliseum.
1957 – Lionel Hampton’s only major musical work, “King David,” made its debut at New York’s Town Hall.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “Too Much” by Elvis Presley, “Young Love” by Tab Hunter, “You Don’t Owe Me a Thing” by Johnnie Ray and “Young Love” by Sonny James all topped the charts
1959 – “Stagger Lee” by Lloyd Price topped the charts.
1961 – Discovery of the chemical elements: Element 103, Lawrencium, is first synthesized at the University of California.
1962 – First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy takes television viewers on a tour of the White House. (57:20)
1962 – President John F. Kennedy authorizes U.S. military advisors in Vietnam to return fire if fired upon.
1963 – US launches communications satellite Syncom 1.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feelin’” by The Righteous Brothers, “This Diamond Ring” by Gary Lewis & The Playboys, “All Day and All of the Night” by The Kinks and “You’re the Only World I Know” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1966 – Wilt Chamberlain breaks NBA career scoring record at 20,884 points.
1967 – Aretha Franklin records “Respect“.
1970 – “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)” by Sly & the Family Stone topped the charts.
1971 – Movie “Ben Hur” first shown on television.
1971 – Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in White House.
1972 – The musical, “Grease”, opened at the Eden Theatre in New York City.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John, “Why Can’t We Live Together” by Timmy Thomas, “Oh, Babe, What Would You Say?” by Hurricane Smith and “She Needs Someone to Hold Her (When She Cries)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1976 – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon topped the charts.
1978 – Texas Instruments introduced the first single chip speech synthesizer and incorporated it in a product called the “Speak & Spell” which was later immortalized in the movie “E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.”
1978 – G. W. Boone and M.J. Cochran of Texas Instruments received a patent for their Variable Function Programmed Calculator.
1979 – In Kabul, Muslim extremists kidnap the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs who is later killed during a gunfight between his kidnappers and police.
1979 – Twenty-year-old rookie, Don Maloney, of the New York Rangers, scored his first goal in the National Hockey League. It came on his first NHL shot.
1979 – Iranian guerrillas stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, trapping Ambassador William Sullivan and 100 staff members. Forces of the Ayatollah Khomeini later freed them but the incident foreshadowed the embassy takeover in November.
1980 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – XIII Olympic Winter Games open in Lake Placid, New York.
1980 – Walter Cronkite announces his retirement from the CBS Evening News.
1980 – The Solar Max satellite was launched by NASA to monitor the sun and its flares at an orbit of 400 miles above Earth.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Celebration” by Kool & the Gang, “9 to 5” by Dolly Parton, “I Love a Rainy Night” by Eddie Rabbitt and “Who’s Cheatin’ Who” by Charly McClain all topped the charts.
1984 – A 6-year-old (Stormie Jones) became the first person to receive a heart and liver transplants in the same operation. She lived until 1990.
1985 – CNN reporter Jeremy Levin is freed from captivity in Lebanon. He was kidnapped in March 1984.
1987 – “Livin’ on a Prayer” by Bon Jovi topped the charts.
1988 – American David Jansen lost his bid for a Gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada. He fell during his 500-meter speed-skating event just hours after hearing that his sister has died.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul, “Wild Thing by Tone Loc, Born to Be My Baby” by Bon Jovi and “Song of the South” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1989 – The world’s first satellite telephone communications system for airline passengers, Skyphone, had its commercial debut on a British Airways 747.
1989 – Union Carbide agrees to pay $470 million to the Indian government for damages it caused in the 1984 Bhopal Disaster.
1989 – Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issues a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill the author of The Satanic Verses, Salman Rushdie. In 1998, Tehran rescinded the death sentence.
1989 – The first of 24 satellites of the Global Positioning System is placed into orbit.
1990 – Space probe Voyager 1 took photographs of entire solar system.
1990 – Ike Turner (Ike & Tina Turner) is convicted of 11 charges (including cocaine possession and distribution) and is sentenced to four years in prison, but is released after 18 months.
1993 – Six people were killed in a modern Valentine’s Day massacre in a Bronx, New York, neighborhood where area residents ignored the gunfire.
1997 – Astronauts on the space shuttle Discovery began a series of space walks that are required to overhaul the Hubble Space Telescope.
1997 -  American Airlines and its pilots union continued contract talks as the clock ticked down to a midnight strike deadline. The pilots did strike, but President Clinton immediately intervened, ordering a 60-day “cooling off” period.
1998 – Authorities in the United States announce that Eric Robert Rudolph is a suspect in an Alabama abortion clinic bombing.
1998 – “Nice & Slow” by Usher topped the charts.
1999 – Iraq threatened Kuwait and Saudi Arabia with missile attacks for permitting US warplanes to fly from their countries.
2000 - In Georgia three tornadoes struck the southwest part of the state and twenty-two people were killed.
2000 – The spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker enters orbit around asteroid 433 Eros, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid.
2000 - In Colorado two teens, Nicholas Kunselman (15) and Stephanie Hart (16), from Columbine High School were shot and killed in a sandwich shop near the school, which was still reeling from the April 1999 massacre.
2001 - The Kansas Board of Education approved new science standards restoring evolution to the state’s curriculum.
2002 – The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Shays-Meehan bill. The bill, if passed by the U.S. Senate, would ban millions of unregulated money that goes to the national political parties. It went into effect November 6, 2002.
2002 - The US House voted to ban unregulated contributions to national political parties.
2002 - Jayson Williams (34), former NBA star and NBC Sports commentator, accidentally shot and killed Costas Christofi (55), a limousine driver.
2003 – Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal and mother of 6 lambs, was put to sleep by veterinarians in Scotland, because of incurable lung cancer.
2003 - Four ex-Symbionese Liberation Army members were sentenced to prison for the 1975 murder of Myrna Opsahl during a bank robbery in Carmichael, CA.
2004 - Staff advisors for President George W. Bush say he will support the proposed Federal Marriage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which would outlaw same-sex marriage and federalize marriage law, which has been set by individual states since the founding of the country.
2005 - President Bush said he would nominate Lester M. Crawford as head of the Food and Drug Administration. Crawford had been acting commissioner for nearly a year.
2006 - In Texas lawyer Harry Whittington, who was accidentally injured 3 days earlier by birdshot fired by VP Cheney, suffered a minor heart attack.
2007 – Valentine’s Day blizzard blasted out of the Midwest and shut down parts of the Northeast including New York City.
2007 - The U.S. military confirms that a United States Marine Corps CH-46 Sea Knight helicopter that crashed on 7 February 2007 was shot down by Iraqi insurgents.
2007 – All Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter made at a Georgia ConAgra plant  was recalled because of a salmonella outbreak.
2007 - Challenged on the accuracy of US intelligence, President Bush told a news conference there was no doubt the Iranian government was providing armor-piercing weapons to kill American soldiers in Iraq, and he said he would fight any attempt by the Democratic-controlled Congress to cut off money for the war.
2008 – The US Mint officially issued the Monroe dollar coin, the fifth of its presidential dollar series.
2008 – Former student at Northern Illinois University, Stephen Kazmierczak, opened fire in a lecture hall at the school, killing six students and wounding 15 others before killing himself.
2009 – The White House had a monogram that symbolizes the name of Jesus hidden from the backdrop of a speech President Obama gave at Georgetown University.
2009 – Suspicious fires destroyed two churches and damaged a third near the Georgia border. Authorities were concerned that this was the work of Satanists.
2009 –  Louie Bellson (b.1924), big band and jazz drummer, died. The master musician performed with such greats as Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman and his late wife, Pearl Bailey.
2010 –  In Arizona, a helicopter crashed north of Phoenix killing 5 people onboard including Thomas Stewart (64), the head of Services Group of America.
2010 –   In Florence, AZ,   Viva Leroy Nash, the oldest death row inmate in the U.S. dies of natural causes at age 94.
2010 – An apartment fire in Cicero, Ill., killed at least 7 people including 4 children. The fire spread to nearby buildings and over 20 people were left homeless.
2011 –  General Motors announces that it will pay its United States hourly workers more than $4000 each as a share of profits.
2011 – The US House of Representatives votes to extend the Patriot Act for another nine months.
2012 –  An illegal alien, Ulugbek Kodirov, a Uzbekistan national, who has been residing in the U.S. on an expired visa, pleaded guilty today, to providing material support to radical Islamic terrorists, plotting to assassinate President Barack Obama, and illegally possessing a firearm.
2012 - The U.S. aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln, accompanied by the cruiser Cape St. George and the destroyer Sterett, sails through the Strait of Hormuz, close to the coast of Iran, for the second time in recent weeks.
2012 -  The Detroit Red Wings set a new record of 21 consecutive home victories in the National Hockey League by defeating the Dallas Stars 3-1.
2013 - US Airways and the bankrupt American Airlines announce a merger to form the world’s largest air carrier trading as American Airlines.
2013 - Republican Senators filibuster the nomination of muslim convert Chuck Hagel as US Secretary of Defense.
2014 – Jay Leno does his final show on the Tonight Show. Conan O’Brien will be starting on February 17th. Jay’s Final Monologue!!


1812 – Alfred Thomas Agate was a noted American artist, painter and miniaturist.
1819 – Christopher Sholes, American inventor invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. (d. 1890)
1824 – Winfield Scott Hancock, American Civil War Union general and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880.   (d. 1886)
1838 – Margaret Knight was an American inventor, famous as the female Thomas Edison. She invented a machine that folded and glued paper to form the brown paper bags familiar to shoppers today.  (d. 1914)
1846 – Julian Scott was an American artist and Civil War Medal of Honor recipient. (d. 1901)
1847 – Anna Howard Shaw was a leader of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. She was also a physician and the first ordained female Methodist minister in the United States. (d. 1919)
1859 – George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr., engineer and inventor who invented the Ferris wheel, for the 1893 Chicago World’s Columbian Exposition in an attempt to create something as impressive as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. (d. 1896)
1894 – Jack Benny was an American comedian, vaudevillian, and actor for radio, television, and film. (d. 1974)
1904 – Charles Oatley, Professor of electrical engineering, (scanning electron microscope), (d. 1996)
1913 – Woody Hayes was a college football coach who is best remembered for winning five national titles and 13 Big Ten championships in 28 years at Ohio State University. (d. 1987)
1913 – Jimmy Hoffa, American labor union leader, served as the General President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from 1958–1971  (disappeared 1975)
1921 – Hugh Downs, American television host. He served as anchor of 20/20, host of The Today Show, announcer for the Tonight Show with Jack Paar, and host of the Concentration game show.
1931 – Brian Kelly was an American actor best known for his role as Porter Ricks, the widowed father of two sons on the NBC television series Flipper. (d. 2005)
1931 – Phyllis McGuire, American singer (The McGuire Sisters)
1934 – Florence Henderson, American actress who is perhaps best known for playing the role of Carol Brady in the television program The Brady Bunch.
1936 – Fanne Foxe, Argentine dancer best known for being involved in a 1974 sex scandal surrounding Arkansas Congressman Wilbur Mills, until then one of the most powerful members of the House of Representatives.
1948 – Pat O’Brien, American sportscaster and television host.
1960 – Jim Kelly, American football player, led the Buffalo Bills to four consecutive Super Bowls in 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993, though the Bills lost all four of them. In 2002, in his first year of eligibility, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.





Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company M, 23d Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Chipyong-ni, Korea, 14 February 1951. Entered service at: Bellwood, Pa. Birth: Bellwood, Pa. G.O. No.: 20, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sfc. Sitman distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Sfc. Sitman, a machine gun section leader of Company M, was attached to Company I, under attack by a numerically superior hostile force. During the encounter when an enemy grenade knocked out his machine gun, a squad from Company I, immediately emplaced a light machine gun and Sfc. Sitman and his men remained to provide security for the crew. In the ensuing action, the enemy lobbed a grenade into the position and Sfc. Sitman, fully aware of the odds against him, selflessly threw himself on it, absorbing the full force of the explosion with his body. Although mortally wounded in this fearless display of valor, his intrepid act saved 5 men from death or serious injury, and enabled them to continue inflicting withering fire on the ruthless foe throughout the attack. Sfc. Sitman’s noble self-sacrifice and consummate devotion to duty reflect lasting glory on himself and upheld the honored traditions of the military service.






Rank and organization: Watertender First Class, U.S. Naval Reserve. Born: 12 July 1920, Hebron, IL. Accredited to. Illinois. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving on board the U.S.S. Fletcher during action against enemy Japanese forces off Corregidor Island in the Philippines, 14 February 1945. Standing topside when an enemy shell struck the Fletcher, Bigelow, acting instantly as the deadly projectile exploded into fragments which penetrated the No. 1 gun magazine and set fire to several powder cases, picked up a pair of fire extinguishers and rushed below in a resolute attempt to quell the raging flames. Refusing to waste the precious time required to don rescue-breathing apparatus, he plunged through the blinding smoke billowing out of the magazine hatch and dropped into the blazing compartment. Despite the acrid, burning powder smoke which seared his lungs with every agonizing breath, he worked rapidly and with instinctive sureness and succeeded in quickly extinguishing the fires and in cooling the cases and bulkheads, thereby preventing further damage to the stricken ship. Although he succumbed to his injuries on the following day, Bigelow, by his dauntless valor, unfaltering skill and prompt action in the critical emergency, had averted a magazine explosion which undoubtedly would have left his ship wallowing at the mercy of the furiously pounding Japanese guns on Corregidor, and his heroic spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of almost certain death enhanced and sustained the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.


INTERIM 1901-1911


Rank and organization: Chief Watertender, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Hopkins. Place and date: Aboard U.S.S. Hopkins, 14 February 1910. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Birth: Tennessee. Citation: While serving on board the U.S.S. Hopkins, Bonney displayed extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of the accident to one of the boilers of that vessel, 14 February 1910.




Rank and organization: Signal Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Scotland. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. G.O. No.: 17, 10 July 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Carondelet at the reduction of Forts Henry and Donelson, 6 and 14 February 1862 and other actions. Carrying out his duties as signal quartermaster and captain of the rifled bow gun, S/Q.M. Arther was conspicuous for valor and devotion, serving most faithfully, effectively and valiantly.



Pre- Indian Wars


Rank and organization: Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Place and date: Apache Pass, Ariz., 13-14 February 1861. Entered service at: New York. Born: 24 June 1830, Ireland. Date of issue: 24 January 1894. Citation: Voluntarily took command of troops and attacked and defeated hostile Indians he met on the way. Surgeon Irwin volunteered to go to the rescue of 2d Lt. George N. Bascom, 7th Infantry, who with 60 men was trapped by Chiricahua Apaches under Cochise. Irwin and 14 men, not having horses began the 100-mile march riding mules. After fighting and capturing Indians, recovering stolen horses and cattle, he reached Bascom’s column and help break his siege.

The area where this occurred was in the Chiricahua Mountains in what would become Arizona 49 years later to the day.


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Unerased History – February 13th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 13, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Blame Someone Else Day
Get a Different Name Day

Strange Taxes

History shows that there have been many strange and unusual taxes over time. Many of them were implemented to raise additional revenue, while the purpose of others was to promote social change. Here are some of the strangest ones:

In this world nothing can be said to be certain except death and taxes.”
~ Benjamin Franklin

In Ancient Egypt, cooking oil was taxed, and on top of that, people had to buy their taxed cooking oil from the Pharaoh’s monopoly, and were prohibited from reusing previously purchased oil.

During the 1st century AD, Roman emperor Vaspasian placed a tax on urine. At the time, urine was collected and used as a source of ammonia in such tasks as tanning hides and laundering garments. Therefore, those who obtained valuable urine from collectors were charged a tax.

In Ancient Rome, it was not uncommon for slave owners to free their slaves after a certain number of years of work, and/or the payment of a certain fee. Slaves could pay that fee because many of them had the opportunity to work in several places, and thus could earn the money used to obtain their freedom. The Roman government required the newly freed slave to pay a tax on his or her freedom.

During the Middle Ages, European governments placed a tax on soap. Great Britain didn’t repeal its soap tax until 1835.

King Henry I allowed knights to opt out of their duties fight in wars by paying a tax called “scutage”. At first the tax wasn’t high, but then King John came to power and raised it to a rate of 300%. Some claim that the excessive tax rate was one of the things that contributed to the creation of the Magna Carta, which limited the king’s power.

Oliver Cromwell placed a tax on Royalists, who were his political opponents, taking one tenth of their property. He then used that money to fund his activities that were aimed against the Royalists.

Playing cards were taxed as early as the 16th century, but in 1710, the English government dramatically raised taxes on playing cards and dice. This led to widespread forgeries of playing cards to avoid paying taxes. The tax was not removed until 1960.

In 1660, England placed a tax on fireplaces. The tax led to people covering their fireplaces with bricks to conceal them and avoid paying the tax. It was repealed in 1689.

Like many English monarchs, William III was short of money, which he attempted to rectify by the introduction of the much-despised Window Tax. As the name suggests, this was a tax levied on the windows or window-like openings of a property. The details were much amended over time, but the tax was levied originally on all dwellings except cottages. The upper classes, having the largest houses, paid the most. Some wealthy individuals used their ability to pay as a mark of status and demonstrated their wealth by ostentatiously building homes with many windows. Eventually this became a health problem and ultimately led to the tax’s repeal in 1851.

In the 1700’s, England placed a tax on bricks. Builders soon realized that they could use bigger bricks (and thus fewer bricks) to pay less tax. Soon after, the government caught on and placed a larger tax on bigger bricks. Brick taxes were finally repealed in 1850.

In 1705, Russian Emperor Peter the Great placed a tax on beards, hoping to force men to adopt the clean-shaven look that was common in Western Europe.

The French had a salt tax called the gabelle, which angered many and was one of the contributing factors to the French Revolution.

In 1712, England imposed a tax on printed wallpaper. Builders avoided the tax by hanging plain wallpaper and then painting patterns on the walls.

England introduced a tax on hats in 1784. To avoid the tax, hat-makers stopped calling their creations “hats”, leading to a tax on any headgear by 1804. The tax was repealed in 1811.

In 1789, England introduced a tax on candles. People were forbidden from making their own candles unless they obtained a license and then paid taxes on the candles they produced. The tax was repealed in 1831, leading to a more widespread popularity of candles.

In 1795, England put a tax on the aromatic powders that men and women put on their wigs. This led to a dramatic decline in the popularity of wigs.

In 1885 Canada created the Chinese Head Tax, which taxed the entry of Chinese immigrants into Canada. The tax lasted until 1923 when a law was passed banning Chinese people from entering Canada altogether with a few exceptions.

Johnstown, Pennsylvania was devastated by a flood that killed nearly 2,000 people in the late 19th century, and in 1936 another flood damaged the town. That led to the state of Pennsylvania passing a tax on alcohol, the proceeds of which would be used to rebuild the city. By 1942, enough money was raised to rebuild Johnstown, yet the tax exists to this day, and brings in around $200 million a year for Pennsylvania.

Salt was a very popular thing to tax because consuming it is necessary to humans. The British placed a tax on salt, and the salt tax gained worldwide attention when Ghandi staged nonviolent protests against it.

New York City places a special tax on prepared foods, so sliced bagels are taxed once as food and again as prepared food, thus creating a sliced bagel tax.

Maine has special tax on blueberries, a valuable state resource.

Pennsylvania has a tax on coin operated vacuum machines at gas stations.

Pittsburgh has a 5% amusement tax on anything that offers entertainment or allows people to engage in entertainment.

States like Iowa, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey exempt pumpkins from a sales tax but only if they will be eaten and not carved.

In 2005, Tennessee began requiring drug dealers to anonymously pay taxes on any illegal substances they sold. In North Carolina, just go to the Department of Revenue and pay tax on your fix. You’ll receive stamps to affix to your illegal substance as proof you paid your tax…just before they apply the handcuffs. Despite marijuana being illegal on a federal level and in most states, many states impose taxes on the sale of marijuana.

In Arkansas, body piercings, pet grooming, and gutter cleaning are all subject to a 6% sales tax.

In California, snuff tobacco is taxed differently depending on its type. Dry snuff is taxed at 256% of its price if it’s $1.70 or more. Moist snuff is taxed at 170% of its price if it’s $1.70 or more.

In Chicago, candy that is prepared with flour is taxed as food at 1%, while candy that is prepared without flour is taxed as candy at 6.25%.

In Florida, a sales tax holiday was created that included items like fanny packs, bowling shoes, school supplies, vests, and seemingly randomly assembled list of other items.

In California, fresh fruit bought through a vending machine is subject to a 33% tax.

In Oregon, double amputees get a $50 tax credit.

In West Virginia, there is an additional tax on sparklers.

Kentucky levies a sales tax on thoroughbred stud fees (whether the horses were in the Derby or not).

The IRS taxes stolen property. The 1040 instructions say that you should report it as stolen property. However, doing that would be self-incrimination, from which we are protected by the Constitution; therefore, one has the option of reporting it as “other income”.

In Texas, Christmas tree decoration services are subject to a tax only if the decorator provides the decorations and ornaments. In addition, there is a tax on holiday-themed pictures that are meant to be placed on windows.

Many cities and states levy a “jock tax” on any income earned by entertainers and athletes while working in that city. Therefore, athletes have to pay taxes on a portion of their income in any place they play.

Wisconsin is one of the few states that levies a tax on internet access. When dial-up was a popular method of getting online, there was double taxation occurring because phone calls were also taxed.

In Colorado, essential food items are tax-free, but straws and cup lids are subject to sales tax because they are considered to be nonessential food items.

In New Mexico, people over 100 years old are tax-exempt, but only if they are not dependents.

In many states there are “occupancy taxes” for anyone who books a room in a hotel. For example, in Texas, occupancy of any room costing over $15 is taxed at 6% of the room fee.

In 2004, Maryland imposed a tax on residents whose houses are hooked up to sewers leading to treatment plants. Proceeds go to protect the polluted Chesapeake Bay.

The city of Chicago taxes soda bought in a bottle at a rate of 3%, and taxes soda from fountains at a rate of 9%.

In Tennessee, there is a tax on all litigation. The amount varies case-by-case but it can be as low as $1 for a parking violation case. The tax tends to discourage frivolous lawsuits.

In Minnesota, there is a special tax on fur.

In the state of Kansas, untethered hot air balloon rides are exempt from sales tax because they are considered a legitimate form or air transportation. Tethered hot air balloon rides, on the other hand, are considered to be an amusement ride and therefore are subject to sales tax.

Japan imposed a tax on whiskey which is based on the percentage of alcohol by volume, so Japanese whiskey manufacturers began diluting their product with water to avoid the tax. European whiskey manufacturers were prohibited from doing so; therefore, Japanese whiskey had an advantage in Japan.

In Utah if  you are the owner of a business that employs “nude or partially nude individuals perform any service” then your business must pay a 10% “sales tax”.

In Maine, a three quarter cent per pound tax is levied against anyone who grows, sells, buys, or handles blueberries in the state.

Purchase a pumpkin in New Jersey and there is no sales tax. That is, of course, unless you decide to carve a Jack-O-Lantern from it. Then the standard state sales tax applies.

Ohio has a Cadaver Make-Up Tax. If you go to your favorite salon in Akron and they apply makeup, you pay a makeup tax. If you’re dead, the funeral parlor can apply the same makeup FOR FREE.

And finally (not really), all the way from Germany…

Germany’s tax law allows private businesses to write off the costs of bribery on their corporate income tax returns.

“A strong positive mental attitude will create more miracles than any wonder drug.”

~ Patricia Neal


palliate PAL-ee-ayt, transitive verb:1. To reduce in violence (said of diseases, etc.); to lessen or abate.
2. To cover by excuses and apologies; to extenuate.
3.To reduce in severity; to make less intense.

Palliate derives from Late Latin palliatus, past participle of palliare, “to cloak, to conceal,” from Latin pallium, “cloak.”


1542 – Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery.
1566 – St. Augustine, Florida, was established.
1633 – Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. He was found guilty of  professing the belief that the earth revolved around the sun.
1635 – The first public school in the U.S., Boston Latin School, is founded.
1693 – The College of William and Mary opened in Virginia.
1741 – The American Magazine, the first magazine in the U.S., was published in Philadelphia, PA.
1795 – The University of North Carolina became the first U.S. state university to admit students with the arrival of Hinton James, who was the only student on campus for two weeks.
1819 – Congress introduces the Missouri Bill. It would allow the Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and prepare for statehood.
1826 – American Temperance Society, forms in Boston.
1837 – There was a riot in NY over the high price of flour.
1847 – General Kearney acts on orders to establish a new government in Monterey while John C. Freemont still acts a governor in Los Angeles.
1854 – Admiral Perry anchors off Yokosuka, Japan to receive Emperor’s reply to treaty proposal.
1861Abraham Lincoln was declared president.
1861 – First military action to result in Congressional Medal of Honor occurred in what would become Arizona on the night of 2/13-14. The medal went to Army Assistant Surgeon Bernard J.D. Irwin. He rescued the 60 soldiers of 2d Lt. George Bascom’s unit at Apache Pass, AZ. (recorded on both the 13th & 14th) (Located south of I-10, east of Willcox, AZ in the Chirihacua Mountains.)
1862 – Civil War: The four-day Battle of Fort Donelson, Tennessee, begins.
1864 – Civil War:  Miridian Campaign fighting at Chunky Creek and Wyatt, Mississippi.
1865 – Civil War:  The Confederacy approved the recruitment of slaves as soldiers, as long as the approval of their owners was gained.
1866 – The first daylight robbery in United States history during peacetime takes place in Liberty, Missouri. This is considered to be the first robbery committed by Jesse James and his gang, although James’s role is disputed. ($15,000).
1875 – Mrs. Edna Kanouse gave birth to America’s first quintuplets. All five of the baby boys died within two weeks.
1880 – Thomas Edison observes the Edison effect.
1889 – Norman Coleman became the first U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.
1892 – The first Black performers, the World’s Fair Colored Opera Company, appear at Carnegie Hall.
1894 – Auguste and Louis Lumière patent the Cinematographe, a combination movie camera and projector.
1901 – May be the day after a truncated January 19, 2038 on Unix and Unix-like computer systems still suffering from the year 2038 problem.
1905 – Major cold snap hits Midwest to the south and set several records including  -40° in Warsaw, Missouri; -29° in Pond, AR; -2° in Tallahassee, FL; and -40° in Lebanon, KS.
1907 – Wendell P. Dabney establishes The Union. The Cincinnati, Ohio paper’s motto is “For no people can become great without being united, for in union there is strength.”
1913 – Naval Radio Station, Arlington, VA begins operations.
1914 – Copyright: In New York City the ASCAP (for American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) is established to protect the copyrighted musical compositions of its members.
1920 – The Negro National Baseball League is formed.
1923 – First Black pro Basketball team, “Renaissance,” organizes.

1925 – US Congress made a Supreme Court appeal more difficult.
1929 – Congress passes the Cruiser Act authorizing the construction of 19 new cruisers and 1 aircraft carrier.
1932 – “Free Eats” introduces George “Spanky” McFarland to “Our Gang”. Spanky McFarland was the most popular member of the Our Gang children’s comedy troupe.
1935 – A jury in Flemington, New Jersey finds Bruno Hauptmann guilty of the 1932 kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby, the son of Charles Lindbergh.
1935 – First US surgical operation for relief of angina pectoris, Cleveland OH.
1936 – The first social security checks were put in the mail.
1937 – Cleveland Rams formed. The NFL Rams first coach was Hugo Bezdek.
1937 – NFL Boston Redskins move to Washington DC and become the Washington Redskins
1937 – “Prince Valiant” comic strip debuts. Prince Valiant is a long-run comic strip created by Hal Foster in 1937. It is an epic adventure that has told a continuous story during its entire history, and the full stretch of that story now totals more than 3700 Sunday strips in more than 300 American newspapers.
1939 – Virginia Payne became a new character in NBC’s soap opera, “The Carter’s of Elm Street”. She played the part of Mrs. Carter.
1940 – Earl ‘Fatha’ Hines recorded “Boogie Woogie on St. Louis Blues“.
1943 – Women’s Marine Corps created. Officially, Opha Mae Johnson (2 Feb 1900 – Jan 1976) is credited as the first woman Marine.
1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces capture Budapest, Hungary from the Nazis.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers were dispatched to Dresden, Germany to raid the city by massive aerial bombardment.
1945 -World War II: US Navy forces begin operations in Manila Bay, clearing minefields and shelling landing grounds. Corregidor is bombarded.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month.
1947 – “Family Theater of the Air” premieres.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ballerina” by Vaughn Monroe, “I’ll Dance at Your Wedding” by Buddy Clark with The Ray Noble Orchestra, “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War – At the Battle of Chipyong-ni, in Korea, U.N. troops contain the Chinese forces’ offensive in a four-day battle.
1953 – Major-league baseball owners were warned by Senator Edwin Johnson against televising their games nationwide. The Senator said that broadcasting these games to a national audience would be a threat to the survival of minor league baseball.
1953 – Kansas City A’s change name of Shibe Park to Connie Mack Stadium.
1953 – Senator Joseph McCarthy states that President Eisenhower’s foreign policy is being subverted by the Voice of America radio network.
1954 – Nicknamed “The Corbin Comet”,  Frank Selvy is best remembered for scoring 100 points in a college game for South Carolina’s Furman University against Newberry College on February 13th, 1954, the only NCAA Division I player ever to do so.
1954 – “Oh! My Papa” by Eddie Fisher topped the charts.
1955 – Israel obtains four of the seven Dead Sea scrolls.
1955 - Elvis Presley performs at the Fair Park Coliseum in Lubbock, TX, billed as “The Be-Bop Western Star of the Louisiana Hayride.” It is the first concert booked through Col. Tom Parker. Also on the bill that day: Buddy and Bob, a country duo featuring an eighteen-year-old Buddy Holly.
1956 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock and Roll Waltz” by Kay Starr, “No, Not Much!” by The Four Lads, “Teenage Prayer” by Gale Storm and “Why Baby Why” by Red Sovine & Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1957 – Southern Christian Leadership Conference organized at New Orleans meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. as president.
1960 -  Black college students stage the first of the Nashville sit-ins at three lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee.
1960 – “Teen Angel” by Mark Dinning topped the charts.
1961 – “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk topped the charts.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Want to Hold Your Hand” by The Beatles, “You Don’t Own Me” by Leslie Gore, “Um, Um, Um, Um, Um, Um” by Major Lance and “Begging to You” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1965 – Sixteen-year-old Peggy Fleming won the ladies senior figure skating title at Lake Placid, NY.
1965 – “You’ve Lost that Lovin’ Feeling” by the Righteous Brothers topped the charts.
1968 – Vietnam War: As an emergency measure in response to the 1968 communist Tet Offensive, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara approves the deployment of 10,500 troops.
1969In North Carolina the Afro-American Society students of Duke Univ. led a black student takeover of the Allen Building.
1970The New York Stock Exchange admits its first Black member, Joseph Searles.
1970 – GM was reportedly redesigning automobiles to run on unleaded fuel.
1971 – Vietnam War: Backed by American air and artillery support, South Vietnamese troops invade Laos.
1971 – “One Bad Apple” by the Osmonds topped the charts.
1972 – “1776″ closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 1,217 performances.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green, “Without You” by Nilsson, “Precious and Few” by Climax and “One’s on the Way” by Loretta Lynn all topped the charts.
1972 – Vietnam War: Enemy attacks, in Vietnam, declined for the third day as the U.S. continued its intensive bombing strategy.
1973 – Gertrude E. Downing and William Desjardin invented the Corner Cleaner Attachment, Patent No. 3,715,772.
1973 – Musical “El Grande de Coca-Cola,” premiered in NYC. The off-Broadway show closed April 13, 1975.
1974 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1970, is exiled from the Soviet Union.
1975 – There was a fire in the World Trade Center in New York City, New York.
1979 – An intense Windstorm strikes western Washington and sinks a 1/2-mile-long section of the Hood Canal Bridge.
1979 – Charles Chidsey received a patent for male baldness solution.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson, “Do That To Me One More Time” by The Captain & Tennille, “Coward of the County” by Kenny Rogers and “Leaving Louisiana in the Broad Daylight” by The Oak Ridge Boys all topped the charts.
1981 – Longest sentence published by New York Times-1286 words.
1981 - A series of sewer explosions destroys more than two miles of streets in Louisville, Kentucky.
1982 – “Centerfold” by the J. Geils Band topped the charts.
1983 – World Boxing Council becomes first to cut boxing from 15 to 12 rounds.
1985 – The Dow Jones industrial average closed at a record high of 1297.92 after it topped the 1300 mark earlier in the trading session.
1988 – Winter Olympic Games – The XV Olympic Winter Games open in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Could’ve Been” by Tiffany, “Seasons Change” by Expose, “I Want to Be Your Man” by Roger Troutman & Zapp, and “Wheels” by Restless Heart  all topped the charts.
1990 – German reunification: An agreement is reached for a two-stage plan to reunite Germany.
1990 – The U.S. space probe Voyager I , while heading out to the edge of the Solar System, photographed a look backward which captured the Sun and six planets in one image, the first record of the Solar System from space.
1990 – Larry Bird (Celtics) ends NBA free throw streak of 71 games.
1991 – Gulf War: Two laser-guided “smart bombs” destroy a bunker in Baghdad. The bunker was being used as a military communications outpost and unknown to allied forces, as a shelter for Iraqi civilians.
1997 – Space Shuttle program: STS-82 Mission – Tune-up and repair work on the Hubble Space Telescope started by astronauts from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1997 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 7,000 for the first time closing at 7,022.44.
1998 - Dr. David Satcher was sworn in as US surgeon general during an Oval Office ceremony.
1998 – The United Auto Workers reached a tentative contract agreement with Caterpillar Inc.; union members rejected the agreement, which was revised and later ratified, ending a bitter dispute that lasted more than six years.
1999 - A federal judge held American Airlines’ pilots’ union and two top board members in contempt and promised sizable fines against them, saying the union did not do enough to encourage pilots to return to work after a court order. A federal judge fined the American Airlines pilot’s union at least $10 million for ignoring his back-to-work order.
2000-Tiger Woods saw his streak of six consecutive victories come to an end as he fell short to Phil Mickelson in the Buick Invitational.
2000 – The last original “Peanuts” comic strip appears in newspapers one day after Charles M. Schulz dies.
2001 - US Treasury Sec. Paul O’Neill urged Congress to accelerate plans for an across-the-board tax cut and a doubling of the child credit.
2002 – In Alexandria, VA, John Walker Lindh pled innocent to a 10-count federal indictment. He was charged with conspiring to kill Americans and aiding Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network.
2002 – In Yemen Sameer Mohammed Ahmed al-Hada (25), an al Qaeda fugitive, died as troops closed in and a hand grenade exploded in his hand.
2002 – Former New York mayor Rudolph Giuliani received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II.
2002 – The US House of Reps. voted 240-189 to ban unlimited “soft money” donations to national parties as part of the Shays-Meehan campaign finance bill.
2003 – Smith & Wesson unveiled a new Model 500, .50 caliber Magnum revolver.
2003 – An investigative panel found that superheated air almost certainly seeped through a breach in space shuttle Columbia’s left wing and possibly its wheel compartment during the craft’s fiery descent, resulting in the deaths of all seven astronauts.
2003 – US and British warplanes have struck an Iraqi surface-to-surface missile system located near Basra in southern Iraq that had been moved into striking range of US troops in Kuwait.
2003 –  Joint Committee on Taxation said the former energy trading giant Enron Corp. manipulated the U.S. tax code so aggressively that from 1996 through 1999 it paid no federal income taxes.
2003 – U.S. Senate Democrats continue to threaten to filibuster the candidacy of Miguel Estrada for the D.C. Circuit Court. The Democrats argue that Estrada is too conservative and not answering all of their questions. Estrada was first nominated for the position in May 2001.
2004 - The FCC began writing rules to enable users to access the Internet through electric power lines.
2004 – The Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics discovers the universe’s largest known diamond, white dwarf star BPM 37093.
2004 - President Bush, trying to calm a political storm, ordered the release of his Vietnam-era military records to counter Democrats’ suggestions that he’d shirked his duty in the Texas Air National Guard.
2005 – The AFC won the Pro Bowl, defeating the NFC 38-27.
2005 -  Ray Charles’ final album, “Genius Loves Company,” won a leading eight Grammy awards, including album of the year, record of the year for “Here We Go Again” with Norah Jones, and pop vocal album.
2006 - US government investigators told the Senate that FEMA has let nearly 11,000 unused manufactured homes deteriorate on old runways and open fields in Arkansas, and spent $416,000 per person to house a few hundred Hurricane Katrina evacuees for a short time in Alabama last fall.
2007 – With Democrats in control, House members debated Iraq in an emotional and historic faceoff over a war that Speaker Nancy Pelosi condemned as a commitment with “no end in sight.”
2007 – US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said the US plans to cancel $391 million in outstanding debt owed by Liberia, and she urged others to help the struggling West African nation.
2007 – A powerful storm and likely a tornado hit the New Orleans area killing an elderly woman, injuring at least 15 other people.
2008 -  Former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney (R) formally announces his candidacy for president.
2008 – NY Gov. Eliot Spitzer hired a prostitute in Washington, DC, and paid her $4,300.
2008 -  A prosecutor in Buffalo, NY, announced that a woman, who spent 13 years in prison after being convicted of strangling her 13-year-old daughter, was exonerated by forensic evidence showing she died of a cocaine overdose. Lynn DeJac (44) insisted that a former boyfriend was responsible.
2009 –  Congress approves the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
( The Stimulus) Obama had only been president 24 days.The House vote was 246-183, with all Republicans opposed to the package. The Senate approved the measure 60-38 with three GOP moderates siding with the Democrats.
2009-Unix time equalled “1234567890″ at 23:31:30 UTC.
2010 -  In Alaska an avalanche near Seward buried Jim Bowles, head of Conoco Phillips Alaska and Alan Gage, part of the company’s capital projects team. They were among a party of twelve snowmobilers.
2012 – Beverly Hills police confirm Whitney Houston was underwater and unconscious when found in a bath in her Los Angeles hotel room last Saturday.
2012 –  President Barack Obama presents 16 people with the National Medal of Arts at the White House including actor Al Pacino, country music singer Mel Tillis and former United States Poet Laureate Rita Dove.
2012 –  A 5.5-magnitude earthquake hits Northern California, near Weitchpec. Weitchpec is located in the northern part of the state at the confluence of the Klamath and Trinity Rivers, and the junction of State Highways 96 and 169, 35 miles northeast of Eureka.
2013 - The Obama administration’s nominee to become next Treasury Secretary, Jack Lew, testifies before the financial committee of the Senate at the start of his confirmation hearing.


1721 – John Reid, British army general and composer (d. 1807)

1728 – John Hunter, Scottish surgeon (d. 1793)
1743 – Joseph Banks, English botanist and naturalist (d. 1820)
1831 -  John Aaron Rawlins, American general and politician, 29th United States Secretary of War (d. 1869)
1876 – Fritz Buelow, German-born American baseball player (d. 1933)
1884 – Alfred Carlton Gilbert, American athlete, inventor, and businessman (d. 1961)
1885 – Bess Truman, 35th First Lady of the United States, wife of President Harry S. Truman (d. 1982)
1891 – Grant Wood, American painter (d. 1942)
1910 – William Shockley, American physicist and eugenicist, Nobel Laureate (d. 1989)
1918 – Patty Berg, American golfer (d. 2006)
1919 – Tennessee Ernie Ford, American musician (d. 1991)
1919 – Eddie Robinson, American football coach (d. 2007)
1923 – Chuck Yeager, American fighter and test pilot
1928 – Dorothy McGuire, American singer (The McGuire Sisters)
1933 – Kim Novak, American actress
1934 – George Segal, American actor
1939 -  R. C. Sproul, American pastor, theologian, and author
1942 – Peter Tork, American musician and actor (The Monkees)
1944 – Stockard Channing, American actress
1944 – Jerry Springer, American television host, actor, and politician, 56th Mayor of Cincinnati
1977 – Randy Moss, American football player







Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company I, 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Near Cam Lo, Republic of Vietnam, 13 February,1969. Entered service at: Amarillo, Texas. Born 7 April 1950, Joplin, Mo. Citation:: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company 1 in action against enemy forces. L/Cpl. Creek’s squad was providing security for a convoy moving to resupply the Vandegrift Command Base when an enemy command detonated mine destroyed one of the vehicles and halted the convoy near the Cam Lo Resettlement Village. Almost immediately, the marines came under a heavy volume of hostile mortar fire followed by intense small-arms fire from a well-concealed enemy force. As his squad deployed to engage the enemy, L/Cpl. Creek quickly moved to a fighting position and aggressively engaged in the fire fight. Observing a position from which he could more effectively deliver fire against the hostile forces. he completely disregarded his own safety as he fearlessly dashed across the fire-swept terrain and was seriously wounded by enemy fire. At the same time, an enemy grenade was thrown into the gully where he had fallen, landing between him and several companions. Fully realizing the inevitable results of his action, L/Cpl. Creek rolled on the grenade and absorbed the full force of the explosion with his body, thereby saving the lives of five of his fellow Marines. As a result of his heroic action, his men were inspired to such aggressive action that the enemy was defeated and the convoy was able to continue its vital mission. L/Cpl. Creek’s indomitable courage, inspired the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.







Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A 511th Parachute Infantry, 11th Airborne Division. Place and date: Fort William McKinley, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 13 February 1945. Entered service at. Chicago, Ill. Born: 3 March 1923 Oklahoma City, Okla. G.O. No.: 124, 27 December 1945. Citation: He was lead scout for Company A, which had destroyed 11 of 12 pillboxes in a strongly fortified sector defending the approach to enemy-held Fort William McKinley on Luzon, Philippine Islands. In the reduction of these pillboxes, he killed 5 Japanese in the open and blasted others in pillboxes with grenades. Realizing the urgent need for taking the last emplacement, which contained 2 twin-mount .50-caliber dual-



U.S.S. Constitution


INTERIM 1871-1898


Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1850, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Constitution, at sea, 13 February 1879, Horton showed courageous conduct in going over the stern during a heavy gale and cutting the fastenings of the ship’s rudder chains.


INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1849, Malta. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: For courageous conduct in going over the stern of the U.S.S. Constitution at sea, 13 February 1879, during a heavy gale, and cutting the fastenings of the ship’s rudder chains.


INTERIM 1871-1898



Rank and organization: Carpenter’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born 1833 Canada. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884 Citation: For going over the stern of the U.S.S. Constitution, at sea, 13 February 1879, during a heavy gale, and performing important carpenter’s work upon her rudder.

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Unerased History – February 12th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 12, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Lincoln’s Birthday

National Plum Pudding Day


Abe Lincoln’s Patent

Lincoln displayed a lifelong fascination with mechanical things. William H. Herndon, his law partner, attributed this to his father, saying, “he evinced a decided bent toward machinery or mechanical appliances, a trait he doubtless inherited from his father who was himself something of a mechanic and therefore skilled in the use of tools.”

Henry Whitney, another lawyer friend of Lincoln’s, recalled that “While we were traveling in ante-railway days, on the circuit, and would stop at a farm-house for dinner, Lincoln would improve the leisure in hunting up some farming implement, machine or tool, and he would carefully examine it all over, first generally and then critically;”

Lincoln also delivered lectures on discoveries and inventions before he became president. “Man is not the only animal who labors; but he is the only one who improves his workmanship,” he noted in 1858. In 1859 he praised the patent laws for having “secured to the inventor, for a limited time, the exclusive use of his invention; and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius, in the discovery and production of new and useful things.”

Abraham Lincoln was the only President who held his own patent. On May 22nd, 1849 he was granted U.S. Patent No. 6,469 (the only president ever granted a patent).



To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, Abraham Lincoln, of Springfield, in the County of Sangamon, in the State of Illinois, have invented a new and improved manner of combining adjustable buoyant air chambers with a steamboat or other vessel for the purpose of enabling their draught of water to be readily lessened to enable them to pass over bars, or through shallow water, without discharging their cargoes; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings making a part of this specification. Similar letters indicate like parts in all the figures.

The buoyant chambers A, A, which I employ, are constructed in such a manner that they can be expanded so as to hold a large volume of air when required for use, and can be contracted, into a very small space and safely secured as soon as their services can be dispensed with.


“Inspiration does exist, but it must find you working.”

~ Pablo Picasso


(si-KWAY-shuhs) adjective

Unthinkingly following others.

[From Latin sequax (inclined to follow), from sequi (to follow).]
Often the people who believe that abortion is okay are sequacious in how they follow their leaders.



1486 – In the Auto Da Fe at Toledo, Spain the Jews were forced to recant their faith , were fined 1/5 of their property and permanently forbidden from wearing decent clothes or holding office.

1502 – Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal on his second voyage to India.
1554 – A year after claiming the throne of England for nine days, Lady Jane Grey is beheaded for treason.
1733 – Englishman James Oglethorpe founds the 13th United States colony of Georgia, and its first city at Savannah.
1793 – Congress passes the first fugitive slave law, requiring all states, including those that forbid slavery, to forcibly return slaves who have escaped from other states to their original owners.
1809 – Abraham Lincoln born in present-day Larue County, Kentucky (then Hardin County).
1821 – In New York City, the Mercantile Library opened. It was the largest and most successful of the mercantile libraries, and for that matter of all membership libraries. It is now called the Center for Fiction.
1825 – William McIntosh, Chief of the Creek nation, signs the Treaty of Indian Springs. The Creek Indians cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government, and migrate west. A Creek mob, denouncing McIntosh as a traitor, kills him.
1836 – Mexican General Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo.
1839 – Boundary dispute between Maine & New Brunswick leads to Aroostook War.
1846 – Mexican President, General Mariano Paredes, refuses to receive John Slidell of Louisiana who has been sent as an envoy by the United States.
1850 – Original Washington’s Farewell Address manuscript sells for $2,300 to James Lennox.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Queen of the West, Colonel C. R. Ellet, steamed up Red River and the Atchafalaya River where a landing party destroyed twelve Confederate Army wagons.
1870 – Women gain the right to vote in Utah Territory. That right was taken away in 1887.
1870 – April 15th as last day of grace for US silver coins to circulate in Canada.
1873 – The US Congress abolished bimetallism and authorized $1 & $3 gold coins. Bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent either to a certain quantity of gold or to a certain quantity of silver.
1876 – Albert Spalding opens his sporting good shop. Spalding is still an on-going sports equipment business.
1877 – First news dispatch by telephone, between Boston & Salem MA.
1877 – US railroad builders struck against a wage reduction.
1879 – At New York City’s Madison Square Garden the first artificial ice rink in North America opens.
1880 – The National Croquet League was organized in Philadelphia, PA.
1892 – Former President Abraham Lincoln’s birthday is declared a national holiday in the United States.
1899 – First 2-man team 6-day bicycle race in US begins, Madison Square Garden, NYC
1908 – New York to Paris auto race begins in New York NY. The route was NYC, Albany, Chicago, San Francisco, Seattle, Valdez Alaska, Japan, Vladivostok, Omsk, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Berlin and finally Paris. It covered 22,000 miles in 169 days. The average was 130 miles per day.
1909 – The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is founded.
1915 – In Washington, DC, the first stone of the Lincoln Memorial is put into place.
1918 – President Garfield orders all non-essential businesses to shut down including all theatres in New York City in an effort to conserve coal.
1918 – World War I: Marines landed at Scapa Flow, Great Britain.
1924 – Premiere of George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue “in Aeolian Hall in New York City.
1924 – Calvin Coolidge becomes the first President of the United States to deliver a political speech by radio.
1924 – “The Eveready Hour” became radio’s first sponsored network program. The National Carbon Company was the first sponsor of a network show.
1934 – The Export-Import Bank was incorporated.
1935 – The USS Macon, the last U.S. Navy dirigible, crashed on its 55th flight off the coast of California, killing two people.
1940 – The radio play “The Adventures of Superman” debuted on the Mutual network.
1942 – Mildred Bailey recorded “More Than You Know” on Decca Records. She was a popular and influential American jazz singer during the 1930s, known as “Mrs. Swing”.
1944 – Wendell Wilkie entered the American presidential race against Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1944 – World War II: On New Britain, US Marines capture Gorissi, 25 miles east of Cape Gloucester. Meanwhile, Allied forces land on Rooke Island.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month (2/19/1945).
1945 – World War II: USS Batfish (SS-310) sinks second Japanese submarine within three days.
1946 – Operation Deadlight ends after scuttling 121 of 154 captured U-boats.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “For Sentimental Reasons” by Nat King Cole, “Ole Buttermilk Sky” by The Kay Kyser Orchestra (vocal: Mike Douglas & The Campus Kids), “A Gal in Calico” by Johnny Mercer and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Record 221 lb. sailfish caught by C W Stewart in the Galapagos Islands.
1947 – First launching of guided missile (Loon) from a submarine, USS Cusk.
1948 – First Lt. Nancy Leftenant (Colon) became the first Black in the Army Nursing Corps.
1949 – “Annie Get Your Gun” closes after 1147 performances.
1949 – “A Little Bird Told Me” by Evelyn Knight topped the charts. The idiom means that if someone doesn’t want to say where they got some information, they can say that a little bird told them.
1950 – Senator Joe McCarthy claims to have list of 205 communist government employees.
1950 – Albert Einstein warns against hydrogen bomb. He feared that the Hydrogen Bomb might annihilate “any life.”
1951 – Korean War: I Corps forces regrouped south of the Han River while the ROK Capital Division took Yangyang.
1953 – The Willys-Overland Company, which brought America the Jeep, celebrated its golden anniversary.
1955CHART TOPPERS – Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters, “Hearts of Stone” by the Fontane Sisters, “Ko Ko Mo (I Love You So)” by Perry Como and “Let Me Go, Lover!” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1955 – President Eisenhower sent first US “advisors” to South Vietnam to aid the government under Ngo Dinh Diem.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1957 – Researchers announced the development of Borazan, a substance harder than diamonds. As of 10/2010 it does not appear to be in production.
1961 – The Miracles’ “Shop Around” became Motown’s first million-selling single.
1962 – Civil Rights: Bus boycott started in Macon, Georgia.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula, “Loop De Loop” by Johnny Thunder, “Up on the Roof” by The Drifters and “The Ballad of Jed Clampett” by Flatt & Scruggs all topped the charts.
1964 – Beatles first New York City concert (Carnegie Hall).
1966 – “My Love” by Petula Clark topped the charts.
1968 – “Soul on Ice” by Eldridge Cleaver was published for the first time.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Knock Three Times” by Dawn, “One Bad Apple” by The Osmonds, “Rose Garden” by Lynn Anderson and “Joshua” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1972 – “Let’s Stay Together” by Al Green topped the charts.
1972 – “Roundabout” was released by Yes.
1973 – Ohio becomes the first U.S. state to post distance in metric on signs.
1972 – Senator Ted Kennedy advocated amnesty for Vietnam draft resisters.
1973 – Vietnam War: The first United States prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong. Operation Homecoming was completed on March 29, 1973, when the last of 591 U.S. prisoners were released and returned to the United States.
1974 – Stephen Kovacs received a patent for a magnetic heart pump.
1976 – Sal Mineo (b.1939), American film and theater actor, was stabbed to death in Los Angeles while coming home from a play rehearsal.
1977 – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor topped the charts.
1977 – The Police record “Fall Out,” their first single.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart, “Y.M.C.A.” by the Village People, “A Little More Love” by Olivia Newton-John and “Every Which Way But Loose” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1983 – “Down Under” by Men At Work topped the charts.
1983 – “Package Saver” invented (protects the pizza in the box). This is the little white “bridge” that holds up the middle of the box.
1984 – Cale Yarborough, becomes first Daytona 500 qualifier, above 200 MPH.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Open Your Heart” by Madonna, “Livin’ on a Prayer” by Bon Jovi, “Change of Heart” by Cyndi Lauper and “Leave Me Lonely” by Gary Morris all topped the charts.
1988 – Two Soviet warships bump two U.S. Navy vessels in waters claimed by the Soviet Union.
1994 – “The Power of Love” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1997 – The Clinton administration gave permission to 10 U.S. news organizations to open bureaus in Cuba. Cuba only allowed CNN.
1997 – In Maine, Philip Berrigan was arrested at an anti-nuclear protest. He was one of six activists later convicted for vandalizing a Navy guided missile destroyer at the Bath Iron Works.
1998 – The presidential line-item veto is declared unconstitutional by United States federal judge. It takes away from the House of representatives one of its enumerated powers.
1999 – President Bill Clinton is acquitted by the United States Senate in his impeachment trial. He was acquitted on two impeachment articles. The charges were perjury (55-45) and obstruction of justice (50-50).
2001 – NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft touchdown in the “saddle” region of 433 Eros becoming the first spacecraft to land on an asteroid.
2001 – Scientists published their first examinations of nearly all the human genetic code.
2001 – The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Napster to stop its users from trading copyrighted material without charge.
2002 – Nuclear waste: US Secretary of Energy makes the decision that Yucca Mountain is suitable to be the United States’ nuclear repository.
2003 – UN weapons inspectors in Iraq destroy a declared stockpile of mustard gas and artillery shells at a former weapons site.
2003 - An audio tape attributed to Osama bin Laden is released by al Jazeera television. It recounts the battle of Tora Bora and urges Muslims to fight the United States and to overthrow the Iraq regime of Saddam Hussein.
2004 – On National Freedom to Marry Day, two days after Mayor Gavin Newsom of San Francisco, California, issued a directive to the county clerk, the City and County of San Franciso begins issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
2004 - Virginia House of Delegates give preliminary approval to legislation that would ban the recognition of same-sex civil unions and domestic partnerships.
2004 – Mattel announced the split of Barbie and Ken. The dolls had met on the set of their first television commercial together in 1961. The price of Barbie went up significantly because she now came with all Ken’s stuff.
2005 - Howard Dean, a former governor of Vermont and a 2004 U.S. presidential candidate, is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee.
2006 – A powerful Nor’easter Winter Storm blankets the Northeastern United States dumping 1 to 2 feet of snow from Washington DC up to Boston, Massachusetts. The storm dumped a record 26.9 inches of snow in New York City.
2006 - United States military strategists reportedly are developing plans for a possible major military bombing campaign against Iranian nuclear sites as a “last resort” in the event that diplomatic efforts fail to convince Iran to voluntarily end what Western governments consider to be efforts at acquiring a nuclear weapon.
2007 - Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad states in an interview that Iran does not fear the U.S. and that any foreign attack would be “severely punished”.
2007 – In Salt Lake City, Utah, Sulejmen Talovic (18) opened fire on shoppers, killing five and wounding four others. Off-duty police officer Kenneth Hammond held him in position until authorities could arrive. Hammond ran on scene after hearing gunshots fire out while having an early Valentine’s Day dinner with his pregnant wife at a local restaurant.  He was eventually stopped in a shoot-out involving Salt Lake City Police Department SWAT.
2008 – A US federal appeals court has overturned a statute outlawing sex toy sales in Texas, one of the last states, all in the South, to retain such a ban. Judges out-of-control.

2008 – Speedo introduced its new LZR Racer swimsuit. By June 38 of 42 world-swimming records were broken by swimmers wearing the suit.
2008 – General Motors Corp. reported a $38.7 billion loss for 2007, the largest annual loss ever for an automotive company.
2009 - The National Transportation Safety Board concludes that Canada geese caused US Airways Flight 1549 to ditch into New York City’s Hudson River.
2009 – The first of four new pennies chronicling Abraham Lincoln’s rise from a small Kentucky cabin went into circulation to honor the 16th president’s 200th birthday.
2009 – A commuter plane, Continental Connection Flight 3407 from Newark, N.J., coming in for a landing nose-dived into a house in suburban Buffalo, sparking a fiery explosion that killed all 49 people aboard and a person in the home. It was the nation’s first fatal crash of a commercial airliner in 2 1/2 years.
2009 –  Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. reopens for the bicentennial of assassinated U.S. President Abraham Lincoln’s birth.
2010 –  A shooting at the University of Alabama in Huntsville leaves at least three persons dead.
2010 - The US successfully shoots down a launching ballistic missile using the Boeing YAL-1, a military Boeing 747-400F aircraft mounted with a chemical oxygen iodine laser weapon.
2011 –  Julie Andrews, Roy Haynes, Juilliard String Quartet, the Kingston Trio, Dolly Parton, The Ramones and George Beverly Shea win Grammy Lifetime Achievement Awards.
2012 –  The 54th Grammy Awards for music are held at the Staples Center in the U.S. city of Los Angeles, with some of the show being re-worked to commemorate Whitney Houston.
2013 -  Christopher Dorner, former LAPD,  kills a sheriff’s deputy and injures another in the Big Bear Lake, California. He then barricades himself in a cabin, which catches on fire during a police assault. The suspect was killed in the fire.



1606 – John Winthrop, the Younger, Governor of Connecticut (d. 1676)

1663 – Cotton Mather, New England minister (d. 1728)
1775 – Louisa Adams, First Lady of the United States, wife of John Quincy Adams (d. 1852)
1791 – Peter Cooper, American Industrialist, inventor and philanthropist (d. 1883) he manufactured the first steam powered railroad locomotive made in America, which was called Tom Thumb.
1809 – Charles Darwin, English naturalist (d. 1882)
1809 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (d. 1865)
1880 – John L. Lewis, American labor union leader (d. 1969)
1893 – Omar Bradley, American general (d. 1981)
1915 – Lorne Greene, American actor (d. 1987)
1919 – Forrest Tucker, American actor (d. 1986)
1920 – William Roscoe Estep, Baptist historian and professor (d. 2000)
1926 – Joe Garagiola, American baseball player and announcer
1926 – Charles Van Doren, American quiz show contestant
1936 – Joe Don Baker, American actor
1951 – Steven Parent, Manson murder victim (d. 1969)
1956 – Arsenio Hall, American actor and talk show host
1993 – Jennifer Stone, American actress



Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company M, 38th Infantry Regiment, 2d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Hoengsong, Korea, 12 February 1951. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 10 December 1923, Kansas City, Mo. G.O. No.: 18, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sgt. Long, a member of Company M, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. When Company M, in a defensive perimeter on Hill 300, was viciously attacked by a numerically superior hostile force at approximately 0300 hours and ordered to withdraw, Sgt. Long, a forward observer for the mortar platoon, voluntarily remained at his post to provide cover by directing mortar fire on the enemy. Maintaining radio contact with his platoon, Sgt. Long coolly directed accurate mortar fire on the advancing foe. He continued firing his carbine and throwing handgrenades until his position was surrounded and he was mortally wounded. Sgt. Long’s inspirational, valorous action halted the onslaught, exacted a heavy toll of enemy casualties, and enabled his company to withdraw, reorganize, counterattack, and regain the hill strongpoint. His unflinching courage and noble self-sacrifice reflect the highest credit on himself and are in keeping with the honored traditions of the military service.






Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Oberhoffen, France, 12 February 1945.Entered service at: Blaine, Ohio. Birth: Lansing, Ohio. G.O. No.: 60, 25 July 1945. Citation: He led a squad in the night attack on Oberhoffen, France, where fierce house-to-house fighting took place. After clearing one building of opposition, he moved his men toward a second house from which heavy machinegun fire came. He courageously exposed himself to hostile bullets and, firing his submachine gun as he went, advanced steadily toward the enemy position until close enough to hurl grenades through a window, killing three Germans and wrecking their gun. His progress was stopped by heavy rifle and machinegun fire from another house. Sgt. Deleau dashed through the door with his gun blazing. Within, he captured ten Germans. The squad then took up a position for the night and awaited daylight to resume the attack. At dawn of 2 February Sgt. Deleau pressed forward with his unit, killing two snipers as he advanced to a point where machinegun fire from a house barred the way. Despite vicious small-arms fire, Sgt. Deleau ran across an open area to reach the rear of the building, where he destroyed one machinegun and killed its two operators with a grenade. He worked to the front of the structure and located a second machinegun. Finding it impossible to toss a grenade into the house from his protected position, he fearlessly moved away from the building and was about to hurl his explosive when he was instantly killed by a burst from the gun he sought to knock out. With magnificent courage and daring aggressiveness, Sgt. Deleau cleared four well-defended houses of Germans, inflicted severe losses on the enemy and at the sacrifice of his own life aided his battalion to reach its objective with a minimum of casualties.

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Unerased History – February 11th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 11, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Satisfied Staying Single Day
White Shirt Day


A comet is an icy small Solar System body that is leftover from the formation of the nine planets in the solar system. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind on the center of the comet. The inside of comets is loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across. Generally considered bad omens, comets have been observed since ancient times.The orbital periods of comets range from a few years to hundreds of thousands of years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper Belt beyond the orbit of Neptune. Longer-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort Clouda spherical cloud made-up of 10 million icy bodies in the outer Solar System. The Sun’s heat melts the snow and these comets appear to grow greatly. Astronomers have seen about 700 comets in the Earth’s sky. As of May 2010 there are a reported 3,976 known comets of which about 1,500 are Kreutz Sungrazers and about 484 are short-period.

Hundreds of tiny comets pass through the inner solar system every year, very few get noticed by the general public. About every decade or so, a comet will become bright enough to be noticed by a casual observer and those are called Great Comets. During the passage of Halley’s Comet in 1910, the Earth passed through the comet’s tail, and erroneous newspaper reports inspired a fear that cyanogen in the tail might poison millions, while the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 triggered the mass suicide of the Heaven’s Gate cult. To most people, however, a great comet is simply a beautiful spectacle.

The Hale-Bopp Comet


“The one thing we can never get enough of is love. And the one thing we never give enough is love.”

~ Henry Miller

CHOR-tl, transitive and intransitive verb:

To utter, or express with, a snorting, exultant laugh or chuckle.
A snorting, exultant laugh or chuckle.


55 – Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus, heir to the Roman Emperorship, dies under mysterious circumstances in Rome. This clears the way for Nero to become Emperor.

1752 – Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the United States, opens. It is still in operation today!!
1766 – The Stamp Act was declared unconstitutional in Virginia.

1768 – Samuel Adams composes a letter to the other colonial governments outlining the step taken in Massachusetts to oppose the Townshend Acts.
1790 – Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, petitions U.S. Congress for abolition of slavery.
1794 – First session of United States Senate open to the public.
1805 – Sacajawea gives birth to Jean-Baptist Charbonneau while leading Lewis & Clark Expedition.
1808 – Anthracite coal is first burned as fuel, experimentally.
1809 – Robert Fulton took out a patent for improvements to steamboat navigation
1812 – Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry gerrymanders for the first time. Gerrymandering is a form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for electoral advantage. Gerrymandering may be used to help or hinder particular constituents, such as members of a political, racial, linguistic, religious or class group. The result looked like a salamander thus the name gerrymander.
1815 – News of the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, finally reached the United States.
1854 – Major streets lit by coal gas for first time.
1856 – President Franklin Pierce warns “border ruffians’ and the Free State men in Kansas to stop fighting.
1858 – The Blessed Virgin Mary reputedly appears to Saint Bernadette Soubirous of Lourdes.
1861 – Civil War: United States House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
1861 – President-elect Abraham Lincoln left Springfield, Illinois, for Washington.
1862 – The Secretary of the Navy directs formation of organization to evaluate new inventions and technical development which eventually led to National Academy of Science.
1870 – US mint at Carson City NV begins issuing coins.
1878 – Frederick W. Thayer patented a catcher’s mask.
1887 – President Grover Cleveland vetoes the Dependent Pension Bill. This bill was a major defeat for the GAR (Grand Army of the Republic) and it infuriated this veteran’s group.
1904Marines landed at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
1905 – James Blackstone, Seattle, bowls 299½ — last pin breaks but stands.
1907 – The passenger ship Larchmont was rammed by the coal carrying schooner Harry P. Knowles, which had drifted off course in the blizzard, four miles southwest of Watch Hill, Rhode Island.  The Larchmont sank in 10 minutes and only 19 men including the captain survived.
1916 – Emma Goldman is arrested for lecturing on birth control. She was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She was lionized as a free-thinking “rebel woman” by admirers, and derided by critics as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution.
1916 – The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra presented its first concert. The symphony was the first by a municipal orchestra to be supported by taxes.
1922 – “April Showers” by Al Jolson hit #1.
1933 – President Herbert Hoover declared Death Valley, CA a national monument.
1936 – Pumping began for the creation of Treasure Island in SF Bay. It was built with imported fill on shoals on the north side of Yerba Buena Island for the Expo in 1939.
1936 – Nazis: The Reich arrested 150 Catholic youth leaders in Berlin. When the war was over many of the leaders of the Reich were put on trial for the atrocities that had been committed.
1937 – A sit-down strike ends when General Motors recognizes the United Auto Workers Union.
1938 – BBC Television produces the world’s first ever science fiction television program, an adaptation of a section of the Karel Capek play R.U.R., which coined the term “robot”.
1939 – Lockheed P-38 flies from California to New York in 7 hours 2 minutes.
1940 – NBC radio presented “The Chamber Music Society of Lower Basin Street” for the first time.
1941 – First Gold record is presented to Glenn Miller for “Chattanooga Choo Choo“.
1942 – “Archie” comic book debuts.
1943 – World War II: General Dwight Eisenhower is selected to command the Allied armies in Europe.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Transport #47 departed with French Jews to Nazi Germany. These people were Frenchmen turned in by other non-Jew Frenchmen.
1944 – World War II: Forces of the US 5th Army continue to engage German defenders around Cassino. The US 34th Division makes an unsuccessful attempt to approach the Cassino monastery from the north.
1945 – World War II:  The Yalta Agreement was signed by U.S. President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
1945 – First gas turbine propeller-driven airplane flight tested, Downey CA.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Symphony” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Clyde Rogers), “I Can’t Begin to Tell You” by Bing Crosby with the Carmen Cavallaro Orchestra, “Let It Snow” by Vaughn Monroe and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1950 – “Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley & “Ragg Mopp” by the Ames Brothers hit #1.
1951 – “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese fourth-phase offensive was launched against X Corps in central Korea along the Hoengsong-Wonju axis. The largest single loss of U.S. soldiers happened when 530 men of the 15th and 503rd Field Artillery Battalions were completely overrun.
1952 – Captain Margaret G. Blake, the first Army nurse in Korea to earn the Bronze Star Medal.
1953 – President Dwight Eisenhower refuses clemency appeal for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.
1954 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh! My Pa-Pa” by Eddie Fisher, “Make Love to Me” by Jo Stafford, “Young-at-Heart” by Frank Sinatra and “Bimbo” by Jim Reeves
1954 – A 75,000-watt light bulb was lit at the Rockefeller Center in New York, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of Edison’s first light bulb.
1956 – “Memories Are Made of This” by Dean Martin.
1958 – Ruth Carol Taylor was the first Black woman to become a stewardess by making her initial flight on Mohawk Airlines from Ithaca, NY to New York City.
1960 – Jack Paar walks off his TV show. A “water closet” joke he had told the night before was considered in bad taste by the NBC censors and had been removed. Paar didn’t think the joke was offensive and he left the show for a month.
1961 – Trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
1961 – “Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?” by The Shirelles topped the charts.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Peppermint Twist” by Joey Dee & The Starliters, “Duke of Earl” by Gene Chandler, “Norman” by Sue Thompson and “Walk on By” by Leroy Van Dyke all topped the charts.
1963 – Julia Child’s show The French Chef premieres.
1964 – The Beatles hold their first concert in the United States at the Washington Coliseum in Washington, D.C.
1965 – Vietnam War: Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American “Rolling Thunder” bombing campaign intensified.
1966 – “I’m a Believer” by the Monkees topped the charts.
1966 – Willie Mays became the highest-paid baseball player in either league as he signed a two-year contract with the San Francisco Giants for a salary of about $130,000 a year.
1968 – Israeli-Jordanian border clashes.
1969 – Diana Crump becomes first US woman jockey to ride against men, Hialelah.
1969 – A Lockheed SP2E Neptune crashed in the Santa Ana Mountains of Orange County, Ca., while on night training. 7 seamen were killed.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by The Shocking Blue, “Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)/Everybody is a Star” by Sly & The Family Stone, “I’ll Never Fall in Love Again” by Dionne Warwick and “A Week in a Country Jail” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1970 – The film “The Magic Christian,” featuring Ringo Starr debuted in New York City.
1970 – “Variety” reported this day that Walt Disney had secretly taken its “Song of the South” movie out of circulation back in 1958. It was pulled because of racist attitudes reflected in the Black roles in the film.
1971 – Eighty-seven countries, including the US, UK, and USSR, sign the Seabed Treaty outlawing nuclear weapons in international waters.
1971 – President Richard Nixon issued Executive Order 11582 dealing with holidays given to federal employees. The order specified the first day of January, the third Monday of February, the last Monday of May, the fourth day of July, the first Monday of September, the second Monday of October, the fourth Monday of October, the fourth Thursday of November, the twenty-fifth day of December, or any other calendar day designated as a holiday by Federal statute or Executive order.
1972 – McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. and Life magazine canceled plans to publish an autobiography of Howard Hughes. The work turned out to be fake.
1973 – Vietnam War: First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam takes place.
1974 – Dick Woodson is first of 48 to invoke baseball’s new arbitration rule.
1976 – Clifford Alexander, Jr. is confirmed as the first Black Secretary of the Army.
1977- Largest American Lobster ever caught was in Nova Scotia, Canada. It weighed 44 lbs 6oz and was 3 ft 6”long from tail to top of the claw.
1978 – The People’s Republic of China lifts a ban on works by Aristotle, Shakespeare and Dickens.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “(Love Is) Thicker Than Water” by Andy Gibb, “Just the Way You Are” by Billy Joel and “I Just Wish You Were Someone I Love” by Larry Gatlin with Brothers & Friends all topped the charts.
1979 – Islamic revolution of Iran achieves victory under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
1979 – The TV movie “Elvis,” with Kurt Russell, aired on ABC.
1979 – In New York City,  “They’re Playing Our Song” opened at the Imperial Theater and played for 1082 performances.
1981 – 100,000 gallons (380 m³) of radioactive coolant leak into the containment building of TVA Sequoyah 1 nuclear plant in Tennessee, contaminating 8 workers.
1982 – ABC-TV’s presentation of “The Winds of War” concluded. The 18-hour miniseries cost $40 million to produce and was the most-watched television program in history at the time.  World War II – The complete Collection
1984 – The tenth Space Shuttle mission returned to Earth safely.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “That’s What Friends are For” by Dionne & Friends, Burning Heart” by Survivor, “I’m Your Man” by Wham! And “Hurt” by Juice Newton all topped the charts.
1986 – The single “Superbowl Shuffle” by the Chicago Bears Shufflin’ Crew was certified gold by the RIAA.  It is a rap song performed by players of the Chicago Bears football team slightly prior to their performance in Super Bowl XX during 1985, .
1987 – North Carolina basketball coach Dean Smith got his 600th career coaching win as the Tar Heels defeated Wake Forest 94-85.
1989 – “Straight Up” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1990 – Nelson Mandela, a political prisoner for 27 years, is freed from Victor Verster Prison outside Cape Town, South Africa.
1990 – Buster Douglas KO’s “Iron” Mike Tyson in Tokyo, Japan.
1993 – Janet Reno was appointed to the position of attorney general by President Clinton. She was the first female to hold the position.
1994 – The space shuttle “Discovery” returned from an eight-day mission.
1994 - A judge in Fort Worth, Texas, ordered Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison acquitted of ethics charges after prosecutors refused to present their case.
1995 – The space shuttle Discovery landed at Cape Canaveral, Fla., ending a historic rendezvous mission with Russia’s Mir space station.
1995 – President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, threatened to veto any attempt by Republicans to scrap plans to put 100,000 additional police officers on the streets. (unfunded mandate)
1996 - A day after losing to an IBM computer dubbed “Deep Blue,” world chess champion Garry Kasparov rebounded to defeat the machine and even their six-game series in Philadelphia at one victory apiece.
1997 – Space Shuttle Discovery is launched on a mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope.
1998 – Ben Cohen, co-founder of Ben and Jerry’s Ice Cream, was named as director of the Greenpeace environmental group.
1998 - Attorney General Janet Reno asked for an independent prosecutor to investigate whether Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt had misled Congress in connection with an Indian casino controversy.
1999 – US jets struck seven Iraqi air defense sites.
1999 – A federal jury in New York found several gun makers responsible in three area shootings for letting guns fall into the hands of criminals; other manufacturers were cleared.
2000 – The space shuttle Endeavor took off. The mission was to gather information for the most detailed map of the earth ever made.
2000 – An early morning bomb exploded in NYC on the corner of Wall and Water streets in front of an office building owned by Barclay’s Bank. One person was slightly injured.
2000 - In Minnesota Gov. Jesse Ventura cut his ties to the Reform Party. In Nashville the national chairman, Jack Gargan, was ousted by forces loyal to Ross Perot and Pat Buchanan.
2001 - The East NBA All-Stars defeated the West squad, 111-to-110.
2001 – Two space commanders opened the door to Destiny, the American-made science laboratory attached the day before to the international space station.
2001 – Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh was demolished to clear the way for new separate baseball and football stadiums nearby.
2002 – The FBI issued a warning for a possible terrorist assault and identified Fawaz Yahya al-Rabeei, a Yemeni national, as a possible attacker.
2002 - Americans Ross Powers, Danny Kass and J.J. Thomas took gold, silver and bronze in the men’s halfpipe at the Salt Lake City Olympics.
2003 - The purported voice of Osama bin Laden, broadcast over the Al Jazeera network, told his followers to help Saddam Hussein fight Americans.
2004 -  It was reported that Mattel planned to introduce a line of toys capable of receiving digital signals from a new Batman TV cartoon show scheduled for the Fall.
2004 – Philippine troops rescued Alastair Joseph Onglingswan (35), a kidnapped American businessman, who was chained by his neck and feet for 22 days by a lone abductor.
2004 - The United States Army in Iraq announces a $10 million dollar reward for the capture of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a leader of the terrorist organization Ansar al-Islam.
2006 – Vice President Dick Cheney accidentally shoots Harry Whittington in the face while the two are hunting together.
2006 – Steve Fossett breaks record for non-stop flight in his lightweight experimental plane, the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer, to set a new record of 26,389 miles in about 76 hours.
2006 - American Chad Hedrick won the 5,000 meters in speedskating at the Olympics in Turin, Italy.
2007 - Harvard University appointed Drew Gilpin Faust as its 28th and first female president.
2007 - Barack Obama, following a political rally in Ames, Iowa, regretted saying the lives of military personnel had been “wasted.”
2007 – Intel introduced a new super-processor at the opening of an international conference of chip scientists. The processor would be able to perform over 1 trillion mathematical calculations per second (teraflop), but commercial use would not be available for 5 years.
2008 – House Representative Tom Lantos (80) of California, the only Holocaust survivor to serve in Congress, died.
2008 -  Gregg Bergersen, a United States Defense Department Analyst, is arrested and charged with espionage after being accused of leaking American military secrets to the Chinese government involving sensitive military and aerospace secrets, including on the space shuttle.
2008 - The US files charges against six alleged al-Qaeda operatives including Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in connection with the September 11, 2001 attacks, seeking the death penalty for war crimes and murder.
2008 -  It was reported that Patricia Cornwell (51), crime novelist, was donating $1 million to New York City’s John Jay College of Criminal Justice to help start a Crime Scene Academy.
2008 -  It was reported that Ronald Fearing, Berkeley professor in electrical engineering, has invented a tape-like substance based on the physics used by geckos to scoot upside-down across ceilings.
2009 – US House and Senate leaders agreed to a $789 stimulus package. This just 22 days into President Obama’s term of office.
2009 –  San Francisco city leaders banned floats, beer and nudity for the upcoming 98th annual Bay to Breakers run. On Feb 27 city officials agreed to allow nudity and registered floats free of alcohol.
2009 - U.S. Democrat John Dingell of Michigan becomes the House of Representatives’ longest-serving member.
2010 –  The US military used a laser gun aboard a Boeing 747 jumbo jet to shoot down a missile near Point Mugu, Ventura County, Ca.
2010 –  President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad announces that Iran is now a nuclear state, following a successful 20% uranium enrichment.
2010 – Former President Bill Clinton has two coronary stents implanted in his heart at the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital in New York City, after chest pains.
2010 –  Haiti announces that the 10 American missionaries accused of attempted kidnapping will be released from custody.
2012 –  American singer and actress Whitney Houston dies suddenly at the age of 48 at the Beverly Hills Hilton Hotel.
2012 – The Republican caucuses in the state of Maine finish with Mitt Romney finishing just ahead of Ron Paul.


1802 – Lydia Maria Child, American abolitionist (d. 1880)
1833 – Melville Weston Fuller, 8th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1910)
1839 – Josiah Willard Gibbs, American physicist was one of the greatest American scientists of all time, he devised much of the theoretical foundation for chemical thermodynamics as well as physical chemistry. (d. 1903)
1847 – Thomas Alva Edison, American inventor. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany.  (d. 1931)
1908 – Philip Dunne, American screenwriter, director and producer (d. 1992) He is best known for the films How Green Was My Valley (1941), The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947), The Robe (1953) and The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965).
1909 – Max Baer was an American Hall of Fame boxer of the 1930s, one-time Heavyweight Champion of the World, Hollywood actor, entertainer, professional wrestler and referee. (d. 1959)
1920 – Daniel “Chappie” James Jr., American general (d. 1978) was a fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first African-American to reach the rank of (four-star) general.
1926 – Leslie Nielsen, Canadian actor. He is well known for his roles as Frank Drebin in The Naked Gun, Dr. Rumack in “Airplane!” and most recently President Harris in the “Scary Movie” series.
1936 – Burt Reynolds, American actor.  Some of his memorable roles include Lewis Medlock in Deliverance, Paul Crewe in The Longest Yard, Bo ‘Bandit’ Darville in Smokey and the Bandit, J.J. McClure in The Cannonball Run and Jack Horner in Boogie Nights.
1953 – Jeb Bush, American politician is an American politician and was the 43rd Governor of Florida. He is a prominent member of the Bush family.
1969 – Jennifer Aniston, American actress She became famous from the mid 1990s to the early 2000s for playing the role of Rachel Green in the popular US sitcom Friends, a role for which she won an Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award.





Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 2d Platoon, Company B, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry. Place and date: Chu Pa Region, Pleiku Province, Republic of Vietnam, 9-11 February 1969. Entered service at: Fairmont, W. Va. Born: 7 April 1947, Morgantown, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Bennett distinguished himself while serving as a platoon medical aidman with the 2d Platoon, Company B, during a reconnaissance-in-force mission. On 9 February the platoon was moving to assist the 1st Platoon of Company D which had run into a North Vietnamese ambush when it became heavily engaged by the intense small arms, automatic weapons, mortar and rocket fire from a well fortified and numerically superior enemy unit. In the initial barrage of fire, three of the point members of the platoon fell wounded. Cpl. Bennett, with complete disregard for his safety, ran through the heavy fire to his fallen comrades, administered life-saving first aid under fire and then made repeated trips carrying the wounded men to positions of relative safety from which they would be medically evacuated from the battle position. Cpl. Bennett repeatedly braved the intense enemy fire moving across open areas to give aid and comfort to his wounded comrades. He valiantly exposed himself to the heavy fire in order to retrieve the bodies of several fallen personnel. Throughout the night and following day, Cpl. Bennett moved from position to position treating and comforting the several personnel who had suffered shrapnel and gunshot wounds. On 11 February, Company B again moved in an assault on the well fortified enemy positions and became heavily engaged with the numerically superior enemy force. Five members of the company fell wounded in the initial assault. Cpl. Bennett ran to their aid without regard to the heavy fire. He treated 1 wounded comrade and began running toward another seriously wounded man. Although the wounded man was located forward of the company position covered by heavy enemy grazing fire and Cpl. Bennett was warned that it was impossible to reach the position, he leaped forward with complete disregard for his safety to save his comrade’s life. In attempting to save his fellow soldier, he was mortally wounded. Cpl. Bennett’s undaunted concern for his comrades at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.





Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant (then Sergeant), U.S. Army, Company E, 142d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Oberhoffen, France, 11 February 1945. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Birth: Perham, Maine. G.O. No.: 77, 10 September 1945. Citation: He led the 3d Platoon to the rescue of a similar unit which had been surrounded in an enemy counterattack at Oberhoffen, France. As he advanced along a street, he observed several Germans crossing a field about one hundred yards away. Running into a barn, he took up a position in a window and swept the hostile troops with submachine gun fire, killing six, wounding others, and completely disorganizing the group. His platoon then moved forward through intermittent sniper fire and made contact with the besieged Americans. When the two platoons had been reorganized, Sgt. Dahlgren continued to advance along the street until he drew fire from an enemy-held house. In the face of machine pistol and rifle fire, he ran toward the building, hurled a grenade through the door, and blasted his way inside with his gun. This aggressive attack so rattled the Germans that all eight men who held the strongpoint immediately surrendered. As Sgt. Dahlgren started toward the next house, hostile machinegun fire drove him to cover. He secured rifle grenades, stepped to an exposed position, and calmly launched his missiles from a difficult angle until he had destroyed the machinegun and killed its two operators. He moved to the rear of the house and suddenly came under the fire of a machinegun emplaced in a barn. Throwing a grenade into the structure, he rushed the position, firing his weapon as he ran; within, he overwhelmed five Germans. After reorganizing his unit he advanced to clear hostile riflemen from the building where he had destroyed the machinegun. He entered the house by a window and trapped the Germans in the cellar, where he tossed grenades into their midst, wounding several and forcing ten more to surrender. While reconnoitering another street with a comrade, he heard German voices in a house. An attack with rifle grenades drove the hostile troops to the cellar. Sgt. Dahlgren entered the building, kicked open the cellar door, and, firing several bursts down the stairway, called for the trapped enemy to surrender. Sixteen soldiers filed out with their hands in the air. The bold leadership and magnificent courage displayed by Sgt. Dahlgren in his heroic attacks were in a large measure responsible for repulsing an enemy counterattack and saving an American platoon from great danger.


INTERIM 1920-1940



Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Marine Barracks, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla., 11 February 1921. Entered service at: Michigan. Born: 31 July 1898, Calumet, Mich. G.O. No.: 72, 29 September 1921. Citation: At about 7:30 a.m. on the morning of 11 February 1921, Pvt. Smith, while on duty as a sentry, rescued Plen M. Phelps, late machinist’s mate second class, U.S. Navy, from a burning seaplane which had fallen near his post, gate No. 1, Marine Barracks, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Fla. Despite the explosion of the gravity gasoline tank, with total disregard of personal safety, he pushed himself to a position where he could reach Phelps, who was pinned beneath the burning wreckage, and rescued him from the burning plane, in the performance of which he sustained painful burns about the head, neck and both hands.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898 



Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook, First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 1867, Brunswick, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 489, 20 May 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Cushing, 11 February 1898. Showing gallant conduct, Atkins attempted to save the life of the late Ens. Joseph C. Breckenridge, U.S. Navy, who fell overboard at sea from that vessel on this date.


INTERIM 1871 – 1898 


Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate, Third Class, U.S. Born: 25 August 1873, Therold, Canada. Accredited to: New G.O. No.: 489, 20 May 1898. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Cushing, 11 February 1898, Everetts displayed gallant conduct in attempting to save the life of the late Ens. Joseph C. Breckinridge, U.S. Navy, who fell overboard at sea from that vessel.





Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 9th Michigan Cavalry. Place and date: At Aiken, S.C., 11 February 1865. Entered service at: Northfield, Mich. Born: 1844, Northfield, Mich. Date of issue: 9 July 1896. Citation: Voluntarily and at great personal risk returned, in the face of the advance of the enemy, and rescued from impending death or capture, Maj. William C. Stevens, 9th Michigan Cavalry, who had been thrown from his horse.

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Unerased History – February 10th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 10, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Plimsoll Day





Plimsoll Day

Plimsoll Day is in honor of Samuel Plimsoll, who was a British Social reformer. He was a member of parliament, and is most remembered for the legislation that introduced the Plimsol Line or load line. The plimsoll line is the marking on a ship’s hull that shows how low or high the ship is resting in the water. By examining the plimsoll line it is possible to tell how heavy a load the ship is carrying and it serves as a warning against overloading. A ship riding too low in the water will become dangerously unstable and could capsize. The marking is now mandatory and international. It is also known as a Load Line. The name Plimsoll comes from the British social reformer Samuel Plimsoll who first advocated an international standard to prevent unnecessary loss of life at sea. Until the load line became more widely used ships were often dangerously overloaded causing many tragedies. The level of a ship in the water is affected by temperature and salinity as well as load and so different levels are shown with code letters to indicate the type of water.

When Plimsoll’s bill passed in 1870, it only required that a line be drawn on the boat, it didn’t require that it be an accurately safe line. Sounds like a typically political compromise.

During the time of Samuel Plimsoll, because it was Victorian England, and we learn from Dickens that it was absolutely horrid to live in Victorian England if you didn’t have money, it was more cool to load your ships up and increase the danger of shipwreck, and save a few bucks on shipping costs, than to worry about the safety of your crew.

Anyway, the Plimsoll Line on boats lead to a popular fashion trend: the Plimsoll shoe. This shoe, as far as I can tell, was the original Ked. According to Wikipedia, the plimsoll shoe was a “canvas upper and rubber sole” which acquired the name “‘plimsoll’ because the colored horizontal band joining the upper to the sole resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship’s hull.”

A plimsoll shoe, plimsoll, or plimsole (British English) is a type of athletic shoe with a canvas upper and rubber sole, developed as beachwear in the 1830s by the Liverpool Rubber Company. The shoe was originally, and often still is in parts of the United Kingdom, called a ‘sand shoe’ and acquired the nickname ‘plimsoll’ in the 1870s.This name derived, according to Nicholette Jones’ book “The Plimsoll Sensation”, because the coloured horizontal band joining the upper to the sole resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship’s hull, or because, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.


“Let us never negotiate out of fear; but let us never fear to negotiate.”

~  John F. Kennedy

tatterdemalion (tat-uhr-di-MAYL-yuhn, -MALEE-uhn)


Ragged, tattered.


A person in ragged clothes.


60 A.D. – St. Paul is believed to have been shipwrecked near Malta while enroute to Rome for trial for practicing catholicism. The story is told in the Bible’s New Testament Acts of the Apostles, chapter 27. The event is marked in Malta every February 10.

1258 – Battle of Baghdad – Mongols overrun Baghdad, burning it to the ground and killing large numbers of citizens (estimates range from 10,000 to 800,000).
1542 – Queen Catherine Howard of England is confined in the Tower of London to be executed three days later for treason (adultery).
1676 – Lancaster, Mass was raided in King Philip’s War. The Narragansett and Nipmuck Indians, searching for food killed over 35 villagers and 24 were taken captive including Mary Rowlandson and her 3 children. She was released eleven weeks later.
1677 – Virginia Governor William Berkley revokes the royal pardon for rebels of Bacon’s Rebellion. In defiance of the Crown, Berkley proceeds to execute twenty-three of the rebels.
1763 – The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. In the treaty France ceded Canada to England.
1774 – Andrew Becker demonstrates diving suit.
1807 – US Coast Survey authorized by Congress.
1846 – Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints began their exodus to the west from Illinois.
1855 – US citizenship laws amended. It was changed to read, “All children heretofore born or hereafter born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States; but the rights of citizenship shall not descend to children whose fathers never resided in the United States.”
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis receives word that he has been selected president of the new Confederate States of America. Davis was at his plantation, Brierfield, pruning rose bushes with his wife Varina when a messenger arrived from nearby Vicksburg.
1862 – After the capture of Roanoke Island, a naval flotilla pursued the escaping Confederate naval force up the Pasquotank River and engaged the gunboats and batteries at Elizabeth City, North Caro­lina.
1863 – The world-famous dwarfs General Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren get married in New York City.
1863 – The fire extinguisher was patented by Alanson Crane.
1865 – Civil War: The Confederate Navy began its last attempt to gain control of the James River and force the withdrawal of General Grant’s army by cutting its communications at City Point.
1870 – The YWCA is founded first in New York City.
1879 – The electric arc light was used for the first time. It was used in a California theater.
1890 – Eleven million acres, ceded to US by Sioux Indians, opens for settlement.
1897 – New York Times begins using slogan “All the News That’s Fit to Print”.
1915 – WW I: President Wilson blasted the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans.
1920 – Major league baseball representatives outlawed pitches that involve tampering with the ball.
1923 – Ink paste manufactured for first time by Standard Ink Company.
1924 – Bucky Harris, 27, becomes youngest baseball manager (Washington Senators)
1925 – First waterless gas storage tank put into service, Michigan City, IN.
1933 – The New York City-based Postal Telegraph Company introduces the first singing telegram.
1933 – In round 13 of a boxing match at New York City’s Madison Square Garden, Primo Carnera knocks out Ernie Schaaf. Schaaf died as a result of the knockout punch.
1934 – The first imperforated, ungummed sheets of postage stamps were issued. The Postal Service changed quickly with a large number of complaints.
1935 – Pennsylvania RR begins passenger service on new streamlined electric locomotive.
1940 – Tom & Jerry created by Hanna & Barbera debut by MGM.
1940 – “In The Mood” by Glenn Miller hits #1.
1940 – Coast Guard Cutters Bibb and Duane make first transmissions as weather stations.
1941 – The first Highway Post Office bus was built by the White Motor Company of Cleveland, Ohio. This vehicle inaugurated service between Washington, D.C., and Harrisonburg, Virginia, a distance of 149 miles.
1941 – World War II: Iceland was attacked by German planes. In July, the US 5th Division was deployed for the defense of Iceland.
1942 – RCA Victor presented Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with a “gold record” for their recording of “Chattanooga Choo Choo,” which had sold more than 1 million copies.
1942 – World War II: The war halted civilian car production at Ford.
1942 – World War II: Japanese submarine launches attack on Midway, a coral atoll used as a U.S. Navy base.
1945 – World War II: American USAAF B-24 and B-29 bombers raid Iwo Jima in preparation for the landings later in the month. They drop a daily average of 450 tons of bombs over the course of 15 days (6800 tons).
1945 – World War II: Task Force 58, with Marine Fighter Squadrons 123, 216, 217, 212, and 451 on board carriers, attacked Tokyo and provided air cover support for Iwo Jima landing forces. They also bombed and strafed Okinawa.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Fence Me In” by Bing Crosby & The Andrews Sisters, “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer, “I Dream of You” by The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Freddy Stewart) and “I’m Losing My Mind Over You” by Al Dexter
1949 – Arthur Miller’s play “Death of a Salesman” premiered in the Morosco Theater, New York City.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army units retook Inchon and Kimpo airfield. U.N. patrols entered Seoul.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, Why Don’t You Believe Me” by Joni James, “Keep It a Secret” by Jo Stafford and “I Let the Stars Get in My Eyes” by Goldie Hill all topped the charts.
1954 – President Dwight Eisenhower warns against United States intervention in Vietnam.
1955 – Bell Aircraft displayed a fixed-wing vertical takeoff plane. An ingenious blend of airplane and helicopter features, the Fairey Rotodyne was a case of almost–but not quite enough.
1956 – “My Friend Flicka” (26:16) premieres on CBS (later NBC) TV.
1956 – Elvis Presley records “Heartbreak Hotel” for RCA.
1958 – “Don’t” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – “Unsinkable Molly Brown” ended at Winter Garden, NYC, after 532 performances.
1960 – USS Sargo (SSN-583) surfaces at North Pole.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Will You Love Me Tomorrow” by The Shirelles, “Calcutta” by Lawrence Welk, “Shop Around” by The Miracles and “North to Alaska” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1961 – Niagara Falls hydroelectric project began producing power.
1962 – Captured American spy pilot Francis Gary Powers is exchanged for captured Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
1962 – “Peppermint Twist ” by Joey Dee & the Starliters topped the charts.
1964 – After twelve days of debate and voting on 125 amendments, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by a vote of 290-130. The bill prohibited any state or local government or public facility from denying access to anyone because of race or ethnic origin.
1965 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong guerrillas blow up the U.S. barracks at Qui Nhon, 75 miles east of Pleiku on the central coast, with a 100-pound explosive charge under the building. A total of twenty-three U.S. personnel were killed.
1966 – Protester David Miller was convicted of burning his draft card.
1966 – Andrew Brimmer becomes the first Black governor of the Federal Reserve Board when he is appointed by President Johnson.
1967 – The 25th Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified. This amendment clarified the procedures for presidential succession in the event of the disability of a sitting president.
1968 – “Love Is Blue” by Paul Mauriat topped the charts.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Crimson and Clover” by Tommy James & The Shondells, Everyday People” by Sly & The Family Stone, “Touch Me” by The Doors and “Daddy Sang Bass” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1971 – Combat photographers Henri Huet of AP, Kent Potter of UPI, Larry Burrows (b.1926) of Life Magazine and Keisaburo Shimamato of Newsweek were killed in a helicopter crash over Laos.
1973 – “Crocodile Rock” by Elton John topped the charts.
1976 – Sidney Jacoby was granted a patent for a combination smoke and heat detector alarm.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Torn Between Two Lovers” by Mary MacGregor, “New Kid in Town” by Eagles, “Blinded by the Light” by Manfred Mann’s Earth Band and “Near You” by George Jones & Tammy Wynette all topped the charts.
1979 – “Da Ya Think I’m Sexy?” by Rod Stewart topped the charts
1981 – A fire at the Las Vegas Hilton hotel-casino kills eight and injures 198. This was just 9 days after the MGM Grand fire.
1984 – Kevin Andrew Collins (9) was abducted from a SF street corner. The child’s picture was among the first to appear on milk cartons around the country.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Want to Know What Love Is” by Foreigner, “Easy Loverby Philip Bailey with Phil Collins, “Careless Whisper” by Wham! featuring George Michael and “Ain’t She Somethin’ Else” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1988 – A three-judge panel of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco struck down the Army’s ban on homosexuals.
1989 – Ron Brown is elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee becoming the first African-American to lead a major American political party.
1990 – James “Buster” Douglas KO’s Mike Tyson In what perhaps was one of the greatest upsets in sports history .
1990 – “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul & the Wild Pair topped the charts.
1993 – Michael Jackson granted his first interview in 15 years to Oprah Winfrey. In the interview, Jackson claimed that he has a disorder that destroys the pigmentation of the skin and that he had had very little plastic surgery.
1994 – Jeannie Flynn (b.1966)), the first female combat pilot in the US Air Force, finished flight training in the F-15.
1996 – The IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov for the first time. He went on to win four games to two.
1997 – The United States Army suspends CSM Gene C. McKinney, its top-ranking enlisted soldier, after hearing allegations of sexual misconduct.
1997 – The city of Cincinnati revealed plans for a new $80 museum for its role in the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. The museum and freedom center opened in 2002.
1998 – A college dropout becomes the first person to be convicted of a hate crime committed in cyberspace.
1998 – Voters in Maine repeal a gay rights law passed in 1997 becoming the first U.S. state to abandon such a law.
1999 – Iraq War: US and British jets again hit Iraqi air defense sites. It was reported that Saddam Hussein has offered $14,000 to air defense troops who shoot down a US or British plane.
2000 - The Federal Aviation Administration ordered inspections of MD-80, MD-90, DC-9 and 717 series jetliners after two Alaska Airlines planes were found to have equipment damage similar to that on Alaska Airlines Flight 261, which crashed off the California coast January 31st, killing all 88 people on board.
2001 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis’ astronauts installed the $1.4 billion Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station.
2002 – Snowboarder Kelly Clark won America’s first gold medal at the Salt Lake City Olympics in women’s halfpipe.
2002 - The Western Conference defeated the Eastern Conference, 135-120, in the NBA All-Star Game.
2004 - The White House released documents on Pres. Bush’s time of service in the Air National Guard. Questions remained over his service in Alabama in 1972.
2004 - The US broke ground for a new U.S. Embassy compound in the Chinese capital, billed by the American government as the largest State Department project ever built on foreign soil.
2005 - New York civil rights lawyer Lynne Stewart was convicted of smuggling messages of violence from one of her jailed clients, radical Egyptian sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, to his terrorist disciples on the outside. In 2006 Stewart was sentenced to 28 months in prison.
2005 – North Korea suspends participation in multi-nation talks to discuss its arms program and officially admits to developing nuclear weapons.
2006 – The XX Olympic Winter Games open in Turin, Italy.
2006 -Former federal disaster chief Michael Brown told a Senate committee he had alerted the White House to how bad things were in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, and agreed with senators who said he’d been made a scapegoat for government failures.
2006 –  Dr. Norman Shumway (83), who performed the first successful heart transplant in the U.S., died in Palo Alto, Calif.
2007 – In Iraq Gen. David Petraeus (b.1952) took command of the 135,000-strong US force.
2007 - Democrat Barack Obama announced in Illinois that he is running for the White House in 2008.
2009 – Timothy Geithner, US Treasury Secretary, outlined the government stimulus package. As much as $2.5 trillion, including $350 billion from the bailout fund, would come from the Federal Reserve and private investors.
2009 – The US Postal Service announced that the price of a first-class stamp will rise to 44 cents on May 11, 2009.
2009 – General Motors Corp. said it will cut 10,000 salaried jobs, citing the need to restructure itself with a government deadline looming and amid some of the worst sales in the auto industry’s history.
2009 – The first-ever collision between two satellites occurred over Siberia when a derelict Russian military communications satellite crossed paths with a US Iridium satellite.
2010 - Snow, wind and slush covered eastern commuters as blizzard warnings from Baltimore to New York City announced the second major storm in a region already largely blanketed by weekend snowfall. Snow was falling from northern Virginia to Connecticut after crawling out of the Midwest, where the storm canceled hundreds of flights and was blamed for three traffic deaths in Michigan.
2011 - Arizona filed a lawsuit against the federal government, alleging that Washington has failed to secure the state’s porous border with Mexico.
2011 – The U.S. Department of Defense identified remains discovered in the South Pacific seven years ago as those of 11 airmen who had been missing since World War II.
2011 –  The Montana House of Representatives voted to repeal the state’s 6-year-old medical marijuana law.
2011 –  In Allentown, Pennsylvania, a natural gas explosion rocked a downtown neighborhood overnight, leveling two houses and spawning fires that burned for hours through an entire row of neighboring homes. One person was killed, and at least five others were unaccounted for.
2012 – The United States Central Intelligence Agency website and Alabama state websites go down with reports that Anonymous is responsible. Anonymous (used as a mass noun) is a loosely associated hacktivist group.
2012 – An internal plot among cardinals to kill Pope Benedict XVI is alleged in Italy.
2013 - Three crew members are killed when a Bell 206 helicopter crashes at the Polsa Rosa Movie Ranch in Acton, California, United States, while filming a documentary.
2014 - Shirley Temple, the dimpled, curly-haired child star who sang, danced, sobbed and grinned her way into the hearts of Depression-era moviegoers, has died. She was 85.


1846 – Ira Remsen, was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. (d. 1927)
1890 – Boris Pasternak, Nobel Prize Laureate (d. 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer. In the West he is best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago
1893 – Jimmy Durante, American actor/comedían (d. 1980) was an American singer, pianist, comedian and actor, whose distinctive gravel delivery, comic language butchery, jazz-influenced songs, and large nose.
1906 – Lon Chaney Jr., was an American character actor, known mainly for his roles in monster movies and as the son of silent film actor Lon Chaney. (d. 1973)
1950 – Mark Spitz is a retired American swimmer, best known for winning seven gold medals at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, an achievement surpassed only when Michael Phelps won his eighth gold medal of the 2008 Olympics.
1961 – George Stephanopoulos is an American broadcaster and former political adviser.
1964 – Glen Beck is a politically conservative American television and radio host, political commentator, author, television network producer, media personality, and entrepreneur.
1969 – Laurie Dhue was a Fox News Channel anchor from 2000-2008, reporting for the television show Geraldo at Large, which airs Saturday and Sunday nights, and the host of Fox Report Weekend.
1974 – Elizabeth Banks is an American actress whose theatrical appearances include Scrubs, Spider-Man, The 40-Year-Old Virgin.





Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, 10 February 1970. Entered service at: Fort Ord, Calif. Born: 10 January 1949, Providence, R.I.. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Baca, Company D, distinguished himself while serving on a recoilless rifle team during a night ambush mission A platoon from his company was sent to investigate the detonation of an automatic ambush device forward of his unit’s main position and soon came under intense enemy fire from concealed positions along the trail. Hearing the heavy firing from the platoon position and realizing that his recoilless rifle team could assist the members of the besieged patrol, Sp4c. Baca led his team through the hail of enemy fire to a firing position within the patrol’s defensive perimeter. As they prepared to engage the enemy, a fragmentation grenade was thrown into the midst of the patrol. Fully aware of the danger to his comrades, Sp4c. Baca unhesitatingly, and with complete disregard for his own safety, covered the grenade with his steel helmet and fell on it as the grenade exploded, thereby absorbing the lethal fragments and concussion with his body. His gallant action and total disregard for his personal well-being directly saved 8 men from certain serious injury or death. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Sp4c. Baca, at the risk of his life, are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.






Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, CO, 334th Fighter Squadron, 4th Fighter Group, 5th Air Force. Place and date: Near Sinuiju-Yalu River area, Korea, 10 February 1952. Entered service at: Lubbock, Tex. Born: 1 December 1920, Dublin, Tex. Citation: Maj. Davis distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While leading a flight of four F-86 Saberjets on a combat aerial patrol mission near the Manchurian border, Maj. Davis’ element leader ran out of oxygen and was forced to retire from the flight with his wingman accompanying him. Maj. Davis and the remaining F-86′s continued the mission and sighted a formation of approximately twelve enemy MIG-15 aircraft speeding southward toward an area where friendly fighter-bombers were conducting low level operations against the Communist lines of communications. With selfless disregard for the numerical superiority of the enemy, Maj. Davis positioned his two aircraft, then dove at the MIG formation. While speeding through the formation from the rear he singled out a MIG-15 and destroyed it with a concentrated burst of fire. Although he was now under continuous fire from the enemy fighters to his rear, Maj. Davis sustained his attack. He fired at another MIG-15 which, bursting into smoke and flames, went into a vertical dive. Rather than maintain his superior speed and evade the enemy fire being concentrated on him, he elected to reduce his speed and sought out still a third MIG-15. During this latest attack his aircraft sustained a direct hit, went out of control, then crashed into a mountain thirty miles south of the Yalu River. Maj. Davis’ bold attack completely disrupted the enemy formation, permitting the friendly fighter-bombers to successfully complete their interdiction mission. Maj. Davis, by his indomitable fighting spirit, heroic aggressiveness, and superb courage in engaging the enemy against formidable odds exemplified valor at its highest.




Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, retired. Place and date: —-. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 27 March 1844, Newburyport, Mass. G.O. No.: 3, W.D., 1935. Act of Congress, 21 March 1935. Citation: For his life of splendid public service, begun on 27 March 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on 26 July 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general 10 February 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday.




Rank and organization: Sergeant, Troop B, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Mizpah Creek, Mont., 10 April 1879; at Pumpkin Creek, Mont., 10 February 1880. Entered service at:——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 November 1897. Citation: While in charge of small scouting parties, fought, charged, surrounded, and captured war parties of Sioux Indians.




Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: Cedarville, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 11, 3 April 1863. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Valley City during action against rebel fort batteries and ships off Elizabeth City, N.C., on 10 February 1862. When a shell from the shore penetrated the side and passed through the magazine, exploding outside the screen on the berth deck, several powder division protecting bulkheads were torn to pieces and the forward part of the berth deck set on fire. Showing great presence of mind, Davis courageously covered a barrel of powder with his own body and prevented an explosion, while at the same time passing powder to provide the division on the upper deck while under fierce enemy fire.

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Unerased History – February 9th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 9, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Hershey’s Chocolate Founded

Toothache Day

National Bagels and Lox Day

Charlie Chaplain

Excepts by David Robinson / Copyright 2004 MK2 SA

Charlie Chaplin’s character “Tramp” (29:43)debuted in 1914. Chaplin, a vaudeville star turned comedic actor, showed off his new character in Kid Auto Races at Venice, a Keystone Studios short. The mischievous but innocent Tramp, sporting a tiny mustache and twirling cane, wore a little derby, tight-fitting jacket, baggy trousers, and floppy shoes. The Tramp was an immediate success with audiences.

By 1916, just two years after appearing in his first motion picture, Charles Chaplin had become the most famous entertainer in the world. Buoyed by his enormously successful comedies for Keystone and Essanay, he was offered the largest salary ever extended to a motion picture star—$670,000 for a single year’s work—to make twelve two-reel comedies for the Mutual Film Corporation.

From the moment he entered movies, Charles Chaplin knew that he needed total creative autonomy in order to make the kind of comedy of which he alone was capable. This autonomy he finally achieved in 1918, when he built his own studio.

Hollywood was still rural, and the studio rose up among the orange groves in the grounds of an old mansion. Disguised on the outside as an old English village street, the interior of studio was, for those times, state of the art.

Chaplin celebrated his move with an amusing little documentary film, “How To Make Movies” Part 1   Part 2, which showed the facilities and personnel of the studio, and his own daily routine. In fact the film was never completed or released; and this precious view of early Hollywood was not seen until 1959.

The films that Chaplin made in his own studio were a marked advance on any comedies previously made in Hollywood. They were generally longer – as much as 45 minutes, whereas few comedies before that time went beyond half an hour – and much more sophisticated in staging and structure. The first was “A Dog’s Life”, for which Chaplin found an excellent co-star, in the person of a charming mongrel dog, Scraps, whose battle for survival with the other dogs of the quarter is satirically compared with Charlie the Tramp’s own struggle for a place in society.

Along with his regular leading lady Edna Purviance – playing a much-abused singer and hostess working in the seedy Green Lantern bar – Chaplin is joined for the first time by his brother Sydney, who had shared his early struggles and helped him make his way on the variety theaters on the variety theater circuit. An excellent comedian in his own right, Sydney plays the proprietor of the coffee stall which is victim to the pilfering of Charlie and Scraps. An odd feature of “A Dog’s Life” is that Chaplin has abandoned his usual cane – presumably because he needed his hand free to hold the dog’s leash.

The First World War was already raging when Chaplin opened his studio; and “A Dog’s Life” was finished in a hurry so that Chaplin could do his war effort by embarking on a tour to sell Liberty Bonds, persuading the public to buy investments that supported the war effort.

His friends were nervous of his next project, a comedy about the war, which was to become “Shoulders Arms.” Even Chaplin himself had momentary doubts about making comedy out of such a catastrophic event in human history. Yet with this film he proved definitively that there is only the thinnest division between comedy and tragedy. With great brilliance, Chaplin depicts the horrors of life in the trenches – mud, blood, hunger, vermin, longing for home, the waterlogged trenches and the ever-imminent danger of a lethal bullet or grenade – through the distorting mirror of comedy.

Few directors exerted such discipline upon themselves. His original plan was to show the little hero’s life before and after the war. In the end, though, he simplified the structure, discarding reels of wonderful comic material he had shot.

Despite all the initial fears, “Shoulder Arms” (44:49) was and remains one of his greatest successes.

And no-one appreciated his comedy of the privations of life at the front more than the very men who had themselves endured it.

In 1959 Chaplin reissued “A Dog’s Life” and “Shoulder Arms”, slightly re-edited, in his omnibus film, “The Chaplin Revue”. He complemented them with a third film “The Pilgrim.” Made in 1922, this was Chaplin’s last film of less than normal feature length – it ran for an hour – and the last in which his leading lady was the charming Edna Purviance. The film is a gentle satire on small-town life and religion, with Chaplin as an escaped convict mistaken for the new pastor of a rural community. When the film first came out it suffered a good deal from censorship in some more puritanical states and cities of the United States.

Today we have no such problems with this charming comedy and its sharp but good-hearted fun at the expense of the small hypocrisies of life

Chaplin was one of the rare comedians who not only financed and produced all his films (with the exception of “A Countess from Hong Kong”), but was the author, actor, director and soundtrack composer of them as well. He died on Christmas day 1977, survived by eight children from his last marriage with Oona O’Neill, and one son from his short marriage to Lita Grey.

“The secret of getting ahead is getting started. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks, and then starting on the first one.”

~ Mark Twain

scrutator(skroo-TAY-tuhr) noun

One who investigates.

[From Latin scrutator (searcher), from scrutari (to examine),
from scruta (trash).]


1571 – Algonquin Indians attacked the Jesuit mission on the Virginia peninsula killing Fr. Juan Bautista de Segura and 4 other remaining priests.

1690 – King William’s War. America hostilities broke out between the English and French on Hudson Bay and between the Iroquois and the French in the area from the Mohawk to the St. Lawrence. The French under Frontenac (returned as governor, Oct. 1689) struck with their Native American allies along the northern frontier, with raids on Schenectady (9 Feb. 1690), Salmon Falls, N.H. (27 Mar.), and Falmouth (Portland, Me., 31 July), followed by Abenaki raids on Wells, Me. (21 June 1692), Durham N.H. (23 June 1694), and Haverhill, Mass. (15 Mar. 1697). These later became known as the French & Indian Wars.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: British Parliament declares Massachusetts in rebellion.
1797 – John Quincy Adams’ (Sr.) emerged victorious from America’s first contested presidential election.
1799 – The USS Constellation captured the French frigate Insurgente off the coast of Wisconsin.
1811 – Robert Fulton was granted a patent for the practical steamboat.
1822 – The American Indian Society organized.
1825 – After no presidential candidate received a majority of electoral votes, the United States House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams President of the United States.
1861 – Civil War: Jefferson Davis is elected the Provisional President of the Confederate States of America by the Confederate convention at Montgomery, Alabama. The Confederate Provisional Congress declared all laws under the US Constitution were consistent with constitution of Confederate states.
1861 – Civil War: Tennessee voted against secession.
1863 – A fire extinguisher was patented by Alanson Crane.
1864 – Civil War:109 Union prisoners escaped through a tunnel from the Confederate Libby Prison in Richmond, Va., including Lt. James M. Wells of Michigan. In 1904 Wells published an account of the escape in the Jan. issue of McClure’s Magazine.
1867 – Johann Strauss’ “Blue Danube” waltz premieres in Vienna.
1870 – The U.S. Weather Bureau was established by President Ulysses S Grant. It was originally called the National Weather Service.
1885 – The first Japanese arrive in Hawaii.
1886 – President Cleveland declared a state of emergency in Seattle because of anti-Chinese violence.
1889 - President Grover Cleveland signs a bill elevating the US Department of Agriculture to a Cabinet-level agency.
1895 – Volleyball was invented by W.G. Morgan in Massachusetts. A game called “mintonette” (volleyball) was created by William George Morgan, physical director at the YMCA in Holyoke, Mass., to accommodate players who thought basketball was too strenuous.
1895 – Ray Kaighn coached the first intercollegiate basketball game ever played anywhere. Hamline lost 9-3, to the Minnesota State School of Agriculture. The hoops they aimed at were peach baskets. The scores were low to begin with because people had to climb ladders to get the ball out after each basket.
1900 – Davis Cup competition is established. The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men’s tennis. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States and Great Britain.
1909 – First federal legislation prohibiting narcotics (opium)
1909 – Future President Harry Truman was initiated into Freemasonry in the Belton Lodge, Missouri.
1909 – First forestry school is incorporated at Kent OH.
1913 - A group of meteors is visible across much of the eastern seaboard of North and South America, leading astronomers to conclude the source had been a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth.
1918 – Army chaplain school organized at Fort Monroe, VA.
1920 – Baseball outlaws all pitches involving tampering with the ball. The Joint Rules Committee banned all foreign substances or other alterations to the ball by pitchers, including saliva, resin, talcum powder, paraffin, and the shine and emery ball.
1922 – The U.S. Congress established the World War Foreign Debt Commission.
1926 – Teaching theory of evolution was forbidden in Atlanta, Georgia, schools.
1932 – America enter Olympics 2-man bobsled competition for first time.
1942 – World War II: Top United States military leaders hold their first formal meeting to discuss American military strategy in the war.
1942 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States. The U.S. called it “war time”.
1942 – The former French cruise ship Normandie, launched in 1935, burned in New York Harbor during its conversion to an Allied trip transport ship. It was once regarded as most elegant ocean liner ever built.
1943 – World War II: Allied authorities declare Guadalcanal secure after Imperial Japan evacuates its remaining forces from the island, ending the Battle of Guadalcanal. Guadalcanal (local name Isatabu) is a 2,510-square mile island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands.
1943 – FDR orders minimal 48 hour work week in war industry.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Heart Tells Me” by The Glen Gray Orchestra (vocal: Eugenie Baird), “Shoo, Shoo, Baby” by The Andrews Sisters, “ No Love, No Nothin’” by Ella Mae Morse and “Pistol Packin’ Mama” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1947 – Bank robber Willie Sutton escapes jail from Holmesburgh County Jail, near Philadelphia, PA.
1948 – The first Marine helicopters (HO3S-1s) were delivered to the Corps.
1950 – Second Red Scare: Senator Joseph McCarthy accuses the United States State Department of being filled with Communists.
1951 – St Louis Browns sign pitcher Satchel Paige, 45.
1951 – Actress Greta Garbo received her U.S. citizenship.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Slowpoke” by Pee Wee King, “Cry” by Johnnie Ray, Anytime” by Eddie Fisher and “Give Me More, More, More (Of Your Kisses)” by Lefty Frizzell all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War – The carriers USS Kearsarge, Philippine Sea and Oriskany renewed heavy air attacks against Wonsan.
1953 – “The Adventures of Superman” TV series premieres in syndication.
1958 – CBS radio debuted “Frontier Gentleman”.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Teen Angel” by Mark Dinning, “Where or When” by Dion & The Belmonts, “Handy Man” by Jimmy Jones and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1960 – Joanne Woodward receives the first star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. It is located at 6801 Hollywood Blvd.
1960 – The Angelo Petri, the world’s largest wine tanker, foundered outside the San Francisco Golden Gate. It carried a capacity load of 2,383,000 gallons of wine and vegetable oil.
1962 – Neil Sedaka recorded “Breaking Up is Hard to Do” for the first time.
1963 – First flight of Boeing 727 jet. 1,832 of the aircraft were built until 1984 when production stopped.
1963 – “Hey Paula” by Paul & Paula topped the charts.
1964 – Olympic Games: Winter Olympic Games – The IX Olympic Winter Games close in Innsbruck, Austria.
1964 – The Beatles make their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, performing before an audience of 73 million viewers.
1965 – Vietnam War: The first United States combat troops are sent to South Vietnam.
1965 – Vietnam War: A U.S. Marine Corps Hawk air defense missile battalion is deployed to Da Nang.
1966 – Liza Minnelli brought her night club act to New York City. She opened at the Persian Room of the Plaza Hotel.
1968 – Vietnam War: USCG vessels helped thwart a Communist attempt to run four trawlers through the Market Time blockade off the coast of South Vietnam.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Green Tambourine” by The Lemon Pipers, “Spooky” by Classics IV, “Love is Blue” by  Paul Mauriat and “Skip a Rope” by Henson Cargill all topped the charts.
1969 – Roslyn Kind made her TV debut on “The Ed Sullivan Show”. Roslyn Kind is the sister of Barbra Streisand.
1969 – World’s largest airplane, Boeing 747, makes first flight. It would use 33 attendants and have room for  374 to 490 passengers. Originally designed to sell 400 before it became obsolete 1,418 aircraft(June 2010) have been built, with 109 more in various configurations remaining on order.
1969 – Gabby Hayes (b.1885), American film and TV actor, died. He played the sidekick to Hopalong Cassidy and later Roy Rogers Westerns.
1971 – The Sylmar earthquake struck the San Fernando Valley near Sylmar, California at 6:00:41 am PST with a magnitude of 6.6. The earthquake lasted approximately 60 seconds. The worst damage was to the Olive View Medical Center and at the Veterans Administration Hospital, located in Sylmar.

1971 – Satchel Paige becomes the first Negro League player to become voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.
1971 – Apollo program: Apollo 14 returns to Earth after the third manned moon landing.
1974 – “Love’s Theme” by the Love Unlimited Orchestra topped the charts.
1974 – US female Figure Skating championship was won by Dorothy Hamill.
1975 – The Soyuz 17 Soviet spacecraft returns to Earth.
1975 – Cher’s TV show premiered with guests Elton John and Bette Midler.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon, “Love to Love You Baby” by Donna Summer, “You Sexy Thing” by Hot Chocolate and “Sometimes” by Bill Anderson & Mary Lou Turner all topped the charts.
1978 -  Kimberly Leach (12) was killed by Ted Bundy in Lake City, Fla.
1980 – Rick Barry, Houston, is first in NBA to score 8, 3-point goals in a game.
1980 – “Rock with You” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Karma Chameleon” by Culture Club, “Joanna” by Kool & The Gang, “Running with the Night” by Lionel Richie and “Show Her” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1985 – Madonna’s album “Like a Virgin,” released in 1984, reached #1.
1986 – Comet Halley reaches perihelion, its closest approach to the sun, during its second visit to the solar system in the 20th century. American satirist and writer Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835, exactly two weeks after the comet’s perihelion. In his biography, he said, “I came in with Halley’s comet in 1835. It’s coming again next year (1910), and I expect to go out with it. The Almighty has said no doubt, ‘Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.’ ” Twain died on April 21, 1910, the day following the comet’s subsequent perihelion.
1987 – New York Stock Exchange installs ladies restroom in the Exchange Luncheon Club.
1989 – Kevin Johnson (Phoenix Suns) ends NBA free throw streak of 57 games.
1990 – The Galileo satellite, launched Oct. 18, 1989, made its closest approach to Venus.
1990 - John Gotti (1940-2002) was acquitted of charges that he commissioned the Westies gang to shoot a union official in Manhattan’s Hell’s Kitchen. This earned him the nickname “The Teflon Don.”
1991 – “Gonna Make You Sweat” by C&C Music Factory topped the charts.
1992 - Magic Johnson returned to professional basketball by playing in the NBA All-Star game. Johnson was named most valuable player as his side, the Western Conference, defeated the Eastern Conference 153-to-113.
1993 - NBC News announced it had settled a defamation lawsuit brought by General Motors over the network’s “inappropriate demonstration” of a fiery pickup truck crash on its “Dateline NBC” program.
1993 – HOSPITAL SHOOTING: A disgruntled patient brandishing a .357-magnum revolver opened fire in the emergency room of Los Angeles County-USC Medical Center, critically wounding three doctors and taking two women hostage before he surrendered five hours later.
1996 – Pres. Clinton signed the new telecommunications bill into law. It included a subsidy program, “E-Rate,” to provide schools with a connection to the Internet. Phone companies two years later began charging their long-distance customers a surcharge to cover the subsidies. It also included a ban on Internet smut that was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1999.
1996 – In Fort Lauderdale, Florida, a former member of the city’s beach detail shot and killed five former co-workers before killing himself.
1996 – A collision of rush-hour commuter trains in Secaucus, New Jersey, claimed the lives of both engineers and a passenger.
1996 – The movie “Broken Arrow” opened in the U.S.
1997 – The Fox cartoon series “Simpsons” airs 167th episode the longest-running animated series in cartoon history.
1997 – Best Products closed the last of its stores, a victim of the diminishing allure of the catalog showroom concept of retailing.
1997 - The East beat the West in the NBA All-Star game, 132-to-120.
1997 - In Newton, Mass., an 8-month old baby died while under the care of a 19-year-old British nanny. Louisa Woodward, pleaded innocent, but was tried and convicted on 2nd-degree murder charges in Oct.
1999 - The Senate began closed-door deliberations in President Clinton’s impeachment trial, even though members from both parties acknowledged that the two-thirds margin for conviction could not be attained.
2000 – In Renton, Wa., some 17,000 Boeing engineers and technical workers began a 40-day strike, one of the biggest white-collar strikes in US history.
2000 - “Denial of service” attacks are increased by hackers on numerous popular Internet sites. Targets included eTrade and ZDNet. The attacks inconvenienced millions of Web users and shook-up Wall Street.
2001 – The American submarine USS Greeneville accidentally strikes and sinks the Ehime-Maru, a Japanese training vessel operated by the Uwajima Fishery High School.
2001 – “Hannibal,” the sequel to “Silence of the Lambs”, opened in theaters.
2002 – Oakland’s Rich Gannon led the AFC to a 38-30 victory over the NFC in the Pro Bowl.
2003 – The West beat the East 155-145 in the first double overtime game in NBA All-Star history.
2003 – The U.S. Navy ended its last planned bombing exercises on Puerto Rico’s Vieques Island.
2003 – President Bush told congressional Republicans at a policy conference that Iraq had fooled the world for more than a decade about its banned weapons and the United Nations was now facing “a moment of truth” in disarming Saddam Hussein.
2004 – Tower Records Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.
2005 - Ceremonies were scheduled for a first-day-of-issue stamp commemorating Pres. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004).
2005 - Wal-Mart said it planned to close its store in Jonquiere, Quebec, where workers were seeking to become the first ever to win a union contract with Wal-Mart. Doors were shut on May 6th.
2005 - Carly Fiorina, widely considered one of the most powerful women in American business, resigns her post as CEO of Hewlett-Packard, having being asked to do so by the company’s board of directors after she failed to cut costs and increase revenue as quickly as the board had hoped.
2006 – President Bush outlined details of an alleged plot to hijack an airliner and fly it into a skyscraper in Los Angeles.
2006 - Sir Freddie Laker (83), pioneer of low-cost airline travel, died in Florida.
2006 – US Federal drug agents raided several “marijuana candy factories” in Oakland and Emeryville, Ca., seizing hundreds of sodas and candies with such names as Trippy, Stoney Rancher, Toka-Cola and Budtela.
2006 – Kidnapped American journalist Jill Carroll appeared in a video aired on a private Kuwaiti TV channel.She was freed on March 30, 2006.
2007 - US Defense Secretary Robert Gates told reporters in Munich, Germany, that serial numbers and other markings on bombs suggested that Iranians were linked to deadly explosives used by Iraqi militants.
2007 - It was reported that researchers at  M.I.T. have overcome a major obstacle in harnessing the full power and speed of the light waves for Internet fiber-optic networks.
2007 - A report by the U.S. Defense Department’s inspector general has found the Pentagon “purposely manipulated” pre-war intelligence. Senator Carl Levin, D-MI, as chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee has called the report “very damning” and said of its results, “highly disturbing”.
2008 - In San Mateo County, Ca., police found John Alfred Dennis Jr. (59), an Oakland historian and respected college teacher, slain in a vehicle at Montara State Beach.
2008 - Writers Guild of America strike (2007–present) reach tentative agreement with the major movie studios.
2009 – US Federal judges tentatively ordered California to release tens of thousands of inmates, up to a third of all prisoners, in the next three years to stop dangerous overcrowding.
2009 –  Baseball player Alex Rodriguez admitted to using performance-enhancing drugs with the Texas Rangers from 2001 to 2003.
2010 –  US Federal government offices were closed for a second straight day and utility workers struggled to restore power knocked out by a weekend blizzard.
2010 –  California lawmakers called for federal and state investigations into Anthem Blue Cross regarding new rates hikes of as much as 39% for thousands of policyholders statewide.
2010 –  Walter Fredrick Morrison (90), the man credited with inventing the Frisbee, died at his home in Monroe, Utah. Morrison began manufacturing his flying discs in 1948.
2010 –  Conrad Murray, Michael Jackson’s doctor pleads not guilty in death of the star.
2011 –  ConocoPhillips and Marathon Oil announce plans to shut down a liquefied natural gas plant in Kenai, Alaska.
2011 –  U.S. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano claims the possibility of terrorism being carried out against the country “has evolved significantly” and, she claims, is “at its most heightened state” since the 9/11 attacks”.
2011 –  Daniel Patrick Boyd pleads guilty to terrorism charges in a trial in North Carolina.
2011 –  Owners and players in the NFL resume talks in an effort to avoid a lockout next season.
2012 – West Virginia is losing three power plants – thanks to EPA and its regulations. First Energy Monongahela Power Company is being forced by economics to shut down three older coal-fired power plants in West Virginia. They close on September 1.
2013 - February 2013 nor’easter: The death toll from a massive blizzard across the Northeastern United States and southeastern Canada rises to at least 15, with 40 inches of snow reported from Hamden, Connecticut. More than 900,000 customers lost power at the height of the storm, while airports in the region cancelled over 5,300 flights.



1748 – Luther Martin, American patriot (d. 1826) was a politician and one of United States’ Founding Fathers, who refused to sign the Constitution because he felt it violated states’ rights.
1773 – William Henry Harrison, 9th President of the United States (d. 1841)
1909 – Dean Rusk, 54th United States Secretary of State (d. 1994)
1911 – William Darby, was an officer in the United States Army during World War II. Darby led the famous Darby’s Rangers which evolved into the US Army Rangers (d. 1945)
1914 – Ernest Tubb nicknamed the “Texas Troubadour”, was an American singer and songwriter and one of the pioneers of country music. His biggest career hit song “Walking the Floor Over You” (1941) marked the rise of the honky-tonk style of music. (d. 1984)
1928 – Roger Mudd is an Emmy Award-winning U.S. television journalist and broadcaster, most recently as the primary anchor for The History Channel.
1952 – Danny White is an American football coach in the Arena Football League and also occasionally appears as an analyst on broadcasts of college football games. He is a former quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys.
1981 – John Walker Lindh, was captured as an “enemy combatant” during the United States’ 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. An American citizen, he is now serving a 20-year prison sentence in connection with his participation in Afghanistan’s Taliban army.







Rank and organization: Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 3d Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Near An Hoa, Republic of Vietnam. 9 February 1969. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Born: 17 November 1948, Pittsburgh, Pa. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a machinegun squad leader with Company 1, in action against the enemy. While returning from a reconnaissance operation during Operation TAYLOR COMMON, two platoons of Company 1 came under an intense automatic weapons fire and grenade attack from a well concealed North Vietnamese Army force in fortified positions. The leading. element of the platoon was isolated and several marines were wounded. L/Cpl. Prom immediately assumed control of one of his machineguns and began to deliver return fire. Disregarding his safety he advanced to a position from which he could more effectively deliver covering fire while first aid was administered to the wounded men. Realizing that the enemy would have to be destroyed before the injured Marines could be evacuated, L/Cpl. Prom again moved forward and delivered a heavy volume of fire with such accuracy that he was instrumental in routing the enemy, thus permitting his men to regroup and resume their march. Shortly thereafter, the platoon again came under heavy fire in which one man was critically wounded. Reacting instantly, L/Cpl. Prom moved forward to protect his injured comrade. Unable to continue his fire because of his severe wounds, he continued to advance to within a few yards to the enemy positions. There, standing in full view of the enemy, he accurately directed the fire of his support elements until he was mortally wounded. Inspired by his heroic actions, the Marines launched an assault that destroyed the enemy. L/Cpl. Prom’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 148th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: South Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 9 February 1945. Entered service at: Waynesburg, Ohio. Birth: Waynesburg, Ohio. G.O. No.: 115, 8 December 1945. Citation: He was with troops assaulting the first important line of enemy defenses. The Japanese had converted the partially destroyed Manila Gas Works and adjacent buildings into a formidable system of mutually supporting strongpoints from which they were concentrating machinegun, mortar, and heavy artillery fire on the American forces. Casualties rapidly mounted, and the medical aid men, finding it increasingly difficult to evacuate the wounded, called for volunteer litter bearers. Pfc. Cicchetti immediately responded, organized a litter team and skillfully led it for more than four hours in rescuing fourteen wounded men, constantly passing back and forth over a four hundred-yard route which was the impact area for a tremendous volume of the most intense enemy fire. On one return trip the path was blocked by machinegun fire, but Pfc. Cicchetti deliberately exposed himself to draw the automatic fire which he neutralized with his own rifle while ordering the rest of the team to rush past to safety with the wounded. While gallantly continuing his work, he noticed a group of wounded and helpless soldiers some distance away and ran to their rescue although the enemy fire had increased to new fury. As he approached the casualties, he was struck in the head by a shell fragment, but with complete disregard for his gaping wound he continued to his comrades, lifted one and carried him on his shoulders fifty yards to safety. He then collapsed and died. By his skilled leadership, indomitable will, and dauntless courage, Pfc. Cicchetti saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers at the cost of his own.






Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company B, 148th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: Paco Railroad Station, Manila, Philippine Islands. 9 February 1945. Entered service at: Pryor, Okla. Birth. Muskogee, Okla. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation. He was engaged in the attack on the Paco Railroad Station, which was strongly defended by three hundred determined enemy soldiers with machineguns and rifles, supported by several pillboxes, three 20mm. guns, one 37-mm. gun and heavy mortars. While making a frontal assault across an open field, his platoon was halted one hundred yards from the station by intense enemy fire. On his own initiative he left the platoon. accompanied by a comrade, and continued forward to a house sixty yards from the objective. Although under constant enemy observation. the two men remained in this position for an hour, firing at targets of opportunity, killing more than thirty Japanese and wounding many more. Moving closer to the station and discovering a group of Japanese replacements attempting to reach pillboxes, they opened heavy fire, killed more than forty and stopped all subsequent attempts to man the emplacements. Enemy fire became more intense as they advanced to within twenty yards of the station. From that point Pfc. Reese provided effective covering fire and courageously drew enemy fire to himself while his companion killed seven Japanese and destroyed a 20-mm. gun and heavy machinegun with handgrenades. With their ammunition running low, the two men started to return to the American lines, alternately providing covering fire for each other as they withdrew. During this movement, Pfc. Reese was killed by enemy fire as he reloaded his rifle. The intrepid team, in 2-1/2 hours of fierce fighting, killed more than eighty-two Japanese, completely disorganized their defense and paved the way for subsequent complete defeat of the enemy at this strong point. By his gallant determination in the face of tremendous odds, aggressive fighting spirit, and extreme heroism at the cost of his life, Pfc. Reese materially aided the advance of our troops in Manila and providing a lasting inspiration to all those with whom he served.



Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant (then Private), U.S. Army, Company B, 148th Infantry, 37th Infantry Division. Place and date: Paco Railroad Station, Manila, Philippine Islands, 9 February 1945. Entered service at: San Antonio, Tex. Birth: San Marcos, Tex. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He was an automatic rifleman when his unit attacked the strongly defended Paco Railroad Station during the battle for Manila, Philippine Islands. While making a frontal assault across an open field, his platoon was halted one hundred yards from the station by intense enemy fire. On his own initiative, he left the platoon, accompanied by a comrade, and continued forward to a house sixty yards from the objective. Although under constant enemy observation, the two men remained in this position for an hour, firing at targets of opportunity, killing more than thirty-five hostile soldiers and wounding many more. Moving closer to the station and discovering a group of Japanese replacements attempting to reach pillboxes, they opened heavy fire, killed more than forty and stopped all subsequent attempts to man the emplacements. Enemy fire became more intense as they advanced to within twenty yards of the station. Then, covered by his companion, Pvt. Rodriguez boldly moved up to the building and threw five grenades through a doorway killing seven Japanese, destroying a 20-mm. gun and wrecking a heavy machinegun. With their ammunition running low, the two men started to return to the American lines, alternately providing covering fire for each other’s withdrawal. During this movement, Pvt. Rodriguez’ companion was killed. In 2-l/2 hours of fierce fighting the intrepid team killed more than eighty-two Japanese, completely disorganized their defense, and paved the way for the subsequent overwhelming defeat of the enemy at this strongpoint. Two days later, Pvt. Rodriguez again enabled his comrades to advance when he single-handedly killed six Japanese and destroyed a well-placed 20-mm. gun by his outstanding skill with his weapons, gallant determination to destroy the enemy, and heroic courage in the face of tremendous odds, Pvt. Rodriguez, on two occasions, materially aided the advance of our troops in Manila.


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Unerased History – February 8th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 8, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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National Black History Month

Boy Scout Anniversary Day
Laugh and Get Rich Day

Abraham Lincoln’s Dream

 In a few days we celebrate the birth date of a man who was, without question, one of  America’s greatest presidents.  February 12th marks the anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.  However, few know much about the final days of this man who once begged his fellow citizens to be guided by the “better angels of their nature.”

Just one of the many stresses on Lincoln was the fact that he was losing his hold on the Union and he was constantly receiving death threats. There were so many that he soon began to put them out of his mind.  He even once remarked that he would rather be assassinated than to live to see even one star removed from our flag.  His paramount goal in life was to preserve the Union he loved so much.

Nevertheless, several days before his death at the hands of John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln told his friend Ward Laymen of a very disturbing dream he had the night before.  In his dream, sobbing coming from the downstairs portion of the White House woke up Lincoln.  He rose from his bed and walked down the stairs where the crying becomes even louder.  Yet the President could see no one there but a single Union soldier standing at attention.

Mr. Lincoln asked the soldier, “Who is crying,” The soldier replied, “Have you not heard,”?  “The Nation weeps,” he said.  “And why does the Nation weep,” the President asked?

Lincoln goes on to tell his friend Ward that in his dream the soldier appeared confused by the question.  “There has been a great death in the White House,” the Captain told his commander in chief.  “Who is it,” Lincoln asked?  “Why Sir, it is the President who has died,” the soldier replies and points to a coffin sitting just a short distance away.

When Lincoln looked he saw himself resting in the coffin; a bullet wound in his head.

On April 14th Abraham Lincoln, 16th president and savior of the American Union was felled by a bullet fired by John Wilkes Booth to the back of his head.  He was

Ford’s Theater

carried from Ford’s Theater to a rooming house across the street and for most of night laid quietly dying.  His wife Mary screamed and cried so loudly that she was removed from the room.  His son Robert stood by the bedside and wept silently as he stared at his father and moved only occasionally to wipe tears from his eyes.  By morning, the death struggle had begun.  The President suddenly lurched his chest upward, gasped, gurgled and died. The room was silent except for Secretary of War Stanton who softly said: “Now he belongs to the ages.”

Abraham Lincoln’s Deathbed

Lincoln died April 15, 1865.


“It takes as much energy to wish as it does to plan.”

 ~ Eleanor Roosevelt


\om-nuh-PREZ-uhnt\, adjective:

Present in all places at the same time; ubiquitous.

“This is one of the tenets of modern law enforcement is the perception of omnipresence.”



421 – Constantius III becomes co-Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.

1587 – Mary, the Queen of Scots, was executed.
1601 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England – revolt is quickly crushed.
1622 – King James I of England disbands the English Parliament.
1672 – Isaac Newton reads first optics paper before Royal Society in London.
1690 – French and Indian forces attack Schenectady, New York during King William’s War.
1692 – A doctor in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony declares that three teenage girls are under domination of Satan, leading to the Salem witch trials.
1693 – The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia is granted a charter by King William III and Queen Mary II.
1770 – Alexander McDougall, a sailor, an ardent Son of Liberty, and afterward a major-general in the Continental Army, is arrested for his authorship of a broadside criticizing the New York Assembly.
1802 – Simon Willard, of Grafton, Massachusetts, patented his eight-day “Improved Timepiece,” a wall clock that came to be known as the “banjo clock.”
1837 – Richard Johnson becomes the first Vice President of the United States chosen by the United States Senate.
1861 – A Cheyenne delegation and some Arapaho leaders accepted a new settlement (Treaty of Fort Wise) with the U.S. Federal government. The deal ceded most of their land but secured a 600-square mile reservation and annuity payments.
1861 – Civil War: Delegates from seceded states adopted a provisional Confederate Constitution in Montgomery, Ala.
1862 – Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside scores a major victory when he captures Roanoke Island in North Carolina.
1863Confederate raider William Quantrill and men attacked a group of Federal wagons at New Market, Kentucky.
1865 – Civil War: Martin Robinson Delany became the first black major in US Army.
1865 – Civil War: The first troops of General Schofield’s Twenty-Third Army Corps were landed at Fort Fisher.
1879 – Sandford Fleming first proposes adoption of Universal Standard Time at a meeting of the Royal Canadian Institute.
1883 – Louis Waterman begins experiments that invent the fountain pen.
1887 – The Dawes Act authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide it into individual allotments. It also gave U.S. citizenship to Native Americans if they lived apart of their tribes.
1887 – The Aurora Ski Club of Red Wing, MN, became the first ski club in the United States.
1890 – USS Omaha sailors and Marines assist Hodogary, Japan in subduing large fire.
1896 – The Western Conference was formed by representatives of Midwestern universities. The group changed its name to the Big 10 Conference.
1898 – John Ames Sherman patented the first envelope folding & gumming machine in Massachusetts.
1906 – Hershey trademark #71016827 (US) filed
1910 – The Boy Scouts of America is incorporated by William D. Boyce. He also created the Lone Scouts, which merged with the Boy Scouts of America in 1924.
1912 – First eastbound US transcontinental flight lands in Jacksonville FL
1915 – D.W. Griffith’s controversial film silent movie epic about the Civil War: “The Birth of a Nation premieres in Los Angeles. This would have been close to the 50th anniversary of the end of the war.  Full Silent Movie
1916 – Charles Kettering received a patent for a self-starting automobile engine.
1918 – The Stars and Stripes newspaper publishes for the first time.
1922 – President Warren G. Harding introduces the first radio in the White House.
1924 – The first state execution using gas in the United States takes place in Nevada.
1924 – The first coast-to-coast radio broadcast takes place.
1927 -The original version of the motion picture, “Getting Gertie’s Garter”, opened at the Hippodrome Theatre in New York City.
1928 – First transatlantic TV image received, Hartsdale NY.
1929 – KOY-AM in Phoenix AZ begins radio transmissions. The original call-sign was  KFCB which stood for Kind Friends Come Back. After 1929 the Federal Radio Commission (now FCC) gave no more three-call letter designations.
1930 – “Happy Days Are Here Again” by Benny Meroff hits #1.
1933 – First flight of all-metal Boeing 247.
1935 – First NFL draft; Jay Berwanger of University of Chicago is first pick and he was selected by the Philadelphia Eagles.
1942 – Congress advised FDR that Americans of Japanese descent should be locked up en masse so they wouldn’t oppose the US war effort.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – Soviet Army encircles the troops of Paulus. The Germans surrender.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Guadalcanal – United States forces defeat Japanese troops. The last 2000 Japanese troops are evacuated by 18 destroyers.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Heart Cries for You” by Guy Mitchell, “Tennessee Waltz” by Patti Page, “If” by Perry Como and “There’s Been a Change in Me” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1956 – Buddy Holly signed a recording contract with Decca Records. He left the “e” out of his last name (Holley) and dropped it from his stage name as well.
1958 – “At the Hop” by Danny and the Juniors topped the charts.
1958 – A U.S. Navy P5M aircraft enroute from San Juan to Norfolk lost one engine and changed course to the island of San Salvador, British West Indies, to attempt a night ditching.
1959CHART TOPPERS – Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” by The Platters, “The All American Boy” by Bill Parsons, “Stagger Lee” by Lloyd Price and “Billy Bayou” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1960 – “Teen Angel” by Mark Dinning topped the charts.
1960 – U.S. Congressional investigators began exploring payola in the radio industry.
1963 – Travel, financial and commercial transactions by United States citizens to Cuba are made illegal by the John F. Kennedy administration.
1963 – AFL’s Dallas Texans become Kansas City Chiefs.
1964 – The publisher of the song “Louie Louie” offered $1,000 to anyone would could find suggestive lyrics in the song. Some politicians thought this was a pornographic song.
1964 – “I Want to Hold Your Hand” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – Supremes release “Stop In the Name of Love“.
1965 – President Lyndon B. Johnson called for the development and protection of a balanced system of trails to help protect and enhance the quality of the outdoor experience.
1965 – Vietnam War: South Vietnamese bombed the North Vietnamese communications center at Vinh Linh.
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “I’m a Believer” by The Monkees, “Georgy Girl” by The Seekers, “Kind of a Drag” by The Buckinghams and “There Goes My Everything” by Jack Greene all topped the charts.
1968 –  A civil rights protest staged at a whites-only bowling alley in Orangeburg, South Carolina is broken-up by highway patrolmen leading to the deaths of three college students.
1968 – Robert F. Kennedy said that the U.S. cannot win the Vietnam War.
1968 – George Wallace, the pro-segregation governor of Alabama, entered the US presidential race. Wallace ran as a third-party candidate.
1969 – The last weekly issue of the “Saturday Evening Post” was published. It was revived later (1971) as a quarterly publication and later at 6 times a year.
1969 – “Crimson and Clover” by Tommy James & the Shondells topped the charts.
1969 – George Harrison’s tonsils were removed at London’s University College Hospital. The tonsils were destroyed so they could not be sold.
1971 – The Nasdaq stock market index debuts.
1972 – The official Beatles Fan Club disbanded.
1973 – US Senate names seven members to investigate Watergate scandal. Chairman – Sam Ervin, Jr. (D-NC); Vice Chair – Howard Baker (R-TN); Edward Gurney (R_FL); Daniel K. Inouye (D_HI); Joseph Montoya (D_NM); Herman Talmadge (D_GA); Lowell Weicker (R_CT).
1974 – After 84 days in space, the three-man crew of the American space station Skylab return to Earth.
1974 – Ringo Starr releases “You’re 16“.
1974 – Soap opera “The Secret Storm” ends a 20 year run
1974 – “Good Times” debuts on CBS TV.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Fire” by Ohio Players, “You’re No Good” by Linda Ronstadt, “Boogie on Reggae Woman” by Stevie Wonderand “Then Who Am I” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1978 – The deliberations of the Senate were broadcast on radio for the first time as members opened debate on the Panama Canal treaties
1980 -President Jimmy Carter announced a plan to re-introduce draft registration.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Africa” by Toto, “Baby, Come to Me” by Patti Austin with James Ingram, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band and “Inside” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1985 -  “The Dukes of Hazzard” ended its 6-1/2 year run on CBS television.
1986 – 1984 Summer Olympics head of the LAPD bomb squad, Arleigh Mccree, and his partner Officer Ronald Ball of the Firearms and explosives unit were killed while trying to dismantle two pipe bombs when they responded to a call. McCree was recognized as one of the top explosive experts in the world.
1986 – “That’s What Friends Are For” by Dionne Warwick topped the charts.
1986 – Billy Olson, broke an indoor pole vault record for the seventh time in four months. He vaulted 19 feet, 5-1/2 inches.
1986 – 5′ 7″ Spud Webb of Atlanta Hawks wins NBA Slam Dunk Competition.
1986 – Oprah Winfrey becomes the first African American woman to host a nationally syndicated talk show.
1989 – An Independent Air Boeing 707 crashes into Santa Maria mountain in Azores Islands off the coast of Portugal, killing 144.
1990 – CBS television temporarily suspended Andy Rooney for his anti-gay and anti-black remarks in a gay magazine interview.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “The First Time” by Surface, “Gonna Make You Sweat (Everybody Dance Now)” by C & C Music Factory  featuring Freedom Williams, “Play that Funky Music” by Vanilla Ice and “Daddy’s Come Around” by Paul Overstreet all topped the charts.
1991 – Roger Clemens signs record $5,380,250 per year Red Sox contract.
1993 – General Motors sues NBC after Dateline NBC allegedly rigs two crashes intended to demonstrate that some GM pickups can easily catch fire if hit in certain places. NBC settles the lawsuit the next day.
1994 – President Clinton’s health-care proposal suffered a blow as the Congressional Budget Office released an analysis saying that the plan would not shrink federal deficits, but instead drive them higher.
1996 – The U.S. Congress passes the Communications Decency Act.
1996 – The Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore to begin play in 1996 as the Baltimore Ravens (The city of Cleveland retains the rights to the Browns name, logo, team colors and memorabilia rights).
1996 – The massive Internet collaboration “24 Hours in Cyberspace” takes place.
1998 – First female ice hockey game in Olympic history: Finland beats Sweden 6-0.
1999 – American Airlines cancelled 400 flights as pilots called in sick. There was pilot concern over pay rates and new pilots coming from the recently merged Reno Air. In April a federal judge fined the pilots’ union $46 million.
1999 – Nevada lawmakers voted to oppose federal plans for a nuclear storage dump northwest of Las Vegas.
2000 – Net hackers shut down at least 4 popular Web sites including Amazon.com, eBay, CNN.com and Buy.com with “denial of service attacks.”
2001 – The new Disney theme park “Disney’s California Adventure” (1:08:53) opened in Anaheim.
2002 - The opening ceremony of the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, is held in Salt Lake City.
2003 – The US Navy conducted its last scheduled round of weapons tests on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.
2005 – Israel and Palestinians agree to cease-fire.
2006 – President Bush condemned deadly rioting sparked by cartoons of the prophet Muhammad as he urged foreign leaders to halt the spreading violence.
2006 - Heather Wilson, a New Mexico Congresswoman with NSA oversight authority, became the first Republican on an intelligence committee to call for a congressional investigation into Bush’s warrantless wiretap program.
2007 – The Coast Guard Cutter  Storis was decommissioned after 64 years of service. It was commissioned in 1943.
2008 - The Nebraska Supreme Court rules the electric chair unconstitutional.
2008 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A student shoots two students and kills herself at Louisiana Technical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
2009 - US Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner delays announcing a bailout of the banking industry until Tuesday the 10th.
2010 - Dr. Conrad Murray is charged with involuntary manslaughter in pop singer Michael Jackson’s death.
2010 - Space Shuttle Endeavour launches successfully from Kennedy Space Center at 4:14 EST, marking the beginning of STS-130, a two-week mission to the International Space Station.
2010 - The Boeing 747-8 takes its maiden flight, lasting just under four hours.
2011 – Government investigation into Toyota safety problems finds no electronic flaws to account for sudden acceleration. Additionally, the government did not apologize for the cost to Toyota nor to the damage to its brand name.
2011 –  A suspected US spy drone crashes near the south Yemen town of Loder with witnesses claiming that Al-Qaeda removed the wreckage.
2011 –  Ultimate Electronics, a United States electronics retail chain, has applied to a bankruptcy court for permission to close all of its 46 stores.
2011 –  The US House of Representatives fails to pass extensions of key provisions of the USA Patriot Act by the necessary two-thirds majority.
2012 – Two top advisers to President Barack Obama — both Catholics — warned him of the potential for controversy over his decision to require religious organizations to cover contraceptives in their health insurance plans.
2012 - Zsa Zsa Gabor, suffering from life-threatening health problems, has a party for her 95th birthday.



412 – Proclus, (d. 487) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major Classical philosophers. He set forth one of the most elaborate and fully developed systems of Neoplatonism.

1700 – Daniel Bernoulli, (d. 1782) was a Dutch-Swiss mathematician, who is particularly remembered for his applications of mathematics to mechanics, especially fluid mechanics, and for his pioneering work in probability and statistics. Bernoulli’s Principle is named for him.
1820 – William Tecumseh Sherman, American Union general (d. 1891) He served as a General in the Union Army during the Civil War (1861–65).  He received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the “scorched earth” policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States.
1828 – Jules Verne, French author (d. 1905) He pioneered the science-fiction genre. He is best known for his novels Journey to the Center of the Earth (written in 1864), From the Earth to the Moon (1865), Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1869–1870), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873).
1882 – Thomas Selfridge, first person to die in an airplane crash (d. 1908).
1886 – Charles Ruggles, American actor (d. 1970) was a comic American actor. In a career spanning six decades, Ruggles appeared in close to 100 feature films.
1922 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (d. 1996) She was an American actress best known for her role as the deadpan housewife Alice Kramden on the 1950s American television comedy The Honeymooners.
1925 – Jack Lemmon, American actor and film director (d. 2001)
1926 – Neal Cassady, American writer (d. 1968) was a major personage of the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the psychedelic movement of the 1960s.
1931 – James Dean, American actor (d. 1955) He was a two-time Oscar-nominated American film actor. Dean’s status as a cultural icon is best embodied in the title of his most celebrated film, Rebel Without a Cause, in which he starred as troubled stereotypical high school rebel Jim Stark.
1940 – Ted Koppel, is an American broadcast journalist, best known as the former anchor for ABC’s Nightline.
1941 – Nick Nolte, American actor
1948 – Ron Tyson, American singer (The Temptations) is an American tenor/falsetto singer and songwriter. Tyson is the current tenor for long-lived singing group The Temptations, filling the role made famous by Eddie Kendricks in the 1960s.
1955 – John Grisham, American writer is an American ex-politician, retired attorney and novelist, best known for his works of modern legal drama.
1968 – Gary Coleman, is an American actor, best known for his role as Arnold Jackson in the American sitcom Diff’rent Strokes (1978–1986).
1970 – Alonzo Mourning, is an American professional basketball player, who last played for the NBA’s Miami Heat. Known simply as “Zo”, Mourning played at center and is 6 ft 10 in tall, and weighs 261 lbs.



Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 509th Parachute Infantry Battalion. Place and date: Near Carano, Italy, 8 February 1944. Entered service at: Cleveland, Tenn. Birth: Cleveland, Tenn. G.O. No.: 41, 26 May 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, in action on 8 February 1944, near Carano, Italy. Cpl. Huff volunteered to lead a six-man patrol with the mission of determining the location and strength of an enemy unit which was delivering fire on the exposed right flank of his company. The terrain over which he had to travel consisted of exposed, rolling ground, affording the enemy excellent visibility. As the patrol advanced, its members were subjected to small arms and machinegun fire and a concentration of mortar fire, shells bursting within five to ten yards of them and bullets striking the ground at their feet. Moving ahead of his patrol, Cpl. Huff drew fire from three enemy machineguns and a 20mm. weapon. Realizing the danger confronting his patrol, he advanced alone under deadly fire through a minefield and arrived at a point within seventy-five yards of the nearest machinegun position. Under direct fire from the rear machinegun, he crawled the remaining seventy-five yards to the closest emplacement, killed the crew with his submachine gun and destroyed the gun. During this act he fired from a kneeling position which drew fire from other positions, enabling him to estimate correctly the strength and location of the enemy. Still under concentrated fire, he returned to his patrol and led his men to safety. As a result of the information he gained, a patrol in strength sent out that afternoon, one group under the leadership of Cpl. Huff, succeeded in routing an enemy company of one hundred twenty-five men, killing twenty-seven Germans and capturing twenty-one others, with a loss of only three patrol members. Cpl. Huff’s intrepid leadership and daring combat skill reflect the finest traditions of the American infantryman.







Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 34th Infantry Division Place and date: Near Cassino, Italy, 3-8 February 1944. Entered service at. Kansas City, Mo. Birth: Charles City, Iowa. G.O. No.. 74, 11 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. In the attack on the approaches to the city of Cassino on 3 February 1944, 2d Lt. Riordan led one of the assault platoons. Attacking Hill 175, his command was pinned down by enemy machinegun fire from the hill and from a pillbox about forty-five yards to the right of the hill. In the face of intense fire, 2d Lt. Riordan moved out in full view of the enemy gunners to reach a position from where he could throw a hand grenade into the pillbox. Then, getting to his knees, he hurled the grenade approximately forty-five yards, scoring a direct hit. The grenade killed one and wounded the other two Germans in the nest and silenced the gun. Another soldier then cleaned out the enemy pillboxes on the hill itself, and the company took its objective. Continuing the assault into Cassino itself on 8 February 1944, 2d Lt. Riordan and his platoon were given the mission of taking the city jail house, one of the enemy’s several strongpoints. Again 2d Lt. Riordan took the lead and managed to get through the ring of enemy fire covering the approaches and reached the building. His platoon, however, could not get through the intense fire and was cut off. 2d Lt. Riordan, aware that his men were unable to follow, determined to carry on single-handed, but the numerically superior enemy force was too much for him to overcome, and he was killed by enemy small-arms fire after disposing of at least two of the defenders. 2d Lt. Riordan’s bravery and extraordinary heroism in the face of almost certain death were an inspiration to his men and exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.

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Unerased History – February 7th

Posted by Wayne Church on February 7, 2014 in 02 - February, Blog by month |
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Wave All Your Fingers At Your Neighbors Day
Women Marines Official Birthday


Women Marines

(excerpts from Warrior Culture of the U.S. Marines, copyright 2001 Marion F. Sturkey)

In secret, Lucy Brewer became the first woman to serve in the Marine Corps.  Disguised as a gung-ho man, she served in the Marine Detachment aboard the USS Constitution during the War of 1812.

Over 100 years later on 12 August 1918, the Secretary of the Navy granted authority to enroll women for clerical duty in the Marine Corps Reserve.  The next day, Opha M. Johnson enlisted and became the first official Woman Marine.  During the remainder of World War I, 305 women enlisted to “free a man to fight.”


Since then women have answered the call to serve proudly in the United States Marines and the role of women in the Marines has evolved and expanded. All Women Marines can look forward to the future proudly, while never forgetting the women who made this future possible.

At first, the Secretary only allowed women to enroll for clerical duty in the Marine Corps. Officially, Opha Mae Johnson is credited as the first woman Marine. Johnson enrolled for service on August 13, 1918 and during that year some 300 women first entered the Marine Corps to take over stateside clerical duties from battle-ready Marines who were needed overseas.


Marie Peckham WM 1943

Twenty-five years later during World War II, the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve was established on February 7th, 1943.   Roughly 1000 officers and 18,000 enlisted women served, led by Col. Ruth C. Streeter.  Private Minnie Spotted-Wolf of Heart Butte, Montana, enlisted in the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve in July 1943. She was the first female American Indian to enroll in the Corps. Minnie had worked on her father’s ranch doing such chores as cutting fence posts, driving a two-ton truck, and breaking horses. Her comment on Marine boot camp “Hard but not too hard.”

During the last year of World War II, all available male Marines were battling the Japanese in the Pacific.  In their absence, Women Marines represented over half of the personnel at Marine Corps bases in the continental United States.

A year after the end of the war, the Marine Corps retained a small nucleus of Women Marines in a postwar reserve.  On June 12th, 1948, Congress passed the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act and made women a permanent part of the regular Marine Corps.It authorized women in the regular component of the Corps.  At the time, women could not constitute over two percent of the total force and could not hold permanent rank above lieutenant colonel.  Katherine A. Towle was appointed Director of Women Marines with the temporary rank of colonel.  The following year the Corps set up a recruit training battalion for women recruits at Parris Island, and a women’s officer training class at Quantico.

In 1950, the Women Reserves were mobilized for the Korean War and 2,787 women served proudly.

During the Vietnam War in March 1967, Master Sgt. Barbara Dulinsky requested reassignment from the United States to Vietnam.  She was transferred to the main military headquarters (MACV) in Saigon, the first Woman Marine to be sent to a country torn by war.  But, seven years later the Commandant authorized Women Marines to serve with specialized rear echelon elements of the Fleet Marine Force.  By the height of the Vietnam War, there were about 2,700 women Marines who served both stateside and overseas. By 1975, the Corps approved the assignment of women to all occupational fields except infantry, artillery, armor, and pilot/air crew.

In May 1978, Brigadier Gen. Margaret Brewer became the first General grade Woman Marine, serving as Director of Information.  Twenty-two years later roughly 1000 Women Marines deployed to Southwest Asia in 1990-1991, prior to and during the Gulf War. Over 1,000 women Marines were deployed in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm .Still, these women were prohibited from deployment with combat units, or units which could conceivably be engaged in combat.  Women were specifically banned from all infantry, artillery, and armor units, and they could not serve as members of aircrews. Later, because of legal mandates, the Corps was forced to accept women into Naval Aviation pilot training.  In July 1993, 2ndLt. Sarah Deal became the first such Woman Marine to begin training.  She graduated and received her Golden Wings on 21 April 1995.

The next year Major General Carol A. Mutter became the first two-star Woman Marine.  Two years later she was promoted again, the first Woman Marine to wear three stars. By the turn of the century in the year 2000, over 700 Woman Marines comprised about four percent of the officer corps.  And, slightly over 8000 Woman Marines made up roughly five percent of the active enlisted force.

The elite Marine Corps remains the only U.S. armed service with the wisdom and courage to maintain separate boot camp training units for men and women recruits. Despite the childish whining of liberal theorists, despite the rabid ranting of ignorant politically correct zealots, the Marine Corps has not faltered.  Basic training for men and women will remain separate — but equal.  All who qualify will earn the title, United States Marine.


“You are always a valuable, worthwhile human being, not because anybody says so, not because you’re successful, not because you make a lot of money, but because you decide to believe it and for no other reason.”

~Dr. Wayne Dyer



biddable\BID-uh-buhl\, adjective:

1. Easily led or commanded; obedient.
2. Capable of being bid.


1301 – Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first English Prince of Wales.
1774 – Benjamin Franklin was removed from his office as Deputy Postmaster General for America.
1795 – The 11th Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed. This Amendment deals with each State’s sovereign immunity from being sued in federal court by someone of another state or country. This Amendment was adopted in response to, and in order to overrule, the United States Supreme Court decision in Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419 (1793).
1799 – In Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, federal marshals arrest John Fries, the leader of a taxpayer’s rebellion.
1800USS Essex becomes first U.S. Navy vessel to cross the Equator.
1812 – 8.2 earthquake shakes New Madrid MO; this is the last of Midwest quakes and the strongest.
1818 – The first successful U.S. educational magazine, Academician, began publication in New York City.
1832 – U.S. Marines (250) defeated Malay pirates in Sumatra, Indonesia.
1839 – Henry Clay declares in Senate “I had rather be right than president”.
1861 – Civil War: The Choctaw Nation declares its allegiance to the Confederacy. They did so, “in the event a permanent dissolution of the American Union takes place.”
1862 – Civil War: One day after the fall of Fort Henry on the Tennessee River, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of Rebel forces in the west, orders 15,000 reinforcements to Fort Donelson.
1862Civil WarRoanoke Isle, N.C. seized by Marines and Soldiers in battle with Confederates.
1864 – Civil War: Union troops commanded by Major General Q A Gilmore occupy Jacksonville, Florida.
1865 – John Henry Winder (b.1800), US Confederate Brigadier General and provost marshal, died. He was in charge of all Union prisoners east of the Mississippi River.
1876 – President Grant’s private secretary, Gen. Orville E. Babcock, was acquitted of involvement in the Whiskey Ring. The “Whiskey Ring” was a conspiracy among distillers, revenue collectors, and high federal officials to avoid taxation through fraudulent reports on whiskey production.
1882 – The last heavyweight boxing championship bare-knuckle fight takes place in Mississippi City, Mississippi, John L Sullivan KOs Paddy Ryan.
1886 – Riots amounting to a small war erupt against the Chinese in Seattle, Washington.
1893 – Elisha Gray patented a machine called the telautograph. It automatically signed autographs to documents.
1894 – The Cripple Creek miner’s strike, led by the Western Federation of Miners, begins in Cripple Creek, Colorado.
1904 – Baltimore catches fire (1500 buildings destroyed in 80 blocks in just 30 hours.)
1905 – Congress granted statehood to Oklahoma. New Mexico and Arizona were the only remaining territories.
1912 – A third major earthquake shook New Madrid, Missouri, and for a few hours reversed the course of the Mississippi River.
1914 – Charlie Chaplin first appears as “The Tramp”, as his first film Kid Auto Races at Venice is released at Keystone Studios.
1915 – First wireless message sent from a moving train to a station received.
1926 – Negro History Week, originated by Carter G. Woodson, was observed for the first time. The 2nd week in February was declared Negro History Week.
1936 – The U.S. Vice President’s flag was established. It was made official with the issuance of Executive Order 7285.
1936 – Three new “Felix the Cat” cartoons by Van Beuren Studios. The Goose That Laid the Golden Egg, Neptune Nonsense, and Bold King Cole.
1940 – Disney’s “Pinocchio” premieres
1941 – The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra and Frank Sinatra recorded “Everything Happens to Me.”
1942 – World War II: In Drakulici, Banja Luka, Croatian Nazis kill 2,300 Serbian civilians, among them 551 children.
1942 – World War II: Presidential order creates the War Shipping Administration which assumed control over all phases of merchant marine activities.
1942 – World War II: The federal government ordered passenger car production stopped and converted to wartime purposes.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. government announced that shoe rationing would go into effect in two days.
1943 – World War II: During a fierce convoy battle near Greenland, the Coast Guard Cutter Ingham rescued 33 survivors from the torpedoed troopship SS Henry Mallory.
1944 – World War II: In Anzio, Italy German forces launch a counteroffensive.
1944 – World War II: In the Kwajalein Atoll, American forces complete the elimination of isolated Japanese pockets of resistance.
1944 – World War II: American Aircraft carrier strike on Truk.
1944 – Bing Crosby records “Swinging on a Star” for Decca Records
1948 – Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower resigned as Army chief of staff and was succeeded by Gen. Omar Bradley. Eisenhower will become President of Columbia University.
1948 – First radio-controlled airplane flown.
1949 – New York Yankee Joe DiMaggio becomes first $100,000/year baseball player.
1950 – Sen Joe McCarthy claimed “communists” in US Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
1950 – The United States recognized Vietnam under the leadership of Emperor Bao Dai, not Ho Chi Minh who was recognized by the Soviets.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dear Hearts and Gentle People” by Dinah Shore, “A Dreamer’s Holiday” by Perry Como, “The Old Master Painter” by Snooky Lanson and “Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1953 – “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como.
1954 – The Rev. George M. Docherty of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington preached a sermon that included the phrase “under God” to be added to our pledge of allegiance much as England and Scotland had. The next day, Rep. Charles G. Oakman, R-Mich., introduced a bill to add the phrase “under God” to the pledge, and a companion bill was introduced in the Senate. Eisenhower signed the law on Flag Day.
1958 – Dodgers officially become the Los Angeles Dodgers, Inc.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Get a Job” by The Silhouettes, “Sail Along Silvery Moon” by Billy Vaughn and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – Cessna lands in Las Vegas after 65 days without landing (refuels in air).
1959 – Buddy Holly’s funeral was held in Lubbock, TX.
1959 – “Smoke Gets In Your Eyes” by The Platters topped the charts.
1961 – The Jive Five recorded “My True Story“.
1962 – The U.S. government (President John F. Kennedy) banned all Cuban imports and re-export of U.S. products to Cuba from other countries.
1963 – The “Mona Lisa” was unveiled at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
1964 – The Beatles arrive on their first visit to the United States. They land at Kennedy Airport. They were greeted by 25,000 screaming fans.
1964 – Cassius Clay becomes a Muslim & adopts the name Muhammad Ali.
1964 – Baskin-Robbins introduced Beatle Nut ice cream. Beatle Nut hit the stores when Beatle Mania struck the United States. Beatle fans delighted in Pistachio ice cream with a chocolate ribbon and walnuts.
1965 – Vietnam War: As part of Operation Flaming Dart, forty-nine U.S. Navy jets from the 7th Fleet carriers Coral Sea and Hancock drop bombs and rockets on the barracks and staging areas at Dong Hoi, a guerrilla training camp in North Vietnam.
1966CHART TOPPERS – My Love” by Petula Clark, “Barbara Ann” by The Beach Boys, “No Matter What Shape (Your Stomach’s In)” by The T-Bones and “Giddyup Go” by Red Sovine all topped the charts.
1966 – “Crawdaddy” magazine was published by Paul Williams for the first time.
1967 – A fire at a restaurant in Montgomery, Alabama kills 25 people.
1968 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese used 11 Soviet-built light tanks to overrun the U.S. Special Forces camp at Lang Vei at the end of an 18-hour long siege.
1968 – The  Arthur Miller play “Price” premiered in New York City.
1969 – The original Hetch Hetchy Moccasin Powerhouse is removed from service. Hetch Hetchy Valley is a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. It is currently completely flooded by O’Shaughnessy Dam, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir.
1969 – “This Is Tom Jones” premiered on ABC-TV.
1970 – “Venus” by Shocking Blue topped the charts.
1974 – Mel Brooks’ “Blazing Saddles” opens in movie theaters.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Way We Were” by Barbra Streisand, “Love’s Themeby Love Unlimited Orchestra, “Americans” by Byron MacGregor, “Jolene” by Dolly Parton all topped the charts.
1976 – Future Hall of Famer Darryl Sittler of the Toronto Maple Leafs scores six goals and records four assists in an 11-4 victory over the Boston Bruins, setting a NHL record with 10 points in one game.
1976 – “50 Ways to Leave Your Lover” by Paul Simon topped the charts.
1977 – Soyuz 24 launched.
1979 – Stephen Stills became the first rock performer to record on digital equipment in Los Angeles’ Record Plant Studio.
1979 – Pluto moves inside Neptune’s orbit for the first time since either was known to science.
1981 – “Celebration” by Kool & the Gang topped the charts.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Centerfold” by The J. Geils Band, “Harden My Heart” by Quarterflash, “Turn Your Love Around” by George Benson and “Lonely Nights” by Mickey Gilley all topped the charts.
1983 – Elizabeth H. Dole was sworn in as the first female secretary of transportation by Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, the first woman to sit on the US Supreme Court.
1984 – Space Shuttle program: STS-41-B Mission – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the first untethered space walk using the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU).
1985 – US drug agent Enrique “Kiki” Camarena Salazar was tortured and killed at a house in Guadalajara in the presence of a half-dozen top Mexican officials.
1985 – Sports Illustrated released its annual swimsuit edition. It was the largest regular edition in the magazine’s history at 218 pages.
1985 – New York, New York” becomes the official city anthem of New York City.
1987 – “Open Your Heart” by Madonna topped the charts.
1989 – Bowing to public outrage, both US houses of Congress voted to kill their scheduled 51 percent pay increase.
1990 – Collapse of the Soviet Union: The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party agrees to give up its monopoly of power.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “How Am I Supposed to Live Without You” by Michael Bolton, “Opposites Attract” by Paula Abdul with The Wild Pair, “Downtown Train” by Rod Stewart and “Nobody’s Home” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1991 – The IRA launches a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street during a cabinet meeting.
1992 – The European Union is formed.
1993 – Pebbles Flintstone & Bamm Bamm Rubble wed. The two soon moved to Hollyrock (a fictional prehistoric version of Hollywood, California) so Bamm-Bamm could pursue his true goal of becoming a screenwriter. Eventually, the couple had twin children: Chip and Roxy (with Roxy possessing her father’s noted strength).
1994 – Shannon Hoon of the Blind Melon’s was ejected from the American Music Awards for loud and disruptive behavior. He was eventually charged with battery, assault, resisting arrest and destroying a police station phone.
1995 – Ramzi Yousef, the alleged mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was arrested in Islamabad, Pakistan.
1995 – Larry Gunter and Tracie Williams received a patent for a personalized interactive storybook.
2000 – California’s legislature declared that February 13 would be “Charles M. Schulz Day.”
2000 – Tiger Woods gained his sixth straight PGA Tour victory at the Pebble Beach National Pro-Am, becoming the first player since Ben Hogan in 1948 to win six in a row.
2000 – An apparent team of computer hackers shut the Yahoo web site down with a “denial-of-service” attack that mimicked millions of phantom users.
2001 – Robert Pickett, 47, fired several shots at the White House near the South Lawn. He was subdued after being shot in the knee. No one else was hurt in the incident.
2001 – The space shuttle Atlantis took off with the Destiny module, a laboratory compartment, for the Int’l  Space Station.
2002 – A US federal court ruled that it is unconstitutional to sentence a felon to 25 years to life for shoplifting, which was allowed under the California “three strikes law.”
2003 – Pioneer program: Last unsuccessful contact attempt with Pioneer 10.
2003 - The United States said it was ready for any contingency after North Korea issued threats of pre-emptive attack and suggested it was poised to restart an atomic reactor central to its suspected drive for nuclear arms.
2003 – Garry Kasparov (39), chess master, played to a 3-3 tie against the Deep Junior computer program.
2003 - The Center for Public Interest, a United States nonprofit watchdog group, obtained a leaked draft version of John Ashcroft’s proposed Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003, also known as “the Patriot Act II”. If enacted, the legislation would grant the United States government unprecedented secret internal surveillance powers and sharply curtail judicial review of such surveillance,
2003 – Nootka Sound, Sandra Bohn was cited for petting a killer whale under the federal Fisheries Act. She was later fined $74.
2005 – US troops manning a checkpoint found 4 Egyptian technicians who had been kidnapped the previous day in Baghdad, freeing them and arresting some of the abductors.
2008 –  Space Shuttle Atlantis launches successfully on its STS-122 mission.
2008 – In Port Wentworth, Georgia, an explosion and fire at a sugar refinery owned by Imperial Sugar, based in Sugar Land, Texas, left 11 people dead.
2008 – In Kirkwood, Missouri, a gunman stormed a council meeting, yelled “Shoot the mayor!” and opened fire, critically wounding Mayor Mike Swoboda (69), killing two police officers and three city officials.
2008 – The United States Congress approves a $168 billion economic stimulus package and sends it to President George W. Bush for his approval.
2009 –  Space Shuttle Atlantis launches successfully on its STS-122 mission.
2009 – Paul Harvey aired his last Saturday newscast.
2010 –  Super Bowl XLIV was played between the New Orleans Saints and the Indianapolis Colts. The Saints won with a final score of 31-17. The head coaches were Sean Payton for New Orleans and Jim Caldwell for Indianapolis. The game was played at Sunlife Stadium in Miami, FL before 74,059  fans and the MVP was Saints quarterback Drew Brees. The Referee was Scott Green. Face Value Tickets were $1000, $800 & $500.
2010 – The Kleen Energy Systems plant in Middletown, Connecticut, explodes, killing at least five people and injuring at least fourteen others.
2010 –  Continental Airlines announces that it plans to lay off 500 staff in Houston, Texas following its merger with United Airlines.
2011 –  The Fox Broadcasting Company coverage of Super Bowl XLV on Sunday breaks the record for most viewed television program in the United States.
2011 –  The Cleveland Cavaliers set a new record for consecutive losses in the National Basketball Association with their 25th straight defeat, a 99–96 loss to the Dallas Mavericks.
2012 - US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturns California’s Proposition 8 banning gay marriage in that state.
2012 - Congress votes to pass legislation allowing for greater use of drone aircraft in the United States.
2013 - Three grenades exploded this evening in Nuevo Laredo, just feet from the U.S. Consulate office, sources in the Mexican border city said.


1804 – John Deere was an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company. (d. 1886)
1812 – Charles Dickens was one of the most popular English novelists of the Victorian era, as well as a vigorous social campaigner. The popularity of Dickens’ novels and short stories has meant that they have never gone out of print (d. 1870)
1837 – Sir James Murray, Scottish lexicographer and philologist (d. 1915)
1867 – Laura Ingalls Wilder, American author who wrote the Little House series of children’s books based on her childhood in a pioneer family. (d. 1957)
1885 – Sinclair Lewis was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. In 1930, he became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, “for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters.”  (d. 1951)
1885 – Hugo Sperrle was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Field Marshal Sperrle was captured by the Allies and charged with war crimes in the High Command Trial at the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials but was acquitted. (d. 1953)
1891 – Ann Little, (d. 1984) was an American film actress whose career was most prolific during the silent film era of the early 1910s through the early 1920s.
1947 – Joe Shea, is Editor-in-Chief of The American Reporter. It was the world’s first daily Internet newspaper, started on April 10, 1995.
1962 – Garth Brooks is an American country music artist. In 2001 Brooks officially retired from recording and performing.
1974 – Steve Nash is a professional basketball player who played point guard for the Phoenix Suns of the National Basketball Association (NBA).







Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Near Lang Vei, Republic of Vietnam, 6th and 7th February 1968. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 12 October 1931, Wilmington, N.C. Citation: Sfc. Ashley, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity while serving with Detachment A-101, Company C. Sfc. Ashley was the senior special forces Advisor of a hastily organized assault force whose mission was to rescue entrapped U.S. special forces advisors at Camp Lang Vei. During the initial attack on the special forces camp by North Vietnamese army forces, Sfc. Ashley supported the camp with high explosive and illumination mortar rounds. When communications were lost with the main camp, he assumed the additional responsibility of directing air strikes and artillery support. Sfc. Ashley organized and equipped a small assault force composed of local friendly personnel. During the ensuing battle, Sfc. Ashley led a total of five vigorous assaults against the enemy, continuously exposing himself to a voluminous hail of enemy grenades, machine gun and automatic weapons fire. Throughout these assaults, he was plagued by numerous booby-trapped satchel charges in all bunkers on his avenue of approach. During his fifth and final assault, he adjusted air strikes nearly on top of his assault element, forcing the enemy to withdraw and resulting in friendly control of the summit of the hill. While exposing himself to intense enemy fire, he was seriously wounded by machine gun fire but continued his mission without regard for his personal safety. After the fifth assault he lost consciousness and was carried from the summit by his comrades only to suffer a fatal wound when an enemy artillery round landed in the area. Sfc. Ashley displayed extraordinary heroism in risking his life in an attempt to save the lives of his entrapped comrades and commanding officer. His total disregard for his personal safety while exposed to enemy observation and automatic weapons fire was an inspiration to all men committed to the assault. The resolute valor with which he led five gallant charges placed critical diversionary pressure on the attacking enemy and his valiant efforts carved a channel in the overpowering enemy forces and weapons positions through which the survivors of Camp Lang Vei eventually escaped to freedom. Sfc. Ashley’s bravery at the cost of his life was in the highest traditions of the military service, and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.






Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 327th Infantry, 1st Brigade, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: My Canh, Vietnam, 7 February 1966. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Born: 7 February 1943, Dyersburg, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Gardner’s platoon was advancing to relieve a company of the 1st Battalion that had been pinned down for several hours by a numerically superior enemy force in the village of My Canh, Vietnam. The enemy occupied a series of strongly fortified bunker positions which were mutually supporting and expertly concealed. Approaches to the position were well covered by an integrated pattern of fire including automatic weapons, machine guns and mortars. Air strikes and artillery placed on the fortifications had little effect. 1st Lt. Gardner’s platoon was to relieve the friendly company by encircling and destroying the enemy force. Even as it moved to begin the attack, the platoon was under heavy enemy fire. During the attack, the enemy fire intensified. Leading the assault and disregarding his own safety, 1st Lt. Gardner charged through a withering hail of fire across an open rice paddy. On reaching the first bunker he destroyed it with a grenade and without hesitation dashed to the second bunker and eliminated it by tossing a grenade inside. Then, crawling swiftly along the dike of a rice paddy, he reached the third bunker. Before he could arm a grenade, the enemy gunner leaped forth, firing at him. 1st Lt. Gardner instantly returned the fire and killed the enemy gunner at a distance of six feet. Following the seizure of the main enemy position, he reorganized the platoon to continue the attack. Advancing to the new assault position, the platoon was pinned down by an enemy machine gun emplaced in a fortified bunker. 1st Lt. Gardner immediately collected several grenades and charged the enemy position, firing his rifle as he advanced to neutralize the defenders. He dropped a grenade into the bunker and vaulted beyond. As the bunker blew up, he came under fire again. Rolling into a ditch to gain cover, he moved toward the new source of fire. Nearing the position, he leaped from the ditch and advanced with a grenade in one hand and firing his rifle with the other. He was gravely wounded just before he reached the bunker, but with a last valiant effort he staggered forward and destroyed the bunker, and its defenders with a grenade. Although he fell dead on the rim of the bunker, his extraordinary actions so inspired the men of his platoon that they resumed the attack and completely routed the enemy. 1st Lt. Gardner’s conspicuous gallantry were in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army.







Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Republic of Vietnam. 7 February 1967. Entered service at: Dexter, Mo. Born: 19 September 1937, Dexter, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Sisler was the platoon leader/adviser to a Special United States/Vietnam exploitation force. While on patrol deep within enemy dominated territory, 1st Lt. Sisler’s platoon was attacked from three sides by a company sized enemy force. 1st Lt. Sisler quickly rallied his men, deployed them to a better defensive position, called for air strikes, and moved among his men to encourage and direct their efforts. Learning that two men had been wounded and were unable to pull back to the perimeter, 1st Lt. Sisler charged from the position through intense enemy fire to assist them. He reached the men and began carrying one of them back to the perimeter, when he was taken under more intensive weapons fire by the enemy. Laying down his wounded comrade, he killed three onrushing enemy soldiers by firing his rifle and silenced the enemy machinegun with a grenade. As he returned the wounded man to the perimeter, the left flank of the position came under extremely heavy attack by the superior enemy force and several additional men of his platoon were quickly wounded. Realizing the need for instant action to prevent his position from being overrun, 1st Lt. Sisler picked up some grenades and charged single-handedly into the enemy onslaught, firing his weapon and throwing grenades. This singularly heroic action broke up the vicious assault and forced the enemy to begin withdrawing. Despite the continuing enemy fire, 1st Lt. Sisler was moving about the battlefield directing force and several additional men of his platoon were quickly wounded. His extraordinary leadership, infinite courage, and selfless concern for his men saved the lives of a number of his comrades. His actions reflect great credit upon himself and uphold the highest traditions of the military service.





Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company E, 27th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Vicinity of Soam-Ni, Korea, 7 February 1951. Entered service at: Mechanic Falls, Maine. Born: 15 December 1920, Mechanic Falls, Maine. G.O. No.: 69, 2 August 1951. Citation: Capt. Millett, Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action. While personally leading his company in an attack against a strongly held position he noted that the 1st Platoon was pinned down by small-arms, automatic, and antitank fire. Capt. Millett ordered the 3d Platoon forward, placed himself at the head of the two platoons, and, with fixed bayonet, led the assault up the fire-swept hill. In the fierce charge Capt. Millett bayoneted two enemy soldiers and boldly continued on, throwing grenades, clubbing and bayoneting the enemy, while urging his men forward by shouting encouragement. Despite vicious opposing fire, the whirlwind hand-to-hand assault carried to the crest of the hill. His dauntless leadership and personal courage so inspired his men that they stormed into the hostile position and used their bayonets with such lethal effect that the enemy fled in wild disorder. During this fierce onslaught Capt. Millett was wounded by grenade fragments but refused evacuation until the objective was taken and firmly secured. The superb leadership, conspicuous courage, and consummate devotion to duty demonstrated by Capt. Millett were directly responsible for the successful accomplishment of a hazardous mission and reflect the highest credit on himself and the heroic traditions of the military service.








Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy. Born: 29 September 1902, Selma, Ala. Appointed from: Louisiana. Other Navy award: Navy Cross with one gold star. Citation: For distinguished gallantry and valor above and beyond the call of duty as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Growler during her Fourth War Patrol in the Southwest Pacific from 10 January to 7 February 1943. Boldly striking at the enemy in spite of continuous hostile air and antisubmarine patrols, Comdr. Gilmore sank one Japanese freighter and damaged another by torpedo fire, successfully evading severe depth charges following each attack. In the darkness of night on 7 February, an enemy gunboat closed range and prepared to ram the Growler. Comdr. Gilmore daringly maneuvered to avoid the crash and rammed the attacker instead, ripping into her port side at eleven knots and bursting wide her plates. In the terrific fire of the sinking gunboat’s heavy machineguns, Comdr. Gilmore calmly gave the order to clear the bridge, and refusing safety for himself, remained on deck while his men preceded him below. Struck down by the fusillade of bullets and having done his utmost against the enemy, in his final living moments, Comdr. Gilmore gave his last order to the officer of the deck, “Take her down.” The Growler dived; seriously damaged but under control, she was brought safely to port by her well-trained crew inspired by the courageous fighting spirit of their dead captain.



Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company G, 35th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Lupao, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 7 February 1945. Entered service at: Crosby, Tenn. Birth: Crosby, Tenn. G.O. No.: 30, 2 April 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity. His platoon and one other from Company G were pinned down in a roadside ditch by heavy fire from five Japanese tanks supported by ten machineguns and a platoon of riflemen. When one of his men fell wounded forty yards away, he unhesitatingly crossed the road under a hail of bullets and moved the man seventy-five yards to safety. Although he had suffered a deep arm wound, he returned to his post. Finding the platoon leader seriously wounded, he assumed command and rallied his men. Once more he braved the enemy fire to go to the aid of a litter party removing another wounded soldier. A shell exploded in their midst, wounding him in the shoulder and killing two of the party. He picked up the remaining man, carried him to cover, and then moved out in front deliberately to draw the enemy fire while the American forces, thus protected, withdrew to safety. When the last man had gained the new position, he rejoined his command and there collapsed from loss of blood and exhaustion. M/Sgt. McGaha set an example of courage and leadership in keeping with the highest traditions of the service.


Battle of Hatcher’s Run and Dabneys Mills 






Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company G, 88th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Dabney’s Mills, Va., 6_7 February 1865. Entered service at: Reading, Pa. Birth: Reading, Pa. Date of issue: 9 November 1893. Citation: Grasped the enemy’s colors in the face of a deadly fire and brought them inside the lines.




Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Hatchers Run, Va., 5_7 February 1865. Entered service at: Erie, Pa. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 16 September 1880. Citation: Gallantry and good conduct in action; bravery in a charge and reluctance to leave the field after being twice wounded.


US Training Ship Portsmouth






Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1856, Springfield, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: On board the U.S. Training Ship Portsmouth, Washington Navy Yard, 7 February 1882. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Courtney assisted in rescuing Charles Taliaferro, jack-of-the-dust, from drowning.






Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1848, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 326, 18 October 1884. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Portsmouth, Washington Navy Yard, 7 February 1882. Jumping overboard from that vessel, Cramen rescued Charles Taliaferro, jack-of-the-dust, from drowning.

This ship in the picture is the Portsmouth from 1896.

Jack o’ the Dust. Person in charge of breaking out provisions for the food service operation.  Originates with the British Navy.  “Jack,” a Royal Navy sailor, who worked in the bakery and was covered with flour dust. They were also nicknamed, “Dusty.”


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