History of Names
Early in prehistory, descriptive names were used continuously. Eventually, a collection of names were formed that identified that particular culture. Today, the meanings of many names are not known, due to the aging history of a name. As time goes on, languages change, and words that formed the original name are often unrecognizable.
The rise in Christianity transformed the history of names. Christians were encouraged to name their children after saints and martyrs of the church. Because of this influence, we now see names such as Mary, Martha, Joseph, James, Mark, Paul, and John prominent among many cultures. These names were spread by early missionaries throughout Europe.
By the Middle Ages, Christian names were seen predominantly. Each culture had its collection of names, which were a combination of native and early Christian names. However, the naming pools continued to evolve. Modern names often bear little resemblance of their predecessors. Surprisingly, the early Christian names changed very little in comparison.
Bynames are additional identifiers used to distinguish two people with the same name. From these bynames, surnames were developed. Surnames are a comparatively recent development. These usually started out as being specific to a person and then became inherited from father to son. This was a common practice between the twelfth and sixteenth century. This practice was adopted first by the aristocracy and later on by the peasants. Bynames came in various types. The patronymic referred to the father, a matronymic referred to the mother, a locative or toponymic indicated where a person was from,and an epithet described the person in some way ( such as their occupation, office, or status).
Patronymics are common in almost all European cultures. For example, a man named Ivan whose father’s name is Nikolay would be known as Ivan Nikolayevich or “Ivan, son of Nikolay”. In Gaelic, the prefix “Mac” is used to form a patronym. An example would be “MacKenzie” – son of Kenneth. The use of the matronymic is much less common.
Common occupational names included Baker, Shepherd, Carpenter, and Wright.
The Romans adopted surnames as far back as 2,000 years ago, while other areas of the world were slower to begin using surnames. However, by the Middle Ages, they were used regularly, first by the nobility and then by the gentry. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, Ireland was one of the first countries to adopt surnames. These Irish surnames are found as early as the tenth century.
Today’s names are influenced by celebrities, common popular names, and biblical names.
“Guard well your spare moments. They are like uncut diamonds. Discard them and their value will never be known. Improve them and they will become the brightest gems in a useful life.”
~ Ralph Waldo Emerson
thaumaturgy \THAW-muh-tuhr-jee\, noun:
The performance of miracles or magic.
Thaumaturgy comes from the Greek words for “wonder” (thauma) and “work” (ergon). A practitioner of thaumaturgy is a thaumaturgist or thaumaturge.
1607 - Captain Christopher Newport and 105 followers found the colony of Jamestown at the mouth of the James River on the coast of Virginia.They had left England with 144 members, 39 died on the way over.
1610 - Sir Thomas Gates institutes “laws divine moral and marshal,” a harsh civil code for Jamestown.
1624 - After years of unprofitable operation Virginia’s charter was revoked and it became a royal colony.
1626 – Peter Minuit buys Manhattan for goods to the value of 60 Dutch guilders, which in the 19th century was estimated to be the equivalent of $24 (or $1000 USD in 2006).
1689 – The English Parliament passes the Act of Toleration protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were intentionally excluded.
1738 – John Wesley is converted, essentially launching the Methodist movement; the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day.
1764 - Bostonian lawyer James Otis denounced “taxation without representation” and called for the colonies to unite in demonstrating their opposition to Britain’s new tax measures.
1818 - General Andrew Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida.
1830 – “Mary Had a Little Lamb” by Sarah Josepha Hale is published.
1830 – The first revenue trains in the United States begin service on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road between Baltimore, Maryland and Ellicott’s Mills, Maryland.
1830 - The first passenger railroad service in the U.S. began service.
1844 - First message sent by the electric telegraph: Samuel F. B. Morse sends the message “What hath God wrought” (a Bible quotation, Numbers 23:23) from the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the United States Capitol to his assistant, Alfred Vail, in Baltimore, Maryland. The message was composed by Annie G. Ellsworth, the daughter of Mr Ellsworth of the U. S. Patent office, a friend of Morse’s.
1846 – Mexican-American War: General Zachary Taylor captures Monterrey.
1856 - The Potawatomi Massacre took place in Kansas. John Brown, American abolitionist and horse thief, presided over the hacking to death with machetes of five unarmed pro-slavery Border Ruffians in Potawatomi, Kansas.
1861 – Civil War: Commander Rowan, commanding U.S.S. Pawnee, demanded surrender of Alexandria, Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: Shortly after Union troops quietly occupied Alexandria, Va., 24-year-old Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth and a handful of friends from the 11th New York Regiment impulsively entered the Marshall Hotel to forcibly remove a Confederate flag from the roof. Hotel proprietor James W. Jackson shot and mortally wounded Ellsworth as he descended the stairs, flag in hand. Jackson himself was then shot by a Union soldier. Only weeks after the outbreak of the Civil War, both the North and the South had received the first martyrs to their respective causes.
1863 – Civil War: Bushwackers led by Captain William Marchbanks attacked a Federal militia party in Nevada, Missouri.
1863 – Confederates fired on the commissary and quartermaster boat of the Marine Brigade under Brigadier General A. V. Ellet above Austin, Mississippi.
1864 – Accurate gunfire from wooden steamer U.S.S. Dawn, compelled Confederate troops to break off an attack on the Union Army position at Wilson’s Wharf on the James River. Other ships quickly moved to support the troops.
1869 – First voyage down Colorado River. Civil War veteran John Wesley Powell and a ragtag band of nine mountain men embarked on the last great quest in the American West. No one had ever explored the fabled Grand Canyon until this trip.
1878 – CA Parker (Harvard) wins first American bike race, Beacon Park Boston.
1883 – The Brooklyn Bridge, hailed as the “eighth wonder of the world,” in New York City is opened to traffic after 14 years of construction by President Arthur & Governor Cleveland. A total of 150,300 people crossed the bridge on opening day on foot. Each person was charged one cent to cross.The bridge opened to vehicles at 5:00 p.m. and a total of 1,800 vehicles crossed on the first day. Vehicles were charged five cents to cross.
1890 – George Train & Sam Wall sailed around the world in record 67 days, Tacoma-Tacoma.
1899 – W. T. McCullough of Boston, MA opened the first public garage. McCullough advertised the garage’s opening as a “stable for renting, sale, storage, and repair of motor vehicles.” This became the first US auto repair shop.
1902 – Cleveland Indians’ Bill Bradley is the first American Leaguer to hit a homer in 4 consecutive games. The record was not matched until Babe Ruth did it June 25, 1918.
1914 – Thomas Edison invents telescribe to record telephone conversations.
1915 – World War I: Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1917 – World War I: First U.S. convoy to cross North Atlantic during World War I leaves Hampton Roads, VA.
1921 – The trial of Sacco and Vanzetti opens. They were suspected anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery of a shoe factory in South Braintree,Massachusetts.
1927 - The final levee breach of the 1927 flood occurred at McCrea, Louisiana, on the east bank of the Atchafalaya levee. The flood along the Mississippi killed some 500 people and displaced thousands. The levee system broke in 145 places and caused 27,000 square miles of flooding in Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee.
1928 – Record 12 future Hall of Famers take the field, as Yankees beat A’s 9-7. [HOFs: Earle Combs, Leo Durocher, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Tony Lazzeri, and Waite Hoyt for New York; Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Mickey Cochrane, Al Simmons, Eddie Collins, Lefty Grove, and Jimmie Foxx for the A's.]
1929 – Detroit Tigers beats Chicago White Sox, 6-5, in 21 innings. This was the the longest game-3 hours and 31 minutes-ever seen to date at Comiskey Park.
1930 – Saturday Evening Post presented Norman Rockwell’s “Gary Cooper in Makeup” as its cover photo.
1931 - First air-conditioned train installed-B&O Railroad.
1935 – First major league night baseball game is played in Cincinnati, Ohio, with the Cincinnati Reds beating the Philadelphia Phillies 2-1 at Crosley Field.
1938 – A U.S. patent was issued for a Coin Controlled Parking Meter to Carl C. McGee of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The invention was designed for “measuring the time of occupancy or use of parking or other space, for the use of which it is desirous an incidental charge be made upon a time basis.”
1939 - First and only use of VADM Allan McCann’s Rescue Chamber to rescue 33 men from sunken USS Squalus (SS-192).
1940 – First night game at New York’s Polo Grounds (Giants 8, Braves 1).
1940 – Igor Sikorsky performs the first successful single-rotor helicopter flight.
1940 – World War II: Europe: Hitler ordered a halt to his forces converging on Dunkirk and the British, who were backed to the sea.
1941 – World War II: Europe: In the North Atlantic, the German Battleship Bismarck sinks the HMS Hood killing 1,416 die and three survive on what was the pride of the Royal Navy.
1942 - When the Royal Canadian Air Force’s 115th Fighter Squadron lands at Alaska’s Annette Island, a US Customs officer refuses to let the pilots out of their planes until they pay duty on their arms and equipment.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Josef Mengele becomes chief medical officer of the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1943 – World War II: Pacific - On Attu American forces make some progress along the Clevesy Pass. There is heavy fighting over Fish Hook Ridge.
1944 - CHART TOPPERS - “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes, “San Fernando Valley” by Bing Crosby, “I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes) and “Straighten Up and Fly Right” by King Cole Trio all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: On Kyushu, aircraft from US Task Force 58 raid several airfields used by the Kamikaze forces attacking American naval forces around Okinawa. Meanwhile about 520 US bombers strike Tokyo, dropping some 3646 tons of bombs.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, during the night, Japanese paratroopers on a suicide mission are landed on American held Yontan airfield and destroy a significant number of aircraft before being wiped out.
1949 – The Soviet Union ends the 11-month Berlin Blockade.
1950 – Nat ‘Sweetwater’ Clifton becomes the first black player in the NBA.
1951 – Willie Mays begins playing for the New York Giants.
1951 - Racial segregation in Washington D.C. restaurants was ruled illegal.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “Blue Tango” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra, “Be Anything” by Eddy Howard and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1952 – “A Guy Is a Guy” by Doris Day topped the charts.
1954 – IBM announces vacuum tube “electronic” brain that could perform 10 million operations an hour.
1954 – First rocket attains 150 mile altitude, White Sands NM.
1954 – The first traveling sidewalk in a railroad station. Under the name “the travelator” the H&M installed a pedestrian beltway in this Tubes station.This was two decades in advance of such conveyances appearing in airports throughout the world. The travelator was basically a 227 foot moving sidewalk running on a 10% ascending grade in the passage leading from the platform mezzanine level to the Erie Railroad Station.
1958 – “All I Have to Do Is Dream” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1958 – United Press International is formed through a merger of the United Press and the International News Service.
1959 – First house with built-in bomb shelter exhibited in Pleasant Hills PA.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “Good Timin’ “by Jimmy Jones, “Cradle of Love” by Johnny Preston and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1961 – Freedom Riders are arrested in Jackson, Mississippi for “disturbing the peace” after disembarking from their bus.
1962 – Project Mercury: American astronaut Scott Carpenter orbits the Earth three times in the Aurora 7 space capsule.
1962 - USS Gurke notices signals from twelve men from Truk who were caught in a storm, drifted at sea for two months before being stranded on a island for one month.
1964 – The longest homerun (471′) hit to date was in Baltimore’s Memorial Stadium by Harmon Killebrew.
1965 - Supreme Court declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
1966 - The Broadway musical “Mame” opened with Angel Lansbury and Bea Arthur at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for 1508 performances.
1967 – AFL grants a franchise to the Cincinnati Bengals.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tighten Up” by Archie Bell & The Drells, “Mrs. Robinson” by Simon & Garfunkel, “A Beautiful Morning” by The Rascals and “I Wanna Live” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1968 – FLQ separatists bomb the U.S. consulate in Quebec City.
1974 - Last episode of the hugely successful “Dean Martin Show” on NBC.
1975 – “Shining Star” by Earth Wind & Fire topped the charts.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Love Hangover” by Diana Ross, “Fooled Around and Fell in Love” by Elvin Bishop and “After All the Good is Gone” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1976 – First commercial SST flight to North America (Concorde to Washington DC).
1976 - In France, two California wines won a tasting event over several French classics for the first time.
1977 – Armored car guards Russell Dempsey and Cecil Newkirk were on duty for Purolator Courier. They were driving along I-17 when a vehicle they believed was a police car pulled them over. After pulling over, they were ordered by the men they believed were police officers to open the truck, after which the Poland brothers took over. One of the Poland brothers continued to drive the fake police vehicle while the other beat the couriers and took over control of the truck. The two brothers then drove the vehicles to a remote area of Bumblebee, AZ. They abandoned the truck. In the remote area, the Poland brothers beat the couriers to death, took the money, totaling $300,000, and then took the bodies of the couriers to Lake Mead, where using a rented boat, they dumped the bodies wrapped in plastic.
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1980 – The International Court of Justice calls for the release of United States embassy hostages in Tehran, Iran. Iran refused and the hostages would not be freed until the following January.
1983 - The US Supreme Court ruled, in Bob Jones University v. United States, that the government can deny tax breaks to schools that racially discriminate against students. This upheld a 1970 ruling.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Let’s Hear It for the Boy” by Deniece Williams, “Time After Time” by Cyndi Lauper and “To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before” by Julio Iglesias & Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1986 - “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 - An estimated quarter-million people crowded onto San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge to celebrate the structure’s 50th birthday a few days before the actual anniversary.
1988 - John Moschitta set record for fast talking: 586 words per minute. John was the voice of Blurr in Transformers: The Movie and The Transformers. He is listed in Guinness World Records as the fastest speaker and usually credited alongside Steve Woodworth as one of the fastest talkers in human history.
1988 - President Reagan vetoed legislation that would have strengthened the nation’s ability to defend itself and its industries against trading practices of other nations that were deemed unfair.
1989 - “Indiana Jones & the Last Crusade” premieres.
1989 - New York Yankee hurler Lee Gutterman sets record of pitching 30-2/3 innings.
1990 – A car carrying American Earth First! activists Judi Bari and Darryl Cherney explodes in Oakland, California, critically injuring both.
1992 - Al Unser Jr. became the first second-generation winner of the Indianapolis 500. His father four-time winner Al Unser finished third.
1993 - Microsoft launched Windows NT.
1994 – Four men convicted of bombing the World Trade Center in 1993 are each sentenced to 240 years in prison.
1995 - “Hollywood Madam” Heidi Fleiss was sentenced to three years in prison and fined $1,500 for running a call-girl ring that catered to the rich and famous.
1996 - The Pleasant Hill Baptist Church in Lumberton, N.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1996 - A fire destroyed a $5 million cooling tower at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Athens, Ala. At least three fires have occurred here since 1975. The towers are used on hot days to cool water returned to the Tennessee River.
1997 - “Mmm Bop” by Hanson topped the charts.
1997 - The Space Shuttle Atlantis returned to Earth, bringing with it NASA astronaut Jerry Linenger, who had spent four months aboard the Russian Mir space station.
1998 - In Danville, Ill, an explosion occurred at the First Assembly of God Church and injured 33 members, mostly teenagers. The cause was not yet immediately known. The cause was determined the next day to have been a bomb.
1999 - The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that schools can be held liable for students sexually harassing other students. The court also ruled that police violate the 4th Amendment right to privacy when they allow the media into people’s homes to document arrests and raids.
1999 - Mike Tyson, American boxer, walked out of a Rockville, Md., jail after serving 3 1/2 months behind bars for assaulting two motorists over a fender-bender.
2000 - Isiah Thomas, Bob McAdoo and Tennessee women’s coach Pat Summitt were elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame.
2000 - New US $5 and $10 bills were scheduled to be shipped to banks. The engravings of Lincoln and Hamilton would be larger and off center.
2000 - Two gunmen killed five workers in a Wendy’s restaurant in the Queens borough of New York City. John Taylor (36) and Craig Godineaux (31) were arrested two days later. Taylor was sentenced to death in 2002.
2001 – The Democrats gain control of the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1994 when Senator James Jeffords of Vermont abandons the Republican Party and declares himself an independent.
2001 – It was reported that St. Jude Medical had designed a new aortic connector to make operations easier in bypass surgery.
2002 – US Olympic Committee president Sandra Baldwin resigned, a day after she admitted lying about her academic credentials.
2003 – The $16 million Nevada Museum of Art opened in Reno.
2004 – Pres. Bush offered a 5 step plan in Iraq: 1) hand over authority to a sovereign Iraqi government; 2) Help establish security; 3) Continue rebuilding the infrastructure; 4) Encourage more international support; 5) Move toward a national election.
2004 – The FBI admitted mistakenly linking an American lawyer’s fingerprint to one found near the scene of a terrorist bombing in Spain.
2005 – Breaking years of gridlock, the Senate cleared the way for confirmation of Priscilla Owen to the US appeals court following a compromise on President Bush’s current and future judicial nominees.
2005 – Texas lawmakers tentatively voted to give juries the option of sentencing murderers to life in prison without parole.
2006 – Pogo (48), one of the oldest gorillas in the world, died at the San Francisco Zoo.
2006 - The ABC News claims that Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Dennis Hastert is under investigation for corruption, but the Justice Department issues a denial.
2007 – Pres. Bush nominated James Holsinger, a cardiologist from Kentucky, as the new US surgeon general.
2007 – Ohio death row inmate Christopher Newton was executed by injection; it took him sixteen minutes to die, more than twice the usual amount of time, once chemicals began flowing into his veins.
2007 – Ancestry.com unveiled over 90 million US war records that were dated back to 1607.
2008 – Dick Martin (86), the zany half of the comedy team whose “Rowan and Martin’s Laugh-In,” died in Santa Monica, Ca.
2008 - Two people from Colorado die in a tornado south of Pratt, Kansas as more than a dozen tornadoes hit Kansas.
2009 – The space shuttle Atlantis and its seven astronauts landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California ending a thirteen-day mission that repaired and enhanced the Hubble Space Telescope. Stormy weather in Florida prevented a return to NASA’s home base.
2010 – President Obama signed into law the Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act.
2010 – The US Supreme Court ruled that a group of African Americans may sue the city of Chicago for discriminatory use of an application test that kept them from being hired as firefighters.
2010 - Twentieth Century Fox’s hit TV show 24 went completely off the air.
2011 – Television personality Oprah Winfrey records the final episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show.
2011 – The search in Joplin, Missouri continues looking for survivors of the 2011 Joplin tornado as 1,500 people are still unaccounted for in town.
2011 – President Barack Obama meets Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and senior royals at the start of a three-day state visit to the United Kingdom.
2012 - The US National Hurricane Center advises that Hurricane Bud has formed off the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and has reached category two strength.
2012 - Elton John checks into Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, due to a respiratory infection, according to the singer’s publicist.
2013 - Republican Kansas Governor Sam Brownback signed a bill aimed at keeping state courts and agencies from using Islamic or other non-U.S. laws when making decisions drawing criticism from a national Muslim group.
2014 - President Obama signed a pair of bills conferring the Congressional Gold Medal on two legendary groups of World War II pilots. The honorees are members of the “Doolittle Raiders,” pilots who engineered a famous bombing raid on Tokyo, and the elite group known as the American Fighter Aces.
1854 – John Riley Banister, American law officer and cowboy (d. 1918)
1863 – George Grey Barnard, American sculptor (d. 1938)
1868 – Charles E. Taylor, First aircraft maintenance professional (d. 1956)
1870 – Benjamin Cardozo, American jurist (d. 1938)
1879 – H. B. Reese, American inventor of Reese’s and founder (d. 1956)
1891 – William F. Albright, American archeologist and Biblical scholar (d. 1971)
1895 – Samuel Irving Newhouse, American publisher (d. 1979)
1909 – Wilbur Mills, American politician (d. 1992)
1911 – Barbara West, English survivor of the Titanic sinking (d. 2007)
1934 – Jane Byrne, American politician
1935 – Joan Micklin Silver, American director
1941 – Bob Dylan, American singer and songwriter
1944 – Patti LaBelle, American singer
1945 – Priscilla Presley, American actress
1955 – Rosanne Cash, American singer
1965 – John C. Reilly, American actor
1966 – Ricky Craven, American NASCAR driver
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: An Loc Province, Republic of Vietnam, 24 May 1969. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 18 July 1947, Jackson, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Bondsteel distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant with Company A, near the village of Lang Sau. Company A was directed to assist a friendly unit which was endangered by intense fire from a North Vietnamese Battalion located in a heavily fortified base camp. S/Sgt. Bondsteel quickly organized the men of his platoon into effective combat teams and spearheaded the attack by destroying 4 enemy occupied bunkers. He then raced some 200 meters under heavy enemy fire to reach an adjoining platoon which had begun to falter. After rallying this unit and assisting their wounded, S/Sgt. Bondsteel returned to his own sector with critically needed munitions. Without pausing he moved to the forefront and destroyed 4 enemy occupied bunkers and a machine gun which had threatened his advancing platoon. Although painfully wounded by an enemy grenade, S/Sgt. Bondsteel refused medical attention and continued his assault by neutralizing 2 more enemy bunkers nearby. While searching one of these emplacements S/Sgt. Bondsteel narrowly escaped death when an enemy soldier detonated a grenade at close range. Shortly thereafter, he ran to the aid of a severely wounded officer and struck down an enemy soldier who was threatening the officer’s life. S/Sgt. Bondsteel then continued to rally his men and led them through the entrenched enemy until his company was relieved. His exemplary leadership and great personal courage throughout the 4-hour battle ensured the success of his own and nearby units, and resulted in the saving of numerous lives of his fellow soldiers. By individual acts of bravery he destroyed 10 enemy bunkers and accounted for a large toll of the enemy, including 2 key enemy commanders. His extraordinary heroism at the risk of his life was in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on him, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
Rank and organization: Warrant Officer (then Sergeant First Class), U.S. Army, Advisory Team 162, U.S. Military Assistance Command. Place and Date: Northeast of Katum, Republic of Vietnam, 24 May 1970. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 19 November 1938, Albuquerque, N. Mex. Citation: WO Rocco distinguished himself when he volunteered to accompany a medical evacuation team on an urgent mission to evacuate eight critically wounded Army of the Republic of Vietnam personnel. As the helicopter approached the landing zone, it became the target for intense enemy automatic weapons fire. Disregarding his own safety, WO Rocco identified and placed accurate suppressive fire on the enemy positions as the aircraft descended toward the landing zone. Sustaining major damage from the enemy fire, the aircraft was forced to crash land, causing WO Rocco to sustain a fractured wrist and hip and a severely bruised back. Ignoring his injuries, he extracted the survivors from the burning wreckage, sustaining burns to his own body. Despite intense enemy fire, WO Rocco carried each unconscious man across approximately twenty meters of exposed terrain to the Army of the Republic of Vietnam perimeter. On each trip, his severely burned hands and broken wrist caused excruciating pain, but the lives of the unconscious crash survivors were more important than his personal discomfort, and he continued his rescue efforts. Once inside the friendly position, WO Rocco helped administer first aid to his wounded comrades until his wounds and burns caused him to collapse and lose consciousness. His bravery under fire and intense devotion to duty were directly responsible for saving three of his fellow soldiers from certain death. His unparalleled bravery in the face of enemy fire, his complete disregard for his own pain and injuries, and his performance were far above and beyond the call of duty and were in keeping with the highest traditions of self-sacrifice and courage of the military service.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 24 May 1944. Entered service at: St. Clairsville, Ohio. Birth: St. Clairsville, Ohio. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, he charged 200 yards over flat, coverless terrain to destroy an enemy machinegun nest during the second day of the offensive which broke through the German cordon of steel around the Anzio beachhead. Fully thirty yards in advance of his squad, he ran into withering enemy machinegun, machine-pistol and rifle fire. Three times he was struck by bullets and knocked to the ground, but each time he struggled to his feet to continue his relentless advance. With one shoulder deeply gashed and his right arm shattered, he continued to rush directly into the enemy fire concentration with his submachinegun wedged under his uninjured arm until within 15 yards of the enemy strong point, where he opened fire at deadly close range, killing two Germans and forcing the remaining ten to surrender. He reorganized his men and, refusing to seek medical attention so badly needed, chose to lead the way toward another strong point 100 yards distant. Utterly disregarding the hail of bullets concentrated upon him, he had stormed ahead nearly three-fourths of the space between strong points when he was instantly killed by hostile enemy fire. Inspired by his example, his squad went on to overwhelm the enemy troops. By his supreme sacrifice, superb fighting courage, and heroic devotion to the attack, Sgt. Antolak was directly responsible for eliminating twenty Germans, capturing an enemy machinegun, and clearing the path for his company to advance.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company F, 15th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 24 May 1944. Entered service at: Fort Meade, Fla. Birth: Fort Meade, Fla. G.O. No.: 87, 14 November 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Pvt. Mills, undergoing his baptism of fire, preceded his platoon down a draw to reach a position from which an attack could be launched against a heavily fortified strongpoint. After advancing about 300 yards, Pvt. Mills was fired on by a machinegun only S yards distant. He killed the gunner with 1 shot and forced the surrender of the assistant gunner. Continuing his advance, he saw a German soldier in a camouflaged position behind a large bush pulling the pin of a potato-masher grenade. Covering the German with his rifle, Pvt. Mills forced him to drop the grenade and captured him. When another enemy soldier attempted to throw a hand grenade into the draw, Pvt. Mills killed him with 1 shot. Brought under fire by a machinegun, 2 machine pistols, and 3 rifles at a range of only 50 feet, he charged headlong into the furious chain of automatic fire shooting his M 1 from the hip. The enemy was completely demoralized by Pvt. Mills’ daring charge, and when he reached a point within 10 feet of their position, all 6 surrendered. As he neared the end of the draw, Pvt. Mills was brought under fire by a machinegunner 20 yards distant. Despite the fact that he had absolutely no cover, Pvt. Mills killed the gunner with 1 shot. Two enemy soldiers near the machinegunner fired wildly at Pvt. Mills and then fled. Pvt. Mills fired twice, killing 1 of the enemy. Continuing on to the position, he captured a fourth soldier. When it became apparent that an assault on the strongpoint would in all probability cause heavy casualties on the platoon, Pvt. Mills volunteered to cover the advance down a shallow ditch to a point within 50 yards of the objective. Standing on the bank in full view of the enemy less than 100 yards away, he shouted and fired his rifle directly into the position. His ruse worked exactly as planned. The enemy centered his fire on Pvt. Mills. Tracers passed within inches of his body, rifle and machine pistol bullets ricocheted off the rocks at his feet. Yet he stood there firing until his rifle was empty. Intent on covering the movement of his platoon, Pvt. Mills jumped into the draw, reloaded his weapon, climbed out again, and continued to lay down a base of fire. Repeating this action 4 times, he enabled his platoon to reach the designated spot undiscovered, from which position it assaulted and overwhelmed the enemy, capturing 22 Germans and taking the objective without casualties.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna di Littoria, Italy, 23-24 May 1944. Entered service at: Scobey, Mont. Born: 9 October 1918, Clinton, Okla. G.O. No.: 83, 27 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 23 May 1944, at 12 noon, Pfc. (now T/Sgt.) Schauer left the cover of a ditch to engage 4 German snipers who opened fire on the patrol from its rear. Standing erect he walked deliberately 30 yards toward the enemy, stopped amid the fire from 4 rifles centered on him, and with 4 bursts from his BAR, each at a different range, killed all of the snipers. Catching sight of a fifth sniper waiting for the patrol behind a house chimney, Pfc. Schauer brought him down with another burst. Shortly after, when a heavy enemy artillery concentration and 2 machineguns temporarily halted the patrol, Pfc. Schauer again left cover to engage the enemy weapons single-handed. While shells exploded within 15 yards, showering dirt over him, and strings of grazing German tracer bullets whipped past him at chest level, Pfc. Schauer knelt, killed the 2 gunners of the machinegun only 60 yards from him with a single burst from his BAR, and crumpled 2 other enemy soldiers who ran to man the gun. Inserting a fresh magazine in his BAR, Pfc. Schauer shifted his body to fire at the other weapon 500 yards distant and emptied his weapon into the enemy crew, killing all 4 Germans. Next morning, when shells from a German Mark VI tank and a machinegun only 100 yards distant again forced the patrol to seek cover, Pfc. Schauer crawled toward the enemy machinegun. stood upright only 80 yards from the weapon as its bullets cut the surrounding ground, and 4 tank shells fired directly at him burst within 20 yards. Raising his BAR to his shoulder, Pfc. Schauer killed the 4 members of the German machinegun crew with 1 burst of fire.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 11th New York Infantry. Place and date: Alexandria, Va., 24 May 1861. Entered service at: Troy, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 26 January 1877. Citation: Killed the murderer of Colonel Ellsworth at the Marshall House Alexandria, Va. This was the first CIVIL WAR deed to merit the Medal of Honor.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Company B, 34th U.S. Colored Troops. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: New York. Born: 4 October 1842, West Kill, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Voluntarily commanded a boat crew, which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry succeeded in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: Fall River, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boatcrew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New Bedford, Mass. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boatcrew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dartmouth, Mass. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boat crew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 170th New York Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1897. Citation: This officer, commanding the regiment, kept it on the field exposed to the fire of the enemy for three hours without being able to fire one shot in return because of the ammunition being exhausted.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. Place and date: At Ashepoo River, S.C., 24 May 1864. Entered service at: Spencer, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 21 January 1897. Citation: Volunteered as a member of a boat crew which went to the rescue of a large number of Union soldiers on board the stranded steamer Boston, and with great gallantry assisted in conveying them to shore, being exposed during the entire time to a heavy fire from a Confederate battery.
National Polka Day
Catch-18 (Catch-22 pic)
Joseph Heller’s famous novel, Catch-22, was first published in 1961. Set in World War II, the book is a comic satirical novel about bureaucracy. The phrase “Catch 22″ in the novel is used to denote the vicious circle of military bureaucracy. The term “Catch 22″ has made it into mainstream usage to mean any two choices that are mutually dependent (for example, which came first: the chicken or the egg?). As time goes on it has picked up another meaning which is, “You’re crazy if you do and crazy if you don’t.”However, the term we now know as “Catch 22″ was almost “Catch 18″ for Heller had originally chosen Catch-18 as the title of the book. Unfortunately for Heller, Leon Uris published his Mila 18 novel just before Heller’s book was to be published. Heller’s publisher didn’t think it would be good to have two books out at the same time with “18″ in the title. Attempting to come up with another name, Heller and his publisher considered Catch-11, Catch-17, and Catch-14 before deciding on the title we all know, Catch-22.
A catch-22 is a paradoxical situation in which an individual cannot avoid a problem because of contradictory constraints or rules. Most of the time these situations are such that solving one part of a problem only creates another problem, which ultimately leads back to the original problem. Catch-22s often result from rules, regulations, or procedures that an individual is subject to but has no control over.
From the book we see several examples:
The “Catch-22″ is that “anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn’t really crazy.” Hence, pilots who request a mental fitness evaluation are sane, and therefore must fly in combat. At the same time, if an evaluation is not requested by the pilot, he will never receive one and thus can never be found insane, meaning he must also fly in combat. Therefore, Catch-22 ensures that no pilot can ever be grounded for being insane even if he is.
Many of these situations are based on the case of John Yossarian, a U.S. Army Air Forces bombardier who wants to be grounded from combat flight. Very similar to the modern day “Murphy’s Laws” many or most of these “laws” were not expostulated by Murphy himself but they “fit the mold.”
In chapter six of the book, Yossarian is told that Catch-22 requires him to do anything his commanding officer tells him to do, regardless of whether these orders contradict orders from the officer’s superiors. This is a situation that is very similar to what many go through in the workforce of today.
Just like Murphy’s Laws, there are many other situations that lend themselves to fitting “Catch-22.” Here are just a few:
Begging the question - The first known definition in the West is by Aristotle around 350 BC, in his book Prior Analytics. Begging the question is related to the circular argument, circulus in probando (Latin, “circle in proving”) or circular reasoning, though these are considered absolutely different by Aristotle.
Game of Chicken – Two participants desire a positive outcome by taking an action, yet if taken by both the result is devastatingly negative.
Deadlock – in computing, when two processes reach a standstill or impasse, each waiting for the other to finish.
Gift of the Magi – Where two people in love with each other sell their belongings to buy gifts for each other, only to end up giving gifts related to the belonging they have sacrificed. (ie. A man sells a pocket watch to buy a brush for his wife. The wife then sells her long beautiful hair to buy a chain for the man’s pocket watch.)
Cadmean victory – A victory leading to one’s own ruin. On seeking to establish a city, Cadmus required water from a spring guarded by a monster snake. He sent his companions to slay the snake, but they all perished. Although Cadmus eventually proved victorious, the victory was at the cost of lives of those who were to benefit from the new settlement.
Kobayashi Maru – a scenario in Star Trek involving a choice between death of civilians or of the civilians and the officers who try to save them.
Lesser of two evils principle – a choice between two undesirable outcomes.
Necessary Evil – anything which, despite being considered to have undesirable qualities, is preferable to its absence or alternative.
Morton’s Fork – a choice between two equally unpleasant alternatives.
There are many more of these situations.
“One can never consent to creep when one feels an impulse to soar.”
- Helen Keller
seriatim sir-ee-AY-tim; -AT-im, adverb:
In a series; one after another.
Seriatim derives from the Latin series, meaning “row, chain,” and is formed on the same model as verbatim (“word for word”) and literatim (“letter for letter”).
1701 – After being convicted of piracy and of murdering William Moore, Captain William Kidd is hanged in London.
1779 - Benedict Arnold, military governor of Philadelphia, wrote a query to the British asking what they would pay for his services. He had already begun trading with the British for personal profit and faced charges.
1783 – James Otis, Jr., the American revolutionary, “often mentioned to friends and relatives that … he hoped his death would come from a bolt of lightning.” His hope was fulfilled when lightning struck the chimney of a friend’s house in whose doorway he was standing.
1785 - Benjamin Franklin announces his invention of bifocals.
1788 - South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify U.S. Constitution.
1827 - The first nursery school in the U.S. was established in New York City.
1832 - Samuel Sharp was hanged in Jamaica for leading a slave rebellion. He is survived by his immortal declaration: “I would rather die upon yonder gallows than live in slavery.”
1846 – Mexican-American War: President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.
1850 – The US Navy sends USS Advance and USS Rescue to attempt rescue of Sir John Franklin’s expedition, lost in Arctic.
1861 – Civil War: Virginia citizens voted 3 to 1 in favor of secession, becoming the last Confederate state.
1861 – Civil War: Pro Union and pro Confederate forces clashed in Clarksburg, West Virginia.
1861 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Mississippi was forced to put back into Boston for repairs because of sabotage damage to her condensers.
1862 – Civil War: Stonewall Jackson took Fort Royal, Virginia, in the Valley Campaign. Jackson captured 691 federal soldiers. His success was based on information from Confederate spy Isabella Boyd.
1863 – Organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan.
1863 – Civil War: The Siege of Port Hudson takes place.
1864 – Civil War: U.S.S. Columbine, Acting Ensign Sanborn, was captured after a heated engagement with Confederate batteries and riflemen at Horse Landing, near Palatka, Florida.
1865 - Flag flown at full staff over White House, first time since Lincoln was assassinated.
1865 - Victory parade in Washington DC. and at 9:00 am, the signal gun sounded to begin this, the Last Review of the Army of the Potomac.
1867 - Jesse James-gang rob bank in Richmond MO (2 die, $4,000 taken.)
1868 - Kit Carson (b.1809), American scout and frontiersman, died at Fort Lyon, Colorado.
1873 - First Preakness: G Barbee aboard Survivor wins in 2:43. Two years before the Kentucky Derby was run for the first time, Pimlico introduced its new stakes race. The Preakness Stakes is a prestigious Grade I stakes race 1 3/16 mile thoroughbred horse race for three-year-olds, held on the third Saturday in May of each year at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland. Colts and geldings carry 126 pounds; fillies 121 lb. The Preakness Stakes has been termed “The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans” because a horseshoe of black-eyed susans (Rudbeckia hirta), the state flower of Maryland, is traditionally placed around the winner’s neck.
1876 - Boston’s Joe Borden pitched the very first no-hitter in the history of the National League.
1879 - The first U.S. veterinary school was established by Iowa State University.
1899 – US Marines arrived to secure Cavite Naval Base, Philippines.
1900 – Sergeant William Harvey Carney becomes the first African American to be awarded the Medal of Honor, for his heroism in and for his actions that day in recovering and returning the unit’s U.S. Flag to Union lines during the Assault on the Battery Wagner during the Civil War.
1901 - American forces captured Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo.
1903 – The first cross-country automobile trip started in San Francisco. The vehicle was a Cleveland-made Winton automobile. Dr. H. Nelson Jackson, a physician from Burlington, VT, and his chauffeur, Sewell K. Croker drove it in a 1903 Winton with a 2-cyl., 20-hp engine.
1903 - First direct primary election law in US adopted by Wisconsin.
1908 – Part of the Great White Fleet arrived in Puget Sound, WA.
1911 - New York Public Library building at 5th Avenue dedicated by President Taft.
1915 – World War I: Italy joins the Allies after they declare war on Austria-Hungary.
1922 - “Daylight Saving Time” was debated in the first debate ever to be heard on radio in Washington, DC.
1922 - Walt Disney incorporates his first film company Laugh-O-Gram Films. Disney told interviewers later that he was inspired to draw Mickey by a tame mouse at his desk at Laugh-O-Gram Studio in Kansas City, Missouri.
1922 - “Abie’s Irish Rose” opened at the the Fulton Theatre in New York City. It continued for 2,327 performances and numerous revivals as well. It is estimated that some 50,000,000 people have seen the play performed somewhere in the world.
1926 - Hack Wilson is first to hit a homerun off Wrigley Field scoreboard. The Cubs score seven runs in the eighth inning to win 14-8.
1928 - Fritz von Opel reaches 143 mph in experimental rocket car. It was the RAK 2, driven by 24 solid-rockets.
1929 – The first talking cartoon of Mickey Mouse, “The Karnival Kid“, is released.
1930 – The Patent Act of 1930 permitted patenting of certain plants to help American culture. This law established patent rights for developers of new varieties of many asexually propagated plants, for example apple trees and rose bushes that are propagated by cutting pieces of the stem rather than by germinating seeds.
1930 - Lieutenant Commander Elmer F. Stone received a medal from Congress for extraordinary achievement in making the first successful trans-Atlantic flight in 1919. Stone was the pilot of the Navy’s NC-4.
1934 - Wallace Carothers manufactures first nylon called polymer 66. Necessity is the mother of invention, the reason this was developed was our political and trade troubles with Japan, the United States’ main source of silk, that fiber was getting harder and more expensive to come by. Dupont set out to relieve that problem.
1934 – American bank robbers Clyde Champion Barrow and his companion, Bonnie Parker, were shot to death by Texas Rangers in an ambush near Sailes, Bienville Parish, Louisiana.The bank robbers were riding in a stolen Ford Deluxe.
1934 – The Auto-Lite Strike culminates in the “Battle of Toledo”, a five-day melée between 1,300 troops of the Ohio National Guard and 6,000 picketers.
1938 - “LIFE” magazine’s cover pictured Errol Flynn as a glamour boy.
1938 - Singer Ray Eberle signed on as vocalist with the Glenn Miller Orchestra for $35 a week. Eberle’s first session with Miller included, “Don’t Wake Up My Heart“, for Brunswick Records.
1939 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS Squalus sinks off the coast of New Hampshire during a test dive, causing the death of 26 sailors. The remaining 32 crewmen and one passenger are rescued the following day using a diving bell designed by Charles “Swede” Momsen.This was the first successful undersea rescue operation to retrieve a sunken submarine crew.
1939 - Hitler proclaimed he wants to move into Poland.
1940 – Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra, the Pied Pipers and featured soloist Frank Sinatra recorded “I’ll Never Smile Again” in New York for RCA.
1943 – World War II: Approximately 826 Allied bombers attacked Dortmund.
1944 – World War II: The US 6th Corps in the Anzio beachhead launches an attack on Cisterna.
1944 - World War II: US Task Group 58.2 (Admiral Montgomery) launches air raids on Japanese positions on Wake Island.
1945 – World War II: Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS, commits suicide while in Allied custody.
1945 - World War II: American attacks bring shipping at Yokohama to a halt.
1945 - World War II: On Okinawa, after occupying Naha, the US 6th Marine Division (part of US 3rd Amphibious Corps) encounters heavy Japanese resistance to attempts to advance further south.
1945 - World War II: At Flensburg, the successor government of the Third Reich, including Karl Donitz, the nominal Fuhrer, as well as the German military leadership, are all arrested on the orders of General Eisenhower.
1946 - The end of World War II unleashed a torrent of labor activity.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS - “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page, “On Top of Old Smokey” by The Weavers (vocal: Terry Gilkyson), “Too Young” by Nat King Cole and “Kentucky Waltz” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1951 - Eighth Army advanced toward the Kansas and Wyoming Lines to the base of the Iron Triangle against stiffening enemy resistance. By the end of May, the communists had suffered 17,000 killed and an equal number were taken prisoner.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1953 - Schools first used Cliff’s Notes.
1958 – Explorer 1 ceases transmission.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Happy Organ” by Dave ‘Baby’ Cortez, “A Teenager in Love” by Dion & The Belmonts, “Dream Lover” by Bobby Darin and “The Battle of New Orleans” by Johnny Horton all topped the charts.
1959 – “Kansas City” by Wilbert Harrison topped the charts.
1960 - A tidal wave, due to a 9.5 earthquake off Chile, hit Hilo, Hawaii. It killed 61 people, wiped out the beaches and destroyed 537 buildings. It went on to hit Japan.
1960 – Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion announces that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann had been captured.
1960 – WRCA radio changes call letters back to WNBC (NYC).
1960 – “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1960 – “Cathy’s Clown” by the Everly Brothers topped the charts.
1962 – Joe Pepitone became the second Yankee to hit two homeruns in a single inning . The first was Joe DiMaggio.
1962 - The National Basketball Association (NBA) agreed to transfer the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, CA. The team became the San Francisco Warriors (and later the Golden State Warriors).
1962 - Launch of Aurora 7 (Mercury 7), piloted by LCDR Malcolm Scott Carpenter, USN, who completed 3 orbits in 4 hours, 56 minutes at an altitude up to 166.8 statute miles at 17,549 mph. He was picked up by HSS-2 helicopters from USS Intrepid (CVS-11). The capsule was recovered by USS John R. Pierce (DD-753).
1964 – “My Guy” by Mary Wells topped the charts.
1966 – The Beatles release “Paperback Writer.”
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Groovin’ “by The Young Rascals, “Respect” by Aretha Franklin, “I Got Rhythm” by The Happenings and “Sam’s Place” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – Vietnam War: A public controversy over the M-16, the basic combat rifle in Vietnam, begins after Representative James J. Howard (D-New Jersey) reads a letter to the House of Representatives in which a Marine in Vietnam claims that almost all Americans killed in the battle for Hill 881 died as a result of their new M-16 rifles jamming.
1969 – The Who release the rock opera “Tommy.” The whole play (1:15:02)
1970 - “American Woman” by Guess Who topped the charts.
1971 - North Vietnamese demolition experts infiltrate the major U.S. air base at Cam Ranh Bay, blowing up six tanks of aviation fuel, which resulted in the loss of about 1.5 million gallons. U.S. commander Creighton Abrams criticized the inadequate security.
1972 - Heavy U.S. air attacks that began with an order by President Richard Nixon on May 8 are widened to include more industrial and non-military sites.
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Shining Star” by Earth, Wind & Fire, “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender, “Jackie Blue” by Ozark Mountain Daredevils and “I’m Not Lisa” by Jessi Colter all topped the charts.
1975 – “(Hey, Won’t You Play) Another Somebody Done Somebody Wrong Song” by BJ Thomas strikes gold.
1977 – The US Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals of Watergate wrong doers H R Halderman, John Ehrlichman & John Mitchell.
1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1982 – START missile reduction treaty signed.
1982 – Colin Wilson rides a surfboard 294 miles.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Let’s Dance” by David Bowie, “Flashdance…What a Feeling” by Irene Cara ,“Little Red Corvette” by Prince and “Common Man” by John Conlee all topped the charts.
1984 – Detroit Tigers win American League record tying their sixteenth straight road game.
1985 - Thomas Patrick Cavanagh was sentenced to life in prison for trying to sell Stealth bomber secrets to the Soviet Union.
1987 – “With or Without You” by U2 topped the charts.
1987 - Rescue workers and survivors searched through the rubble of a killer tornado in Saragosa, Texas, that had claimed 30 lives.
1988 - The V-22 Osprey, the world’s first production tilt-rotor aircraft, made its debut at Bell Helicopter Textron’s Arlington, Texas, facility.
1989 – Cleveland loses to Detroit 7-2 to drop its record to 21-22, but remains in first place in the American League East by percentage points. It is the latest in a season a sub-.500 team has ever been in first place.
1990 - Clinton’s campaign for a fifth term as governor of Arkansas received a $60,000 loan from the Perry County Bank. More cash was requested a few days later.
1990 – Neil Bush, son of the president, denied any wrongdoing as a director of a failed Denver savings-and-loan in testimony before Congress. The cost of rescuing US savings & loan failures was put at up to $130 billion.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Like the Way (The Kissing Game)” by Hi-Five, “Touch Me (All Night Long)” by Cathy Dennis, “Here We Go” by C + C Music Factory Presents Freedom Williams and Zelma Davis and “If I Know Me” by George Strait all topped the charts.
1991 - In a 5 to 4 vote, the US Supreme Court upheld regulations barring federally subsidized family planning clinics from discussing abortion with pregnant women, or from telling women where they could get abortions.
1994 – Star Trek The Next Generation, finale airs this week in syndication.
1994 - Funeral services were held at Arlington National Cemetery for former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.
1995 – Oklahoma City bombing: In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, the remains of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building is imploded.
1996 - The Mt. Tabor Baptist Church in Cerro Gordo, N.C., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – “My All” by Mariah Carey topped the charts.
1999 – Gerry Bloch, at age 81, became the oldest climber to scale El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. He broke his own record that he set in 1986 when he was 68 years old.
1999 – In Iraq US planes bombed Iraqi defense systems.
2001 - The US Senate passed an 11-year, $1.35 trillion tax cut bill.
2001 - In Arizona twelve illegal Mexican immigrants were found dead due to dehydration. Two more were found dead the next day. In 2002 Jesus Lopez-Ramos, one of three smugglers, was sentenced to sixteen years in prison.
2002 - The Pentagon reported that the Defense Dept. sprayed live nerve and biological agents over Navy ships in 6 six tests between 1964-1968.
2002 - Sam Snead (89), golfing legend, died.
2003 - US defense officials reported that American troops had confiscated gold bars valued at $34 million from a truck in northern Iraq.
2003 - US Congress passes a $350 billion tax cut plan. The plan is less than half the size of President Bush’s original proposal. Vice President Dick Cheney casts the deciding vote, breaking the 50–50 tie in the Senate
2004 – In Iraq US troops battled fighters loyal to a radical Muslim cleric in his stronghold of Kufa, and at least 32 insurgents were killed.
2006 – A US federal agency charged that employees at mortgage giant Fannie Mae manipulated accounting so that executives could collect millions in bonuses as senior management deceived investors and stonewalled regulators.
2006 – In California the Hercules City Council voted unanimously to use eminent domain to prevent Wal-Mart from building a bog box store on a 17-acre lot near the city’s waterfront on the San Francisco Bay.
2006 – Washington Mutual Inc., the nation’s largest savings and loan, notified 1,400 workers in Washington and Florida that they will lose their jobs as part of the company’s cost-saving strategy.
2006 – MIT unveiled its first working prototype of its $100 laptop designed for the Third World under an initiative named “One Laptop Per Child.”
2008 – Vallejo, Ca., officially declared Chapter 9 bankruptcy as it faced a $16 million deficit with no money in reserve for fiscal year 2008-2009.
2008 – In Kansas at least seventeen tornadoes touched ground, one of which killed two people in a car 75 miles west of Wichita.
2010 – The US government threatened to remove BP (British Petroleum) from efforts to seal a blown-out oil well in the Gulf of Mexico if it doesn’t do enough to stop the leak, though it acknowledged only the company and the oil industry have the needed know-how.
2010 – In New Jersey a crowd of some 30-35 thousand gathered at the Statehouse in Trenton to protest Gov. Chris Christie’s proposed budget cuts. Christie has called for workers to accept wage freezes and contribute to their health benefits.
2011 – The death toll from the Joplin, Missouri, tornado reaches 116, becoming the deadliest single US tornado since 1947.
2011 – Steve Ballmer, the CEO of Microsoft, promises that Windows 8 will be on the market in 2012.
2012 - Georgia-native Phillip Phillips is crowned the eleventh American Idol. Runner-up Jessica Sanchez is the first contestant of Asian ancestry to advance in the finals.
2012 - Hewlett-Packard plans to cut 27,000 jobs, or 8% of their workforce.
2013 – The National Council of the Boy Scouts of America revised its century-old policy to allow “open and avowed” homosexuals to join its programs. The new policy maintains the exclusion of adult leaders who are openly homosexual, however.
2013 – In Mount Vernon, Wash. an Interstate 5 bridge collapsed over the Skagit River, about 60 miles north of Seattle. Numerous vehicles plummeted into the water.
2014 – In Isla Vista, CA, a college student who posted videos that documented his rage against women for rejecting him killed six people and wounded 13 others during a spasm of terror.
2014 - Christopher Hubbart, a sexually violent predator dubbed the ‘Pillowcase Rapist,’ has spent nearly two decades in mental institutions after admitting to sexually assaulting more than three dozen women throughout California between 1971 and 1982. A judge has ruled him to be released into the community of Palmdale, CA.
1810 – Margaret Fuller, American journalist and feminist (d. 1850)
1820 – James Buchanan Eads, American engineer and inventor (d. 1887)
1824 – Ambrose Burnside, American Union Civil War general (d. 1881)
1875 – Alfred P. Sloan, American long-time president and chairman of General Motors (d. 1966)
1883 – Douglas Fairbanks, American actor (d. 1939)
1893 – Ulysses S. Grant IV, American geologist and paleontologist (d. 1977)
1910 – Scatman Crothers, American actor and musician (d. 1986)
1910 – Artie Shaw, American clarinetist and bandleader (d. 2004)
1933 – Joan Collins, English actress
1934 – Robert Moog, American inventor (d. 2005)
1952 – “Marvelous” Marvin Hagler, American boxer
1958 – Drew Carey, American actor, comedian, and game show host
1963 – Wally Dallenbach Jr., American race car driver and announcer
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 7th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Changyong-ni, Korea, May 22-23, 1951. Born: April 29, 1933, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. Entered Service at: New York Departed: Yes (03/19/1967) Date Issued: 3/18/2014
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Private Demensio Rivera distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an automatic rifleman with 2d Platoon, Company G, 7th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Changyong-ni, Korea on May 23, 1951. Early that morning, a large hostile force emerged from a dense fog and viciously attacked Private Rivera and his comrades. Private Rivera immediately responded by firing with deadly accuracy until his weapon jammed. Without hesitating, he threw his rifle down and began to engage the enemy with his pistol and grenades. At one point, Private Rivera fearlessly crawled from his emplacement to engage an infiltrating enemy soldier in fierce hand-to-hand combat. With only the sound of footsteps and obscure shadows to guide his aim, Private Rivera held his position against tremendous odds, inflicting numerous casualties on the enemy until he found himself without ammunition of any kind except one grenade. Displaying a peerless fighting spirit and an utterly selfless devotion to duty, Private Rivera pulled the pin from his last grenade and calmly waited for the enemy to reach his position. As enemy troops leaped inside his bunker, Private Rivera activated the grenade with the full knowledge that it meant his almost certain death. When the debris from the explosion had cleared, friendly forces recovered a severely wounded Private Rivera and discovered the bodies of four dead or dying enemy soldiers surrounding him. Private Rivera’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army.
BARFOOT, VAN T.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Carano, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Carthage, Miss. Birth: Edinburg, Miss. G.O. No.: 79, 4 October 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 23 May 1944, near Carano, Italy. With his platoon heavily engaged during an assault against forces well entrenched on commanding ground, 2d Lt. Barfoot (then Tech. Sgt.) moved off alone upon the enemy left flank. He crawled to the proximity of one machinegun nest and made a direct hit on it with a hand grenade, killing two and wounding three Germans. He continued along the German defense line to another machinegun emplacement, and with his tommygun killed two and captured three soldiers. Members of another enemy machinegun crew then abandoned their position and gave themselves up to Sgt. Barfoot. Leaving the prisoners for his support squad to pick up, he proceeded to mop up positions in the immediate area, capturing more prisoners and bringing his total count to seventeen. Later that day, after he had reorganized his men and consolidated the newly captured ground, the enemy launched a fierce armored counterattack directly at his platoon positions. Securing a bazooka, Sgt. Barfoot took up an exposed position directly in front of three advancing Mark VI tanks. From a distance of 75 yards his first shot destroyed the track of the leading tank, effectively disabling it, while the other two changed direction toward the flank. As the crew of the disabled tank dismounted, Sgt. Barfoot killed three of them with his tommygun. He continued onward into enemy terrain and destroyed a recently abandoned German fieldpiece with a demolition charge placed in the breech. While returning to his platoon position, Sgt. Barfoot, though greatly fatigued by his Herculean efforts, assisted two of his seriously wounded men 1,700 yards to a position of safety. Sgt. Barfoot’s extraordinary heroism, demonstration of magnificent valor, and aggressive determination in the face of pointblank fire are a perpetual inspiration to his fellow soldiers.
DERVISHIAN, ERNEST H.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Cisterna, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Birth: Richmond, Va. G.O. No.: 3, 8 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty on 23 May 1944, in the vicinity of Cisterna, Italy. 2d Lt. Dervishian (then Tech. Sgt.) and four members of his platoon found themselves far ahead of their company after an aggressive advance in the face of enemy artillery and sniper fire. Approaching a railroad embankment, they observed a force of German soldiers hiding in dugouts. 2d Lt. Dervishian, directing his men to cover him, boldly moved forward and firing his carbine forced ten Germans to surrender. His men then advanced and captured fifteen more Germans occupying adjacent dugouts. The prisoners were returned to the rear to be picked up by advancing units. From the railroad embankment, 2d Lt. Dervishian and his men then observed nine Germans who were fleeing across a ridge. He and his men opened fire and three of the enemy were wounded. As his men were firing, 2d Lt. Dervishian, unnoticed, fearlessly dashed forward alone and captured all of the fleeing enemy before his companions joined him on the ridge. At this point four other men joined 2d Lt. Dervishian’s group. An attempt was made to send the four newly arrived men along the left flank of a large, dense vineyard that lay ahead, but murderous machinegun fire forced them back. Deploying his men, 2d Lt. Dervishian moved to the front of his group and led the advance into the vineyard. He and his men suddenly became pinned down by a machinegun firing at them at a distance of 15 yards. Feigning death while the hostile weapon blazed away at him, 2d Lt. Dervishian assaulted the position during a halt in the firing, using a hand grenade and carbine fire, and forced the four German crewmembers to surrender. The four men on the left flank were now ordered to enter the vineyard but encountered machinegun fire which killed one soldier and wounded another. At this moment the enemy intensified the fight by throwing potato-masher grenades at the valiant band of American soldiers within the vineyard. 2d Lt. Dervishian ordered his men to withdraw; but instead of following, jumped into the machinegun position he had just captured and opened fire with the enemy weapon in the direction of the second hostile machinegun nest. Observing movement in a dugout two or three yards to the rear, 2d Lt. Dervishian seized a machine pistol. Simultaneously blazing away at the entrance to the dugout to prevent its occupants from firing and firing his machinegun at the other German nest, he forced forced Germans in each position to surrender. Determined to rid the area of all Germans, 2d Lt. Dervishian continued his advance alone. Noticing another machinegun position beside a house, he picked up an abandoned machine pistol and forced six more Germans to surrender by spraying their position with fire. Unable to locate additional targets in the vicinity, 2d Lt. Dervishian conducted these prisoners to the rear. The prodigious courage and combat skill exhibited by 2d Lt. Dervishian are exemplary of the finest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.
*DUTKO, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ponte Rotto, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Riverside, N.J. Birth: Dilltown, Pa. G.O. No.: 80, 5 October 1944. citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, on 23 May 1944, near Ponte Rotto, Italy. Pfc. Dutko left the cover of an abandoned enemy trench at the height of an artillery concentration in a single-handed attack upon three machineguns and an 88mm. mobile gun. Despite the intense fire of these four weapons which were aimed directly at him, Pfc. Dutko ran ten yards through the impact area, paused momentarily in a shell crater, and then continued his one-man assault. Although machinegun bullets kicked up the dirt at his heels, and 88mm. shells exploded within thirty yards of him, Pfc. Dutko nevertheless made his way to a point within thirty yards of the first enemy machinegun and killed both gunners with a hand grenade. Although the second machinegun wounded him, knocking him to the ground, Pfc. Dutko regained his feet and advanced on the 88mm. gun, firing his Browning automatic rifle from the hip. When he came within ten yards of this weapon he killed its five-man crew with one long burst of fire. Wheeling on the machinegun which had wounded him, Pfc. Dutko killed the gunner and his assistant. The third German machinegun fired on Pfc. Dutko from a position twenty yards distant wounding him a second time as he proceeded toward the enemy weapon in a half run. He killed both members of its crew with a single burst from his Browning automatic rifle, continued toward the gun and died, his body falling across the dead German crew.
*FOWLER, THOMAS W.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 1st Armored Division. Place and date: Near Carano, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Wichita Falls, Tex. Birth: Wichita Falls, Tex. G.O. No.: 84, 28 October, 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, on 23 May 1944, in the vicinity of Carano, Italy. In the midst of a full-scale armored-infantry attack, 2d Lt. Fowler, while on foot, came upon two completely disorganized infantry platoons held up in their advance by an enemy minefield. Although a tank officer, he immediately reorganized the infantry. He then made a personal reconnaissance through the minefield, clearing a path as he went, by lifting the antipersonnel mines out of the ground with his hands. After he had gone through the 75-yard belt of deadly explosives, he returned to the infantry and led them through the minefield, a squad at a time. As they deployed, 2d Lt. Fowler, despite small arms fire and the constant danger of antipersonnel mines, made a reconnaissance into enemy territory in search of a route to continue the advance. He then returned through the minefield and, on foot, he led the tanks through the mines into a position from which they could best support the infantry. Acting as scout 300 yards in front of the infantry, he led the two platoons forward until he had gained his objective, where he came upon several dug-in enemy infantrymen. Having taken them by surprise, 2d Lt. Fowler dragged them out of their foxholes and sent them to the rear; twice, when they resisted, he threw hand grenades into their dugouts. Realizing that a dangerous gap existed between his company and the unit to his right, 2d Lt. Fowler decided to continue his advance until the gap was filled. He reconnoitered to his front, brought the infantry into position where they dug in and, under heavy mortar and small arms fire, brought his tanks forward. A few minutes later, the enemy began an armored counterattack. Several Mark Vl tanks fired their cannons directly on 2d Lt. Fowler’s position. One of his tanks was set afire. With utter disregard for his own life, with shells bursting near him, he ran directly into the enemy tank fire to reach the burning vehicle. For a half-hour, under intense strafing from the advancing tanks, although all other elements had withdrawn, he remained in his forward position, attempting to save the lives of the wounded tank crew. Only when the enemy tanks had almost overrun him, did he withdraw a short distance where he personally rendered first aid to nine wounded infantrymen in the midst of the relentless incoming fire. 2d Lt. Fowler’s courage, his ability to estimate the situation and to recognize his full responsibility as an officer in the Army of the United States, exemplify the high traditions of the military service for which he later gave his life.
HALL, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 135th Infantry, 34th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Anzio, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Born: 9 January 1921, Stoneham, Mass. G.O. No.: 24, 6 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Attacking across flat, open terrain under direct enemy observation, S/Sgt. Hall’s company was pinned down by grazing fire from three enemy machineguns and harassing sniper fire. S/Sgt. Hall volunteered to eliminate these obstacles in the path of advance. Crawling along a plowed furrow through furious machinegun fire, he made his way to a point within hand grenade range of one of the enemy positions. He pounded the enemy with four hand grenades, and when the smoke had died away, S/Sgt. Hall and two dead Germans occupied the position, while four of the enemy were crawling back to our lines as prisoners. Discovering a quantity of German potato-masher grenades in the position, S/Sgt. Hall engaged the second enemy nest in a deadly exchange of grenades. Each time he exposed himself to throw a grenade the Germans fired machinegun bursts at him. The vicious duel finally ended in S/Sgt. Hall’s favor with five of the enemy surrendered and five others lay dead. Turning his attention to the third machinegun, S/Sgt. Hall left his position and crawled along a furrow, the enemy firing frantically in an effort to halt him. As he neared his final objective, an enemy artillery concentration fell on the area, and S/Sgt. Hall’s right leg was severed by a shellburst. With two enemy machineguns eliminated, his company was able to flank the third and continue its advance without incurring excessive casualties. S/Sgt. Hall’s fearlessness, his determined fighting spirit, and his prodigious combat skill exemplify the heroic tradition of the American Infantryman.
*KESSLER, PATRICK L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company K, 30th Infantry, 3d Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ponte Rotto, Italy, 23 May 1944. Entered service at: Middletown, Ohio. Birth: Middletown, Ohio. G.O. No.: 1, 4 January 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. Pfc. Kessler, acting without orders, raced fifty yards through a hail of machinegun fire, which had killed five of his fellow soldiers and halted the advance of his company, in order to form an assault group to destroy the machinegun. Ordering three men to act as a base of fire, he left the cover of a ditch and snaked his way to a point within fifty yards of the enemy machinegun before he was discovered, whereupon he plunged headlong into the furious chain of automatic fire. Reaching a spot within six feet of the emplacement he stood over it and killed both the gunner and his assistant, jumped into the gun position, overpowered and captured a third German after a short struggle. The remaining member of the crew escaped, but Pfc. Kessler wounded him as he ran. While taking his prisoner to the rear, this soldier saw two of his fellow soldiers killed as they assaulted an enemy strongpoint, fire from which had already killed ten men in the company. Turning his prisoner over to another man, Pfc. Kessler crawled 35 yards to the side of one of the casualties, relieved him of his BAR and ammunition and continued on toward the strongpoint, 125 yards distant. Although two machineguns concentrated their fire directly on him and shells exploded within ten yards, bowling him over, Pfc. Kessler crawled seventy-five yards, passing through an antipersonnel minefield to a point within fifty yards of the enemy and engaged the machineguns in a duel. When an artillery shell burst within a few feet of him, he left the cover of a ditch and advanced upon the position in a slow walk, firing his BAR from the hip. Although the enemy poured heavy machinegun and small arms fire at him, Pfc. Kessler succeeded in reaching the edge of their position, killed the gunners, and captured thirteen Germans. Then, despite continuous shelling, he started to the rear. After going twenty-five yards, Pfc. Kessler was fired upon by two snipers only 100 yards away. Several of his prisoners took advantage of this opportunity and attempted to escape; however, Pfc. Kessler hit the ground, fired on either flank of his prisoners, forcing them to cover, and then engaged the two snipers in a fire fight, and captured them. With this last threat removed, Company K continued its advance, capturing its objective without further opposition. Pfc. Kessler was killed in a subsequent action.
SJOGREN, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 160th Infantry, 40th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near San Jose Hacienda, Negros, Philippine Islands, 23 May 1945. Entered service at: Rockford, Mich. Birth: Rockford, Mich. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He led an attack against a high precipitous ridge defended by a company of enemy riflemen, who were entrenched in spider holes and supported by well-sealed pillboxes housing automatic weapons with interlocking bands of fire. The terrain was such that only one squad could advance at one time; and from a knoll atop a ridge a pillbox covered the only approach with automatic fire. Against this enemy stronghold, S/Sgt. Sjogren led the first squad to open the assault. Deploying his men, he moved forward and was hurling grenades when he saw that his next in command, at the opposite flank, was gravely wounded. Without hesitation he crossed twenty yards of exposed terrain in the face of enemy fire and exploding dynamite charges, moved the man to cover and administered first aid. He then worked his way forward and, advancing directly into the enemy fire, killed eight Japanese in spider holes guarding the approach to the pillbox. Crawling to within a few feet of the pillbox while his men concentrated their bullets on the fire port, he began dropping grenades through the narrow firing slit. The enemy immediately threw two or three of these unexploded grenades out, and fragments from one wounded him in the hand and back. However, by hurling grenades through the embrasure faster then the enemy could return them, he succeeded in destroying the occupants. Despite his wounds, he directed his squad to follow him in a systematic attack on the remaining positions, which he eliminated in like manner, taking tremendous risks, overcoming bitter resistance, and never hesitating in his relentless advance. To silence one of the pillboxes, he wrenched a light machinegun out through the embrasure as it was firing before blowing up the occupants with handgrenades. During this action, S/Sgt. Sjogren, by his heroic bravery, aggressiveness, and skill as a soldier, single-handedly killed forty-three enemy soldiers and destroyed nine pillboxes, thereby paving the way for his company’s successful advance.
Rank and organization: Chief Machinist’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea following sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, 23 May 1939. Entered service at: Indianapolis, Ind. Born: 16 September 1900, Harrisburg, Ill. Other Navy awards: Navy Cross, Navy-Marine Corps Medal. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 13 May 1939. During the rescue operations, Badders, as senior member of the rescue chamber crew, made the last extremely hazardous trip of the rescue chamber to attempt to rescue any possible survivors in the flooded after portion of the Squalus. He was fully aware of the great danger involved in that if he and his assistant became incapacitated, there was no way in which either could be rescued. During the salvage operations, Badders made important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions. His outstanding performance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
CRANDALL, ORSON L.
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Place and date: At sea following sinking of U.S.S. Squalus, 23 May 1939. Born: 2 February 1903, St. Joseph, Mo. Entered service at: Connecticut. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a master diver throughout the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. His leadership and devotion to duty in directing diving operations and in making important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions characterize conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
McDONALD, JAMES HARPER
Rank and organization: Chief Metalsmith, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Area at sea of sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, 23 May 1939. Entered service at: Washington, D.C. Born: 15 July 1900, Scotland. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession as a master diver throughout the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. His leadership, masterly skill, general efficiency, and untiring devotion to duty in directing diving operations, and in making important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions, characterize conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
INTERIM 1920 – 1940
Rank and organization: Torpedoman First Class, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Area at sea of the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus, 23 May 1939. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 12 August 1910, Worcester, Mass. Citation: For extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession during the rescue and salvage operations following the sinking of the U.S.S. Squalus on 23 May 1939. Mihalowski, as a member of the rescue chamber crew, made the last extremely hazardous trip of the rescue chamber to attempt the rescue of any possible survivors in the flooded after portion of the Squalus. He was fully aware of the great danger involved, in that, if he and the other member of the crew became incapacitated, there was no way in which either could be rescued. During the salvage operations Mihalowski made important and difficult dives under the most hazardous conditions. His outstanding performance of duty contributed much to the success of the operations and characterizes conduct far above and beyond the ordinary call of duty.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 1st U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Sycamore Canyon, Ariz., 23 May 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Consplcuous gallantry in a charge upon the Tonto Apaches.
BRYANT, ANDREW S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 46th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At New Bern, N.C., 23 May 1863. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 3 March 1841, Springfield, Mass. Date of issue: 13 August 1873. Citation: By his courage and judicious disposition of his guard of sixteen men, stationed in a small earthwork at the head of the bridge, held in check and repulsed for a half hour a fierce attack of a strong force of the enemy, thus probably saving the city New Bern from capture.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 182d New York Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., 23 May 1864. Entered service at: Staten Island, N.Y. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 25 October 1867. Citation: Voluntarily and at the risk of his life carried orders to the brigade commander, which resulted in saving the works his regiment was defending.
KIRK, JONATHAN C.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 20th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At North Anna River, Va., 23 May 1864. Entered service at: Wilmington, Ohio. Birth: Clinton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Volunteered for dangerous service and single-handedly captured thirteen armed Confederate soldiers and marched them to the rear.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Co. H, and 2d Lt. Co. M, 1st Maryland Inf. Place and date: At Front Royal, Va., 23 May 1862. At Weldon Railroad, Va., 19 August 1864. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Washington, D.C. Date of issue: 2 August 1897. Citation: When a sergeant, at Front Royal, Va., he was painfully wounded while obeying an order to burn a bridge, but, persevering in the attempt, he burned the bridge and prevented its use by the enemy. Later, at Weldon Railroad, Va., then a lieutenant, he voluntarily took the place of a disabled officer and undertook a hazardous reconnaissance beyond the lines of the army; was taken prisoner in the attempt.
National Maritime Day
The Siege of Vicksburg
This battle was the final major action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the CIVIL WAR. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of
Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After two assaults (May 19 and May 22) against the Confederate fortifications were turned back with heavy casualties, Grant laid seige to the city from May 25 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union. The assault on the 22nd of May was the event that produced the 98 Medals of Honor for this day.
Vicksburg sits high on the bluffs of the Mississippi, protected on one side by the river and on the land side by steep cliffs and fortifications. In order to breach the fort, the Union troops would first have to cross a dry moat and then scale the heights in a direct strike. A volunteer storming party would lead the attack, one hundred and fifty men carrying logs, planks, and ladders.
body of armed troops could then advance and attack the fort directly.
The mission would be a “Forlorn Hope,” a nineteenth century military term for a charge where most members could expect to be killed or wounded. An attack like this today would be called a suicide mission.
The naval bombardment of Vicksburg began at dawn on May 22, 1863. Commodore David Dixon Porter commanded the Union’s brown-water navy and he directed the full fury of his gunboats firepower against the rebel fort. At the same time, Union artillery opened fire from their positions on land. The naval assault went until 10 a.m.
General Sherman ordered the volunteer storming party to move out. He would follow them with his entire Fifteenth Army Corps comprised of nearly sixteen thousand Union soldiers.
The path of Sherman’s attack was down Graveyard Road. Two of General Grant’s other Union corps would coordinate their assaults simultaneously with Shermans’ Fifteenth Corps. The volunteer storming party was initially protected from enemy fire by a ravine but as they emerged from the chasm they faced four hundred yards of open ground between themselves and the Confederate fortifications. The first group, teams of two men carrying a log, started at a dead run but half of them were shot down. The next two groups, with the planks and scaling ladders followed under withering fire yet many reached the moat where the survivors of the first group had taken refuge.
The volunteers found it impossible to build a bridge, as so many logs had been dropped along the way. Exposed to deadly enemy musket fire and unwilling to retreat, the survivors dove into the ditch they were meant to cross to seek shelter. Protected from direct musket fire, the men in the ditch were still subject to attack. The Confederate defenders would light the fuses on small bombs, primitive hand grenades, and toss or roll them into the moat where they exploded. Occasionally, a Union soldier would grab the bomb while its fuse was still burning and throw it back at the rebels.
Of the one hundred fifty volunteers, seventy-two were killed and most of the remainder were wounded. Finally, the survivors of the Forlorn Hope were able, under the cover of darkness, to retreat back to the Union lines.
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
~ Charles Darwin
jorum (JOHR-uhm) noun:
1. A large drinking vessel or its contents.
2. A great quantity.
Created after Joram, a character in the Old Testament, who took vessels of silver, gold, and brass to King David. Earliest documented use: 1730.
334 BC – The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus.
12 BC – A daytime meteor shower, possibly Zeta Pirseid, observed in China.
337 - Constantine (47), convert to Christianity and Emperor of Rome (306-37), died. He had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and had the Chapel of the Burning Bush built in the Sinai Desert at the site where Moses was believed to have witnessed the Miracle of the Burning Bush. He was baptized just before death.
760 - The 14th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet occurred.
1377 – Pope Gregory XI issues five papal bulls to denounce the doctrines of English theologian John Wycliffe.
1602 - Martha’s Vineyard was discovered in 1602 by Captain Bar tholomew Gosnold, who landed (May 21) on the island now called No Man’s Land, and named it Martha’s Vineyard,’
1761 – In Philadelphia, the first life insurance policy was issued in the U.S.It was issued by the It was the Corporation for the Relief of Poor and Distressed Presbyterian Ministers and of the Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers.
1775 – Québec – Jean-Olivier Briand (1715-1794) Bishop of Québec orders loyalty to Britain, forbids Canadians women to marry soldiers in the invading American army.
1803 - The first US public library opened in Connecticut.
1804 - The Lewis and Clark Expedition officially began as the Corps of Discovery departed from St. Charles, Missouri.
1807 – A grand jury indicts former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr on a charge of treason.
1807 - Townsend Speakman first sold fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Philadelphia, PA.
1819 – The SS Savannah leaves port at Savannah, Georgia, United States, on a voyage to become the first steamship to cross the Atlantic Ocean. The ship arrived at Liverpool, England on June 20.
1819 – The first bicycle in the U.S. was seen in New York City. Such bicycle velocipedes or “swift walkers” had been imported that same year. Shortly thereafter, on August 19, 1819, the city’s Common Council passed a law to “prevent the use of velocipedes in the public places and on the sidewalks of the city of New York.”
1826 – The HMS Beagle departs on its first voyage.
1832 - First Democratic National Convention was held in Baltimore, MD. All states were represented except Missouri.
1842 – Farmers Lester Howe and Henry Wetsel discover Howe Caverns when they stumble upon a large gaping hole in the ground.
1843 – Thousands of people and their cattle head west via wagon train from Independence, Missouri to what would later become the Oregon Territory. It is part of the Great Migration. They follow what is now known as the Oregon Trail.
1849 - Abraham Lincoln received patent number 6469 for his floating dry dock.
1856 – Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina beats Senator Charles Sumner with a cane in the hall of the United States Senate for a speech Sumner had made attacking Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas (“Bleeding Kansas”). Sumner was beaten unconscious and was unable to resume duties for three years.
1863 – Civil War: The US War Dept. established the Bureau of Colored Troops.
1863 – Civil War: U.S. Grant’s second attack on Vicksburg, Miss., failed and a siege began.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of North Anna River, VA.
1868 - Near Marshfield, IN, The “Great Train Robbery” took place. The robbery was worth $96,000 in cash, gold and bonds to the seven members of the Reno gang.
1872 – Reconstruction: U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act into law restoring full civil rights to all but about 500 Confederate sympathizers.
1881 - American Red Cross founded by Clara Barton. It was created to serve America in peace and in war, during times of disaster and national calamity, Barton’s organization took its service beyond that of the International Red Cross Movement by adding disaster relief to battlefield assistance. She served as the organization’s volunteer president until 1904.
1881 - US Lawn Tennis Association is formed.
1891 - Boxers Peter Jackson & Jim Corbett fight to a draw in 61 rounds. Corbett fought Peter “Black Prince” Jackson, because the reigning John L. Sullivan wouldn’t fight Jackson because he was black.
1892 - Dr. Washington Sheffield invented toothpaste tube.
1900 - Edwin S. Votey of Detroit, MI patented his pianola: a pneumatic piano player. The device could be attached to any piano.
1900 - The Associated Press was incorporated as a non-profit news cooperative in New York.
1901 - The first U.S. State motor car legislation was an act to regulate the speed of motor vehicle, passed in Connecticut. A limit was established of 12 mph within city limits and 15 mph outside, which were higher than the 8 mph city and 12mph country speeds in the bill as originally presented. Also, the car driver was required to reduce speed upon meeting or passing a horse-drawn vehicle, and if necessary, to stop to avoid frightening the horse.
1906 – The 1906 Summer Olympics, not now recognized as part of the official Olympic Games, open in Athens.
1906 - Louis H Perlman patents a demountable tire carrying rim for cars.
1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their “Flying-Machine”. It was defined as a winged vehicle capable of flight. The original Wright Flyer I cost less than a thousand dollars to construct. It had a wingspan of 40 feet, weighed 750 pounds and sported a 12 hp, 170 pound engine.
1908 - First horror movie, Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde, premieres in Chicago.
1908 - The San Francisco Chronicle reported that US Army Pvt. William Bulwada had been found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in prison for having applauded for and shaken hands with anarchist Emma Goldman.
1914 - Carl Wickman began a bus service in Minnesota where he transported iron ore miners from Hibbing to Alice at 15 cents a ride.It was incorporated as “The Greyhound Corporation” in 1926.
1915 – Lassen Peak erupts with a powerful force, and is the only mountain, other than Mount St. Helens, to erupt in the continental US during the 20th century.
1919 – The US House of Representatives passes amendment allowing women to vote. The House of Representatives passed the amendment by a vote of 304 to 89, and 2 weeks later on June 4, the Senate finally followed, where the amendment passed 56 to 25.
1921 - Oldest radio station west of Mississippi River licensed in Greeley CO.
1922 - The cartoon, “On the Road to Moscow”, by Rollin Kirby, won a Pulitzer Prize. The Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning has been awarded since 1922 for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons published during the year, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing, and pictorial effect.
1927 - Lindbergh lands in Paris France, after first solo air crossing of Atlantic. He crossed the coast of France, followed the Seine River to Paris and touched down at Le Bourget Field at 10:22P.M. The waiting crowd of 100,000 rushed the plane.
1927 - Harlem dancer Shorty Snowden, during a dance marathon, named his dance step the Lindy Hop following the headlines “Lindy Hops the Atlantic.”
1929 - Automatic electric stock quotation board installed, in New York City.
1931 - Canned rattlesnake meat first went on sale in Florida.
1932 - First transatlantic solo flight by a woman (Amelia Earhart) lands. Earhart accomplished her goal of flying solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She took off from Newfoundland, Canada, at 7:12 p.m. on May 20, in her Lockheed Vega. Her flight lasted 15 hours and 18 minutes. She landed in Ireland.
1939 – World War II: Germany and Italy sign the Pact of Steel.
1940 - Will Bradley and his orchestra recorded “Beat Me Daddy, Eight to the Bar.”
1942 – World War II: Mexico enters the war on the side of the Allies.
1942 – The Steel Workers Organizing Committee disbands, and a new trade union, the United Steelworkers, is formed.
1942 – World War II: Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox enlists in the United States Marine Corps as a flight instructor.
1943 - At Griffith Stadium, the Chicago White Sox top the Washington Senators 1-0 in one hour, 29 minutes, the quickest night game in American League history.
1943 - The first US jet fighter was tested. Lockheed Martin had picked Clarence Johnson, a Univ. of Michigan graduate (1932) to develop the nation’s first jet fighter.
1947 - The first US ballistic missile was fired.
1947 – Cold War: in an effort to fight the spread of Communism, President Harry S Truman signs an act into law that will later be called the Truman Doctrine. The act grants $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece.
1949 - “Forever & Ever” by Russ Morgan topped the charts.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS - “My Foolish Heart” by The Gordon Jenkins Orchestra (vocal: Eileen Wilson), “Bewitched” by The Bill Snyder Orchestra, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Birmingham Bounce” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1952 – Brooklyn Dodgers score fifteen runs in first inning and beat the Cincinnati Reds, 19-1.
1955 – “Dance with Me Henry” by Georgia Gibbs topped the charts.
1955 - A scheduled dance to be headlined by Fats Domino was canceled by police in Bridgeport, Connecticut because “rock and roll dances might be featured.”
1955 - Jack Benny signed off his last live network radio broadcast after a run of 23 years. Mr. Benny was devoting his time fully to TV.
1955 – First transcontinental round-trip solo flight-sunrise to sunset. First Lieutenant John Conroy of the 115th Fighter Squadron made aviation history by completing the first sunrise to sunset trip between the west and east coast in an F-86A. The 5085-mile round trip between Van Nuys and New York took 11 hrs., 26 min. and 33 sec.
1955 – Chuck Berry records his first hit, “Maybellene“
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “All I Have to Do is Dream” by The Everly Brothers, “Return to Me” by Dean Martin, “Johnny B. Goode” by Chuck Berry and “Just Married” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1960 – An earthquake measuring 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale, now known as the Great Chilean Earthquake, hits southern Chile. It is the most powerful earthquake ever recorded. It caused localized tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 80 feet.. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii.
1961 - The first revolving restaurant, Top of The Needle in Seattle, opened.
1962 – The Cleveland Indians set the American League record for most homeruns (26) over 8 games.The also went into the record books with nine straight games with two or more homers.
1962 – Continental Airlines Flight 11 crashes after bombs explode on board. It exploded in the vicinity of Centerville, Iowa, while en route from O’Hare Airport, Chicago, Illinois, to Kansas City, Missouri.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson announces the goals of his Great Society social reforms to bring an “end to poverty and racial injustice” in America.
1964 – In Chesapeake Bay, the first nuclear-powered lighthouse began operations.
1965 - “Super-cali-fragil-istic-expi-ali-docious” hit #66. Julie Andrews 1979.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “Monday Monday “by The Mamas & The Papas, “Rainy Day Women #12 & 35” by Bob Dylan, “When a Man Loves a Woman” by Percy Sledge and “Distant Drums” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1966 - Bruce Springsteen recorded his very first song, along with his band, The Castilles. It was titled, “That’s What You Get”. The song was never released.
1967 - Public Broadcasting System’s longest-running children’s program, “Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood”, debuted.
1967 - The final “To Tell the Truth” (29:14) program was seen on CBS-TV.
1968 – The nuclear-powered submarine the USS Scorpion sinks with 99 men aboard 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
1968 - Chicago Cub’s Billy Williams sets a record for outfielders by playing his 695th straight game.
1969 – Apollo 10′s lunar module flies within 8.4 nautical miles (16 km) of the moon’s surface.
1973 - President Nixon made a 4,000-word defense of his own actions in the Watergate scandal.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Streak” by Ray Stevens, “Dancing Machine” by The Jackson 5, “The Entertainer” by Marvin Hamlisch and “Country Bumpkin” by Cal Smith all topped the charts.
1977 – “Sir Duke” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1977 - Janet Guthrie set the fastest time of the second weekend of qualifying, becoming the first woman to earn a starting spot in the Indianapolis 500 since its inception in 1911.
1980 - “Empire Strikes Back” premieres.
1980 - In response to a request from the Governor of NY, President Carter declared a second federal emergency at Love Canal, paving the way for federal aid to relocate the more than 700 families who still lived near the former toxic waste dump.
1981 - Boris Sagal, a film director, died while shooting the TV miniseries World War III when he walked into the tail rotor blade of a helicopter and was decapitated.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ebony and Ivory” by Paul McCartney with Stevie Wonder, “Don’t Talk to Strangers” by Rick Springfield, “I’ve Never Been to Me” by Charlene and “Just to Satisfy You” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1983 - “Let’s Dance” by David Bowie topped the charts.
1985 - Pete Rose passed Hank Aaron as National League run scoring leader with 2,108.
1985 - GTE Corporation (General Telephone and Electronics) was named by “Fortune” magazine as the largest utility in the U.S. In the same issue of “Fortune”, Sears was named as the nation’s largest retailer for the 21st year in a row.
1987 - An Iraqi missile hit the American frigate USS Stark in the Persian Gulf.
1987 - A deadly tornado devastated the small West Texas town of Saragosa, killing 30 people and injuring 162. The storm destroyed 61 houses and leveled the community center and church.
1988 - “Anything for You” by Gloria Estefan topped the charts.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Vogue” by Madonna, “All I Wanna Do is Make Love to You” by Heart, “Hold On” by Wilson Phillips and “Walkin’ Away” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1990 - Last episode of “Newhart” (22:26) airs on CBS-TV.
1990 – The Windows 3.0 operating system is released by Microsoft.
1992 – After 30 years, 66-year-old Johnny Carson hosts The Tonight Show for the last time.
1994 - “I Swear” by All-4-One topped the charts.
1997 – Kelly Flinn, US Air Force’s first female bomber pilot certified for combat, accepts a general discharge in order to avoid a court martial. Flinn was discharged from the U.S. Air Force after an adulterous affair with the husband of an enlisted subordinate.
1998 – A federal judge rules that United States Secret Service agents can be compelled to testify before a grand jury concerning the Lewinsky scandal, involving President Bill Clinton.
1998 - New information came to light about the June 1996 bombing that killed 19 American airmen. The information indicated that Saudi citizens had been responsible and not Iranians as once believed.
2002 – American civil rights movement: a jury in Birmingham, Alabama, convicts former Ku Klux Klan member Bobby Frank Cherry of the 1963 murders of four girls in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church.
2002 - Chandra Levy’s remains were found in Washington, DC’s Rock Creek Park. She was last seen on April 30, 2001.
2003 - Senators grill Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz on the status of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq.
2003 – In Fort Worth, Texas, Annika Sörenstam becomes the first woman to play the PGA Tour in 58 years.
2004 – The U.S. town of Hallam, Nebraska, is wiped out by a powerful F4 tornado that broke a width record at an astounding 2.5 miles wide. It also kills one local resident.
2005 – Laura Bush, the First Lady of the United States, was heckled by both Israeli and Palestinian protesters as she visited the Wailing Wall and the outside of the Dome on the Rock.
2006 – U.S. congressman William J. Jefferson (D-La) refuses to resign, as he denies allegations of bribery after an FBI weekend raid of his office.
2007 – Skybus Airlines, a new U.S.-based ultra-low-cost carrier airline, launches inaugural flights to and from Columbus, Ohio, with $10 tickets enabled by on-plane advertising and charging people for baggage, pillows, boarding priority, and refreshments.
2007 – The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issues its forecast for an above-normal 2007 Atlantic hurricane season with 13 to 17 named storms, 7 to 10 hurricanes and 3 to 5 major hurricanes.
2008 – California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declares a state of emergency in Santa Cruz County for the ongoing Summit Fire burning in the Santa Cruz Mountains.
2008 – One person is killed and at least 100 are injured in Weld County, Colorado after a tornado tears through the county.
2009 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis prepares to land at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States.
2010 – The Texas Education Agency adopts controversial changes to the Texas public school curriculum, including dropping coverage of enlightenment thinker Thomas Jefferson and suggesting United Nations is a “threat to freedom”. The proposal to refer to the slave trade as the “Atlantic triangular trade” is not implemented.
2010 – Thirteen-year-old American Jordan Romero becomes the youngest person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2011 – Tornadoes hit the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota, damaging scores of homes and killing at least one person.
2011 – The city of Joplin, Missouri, is hit by a tornado, causing “major damage” in the downtown area and at least thirty fatalities.
2011 – Patients are evacuated from St John’s Regional Medical Centre in Joplin due to damage caused by the tornado. Interstate 44 is closed near Joplin after the tornado hit.
427 BC – Plato, Greek philosopher (d. 348/7)
1755 – Alfred Moore, American judge (d. 1810)
1827 – William P. Sprague, American politician from Ohio (d. 1899)
1832 – Elizabeth Storrs Mead, American educator (d. 1917)
1878 – Glenn Curtiss, American aviation pioneer (d. 1930)
1898 – Armand Hammer, American physician (d. 1990)
1901 – Sam Jaffe, American film producer (d. 2000)
1916 – Harold Robbins, American novelist (d. 1997)
1917 – Raymond Burr, American actor (d. 1993)
1918 – Dennis Day, American singer and comedian (d. 1988)
1923 – Ara Parseghian, American football coach
1941 – Ronald Isley, American singer (The Isley Brothers)
1952 – Mr. T, American actor
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
CIVIL WAR (2)
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Franklin, Ind. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 57th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Upper Sandusky, Ohio. Birth: Kalida, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 April 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Jackson County, W. Va. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Trivolia, Peoria County, Ill. Birth: Peoria County, Ill. Date of issue: 31 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Guilford, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 127th Illinois Infantry Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at Hampshire, Kane County, Ill. Birth. Erie County, N.Y. Date of issue. 21 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Miami County, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Despite the death of his captain at his side during the assault he continued carrying his log to the defense ditch. While he was laying his log in place he was shot down and thrown into the water. Unmindful of his own wound he, despite the intense fire, dragged five of his comrades from the ditch, wherein they lay wounded, to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Benton during the attack on Great Gulf Bay, 2 May 1863, and Vicksburg, 22 May 1863. Carrying out his duties with coolness and courage, Brownell served gallantly against the enemy as captain of a 9-inch gun in the attacks on Great Gulf and Vicksburg and as a member of the Battery Benton before Vicksburg.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, W. Va. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Greenbrier River, W. Va., 22 May 1864. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Ohio. Born: 18 March 1825, Johnstown, Cambria County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 February 1895. Citation: Saved, under fire, the life of a drowning soldier.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 48th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Monmouth County, N.J. Date of issue: 25 February 1895. Citation: Saved his regimental flag; also seized and threw a shell, with burning fuse, from among his comrades.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Wilmington, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Madison County, Ill. Birth: Merrimack, N.H. Date of issue: 31 January 1896. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hartford, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Prairie City, Ill. Birth: Guernsey County, Ohio. Date of issue: 31 December 1892. Citation: Bravely defended the colors planted on the outward parapet of Fort Hill.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Bloomington, McLean County, Ill. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 30 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Stonington, Christian County, Ill. Birth: Marion, Ill. Date of issue: 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 57th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dallasburg, Ohio. Date of issue: 2 January 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Oxford, Ohio. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Gillespie, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 29 January 1896. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others, by hand, a cannon up to, and fired it through, an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Weston, W. Va. Birth: Lewis County, W. Va. Date of issue: 21 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Shellsburg, lowa. Birth: Coshocton, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 September 1891. Citation: Carried the colors in advance of his regiment and was shot down while attempting to plant them on the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company B, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Monmouth, Pa. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Pittsfield, Ill. Date of issue: 19 June 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Alton, Madison County, Ill. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 24 October 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth. Switzerland. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pilot Knob, Iron County, Mo. Birth: Madison County, Mo. Date of issue: 30 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pleasant Hill, Ill. Birth: France. Date of issue: 24 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E., 22d lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ashland, lowa. Birth: Mason County, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Led his company in the assault on the enemy’s works and gained the parapet, there receiving three very severe wounds. He lay all day in the sun, was taken prisoner, and had his leg amputated without anesthetics.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Charles, Kane County, Ill. Birth: St. Charles, Kane County, Ill. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Elk Grove, Ill. Birth: Elk Grove, Ill, Date of issue: 6 September 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Clinton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 21 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Chillicothe, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and under fire went to the rescue of a wounded comrade Iying between the lines, gave him water, and brought him off the field.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Olive, Ohio. Birth: Noble County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Farmers Retreat, Ind. Birth: Dearborn, Ind. Date of issue: 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Kankakee, Ill. Birth: Sunfish, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 99th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Barry, Pike County, Ill. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: When his regiment fell back in the assault, repulsed, this soldier continued to advance and planted the flag on the parapet, where he was captured by the enemy.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Jefferson County, Mo. Birth: Montgomery County, Ind. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Gardner, Ill. Birth: Pennsylvania, Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hamilton County, Ohio. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 5 April 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Martintonk, Iroquois County, Ill. Birth: Clinton, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Assumption, Ill. Birth: Delaware County, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation. Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Warsaw County, Ill. Birth: Indiana County, Pa. Date of issue: 16 August 1884. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Major, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 14 September 1838, Niagara, County, N.Y. Date of issue: 31 January 1894. Citation: Seized the colors when the color bearer was killed and bore them himself in the assault.
Rank and Organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Europe. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Herkimer County, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Vandalia, Ill. Birth: France. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Mendota, Ill. Birth: Rensselaer County, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Muskingum County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization. Private, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Elmwood, Ill. Birth: Illinois. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Harrison County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Rutland, La Salle County, Ill. Birth: Kane, Ill. Date of issue: 10 January 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 June 1894. Citation. Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Jefferson County, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s work.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Geneva, Kane County, Ill. Birth: Bellevue, Ohio. Date of Issue: 20 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Bridgers Corner, Ill. Birth: Mercer County, Pa. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 31st Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pekin, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 August 1893. Citation: Voluntarily crossed the line of heavy fire of Union and Confederate forces, carrying a message to stop the firing of one Union regiment on another.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ames, Ohio. Birth:——. Date of issue: 27 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Clinton, DeWitt County, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. At Fort DeRussey, La., 14 March 1864. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 30 April 1830, Ireland. Date of issue. 11 September 1897. Citation Voluntarily joined the color guard in the assault on the enemy’s works when he saw indications of wavering and caused the colors of his regiment to be planted on the parapet. Voluntarily placed himself in the ranks of an assaulting column (being then on staff duty) and rode with it Into the enemy’s works, being the only mounted officer present, was twice wounded in battle.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: at Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Holton, Ind. Birth: Jefferson County, Ind. Date of issue: 13 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Mason City, W. Va. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 16 August 1894 Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Meigs County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
CIVIL WAR (73)
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 77th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Peoria, Ill. Birth: Southbridge, Mass. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Carried, with others, by hand, a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pekin, Tazwell County, Ill. Birth: Union County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 December 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Liverpool, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Oakley, Macon County, Ill. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue. 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Prairie City, Ill. Birth: Fulton County, Ill. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Maroa, Ill. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Wapakoneta, Ohio. Birth: Virginia. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at. Poston, Ind. Birth: Redding, N.Y. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chencys Grove, Ill. Birth: Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Sunmans, Ind. Birth: Newport, Ky. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 December 1894. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization. First Lieutenant, Company C, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth. Germany. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Sunmans, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Kanawha County, W. Va. Born: 14 February 1838, Kanawha County, W. Va. Date of issue: 25 February 1895. Citation: Gallantry in charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 1840, Cedar Falls, N.C. Date of issue: 3 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.” He carried his regiment’s flag and tried to borrow a gun to defend it.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 1844, Clear Spring, Md. Date of issue: 14 December 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Macon County, Ill. Birth: Romney, W. Va. Date of issue: 27 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Lemont, Ill. Birth: Cook County, Ill. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 11 May 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Captain, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 1833, Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Decatur, Macon County, Ill. Birth: Macon County, Ill. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Woodburn, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Cumberland, N.J. Date of issue: 12 December 1895. Citation: Led the “volunteer storming party,” which made a most gallant assault upon the enemy’s works.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hannibal, Mo. Birth: Fayette County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”
In all their majesty and seeming calm, waterfalls might look like a permanent fixture on the side of a mountain — as long as the river’s always there, the waterfall will be there, too, right? As it turns out, waterfalls are actually formed very slowly over the course of several hundred years. You would hardly notice any changes in one during a lifetime.
Imagine a simple river flowing along bedrock, the harder rock that lays underneath loose earth like soil and sand. It’s moving along pretty quickly and at a fairly steep incline. The bedrock over which the water is flowing has varying degrees of density and strength — some layers are soft, while others are much harder. When water flows over a layer of hard rock, it erodes the softer rock beyond it. The bed of the river gets steeper as the water carries the softer rock downstream, and eventually the flow of water at this point becomes steep enough to be considered a waterfall.
Water continues to fall against a back wall, which also continues to wear away. Soon, the soft rock underneath the hard rock falls back, and a plunge pool is created where the water collects. Enough water moving over the hard rock will undercut it and break it away, and big pieces of rock will collapse and fall into the plunge pool, which makes it even bigger and deeper than before. The soft rock below the hard rock is receding so much that the hard rock becomes an overhang.
Michael Lewis/National Geographic/Getty Images
A view of water rushing over Victoria Falls.
Although the waterfalls we see today will be around for a long time, they’ll eventually recede and disappear. As hard rock is slowly eroded by the constant flow of water, it falls into the plunge pool and creates a large gorge. The waterfall is actually retreating backwards. This happens very slowly — just as it takes thousands of years for a waterfall to form, it takes just as long for it to disintegrate. Niagara Falls, for instance, is retreating at the rate of 3.3 feet (one meter) per year.
The highest waterfall in the world is the Angel Falls in Venezuela. At a towering height of 3,211 feet did you know that each drop of water takes 14 seconds to fall from the top to the bottom. The water flows from the top of a “Tepui” which is a flat topped mountain with vertical sides.
The waterfall which despite being known to the local indians for thousands of years was originally called the “Churun Meru” but for some reason they were renamed by an American bush pilot named Jimmy Angel, who noticed them in 1935 while flying over the area looking for gold.
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
~ Charles Darwin
superfluous \soo-PER-floo-us\, adjective:
More than is wanted or is sufficient; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; unnecessary; useless; excessive.
– SUPERFLUOUSLY, adverb
– SUPERFLUOUSNESS, noun
878 – Syracuse, Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily.
1542 - Hernando de Soto died along the Mississippi River while searching for gold.
1602 - Martha’s Vineyard was first sighted by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
1758 – Mary Campbell is abducted from her home in Pennsylvania by Lenape during the French and Indian War. She was returned some six and a half years later.
1788 - US Constitution goes into effect as New Hampshire is the ninth to ratify.
1805 - Great Stoneface Mountain found in New Hampshire. Francis Whitcomb and Luke Brooks, part of a Franconia survey crew, were the first white settlers to record observing the Old Man.
1819 - Bicycles were first seen in the U.S. in New York City. They were originally known as “swift walkers.”
1832 – The first Democratic National Convention got under way in Baltimore and re-nominated Andrew Jackson.
1834 - Cyrus Hall McCormick patents a reaping machine. He first demonstrated his machine in 1831 at a public trial in a field near Walnut Grove, Va.
1850 - Washington Navy Yard begins work on first castings for the Dahlgren guns. Dahlgren guns were muzzle loading naval artillery designed by Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren USN.
1853 - The envelope folding machine was patented by Dr. Russell L. Hawes of Worcester, MA. Hawes’ envelope-making machines turned out 10,000 to 12,500 envelopes per day.
1856 – Lawrence, Kansas is captured and burned by pro-slavery forces.
1859 - Andrew Lanergan, of Boston, Mass., received the first rocket patent for “an improvement in exhibition rockets.” His design allowed for the fuse (which he called the “match”) to be pre-assembled with the rocket.
1861 – Civil War: The Confederate Congress, meeting in Montgomery, Ala., voted to move the capital of the Confederacy from Montgomery to Richmond, Va.
1863 – Civil War: Siege of Port Hudson – Union forces begin to lay siege to the Confederate-controlled Port Hudson, Louisiana.
1863 - Organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Battle Creek, Michigan.
1863 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Baron De Kalb, Choctaw, Forest Rose, Linden, and Petrel pushed up the Yazoo River from Haynes’ Bluff to Yazoo City, Mississippi.
1864 – Civil War: Gen. David Hunter took command of Department of West Virginia.
1864 – Civil War: Gunfire from ironclad steamer U.S.S. Atlanta and U.S.S. Dawn, dispersed Confederate cavalry attacking Fort Powhatan on the James River, Virginia.
1881 – In Washington, D.C., humanitarians Clara Barton and Adolphus Solomons found the American National Red Cross.
1881 - The United States Lawn Tennis Association was formed in New York City.
1891 - Peter Jackson and Jim Corbett fought for sixty-one rounds only to end in a draw.
1893 - At Chicago’s Columbian Exposition the first Ferris wheel premieres. It was invented by George Washington Ferris, a Pittsburgh bridge builder, for the purpose of creating an attraction like the Eiffel Tower in Paris.
1906 - Louis H. Perlman received his patent for the demountable tire-carrying rim.
1913 - Tiny Broadwick becomes first woman to parachute from an airplane. Among her many achievements, she was the first woman to parachute from an airplane piloted by Glenn L. Martin, 2,000 feet over Griffith Park in Los Angeles and the first woman to parachute into water.
1917 – The Great Atlanta fire of 1917 takes place. Destroyed were 300 acres (much of the Fourth Ward), including nearly 2,000 homes, businesses and churches, and 10,000 people were displaced.
1917 – The USS Ericsson fires first US torpedo of World War I.
1922 - The cartoon, “On the Road to Moscow,” by Rollin Kirby won a Pulitzer Prize. It was the first cartoon awarded the Pulitzer.
1924 – Two rich University of Chicago students Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold, Jr. murder 14-year-old Bobby Franks in a “thrill killing”.
1925 - Two Dornier-Wal flying boats, the N24 and N25, attempted to reach the North Pole. When one airplane lost power both made forced landings and, as a result, became separated. It took 3 days for the crews to regroup and 7 take off attempts before they were able to return N25 to the air 28 days later.
1927 – Charles Lindbergh touches down at Le Bourget Field in Paris, completing the world’s first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
1929 - The first automatic electric stock quotation board was used by Sutro and Company of New York City.
1932 – Bad weather forces Amelia Earhart to land in a pasture in Derry, Northern Ireland, and thereby becoming the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.
1934 – Oskaloosa, Iowa, becomes the first municipality in the United States to fingerprint all of its citizens.
1941 – World War II: 950 miles off the coast of Brazil, the freighter SS Robin Moor becomes the first American ship sunk by a German U-boat. President Roosevelt describes the sinking of the Robin Moor as “an act of intimidation” to which “we do not propose to yield.”
1944 – World War II: The American beachhead at Arare is reinforces and the airfield at Wadke is repaired.
1944 – World War II: The Coast Guard-manned USS LST-69 exploded at Pearl Harbor. None of her crew were killed but 13 were seriously injured.
1944 – World War II: In Hawaii the tank landing ship LST-353 exploded at West Loch while handling ammunition. In a short space of time, six LSTs were so damaged that they sank. Two others were severely damaged. The total casualties from the tragedy were 163 dead and 396 injured.
1945 – World War II: Hermann Goring, former Reichsmarshal of the Luftwaffe, is transferred from the prisoner of war camp at Augsburg to the Palace Hotel at Mondorf where he joins other senior Nazi officials awaiting Allied interrogation.
1948 – First stored computer program run on a Manchester Mark I. It was written by Professor Tom Kilburn, it took fifty-two minutes to run. The tiny experimental computer had no keyboard or printer, but it successfully tested a memory system.
1948 – Columbia Records offers a new Vinylite long-playing record that could hold 23 minutes.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Riders in the Sky” by Vaughn Monroe, “Again” by Gordon Jenkins, “Forever and Ever” by The Russ Morgan Orchestra (vocal: The Skylarks) and “Lovesick Blues” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1950 – Joe Dimaggio’s 2,000th hit, Yanks beat Indians 8-2.
1951 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army counterattacked to drive the Communist Chinese and North Koreans out of South Korea.
1952 – “Here in My Heart” by Al Martino topped the charts.
1955 - The first transcontinental round-trip solo flight was completed.
1956 - The U.S. exploded the first airborne hydrogen bomb in the Pacific Ocean over Bikini Atoll.
1957 – CHART TOPPERS – “All Shook Up” by Elvis Presley, “School Day” by Chuck Berry, “Love Letters in the Sand “by Pat Boone and “A White Sport Coat (And a Pink Carnation)” by Marty Robbins all topped the charts.
1958 – “Splish Splash“, Bobby Darin’s first million-seller, was released.
1958 – “Purple People Eater” by Sheb Wooley topped the charts.
1959 - The musical “Gypsy“,inspired by the life of stripper Gypsy Rose Lee, opened on Broadway.
1961 – Alabama Governor John Malcolm Patterson declares martial law in an attempt to restore order after race riots break out.
1962 – USAF Maj Robert M White takes X-15 to 246,698 feet (mesosphere)
1964 – Philadelphia Phillies Jim Bunning pitches perfect game to the New York Mets on Fathers Day.
1964 - The first nuclear-powered lighthouse began operations in the Chesapeake Bay.
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Ticket to Ride” by The Beatles, “Help Me, Rhonda” by The Beach Boys, “Back in My Arms Again” by The Supremes and “Girl on the Billboard” by Del Reeves all topped the charts.
1965 – Gary Player wins the U.S. Open golf tournament. Player defeated Kel Nagle in an 18-hole playoff to complete the modern Grand Slam by age 29, becoming only the fourth winner to earn all four top pro golf titles.
1966 - The new $114 million Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at Stanford Univ., Ca., began smashing atoms.
1968 - The nuclear-powered U.S. submarine Scorpion, with 99 men aboard, was last heard from. The remains of the sub were later found on the ocean floor 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
1969 – Zager & Evans release “In the Year 2525” to Radio.
1969 – “Get Back” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1970 - The National Guard was mobilized to quell disturbances at Ohio State University.
1970 - Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young recorded “Ohio.”
1972 – Billy Preston received a gold record for the instrumental hit, “Outa-Space.” He also scored a string of Number 1 hit singles including “Will It Go Round In Circles“, “Nothing From Nothing” and “Space Race“.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “You are the Sunshine of My Life” by Stevie Wonder, “Little Willy” by The Sweet, “Frankenstein” by The Edgar Winter Group and “What’s Your Mama’s Name” by Tanya Tucker all topped the charts.
1975 – “Love Will Keep Us Together” by Captain & Tennille topped the charts.
1976 - The Yuba City bus disaster occurs in Martinez, California. 29 are killed making it the deadliest road accident in U.S. history.The accident occurred at 11 a.m., as the bus, a 1950 Crown bus on its way to Miramonte High School in Orinda for a friendship day involving the choruses of Yuba City High School and Miramonte High School, took the off-ramp southbound from the Benicia–Martinez Bridge for a brief rest stop. The bus fell approximately 30 feet and landed upside-down, crushing the roof to the bottom of the bus windows.
1979 – White Night riots in San Francisco following the manslaughter conviction of Dan White for the assassinations of George Moscone and Harvey Milk.Former San Francisco City Supervisor Dan White was convicted of voluntary manslaughter. The verdict set off the riots involving thousands of protesters outside City Hall. $400,000 worth of property damage resulted including fourteen police cars.
1980 – “Funky Town” by Lipps, Inc. (7:47) topped the charts.
1980 – The $22 million “The Empire Strikes Back” was released.
1980 - Ensign Jean Marie Butler became the first woman to graduate from a U.S. service academy as she accepted her degree and commission from the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes, “Just the Two of Us” by Grover Washington, Jr./Bill Withers, “Being with You” by Smokey Robinson and “I Loved ’Em Every One” by T.G. Sheppard all topped the charts.
1985 - Marvin Gaye’s “Dream of a Lifetime” was released. It was his last album.
1986 – “On My Own” by Patti LaBelle & Michael McDonald topped the charts.
1987 - In the wake of the Iraqi attack on the U.S. frigate Stark that claimed 37 lives, the Senate approved a proposal requiring President Reagan to send Congress a report detailing the threat to U.S. ships in the Persian Gulf.
1988 – “Risen Star” won the Preakness Stakes.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “Forever Your Girl” by Paula Abdul, “Real Love” by Jody Watley, “Soldier of Love” by Donny Osmond and “If I Had You” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1996 - The US Congress listed the California red-legged frog as an endangered species.
1997 - The Space Shuttle Atlantis undocked from the Russian Mir space station.
1998 - In Anaheim, Ca., Disney opened its World of Tomorrow.
1998 – In Miami, Florida, five abortion clinics are hit by a butyric acid attacker.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: An expelled student, Kipland Kinkel, in Springfield, OR, killed two people and wounded twenty-five others with a semi-automatic rifle. Police also discovered that the boy had killed his parents before the rampage. He was sentenced to nearly 111 years in prison.
1999 - Susan Lucci won a Daytime Emmy Award for best actress on her 19th try.
2000 - In Pennsylvania a commuter plane, returning from Atlantic City, NJ, crashed in the Pocono Mountains near Wilkes-Barre and all nineteen people aboard were killed.
2001 - The Supreme Court ruled, six-to-three, that a radio host cannot be sued for airing a phone conversation taped illegally by a third party.
2001 - Ford Motor and Bridgestone/Firestone announced the termination of their century old business relationship.
2002 - President Bush warned that al-Qaida terrorists still “want to hurt us,” while his Pentagon chief, Donald Rumsfeld, said terrorists inevitably will acquire weapons of mass destruction from countries like Iraq, Iran or North Korea.
2003 - Ruben Studdard edged Clay Aiken to win the second “American Idol” competition on Fox TV.
2003 - An explosion occurs inside the Yale University’s Sterling Law School Building in New Haven, Connecticut, damaging two rooms. Investigators from the Joint Terrorism Task Force respond. No injuries reported. Authorities strongly believe the explosion was caused by a pipe bomb.
2004 - SpaceShipOne – first attempted commercial space flight. ll became the first civilian to pilot a craft into space. By flying to 100-km (62 miles) in altitude, SpaceShipOne left the Earth’s atmosphere in a sub-orbital space flight.
2004 - American AC-130 gunships and tanks bombarded militia positions near two shrines in the holy city of Karbala, killing eighteen fighters loyal to a rebel cleric.
2005 – “Afleet Alex” regained his footing and his drive after being cut off by “Scrappy T” in a frightening collision and breezed home to win the Preakness Stakes; Kentucky Derby winner “Giacomo” finished third.
2005 - Kingda Ka the tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world opens at Six Flags Great Adventure. Kingda Ka is a steel accelerator roller coaster located in Jackson, New Jersey. It is 456 feet tall and goes 128 miles per hour.
2005 - In Oakland, Ca., groundbreaking took place for the new Cathedral of Christ the Light at the northwest tip of Lake Merritt. It was built on the site of an 1893 neo-Gothic brick church damaged by the 1989 earthquake.
2006 - US Attorney General Alberto Gonzales said the government has the legal authority to prosecute journalists for publishing classified information.
2006 – Anthony Bell kills four of his in-laws during a church service at the Ministry of Jesus Christ Church in Baton Rouge, La. He abducts his wife and kills her.
2007 – The Cutty Sark is badly damaged by fire in London, England. She was the last surviving clipper, now there are none.
2007 - The US Supreme Court ruled that parents don’t need to hire a lawyer to sue public school districts over their children’s special education needs.
2008 - American Airlines said it will remove 75 of 954 aircraft in its fleet and start charging some domestic passengers $15 to check a suitcase due to rising fuel costs.
2009 - Alaska’s Gov. Sarah Palin became the only governor to turn down federal stimulus money for energy efficiency, a move that legislators called “disappointing” for a state with some of the country’s highest energy costs.
2009 - Four men are arrested for planning to bomb two synagogues and destroy military aircraft in New York,
2009 - In northern California police arrested James Stanley Koenig (57), Gary T. Armitage (59) and Jeffery A. Guidi (54) for running an alleged Ponzi scheme that swindled thousands of people of more then $200 million since 1997.
2009 - Linda Fleming (66), a woman with late-stage pancreatic cancer, became the first person to kill herself under Washington state’s new assisted suicide law, known as “death with dignity.”
2010 - In San Francisco the city planning commission approved a plan to open a medical marijuana facility in the Sunset District, despite objections by area residents.
2010 - The COO of BP (British Petroleum) says a gusher of oil pouring from its damaged Gulf of Mexico well could be shut off as early as next week, but noted the plugging operation is “quite complex” and has never been tried in water that deep.
2011 – Shackleford Wins the 136th Preakness Stakes by a half-length.
2011 – According to American Christian radio broadcaster Harold Camping, May 21 is the date of the Rapture for all Christians around the world, happening at 6:00pm in their respective time zones.
2011 – The Minnesota House of Representatives votes to put a constitutional referendum on marriage before voters in the state of Minnesota.
2012 - A rare annular solar eclipse occurs, visible from East Asia, the North Pacific, and the Western United States.
2013 - The death toll from the 2013 Moore tornado in Oklahoma is revised sharply downward to 24, with over one hundred people injured and many missing.
2013 - The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary approves immigration reform legislation that would give citizenship to millions living in the country illegally.
2014 - The national 911 Memorial located in New York opened today.
427 BC – Plato, Greek philosopher (d. 348/7)
1755 – Alfred Moore, American judge (d. 1810)
1827 – William P. Sprague, American politician from Ohio (d. 1899)
1832 – Elizabeth Storrs Mead, American educator (d. 1917)
1878 – Glenn Curtiss, American aviation pioneer (d. 1930)
1898 – Armand Hammer, American physician (d. 1990)
1901 – Sam Jaffe, American film producer (d. 2000)
1916 – Harold Robbins, American novelist (d. 1997)
1917 – Raymond Burr, American actor (d. 1993)
1918 – Dennis Day, American singer and comedian (d. 1988)
1923 – Ara Parseghian, American football coach
1941 – Ronald Isley, American singer (The Isley Brothers)
1952 – Mr. T, American actor
Rank and organization. Sergeant (then Sp4c.), U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion (Airborne), 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date. Republic of Vietnam, 21 May 1966. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Born: 14 May 1946, Norristown, Pa. G.O. No.: 45, 20 October 1967. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty, when his platoon, while advancing tactically, suddenly came under intense fire from the enemy located on a ridge immediately to the front. Six members of the platoon were killed instantly and a number were wounded, including the platoon leader. Sgt. Dolby’s every move brought fire from the enemy. Aware that the platoon leader was critically wounded, and that the platoon was in a precarious situation, Sgt. Dolby moved the wounded men to safety and deployed the remainder of the platoon to engage the enemy. Subsequently, his dying platoon leader ordered Sgt. Dolby to withdraw the forward elements to rejoin the platoon. Despite the continuing intense enemy fire and with utter disregard for his own safety, Sgt. Dolby positioned able-bodied men to cover the withdrawal of the forward elements, assisted the wounded to the new position, and he, alone, attacked enemy positions until his ammunition was expended. Replenishing his ammunition, he returned to the area of most intense action, single-handedly killed three enemy machine gunners and neutralized the enemy fire, thus enabling friendly elements on the flank to advance on the enemy redoubt. He defied the enemy fire to personally carry a seriously wounded soldier to safety where he could be treated and, returning to the forward area, he crawled through withering fire to within 35 yards of the enemy bunkers and threw smoke grenades to mark them for air strikes. Although repeatedly under fire at close range from enemy snipers and automatic weapons, Sgt. Dolby directed artillery fire on the enemy and succeeded in silencing several enemy weapons. He remained in his exposed location until his comrades had displaced to more secure positions. His actions of unsurpassed valor during four hours of intense combat were a source of inspiration to his entire company, contributed significantly to the success of the overall assault on the enemy position, and were directly responsible for saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. Sgt. Dolby’s heroism was in the highest tradition of the U.S. Army.
EREVIA, SANTIAGO J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 501st Infantry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Tam Ky City, Vietnam, May 21, 1969. Born: 1946, Nordheim, TX Entered Service at: San Antonio, TX
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty:
Specialist Four Santiago J. Erevia distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a radio telephone operator in Company C, 1st Battalion (Airmobile), 501st Infantry, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) during search and clear mission near Tam Ky, Republic of Vietnam on May 21, 1969. After breaching an insurgent perimeter, Specialist Four Erevia was designated by his platoon leader to render first aid to several casualties, and the rest of the platoon moved forward. As he was doing so, he came under intense hostile fire from four bunkers to his left front. Although he could have taken cover with the rest of the element, he chose a retaliatory course of action. With heavy enemy fire directed at him, he moved in full view of the hostile gunners as he proceeded to crawl from one wounded man to another, gathering ammunition. Armed with two M-16 rifles and several hand grenades, he charged toward the enemy positions behind the suppressive fire of the two rifles. Under very intense fire, he continued to advance on the insurgents until he was near the first bunker. Disregarding the enemy fire, he pulled the pin from a hand grenade and advanced on the bunker, leveling suppressive fire until he could drop the grenade into the bunker, mortally wounding the insurgent and destroying the fortification. Without hesitation, he employed identical tactics as he proceeded to eliminate the next two enemy positions. With the destruction of the third bunker, Specialist Four Erevia had exhausted his supply of hand grenades. Still under intense fire from the fourth position, he courageously charged forward behind the fire emitted by his M-16 rifles. Arriving at the very edge of the bunker, he silenced the occupant within the fortification at point blank range. Through his heroic actions the lives of the wounded were saved and the members of the Company Command Post were relieved from a very precarious situation. His exemplary performance in the face of overwhelming danger was an inspiration to his entire company and contributed immeasurably to the success of the mission. Specialist Four Erevia’s conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism, and intrepidity at the risk of his own life, above and beyond the call of duty, were in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.
RODRIGUEZ, JOSEPH C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant (then Pfc.), U.S. Army, Company F, 17th Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Munye-ri, Korea, 21 May 1951. Entered service at: California. Born: 14 November 1928, San Bernardino, Calif. G.O. No.: 22, 5 February 1952. Citation: Sgt. Rodriguez, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Sgt. Rodriguez, an assistant squad leader of the 2d Platoon, was participating in an attack against a fanatical hostile force occupying well-fortified positions on rugged commanding terrain, when his squad’s advance was halted within approximately sixty yards by a withering barrage of automatic weapons and small-arms fire from five emplacements directly to the front and right and left flanks, together with grenades which the enemy rolled down the hill toward the advancing troops. Fully aware of the odds against him, Sgt. Rodriguez leaped to his feet, dashed the sixty yards up the fire-swept slope, and, after lobbing grenades into the first foxhole with deadly accuracy, ran around the left flank, silenced an automatic weapon with two grenades and continued his whirlwind assault to the top of the peak, wiping out two more foxholes and then, reaching the right flank, he tossed grenades into the remaining emplacement, destroying the gun and annihilating its crew. Sgt. Rodriguez’ intrepid actions exacted a toll of fifteen enemy dead and, as a result of his incredible display of valor, the defense of the opposition was broken, and the enemy routed, and the strategic strongpoint secured. His unflinching courage under fire and inspirational devotion to duty reflect highest credit on himself and uphold the honored traditions of the military service.
DOSS, DESMOND T.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Medical Detachment, 307th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Urasoe Mura, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 29 April-21 May 1945. Entered service at: Lynchburg, Va. Birth: Lynchburg, Va. G.O. No.: 97, 1 November 1945. Citation: He was a company aid man when the 1st Battalion assaulted a jagged escarpment 400 feet high As our troops gained the summit, a heavy concentration of artillery, mortar and machinegun fire crashed into them, inflicting approximately seventy-five casualties and driving the others back. Pfc. Doss refused to seek cover and remained in the fire-swept area with the many stricken, carrying them one by one to the edge of the escarpment and there lowering them on a rope-supported litter down the face of a cliff to friendly hands. On 2 May, he exposed himself to heavy rifle and mortar fire in rescuing a wounded man 200 yards forward of the lines on the same escarpment; and two days later he treated four men who had been cut down while assaulting a strongly defended cave, advancing through a shower of grenades to within eight yards of enemy forces in a cave’s mouth, where he dressed his comrades’ wounds before making four separate trips under fire to evacuate them to safety. On 5 May, he unhesitatingly braved enemy shelling and small arms fire to assist an artillery officer. He applied bandages, moved his patient to a spot that offered protection from small arms fire and, while artillery and mortar shells fell close by, painstakingly administered plasma. Later that day, when an American was severely wounded by fire from a cave, Pfc. Doss crawled to him where he had fallen twenty-five feet from the enemy position, rendered aid, and carried him 100 yards to safety while continually exposed to enemy fire. On 21 May, in a night attack on high ground near Shuri, he remained in exposed territory while the rest of his company took cover, fearlessly risking the chance that he would be mistaken for an infiltrating Japanese and giving aid to the injured until he was himself seriously wounded in the legs by the explosion of a grenade. Rather than call another aid man from cover, he cared for his own injuries and waited five hours before litter bearers reached him and started carrying him to cover. The trio was caught in an enemy tank attack and Pfc. Doss, seeing a more critically wounded man nearby, crawled off the litter; and directed the bearers to give their first attention to the other man. Awaiting the litter bearers’ return, he was again struck, this time suffering a compound fracture of one arm. With magnificent fortitude he bound a rifle stock to his shattered arm as a splint and then crawled 300 yards over rough terrain to the aid station. Through his outstanding bravery and unflinching determination in the face of desperately dangerous conditions Pfc. Doss saved the lives of many soldiers. His name became a symbol throughout the 77th Infantry Division for outstanding gallantry far above and beyond the call of duty.
LINDBERGH, CHARLES A.
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army Air Corps Reserve. Place and date: From New York City to Paris, France, 20-21 May 1927. Entered service at: Little Falls, Minn. Born: 4 February 1902, Detroit, Mich. G.O. No.: 5, W.D., 1928; act of Congress 14 December 1927. Citation: For displaying heroic courage and skill as a navigator, at the risk of his life, by his nonstop flight in his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, from New York City to Paris, France, 20-21 May 1927, by which Capt. Lindbergh not only achieved the greatest individual triumph of any American citizen but demonstrated that travel across the ocean by aircraft was possible.
IZAC, EDOUARD VICTOR MICHEL
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. Place and date: Aboard German submarine U-90 as prisoner of war, 21 May 1918. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 18 December 1891, Cresco, Howard County, lowa. Citation: When the U.S.S. President Lincoln was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-90, on 21 May 1918, Lt. Izac was captured and held as a prisoner on board the U-90 until the return of the submarine to Germany, when he was confined in the prison camp. During his stay on the U-90 he obtained information of the movements of German submarines which was so important that he determined to escape, with a view to making this information available to the U.S. and Allied Naval authorities. In attempting to carry out this plan, he jumped through the window of a rapidly moving train at the imminent risk of death, not only from the nature of the act itself but from the fire of the armed German soldiers who were guarding him. Having been recaptured and reconfined, Lt. Izac made a second and successful attempt to escape, breaking his way through barbed-wire fences and deliberately drawing the fire of the armed guards in the hope of permitting others to escape during the confusion. He made his way through the mountains of southwestern Germany, having only raw vegetables for food, and at the end, swam the River Rhine during the night in the immediate vicinity of German sentries.
SULLIVAN, DANIEL AUGUSTUS JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Ensign, U.S. Naval Reserve Force. Born: 31 July 1884, Charleston, S.C. Appointed from: South Carolina. Citation: For extraordinary heroism as an officer of the U.S.S. Cristabel in conflict with an enemy submarine on 21 May 1918. As a result of the explosion of a depth bomb dropped near the submarine, the Christabel was so badly shaken that a number of depth charges which had been set for firing were thrown about the deck and there was imminent danger that they would explode. Ens. Sullivan immediately fell on the depth charges and succeeded in securing them, thus saving the ship from disaster, which would inevitably have caused great loss of life.
CROUSE, WILLIAM ADOLPHUS
Rank and organization: Watertender, U.S. Navy. Born: 22 October 1866, Tannettsburg, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. C. O. No.: 502, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Concord off Cavite, Manila Bay, P.I., 21 May 1898. Following the blowing out of a lower manhole plate joint on boiler B of that vessel, Crouse hauled the fires in the hot, vapor_filled atmosphere which necessitated the playing of water into the fireroom from a hose.
EHLE, JOHN WALTER
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 11 May 1873, Kearney, Nebr. Accredited to: Nebraska. G.O. No.: 502 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Concord off Cavite, Manila Bay, Philippine Islands, 21 May 1898. Following the blowing out of a lower manhole plate joint on boiler B of that vessel, Ehle assisted in hauling the fires in the hot, vapor_filled atmosphere which necessitated the playing of water into the fireroom from a hose.
HULL, JAMES, L.
Rank and organization: Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 27 November 1873, Patoka, Ill. Accredited to: Illinois. G.O. No.: 502, 14 December 1898. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Concord off Cavite, Manila Bay, Philippine Islands, 21 May 1898. Following the blowing out of a lower manhole plate joint on boiler B of that vessel, Hull assisted in hauling the fires in the hot, vapor-filled atmosphere, which necessitated the playing of water into the fireroom from a hose.
HORSFALL, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization. Drummer, Company G, 1st Kentucky Infantry. Place and date: At Corinth, Miss., 21 May 1862. Entered service at : ——. Birth: Campbell County, Ky. Date of issue: 17 August 1895. Citation: Saved the life of a wounded officer lying between the lines.
Pick Strawberries Day
When you hear the word “Google” the first image that comes to mind has to be the famous internet search engine but does the word actually mean anything ? Well the answer is a firm yes because it comes from the term “Googol” which represents a number (written as a 1 followed by 100 zeros) so large that it’s actually larger than the total number of atoms in the known universe. It looks like this:
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000, 000, 000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
As you might imagine the number is rarely used except maybe in theoretical and computational calculations, however the big question is whether a number bigger than a Googol exists ? Well funnily enough there is and it’s called a googolplex which would be a number 1 followed by, wait for it, not one thousand zeros, not even one million zeros but a googol zeroes.
Getting confused ? Well you should be because this number is so large that it’s almost impossible to imagine and also impossible to write because doing so would require more space than the known universe provides. Absolutely mind-boggling don’t you think!
Lastly for those of you that are interested in where this term actually came from, well it was popularized in the 1940’s by the American mathematician Edward Kasner who created it as a useful number when comparing unimaginably large numbers with infinity. Oh and the actual term “googol” was coined by his then 9 year old nephew Milton Sirotta, not bad for a 9 year old!
“The universe is full of magical things patiently waiting for our wits to grow sharper.”
~ Eden Phillpotts
kvetch KVECH, intransitive verb:
1.To complain habitually.noun:
1. A complaint.
2. A habitual complainer.
Kvetch comes from Yiddish kvetshn, “to squeeze, to complain,” from Middle High German quetzen, quetschen, “to squeeze.”
325 – The First Council of Nicaea – the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held.
1497 – John Cabot sets sail from Bristol, England, on his ship Matthew looking for a route to the west (other documents give a May 2 date).
1506 - In Spain, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there.
1609 – Shakespeare’s Sonnets are first published in London, perhaps illicitly, by the publisher Thomas Thorpe.
1639 - Dorchester MA, forms first school funded by local taxes. Dorchester has special interest owing to the fact that the town claims precedence in the establishment of the first free public school.
1774 - Britain’s Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the American colonists for their increasingly anti-British behavior.
1775 - North Carolina became the first colony to declare its independence.
1778 – Revolutionary War: Battle of Barren Hill
1801 - Four warships sent to the Mediterranean to protect American commerce from Barbary pirates.
1815 - Commodore Stephen Decatur ( Frigate Guerriere) sails with ten ships to suppress Mediterranean pirates’ raids on U.S. shipping.
1830 - D. Hyde patented the continuously flowing fountain pen.
1830 - First railroad timetable published in newspaper.The B&O Railroad was the nation’s first common carrier railroad. Along with this “first,” the B&O was the first railroad to publish a timetable, first to have a government contract to carry mail, first to put an electric train in regular service, and first to have a completely air-conditioned car.
1834 - The Marquis de Lafayette (78), US Revolutionary War hero died in Paris.
1844 -USS Constitution sails from New York on a “round the world” cruise.
1856 - Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner (1811-1874), an outspoken antagonist against slavery, gave the “Crime Against Kansas” speech. Sumner helped form the Republican Party.
1861 – Civil War: The state of Kentucky proclaims its neutrality, which will last until September 3rd when Confederate forces enter the state.
1861 – Civil War: North Carolina became the eleventh state to secede from the Union.
1861 – Civil War: The capital of the Confederacy was moved from Montgomery, AL, to Richmond, VA.
1862 – Civil War: Union gunboats occupied the Stono River above Cole’s Island, South Carolina, and shelled the Confederate positions located there.
1862 – Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln signs the Homestead Act into law. It opened millions of acres of government owned land in the West to “homesteaders” who could acquire up to 160 acres by living on the land and cultivating it for five years, paying just $1.25 per acre.
1864 – Civil War: Battle of Ware Bottom Church – in the Virginia Bermuda Hundred Campaign, 10,000 troops fight in this Confederate victory. Killed or injured 1,400.
1864 - Spotsylvania-campaign ended after 10,920 were killed or injured.
1868 - The Republican National Convention met in Chicago and nominated Grant.
1873 – Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis receive a U.S. patent for blue jeans with copper rivets.The price was $13.50 per dozen
1883 – Krakatoa begins to erupt. The volcano’s final and most notable explosion occurs on August 26.
1891 – The first public display of Thomas Edison’s prototype kinetoscope).
1892 - George Sampson patented a clothes dryer.
1895 - The first commercial movie performance was at 153 Broadway in New York City.
1899 - Jacob German of New York City became the first driver to be arrested for speeding. A New York City bicycle policeman arrested German for speeding. He was going 12 miles an hour on Lexington Ave. when the limit was set at 8 mph, with 4 mph for turning corners.
1902 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. The U.S. military occupation of Cuba ended. Tomás Estrada Palma becomes the first President of Cuba.
1916 – The Saturday Evening Post publishes its first cover with a Norman Rockwell painting (“Boy with Baby Carriage”).
1916 – The small town of Codell, Kansas is struck by a tornado. Incredibly, the same town was also hit in 1917 and 1918 on the exact same date.
1918 - USS New Mexico, lead ship of a class of three 32,000-ton battleships, was built at the New York Navy Yard. Commissioned in May 1918, she spent the rest of the First World War operating near the United States.
1926 - Congress passes Air Commerce Act, licensing of pilots & planes.Aircraft were required to be inspected for airworthiness, and were required to have markings placed on the outside of the aircraft for identification. Airmen were required to be tested for aeronautical knowledge and required to have a physical completed to insure their physical fitness.
1926 - Thomas Edison says Americans prefer silent movies over talkies.
1927 – At 07:52 am, Charles Lindbergh takes off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, New York, on the world’s first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean, touching down at Le Bourget Field in Paris at 22:22 the next day.
1930 - First airplane catapulted from a dirigible, Charles Nicholson, pilot. It flew from the airship Los Angeles to the carrier Saratoga.
1932 – Amelia Earhart takes off from Newfoundland to begin the world’s first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean by a female pilot, landing in Ireland the next day.
1932 - “Charlie Chan” was heard for the final time on the NBC Blue radio network.
1939 - “Three Little Fishes” by Kay Kyser hits #1.
1939 - The first telecast over telephone wires was sent from Madison Square Garden to the NBC-TV studios at 30 Rockefeller Center in midtown Manhattan. A bicycle race was the event broadcast.
1939 - Pan Am (Pan American) begins regular transatlantic airmail service across the North Atlantic. A B-314 Yankee Clipper, christened by Eleanor Roosevelt, that had left Baltimore on March 26, 1939 for Europe on a survey flight that paved the way for this flight. In about five weeks passenger service would start.
1940 – Igor Sikorsky unveiled his “helicopter.” The R-4 was the world’s first production helicopter and the United States Air Force’s first service helicopter. The original military model, the XR-4, was developed from the famous experimental VS-300 helicopter, invented by Igor Sikorsky and publicly demonstrated in 1940.
1940 – World War II: Holocaust: The first prisoners arrive at a new concentration camp at Auschwitz.
1941 - Harry James and his orchestra recorded the classic “You Made Me Love You.”
1941 - OF (OutFielder) Taft Wright of the Chicago White Sox doubles to drive in a run and sets an American League record by driving in at least one run in 13 consecutive games. Wright has 22 RBIs in the streak, although in six of the games he knocked in a run without a hit.
1941 – World War II: Battle of Crete – German paratroops invade Crete.
1942 - “I’ve Got A Gal in Kalamazoo” was recorded by Glenn Miller and His Orchestra.
1942 – World War II: The US Navy first permitted African-American recruits to serve.
1943 - World War II: On Attu, fighting continues in the Clevesy Pass. Japanese forces hold the high ground and offer determined resistance to the American attacks.
1944 - World War II: Forces of the US 5th Army assault the German-held Senger Line.
1944 - World War II: American forces have eliminated the Japanese garrison on Wadke. On the mainland, nearby, Japanese forces conduct weak attacks near Arare.
1944 - World War II: American aircraft the carriers of Task Group 58.2 (Admiral Montgomery) conduct a raid.
1944 - US Communist Party dissolved.
1945 - World War II: On Okinawa, American troops secure Chocolate Drop Hill after fighting in the interconnecting tunnels. Elements of the 1st Marine Division, part of US 3rd Amphibious Corps, capture Wana Ridge.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “Baby Face” by The Art Mooney Orchestra, “The Dickey Bird Song” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Glenn Hughes) and “Anytime” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – In a 13-4 the Cleveland Indians win against the Red Sox. The Indians collect 18 bases on balls to tie the American League record.
1948 – New York Yankee Joe Dimaggio “hits for the cycle” against Chicago in a 13-2 win. “Hitting for the Cycle” means a player hits a single, a double, a triple, and a home run. Hit them all in one game and the cycle is complete. This is a record that is tracked.
1949 – In the United States, the Armed Forces Security Agency, the predecessor to the National Security Agency) is established.
1951 – Korean War: Air Force Captain James Jabara, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the first Korean War ace and the first jet ace in aviation history after downing his fifth MiG. He accomplished this feat in an F-86 Sabre with one hung drop tank.
1953 – Korean War: The U.S. National Security Council decided that if “conditions arise,” air and ground operations would be extended to China and ground operations in Korea would be intensified.
1954 - Bill Haley and the Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” was released. It was not successful until it was released in 1955 on the soundtrack to “Blackboard Jungle.”
1956 – CHART TOPPERS - “Heartbreak Hotel/I Was the One” by Elvis Presley, “The Wayward Wind” by Gogi Grant, “I’m in Love Again” by Fats Domino and “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins all topped the charts.
1956 – The first hydrogen fusion bomb (H-bomb) to be dropped from an airplane exploded over Namu Atoll at the northwest edge of the Bikini Atoll.The fireball was four miles in diameter. It was designated as “Cherokee,” as part of “Operation Redwing.”
1959 - Ford wins battle with Chrysler to call its new car “Falcon.” Ford won by notifying the Automobile Manufacturers Association of its choice twenty minutes ahead of Chrysler. The association is the official industry arbiter and its Proprietary Name File is the tradename Bible for the car makers.
1959 - Japanese-Americans regained their citizenship.
1959 – Yankees sink to last place, first time since May 25, 1940.
1961 – “Runaway” by Del Shannon topped the charts.
1961 - A white mob attacked the Freedom Riders in Montgomery, AL. The event prompted the federal government to send U.S. marshals.
1963 - A fire in New Jersey burned out of control and killed 7 people. Nearly 1,000 were left homeless as the fire moved 9 miles in 6 hours on what was called Black Saturday.
1964 – CHART TOPPERS - “My Guy” by Mary Wells, “Love Me Do” by The Beatles, “Ronnie” by The 4 Seasons and “My Heart Skips a Beat” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – “Groovin‘” by the Young Rascals topped the charts.
1969 – Vietnam: The Battle of Hamburger Hill ends. After 10 days and 10 bloody assaults, Hill 937 in South Vietnam is finally captured by U.S. and South Vietnamese troops.
1970 - “Let It Be,” the film by The Beatles, premiered worldwide.
1971 - The US Congress cancelled the supersonic SST airplane program.
1971 - Peter Cetera (The band, Chicago) was beaten up by four men at a Chicago Cubs-Dodgers baseball game. The men objected to the length of Cetera’s hair. Cetera underwent four hours of emergency surgery.
1972 – CHART TOPPERS - “The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face” by Roberta Flack, “Oh Girl” by Chi-Lites, “I’ll Take You There” by The Staple Singers and “Grandma Harp” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1974 - Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over tapes and records of 64 White House conversations regarding Watergate.
1977 - The stage show “Beatlemania” opened at the Winter Garden Theater, New York.
1978 - Mavis Hutchinson, 53, made it to New York City to become the first woman to run across America. The 2,871-mile trek took her 69 days. She ran an average of 45 miles each day.
1978 - “With a Little Luck” by the Wings topped the charts.
1978 - “The Buddy Holly Story” (1:54:10) premiered in Lubbock, TX.
1978 - US launches Pioneer Venus 1; produces first global radar map of Venus. The Pioneer mission to Venus consisted of two components, launched separately. Pioneer Venus 1, Pioneer Venus Orbiter was launched in 1978 and studied the planet for more than a decade after orbital insertion. Pioneer Venus 2, Pioneer Venus Multiprobe sent four small probes into the Venusian atmosphere.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS - “Call Me” by Blondie, “Ride like the Wind” by Christopher Cross, “Lost in Love” by Air Supply and “Gone Too Far” by Eddie Rabbitt all topped the charts.
1980 – The submarine Nautilus was designated as a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior.
1982 – TV’s “Barney Miller” was seen for the last time on ABC-TV.
1983 – First publications of the discovery of the HIV virus that causes AIDS in the journal Science by Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo individually.
1983 – Philadelphia Phillies Steve Carlton passes Walter Johnson with 2nd most strike outs at 3511 just ten short of Nolan Ryan.
1984 - Boston’s Roger Clemens strikes out seven batters in seven innings en route to his first ML victory, 5-4 over the Twins. In his first two full seasons, Clemens became only the fourth pitcher ever to win back-to-back Cy Young Awards, pitching 18 shutouts in his first 139 starts. He also established a major-league record with 20 strikeouts in a nine-inning game.
1985 - Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 1300 for first time. The Dow closed at 1304.88.
1985 – Radio Martí, part of the Voice of America service, begins broadcasting to Cuba.
1985 – FBI arrests U.S. Navy Chief Petty Officer John A Walker Jr. He was ultimately convicted of spying for USSR. He had started in 1968 for $1,000 per week. Walker’s ex-wife turned him into the FBI.
1986 – Flintstones 25th Anniversary Celebration airs on CBS-TV.
1987 - The commander of the U.S. frigate Stark, who lost 37 of his sailors in an Iraqi missile attack, broke his silence. Captain Glenn Brindel said he was warned only seconds before the missiles struck, and that he’d had no time to activate the ship’s defense system.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Anything for You” by Gloria Estefan & Miami Sound Machine, “Shattered Dreams” by Johnny Hates Jazz, “One More Try” by George Michael and “I’m Gonna Get You” by Eddy Raven all topped the charts.
1988 – Mike Schmidt hits his 535th career home run to move past Jimmie Foxx into 8th place on the all-time list, but the Phillies lose to San Diego 4-3.
1988 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: 30-year-old Laurie Dann walked into a Winnetka, Ill., elementary school classroom, where she shot to death 8-year-old Nicholas Corwin and wounded several other children. Dann later took her own life.
1989 – “Forever Your Girl” by Paula Abdul topped the charts.
1990 - Hubble Space Telescope sends first photographs from space. After our astronauts successfully deployed Hubble into low Earth orbit, at a cost of $1.5 billion, the innovative telescope immediately faced another setback, this time caused by its own hardware. After receiving blurry images from Hubble, NASA scientists determined that the telescope’s primary mirror had been ground too flat by a depth of 2.2 microns, or one-fiftieth the width of a human hair.
1990 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – At Heritage High School in Conyers, GA, a 15-year-old student shot and injured six students. He then surrendered to an assistant principal at the school.
1991 – Chicago Bull Michael Jordan, named NBA’s MVP. Jordan led the NBA in scoring for seven consecutive seasons (1987-1993), tying Chamberlain’s record, and averaged more than 30 points per game in each season.
1991 - The American Red Cross announced measures aimed at screening blood more carefully for the AIDS virus.
1993 – “Cheers” 274th & final episode on NBC. The show earned 26 Emmy Awards, out of a total of 117 nominations. An estimated 93 million people tuned in.
1995 – “Timber Country” won the Preakness at Pimlico.
1995 - President Clinton announced that the two-block stretch of Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House would be permanently closed by the United States Secret Service to motor vehicles as a security measure. This was done primarily as a response to the Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, the closed off Pennsylvania Avenue to vehicular traffic in front of the White House from the eastern edge of Lafayette Park to 17th Street.
1995 - CBS News fired co-anchor Connie Chung.
1996 - The U.S. Supreme Court struck down a Colorado measure banning laws that would protect homosexuals from discrimination.
1996 - The song Blue composed by Bill Mack in 1963 for Patsy Cline was finally recorded by 14-year-old LeAnn Rimes.
1996 - The US paid North Korea $2 million to help recover the remains of US soldiers killed during the Korean War.
1997 – White Sox Frank Thomas reaches base safely for 15th straight time.
1997 - Marine Corporal Clemente Banuelos shot and killed a goat herder named Esequiel Hernandez on the Mexican border at El Paso while on border patrol. The Marine claimed self-defense after Hernandez fired two shots from a .22-caliber rifle. A grand jury later declined to indict Banuelos.
1998 - Pres. Clinton vetoed a school voucher plan that would have provided tax funds for poor children in Washington D.C. to attend private or religious schools.
1998 - In Streamwood Ill., Frank Capaci, a retired electrician, won the record $195 mil Powerball lottery of Wisconsin. He chose to take a $104.23 mil lump sum payment.
1998 - In Wisconsin abortion clinics resumed first-trimester abortions after being assured that the new state law did not impact the first trimester operations.
1999 - Robbie Knievel (37) jumped a 200-foot-wide chasm over the Grand Canyon with his motorcycle. His old world record was 223 feet.
1999 - The US Senate passed a bill imposing new gun control measures that included background checks on all firearm transactions at gun shows and pawn shops.
1999 - The US FDA approved the painkiller Vioxx made by Merck.
2000 - “Red Bullet” won the Preakness Stakes, outpacing Kentucky Derby winner “Fusaichi Pegasus.”
2000 – In North Carolina a bridge collapsed at the Winston NASCAR stock car race in Concord. 107 people were treated and 53 were hospitalized.
2003 - The Bush administration raised the terrorism alert level to orange on and called for increased security nationwide.
2003 - The TV show “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” had its finale. Set in the fictional California town of Sunnydale, “Buffy” depicted high school as a literal Hell.
2004 – Detroit Zoo officials said they will stop exhibiting elephants on ethical grounds because elephants can develop arthritis and stress-related ailments in captivity.
2005 – US Airways and America West merged in a $1.5 billion deal.
2005 – In Arizona twelve illegal immigrants were reported dead while crossing the border under triple digit heat.
2005 - The Beach Boys Historic Landmark was dedicated in Hawthorne, California in a ceremony where former Beach Boys Brian Wilson, Al Jardine, and David Marks were in attendance.
2006 – Federal agents searched the Capitol Hill office of Rep. William Jefferson of Louisiana as part of a bribery investigation.
2006 – In Maryland Barbaro, winner of the Kentucky Derby, fractured an ankle at the start of the Preakness; Bernardini won the race. Barbaro was euthanized Jan 29, 2007, due to medical complications.
2006 – Barry Bonds tied Babe Ruth for second place on the career list with his 714th home run.
2006 – An explosion in the Darby Mine No. 1 coal mine in Harlan County, eastern Kentucky, killed five miners while one other miner was able to get out alive.
2007 – In Idaho law enforcement officers stormed a church in Moscow where Jason Hamilton (36) went after wounding three in a courthouse ambush where he faced mental evaluation.
2008 – US Senator Ted Kennedy is diagnosed with a brain tumor.
2009 – The US House passed legislation imposing new rules on credit card companies. Attached to the legislation was a bill allowing people to bring concealed and loaded guns into US national parks. Pres. Obama signed the legislation on May 22.
2009 – In Alabama five Birmingham police officers were fired for beating an unconscious suspect ejected from a car after a chase. The attack was captured on a patrol car videotape but didn’t surface publicly for a year.
2009 – In New York City, four ex-convicts, 3 Americans and a Haitian citizen, were arrested and accused of plotting to place bombs at New York City synagogues and shoot down National Guard jets.
2009 – Nebraska Gov. Dave Heinemen signed a bill to prevent registered sex offenders from using social networking sites such as Facebook.
2010 – In Arkansas, two police officers were shot dead after pulling over a van with Ohio plates on I-40. A short time later two suspects were killed in a separate shootout in a Wal-Mart parking lot in West Memphis.
2010 – In Florida a jury in Broward County handed down a $29.1 million verdict against R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. to Connie Buonomo (77), a widow who said her husband started smoking as a teenager.
2011 – Travel on the Mississippi River is closed for five miles near Baton Rouge, Louisiana due to flooding.
2011 – President Barack Obama meets with the Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu at the White House, during which Netanyahu emphasizes that Israel would not make a full withdraw to the pre-1967 borders as Obama requested yesterday, because these borders are “not defensible”.
2011 – Two prisoners are injured in a riot at California State Prison, Sacramento.
2012 - Bee Gees singer Robin Gibb dies at the age of 62.
2013 – YAHOO! acquires TUMBLR for $1.1 billion in cash. Company is said to continue to run independently.
2013 - A destructive tornado with winds up to 200 mph swept through Moore, Okla., and surrounding areas, killing at least 37, according to the medical examiner’s office. At least two dozen of the victims included children at Plaza Towers Elementary School.
2013 - NASA and President Obama are honoring the life and legacy of Sally Ride. On this day a national tribute was held for the first American woman in space.
1706 – Seth Pomeroy, American gunsmith and soldier (d. 1777)
1759 – William Thornton, architect of the U.S. Capitol, actor.
1768 – Dolly Madison, first lady of President James Madison.
1818 – William Fargo, co-founder of Wells, Fargo & Company (d. 1881)
1834 – The Marquis de Lafayette (78), US Revolutionary War hero died in Paris.
1899 – John Marshall Harlan II, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1971)
1913 - William Hewlett, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard Co.
1919 – George Gobel, American comedian (d. 1991)
1908 - Jimmy Stewart, actor, was born in Indiana, Pa.
1927 – Bud Grant, American football coach
1942 – Carlos Hathcock, American Marine sniper (d. 1999)
1946 – Cher, American singer
*BELLRICHARD, LESLIE ALLEN
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry. Place and Date: Kontum Province Republic of Vietnam, 20 May 1967. Entered service at: Oakland, Calif. Born: 4 December 1941, Janesville, Wis. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Acting as a fire team leader with Company C, during combat operations Pfc. Bellrichard was with four fellow soldiers in a foxhole on their unit’s perimeter when the position came under a massive enemy attack. Following a 30-minute mortar barrage, the enemy launched a strong ground assault. Pfc. Bellrichard rose in face of a group of charging enemy soldiers and threw hand grenades into their midst, eliminating several of the foe and forcing the remainder to withdraw. Failing in their initial attack, the enemy repeated the mortar and rocket bombardment of the friendly perimeter, then once again charged against the defenders in a concerted effort to overrun the position. Pfc. Bellrichard resumed throwing hand grenades at the onrushing attackers. As he was about to hurl a grenade, a mortar round exploded just in front of his position, knocking him into the foxhole and causing him to lose his grip on the already armed grenade. Recovering instantly, Pfc. Bellrichard recognized the threat to the lives of his four comrades and threw himself upon the grenade, shielding his companions from the blast that followed. Although severely wounded, Pfc. Bellrichard struggled into an upright position in the foxhole and fired his rifle at the enemy until he succumbed to his wounds. His selfless heroism contributed greatly to the successful defense of the position, and he was directly responsible for saving the lives of several of his comrades. His acts are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself and the U.S. Army.
*MOLNAR, FRANKIE ZOLY
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and Date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, 20 May 1967. Entered service at: Fresno, Calif. Born: 14 February 1943, Logan, W. Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. S/Sgt. Molnar distinguished himself while serving as a squad leader with Company B, during combat operations. Shortly after the battalion’s defensive perimeter was established, it was hit by intense mortar fire as the prelude to a massive enemy night attack. S/Sgt. Molnar immediately left his sheltered location to insure the readiness of his squad to meet the attack. As he crawled through the position, he discovered a group of enemy soldiers closing in on his squad area. His accurate rifle fire killed five of the enemy and forced the remainder to flee. When the mortar fire stopped, the enemy attacked in a human wave supported by grenades, rockets, automatic weapons, and small-arms fire. After assisting to repel the first enemy assault, S/Sgt. Molnar found that his squad’s ammunition and grenade supply was nearly expended. Again leaving the relative safety of his position, he crawled through intense enemy fire to secure additional ammunition and distribute it to his squad. He rejoined his men to beat back the renewed enemy onslaught, and he moved about his area providing medical aid and assisting in the evacuation of the wounded. With the help of several men, he was preparing to move a severely wounded soldier when an enemy hand grenade was thrown into the group. The first to see the grenade, S/Sgt. Molnar threw himself on it and absorbed the deadly blast to save his comrades. His demonstrated selflessness and inspirational leadership on the battlefield were a major factor in the successful defense of the American position and are in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Army. S/Sgt. Molnar’s actions reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
MOYER, DONALD R.
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company E, 35th Infantry Regiment. Place and date: Near Seoul, Korea, 20 May 1951. Entered service at: Keego Harbor, Oakland, Mich. Born: 15 April 1930, Pontiac, Mich. G.O. No.: 19, 1 February 1952. Citation: Sfc. Moyer assistant platoon leader, Company E, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an armed enemy of the United Nations. Sfc. Moyer’s platoon was committed to attack and secure commanding terrain stubbornly defended by a numerically superior hostile force emplaced in well-fortified positions. Advancing up the rocky hill, the leading elements came under intense automatic weapons, small-arms, and grenade fire, wounding the platoon leader and platoon sergeant. Sfc. Moyer, realizing the success of the mission was imperiled, rushed to the head of the faltering column, assumed command and urged the men forward. Inspired by Sfc. Moyer’s unflinching courage, the troops responded magnificently, but as they reached the final approaches to the rugged crest of the hill, enemy fire increased in volume and intensity and the fanatical foe showered the platoon with grenades. Undaunted, the valiant group forged ahead, and as they neared the top of the hill, the enemy hurled a grenade into their midst. Sfc. Moyer, fully aware of the odds against him, unhesitatingly threw himself on the grenade, absorbing the full blast of the explosion with his body. Although mortally wounded in this fearless display of valor, Sfc. Moyer’s intrepid act saved several of his comrades from death or serious injury, and his inspirational leadership and consummate devotion to duty contributed significantly to the subsequent seizure of the enemy stronghold and reflect lasting glory on himself and the noble traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 9th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Kickapoo Springs, Tex., 20 May 1870. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Carroll Parish, La. Date of issue: 28 June 1870. Citation. Gallantry on scout after Indians.
BEAUFORT, JEAN J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 2d Louisiana Infantry. Place and date: At Port Hudson, La., about 20 May 1863. Entered service: New Orleans, La. Birth: France. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: Volunteered to go within the enemy’s lines and at the head of a party of eight destroyed a signal station, thereby greatly aiding in the operations against Port Hudson that immediately followed.
Speed of Light
If you have ever seen the Concorde you would know that the aircraft could fly at just over Mach 2, two times the speed of sound. Now picture something moving 500,000 times that fast. Light travels that fast, in fact it approaches 186, 000 miles per second travelling through a vacuum. That is so fast that if you were able to move at this speed you could go around the earth seven times in just one second.
The time it takes for light to travel from the earth to the moon is 1.2 seconds. From our sun to Pluto takes 5 hours and 40 minutes. From Pluto to the nearest stars, 4.3 years. Across the Milky Way galaxy 100,000 years.
The light year has become very common in our language and in our everyday speech but do we really know what that means? Do we even understand it? In one year light will travel about six-trillion miles. That is an extraordinary number that is just too big for us. The term is used extensively in astronomy to measure distances between planets, stars and other celestial bodies. The simple fact of the matter is that distances involved when it comes to discussing the universe are so huge that you need a better unit of measure to make it more understandable.
The speed of light has several properties which may seem counter-intuitive to us, but are true:
-Nothing travels faster than the speed of light.
-No matter how fast you are moving the speed of light seems to be the same speed as if you were not moving at all.
-As an object or person is accelerated toward the speed of light time slows down for it/him.
This last property leads to the “twins” effect: Twin brothers live on Earth. One brother takes a trip to a distant star traveling at a high percentage of the speed of light. When the twin returns he will be younger than his brother because for him time slowed down during the trip.
This effect, called “time dilation,” helps explain why the speed of light is the same no matter how fast you are going. As a traveler accelerates time slows down for him. This, in turn, affects his measurements.
Those of you who watch space movies e.g. Star Wars, Star Trek, etc. are familiar with concepts like warp speed or hyperspace. So when we’ll be able to travel at speeds like those shown in the movies. According to the comments above, it appears that “warp” is currently impossible. The term means “the speed of light” and multiples of that seem to be impossible especially given the “twins effect.” The simple answer is it’s highly unlikely that we’ll see anything like that is in our lifetime, but to learn more about the research going on in this area you can check out NASA’s section on breakthrough propulsion physics or the Glenn Research Center about things like warp drives.
Just a little simple match. From earth to the nearest “black hole” is 26,000 light years. If we had a crew leave earth at “Warp One” or the speed of light, the crew would have to be large enough so that “death rates” would be able to support a crew for 90 generations (forty years per generation) just to get there and the ship would have to be large enough to support up to five generations at any one time. That is just to get there and then they would have to return.
“Stand still… and refuse to retreat. Look at it as God looks at it and draw upon His power to hold up under the blast.”
~ Charles R. Swindoll
erudite AIR-yuh-dyt; -uh-dyt, adjective:
Characterized by extensive reading or knowledge; learned.
Erudite comes from Latin eruditus, from e-, “out of, from” + rudis, “rough, untaught,” which is also the source of English rude. Hence one who is erudite has been brought out of a rough, untaught, rude state.
1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona’s two sons (whom Cartier kidnapped during his first voyage).
1643 - United Colonies of New England formed.Representatives of the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven met in Boston and adopted a written constitution binding the colonies in a league. The chief purpose of the league was coordination of defense and the settlement of boundary disputes; the internal affairs of each colony were to be left to its own management.
1649 – An Act declaring England a Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be a republic for the next eleven years.
1749 – King George II of Great Britain grants the Ohio Company a charter of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
1774 - Ann Lee and eight Shakers sailed from Liverpool to New York. The religious group originated in Quakerism and fled England due to religious persecution.
1780 – New England’s Dark Day: A combination of thick smoke and heavy cloud cover causes complete darkness to fall on Eastern Canada and the New England area of the United States at 10:30 A.M. It was so dark tht candles had to be used at mid-day.
1796 - The first U.S. game law was approved. The measure called for penalties for hunting or destroying game within Indian territory.
1828 – President John Quincy Adams signs the Tariff of 1828 into law, protecting wool manufacturers in the United States.
1848 – Mexican-American War: Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of five other modern-day U.S. states to the United States for $15 million USD.
1856 - U.S. Senator Charles Sumner spoke out against slavery.
1857 - William F. Channing and Moses G. Farmer patented the electric fire alarm system.
1858 - A pro-slavery band led by Charles Hameton executed unarmed Free State men near Marais des Cygnes on the Kansas-Missouri border.
1862 - Homestead Act became law and provided cheap land for settlement of West.
1863 – Civil War: Union commander Major General Ulysses S. Grant fails in his first attempt to take the strategic Confederate city of Vicksburg
1864 – Civil War: the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House ends.
1864 - Civil War: Battle of Port Walthall Junction, VA (Bermuda Hundred).
1864 - Civil War: U.S.S. General Price, Acting Lieutenant Richardson, engaged a Confederate battery on the banks of the Mississippi River at Tunica Bend, Louisiana. The Southerners, who had been attempting to destroy transport steamer Superior, were forced to evacuate their river position. Richardson put ashore a landing party which burned a group of buildings used by the Confederates as a headquarters from which attacks against river shipping were launched.
1865 - Civil War: President Jefferson Davis was captured by Union Cavalry in Georgia.
1882 - Commodore Shufeldt (USS Swatara) lands in Korea to negotiate first treaty between Korea and a Western power.
1883 - “Buffalo Bill” Cody put on his first Wild West Show. Cody was a U.S. buffalo hunter, army scout, Indian fighter, rider for the Pony Express, and Civil War soldier.
1884 - Ringling Brothers circus premieres.The starting title was “Yankee Robinson and Ringling Brothers”, the only time the Ringlings ever gave themselves second billing.
1892 - Charles Brady King invents pneumatic hammer. He patented it on January 28, 1894.
1896 - Edward Acheson issued patent for electrical furnace used to produce carborundum (silicon carbide), one of the hardest industrial substances.
1898 - Post Office authorizes use of postcards. The Private Mailing Card Act eliminated the difference between private cards and government issue cards. Though writing was not allowed on the address side or back of these cards. The term “Postcard” was not allowed until December 24, 1901 to private printers.
1906 - Federated Boys’ Club (Boys’ Club of America) organizes.Boys & Girls Clubs of America had its beginnings in 1860 with several women in Hartford, CT. Believing that boys who roamed the streets should have a positive alternative, they organized the first Club. In 1906, several Boys Clubs decided to affiliate. The Federated Boys Clubs in Boston was formed with 53 member organizations.
1910 -The Earth passed through the tail of Halley’s Comet, the most intimate contact between the Earth and any comet in recorded history. The event was anticipated with dire predictions. Since a few years earlier, astronomers had found the poisonous gas cyanogen in a comet, it was surmised that if Earth passed through the comet’s tail everyone would die.
1911 - The first criminal conviction based solely on fingerprint evidence took place in the United States. Despite a water-tight alibi, Caesar Cella was found guilty in a New York City court based on the presence of his fingerprints, which were the only evidence connecting him with the crime.
1912 - The Associated Advertising Clubs of America held its first convention in Dallas, TX.
1918 - Washington’s first Sunday game, Senators beat Cleveland 1-0 in 18 innings. More than 15,000 fans are in attendance.
1921 – The U.S. Congress passes the Emergency Quota Act establishing national quotas on immigration. Prior to 1921, there were occasional exclusionary laws. For example, in 1882 Chinese were excluded, in 1903 polygamists and radicals were excluded, in 1907 people with physical or mental defects or with tuberculosis were excluded and in 1917 alcoholics, illiterates, stowaways, vagrants, and men or women entering for immoral purposes were excluded.
1926 - Thomas Edison spoke on the radio for the first time.
1927 - The 11th Marine Regiment arrived at Esteli, Nicaragua, for garrison duty.
1928 - Fifty-one frogs enter first annual “Frog Jumping Jubilee” in Angel’s Camp CA, Calaveras County.
1929 – In New York, Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig hit back-to-back homers in the 3rd inning off of Boston’s Jack Russell but in the 5th inning a cloudburst opens up at Yankee Stadium sends a standing-room-only crowd rushing for the exits. A stampede in the RF bleachers leaves two dead, 62 injured.
1943 - Winston Churchill told the U.S. Congress that his country was pledging their full support in the war against Japan.
1944 – World War II: Allied forces of US 5th Army continue to make advances. The US 2nd Corps captures Gasta Itri and Monte Grande.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 77th Division suffers heavy casualties while fighting for the Ishimmi ridge and withdraws.
1945 – World War II: Approximately 272 American B-29 Superfortress bombers strike Hamamatsu, 120 miles from Tokyo. Bombs are dropped through the clouds from medium altitude.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS - “Mam’selle” by Art Lund, “Linda” by Buddy Clark with the Ray Noble Orchestra, “My Adobe Hacienda” by Eddy Howard and “New Jolie Blonde (New Pretty Blonde)” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – “The Third Man Theme” by Guy Lombardo topped the charts.
1951 – “How High the Moon” by Les Paul & Mary Ford topped the charts.
1951 – Korean War: The 2nd Infantry Division, with attached French and Dutch battalions, fought their way out of a Chinese trap in the mountains of central Korea, inflicting heavy losses on the enemy.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White” by Perez Prado, “Unchained Melody” by Les Baxter, “A Blossom Fell” by Nat King Cole and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1956 – “Heartbreak Hotel” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1956 - Pittsburgh Pirate Dale Long hits a 9th-inning homerun, it was the first homerun in a series of eight straight games.
1958 – “South Pacific” soundtrack album goes to #1 & stays #1 for 31 weeks. It spent a total 70 consecutive weeks at the top of the chart and was Number 1 for all of 1959.
1958 – Bobby Darin releases “Splish Splash“. It was released as the first eight-track master recording pressed to a plastic 45-RPM disc.
1958 - Canada and the U.S. formally established the North American Air Defense Command.
1959 – The first submarine with two nuclear reactors was completed. The Triton was 447 feet long, 37 feet wide and was manned by 148 officers and crew. The General Electric Co. built the two water-cooled nuclear reactors. Each propeller was powered by electrical current provided by one of the reactors. The submarine had a cruising range of 110,000 miles.
1960 – The man who coined the term, “Rock And Roll”, Alan Freed, along with eight other disc-jockeys were accused of taking payola. Payola was money privately paid to DJs by record companies or record promoters to get their records played on the Radio.
1962 – A birthday salute to U.S. President John F. Kennedy takes place at Madison Square Garden, New York City. The highlight is Marilyn Monroe’s infamous rendition of Happy Birthday. If you listen to the intro, Peter Lawford comments that this is the late (she was tardy) Marilyn Monroe. Little did anyone know but she would be dead three months after this event.
1962 – “Soldier Boy” by the Shirelles topped the charts.
1962 – Stan Musial breaks Honus Wagner’s National League hit record with 3,431.
1963 – CHART TOPPERS – “If You Wanna Be Happy” by Jimmy Soul, “Surfin’ USA” by The Beach Boys, “Foolish Little Girl” by The Shirelles and “Lonesome 7-7203” by Hawkshaw Hawkins all topped the charts.
1964 – Forty hidden microphones are found in the U.S. Embassy in Moscow. For twelve years or more the Kremlin had been able to eavesdrop on every single conversation and to learn about every single top-secret cable sent between Moscow and Washington.
1964 – Vietnam War: The United States initiates low-altitude target reconnaissance flights over southern Laos by U.S. Navy and Air Force aircraft.
1965 – Roger Miller received a gold record for the hit, “King of the Road.”
1965 – African-American Patricia Harris was named as United States Ambassador to Luxembourg.
1965 - FBI agents visited Wand Records investigating the lyrics to the song “Louie Louie” by the Kingsmen.
1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. planes bombed Hanoi for the first time.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Joy to the World” by Three Dog Night, “Never Can Say Goodbye” by The Jackson 5, “Brown Sugar” by The Rolling Stones and “I Won’t Mention It Again” by Ray Price all topped the charts.
1973 – “You Are the Sunshine of My Life” by Stevie Wonder topped the charts.
1973 - Paul Simon released “Kodachrome.”
1977 – “Smokey & the Bandit” premieres. Most of the movie centers on Bo “Bandit” Darville (Burt Reynolds) and his partner Cledus “Snowman” Snow (Reed), with his Basset Hound named Fred, taking a shipment of 400 cases of Coors beer from Texarkana, Texas to Atlanta, Georgia. The movie also starred Sally Field.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Reunited” by Peaches & Herb, “Hot Stuff” by Donna Summer, “In the Navy” by Village People and “If I Said You Had a Beautiful Body Would You Hold It Against Me” by Bellamy Brothers all topped the charts.
1984 – “Hello” by Lionel Richie topped the charts.
1984 - The Cars released “Magic.”
1986 - Peter Gabriel released the album “So.”
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “With or Without You” by U2, “The Lady in Red “by Chris DeBurgh, “Heat of the Night” by Bryan Adams and “To Know Him is to Love Him” by Dolly Parton, Linda Ronstadt, Emmylou Harris all topped the charts.
1987 - President Reagan defended America’s presence in the Persian Gulf, two days after 37 American sailors were killed when an Iraqi warplane attacked the U.S. frigate Stark.
1988 - In Jacksonville, FL, Carlos Lehder Rivas was convicted of smuggling more than three tons of cocaine into the United States. Rivas was the co-founder of Colombia’s Medellin drug cartel.
1989 – Dow Jones average passes 2,500 mark for first time, closes at 2,501.1
1989 - The NCAA announced sanctions against the University of Kentucky’s basketball program for recruiting and academic violations.
1990 – “Summer Squall” won the Preakness Stakes.
1991 – Willy T Ribbs becomes first African-American driver to make the field at an Indianapolis 500.
1992 – U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle criticized the CBS sitcom “Murphy Brown” for having its title character decide to bear a child out of wedlock.
1992 – In Massapequa, NY, Mary Jo Buttafuoco was shot and seriously wounded by Amy Fisher. Fisher was her husband Joey’s teen-age lover.
1992 – The 27th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution went into effect. The amendment prohibits Congress from giving itself midterm pay raises. it was first proposed by James Madison. It actually became part of the constitution on May 7, 1992, when Michigan became the 38th state to ratify the amendment.
1993 - The US White House set off a political storm by abruptly firing the entire staff of its travel office; five of seven staffers were later reinstated and assigned other duties.
1993 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed about 3,500 (3,500.03) for the first time.
1994 - The final episode of LA Law (b.1986) showed on TV after an eight-year run.
1995 - The movie “Die Hard: With a Vengeance” was released in the movie theaters in USA.
1996 - The Space Shuttle Endeavour rocketed into orbit with six astronauts. One task was to deploy an experimental antennae that would inflate and swell to the size of a tennis court.
1997 - An indictment was filed against NBC sportscaster Marv Albert for biting a woman in an Arlington, Va., hotel on Feb 12 as many as fifteen times and forcing her to perform oral sex. At trial, Albert ended up pleading guilty to assault and battery.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In Fayetteville, TN – One student killed in the parking lot at Lincoln County High School three days before he was to graduate. The victim was dating the ex-girlfriend of his killer, 18-year-old honor student Jacob Davis.
1998 - In Florida Hank Carr freed himself from handcuffs and killed two officers and a state trooper after he was picked up for questioning in the shooting death of his four-year-old stepson. He later shot himself during a standoff with 170 police officers at a gas station.
1999 – “Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace” was released in the U.S. It set a new record for opening day sales at 28.5 million.
1999 - Ali A. Mohamed, a former US Army sergeant, was indicted for conspiring with Osama bin Laden to kill Americans abroad.
2000 - The shuttle Atlantis lifted off with 7 astronauts on a mission to fix the International Space Station.
2001 - “Point Given” won the Preakness as Derby winner “Monarchos” finished out of the money.
2003 – It was announced that Worldcom Inc. would pay investors $500 million to settle civil fraud charges over its $11 billion accounting scandal.
2003 - In central Iraq four US Marines on a resupply mission were killed when their Ch-46 Sea-Knight helicopter crashed into a canal and a fifth drowned trying to save them.
2004 - US Army Spc. Jeremy C. Sivits received the maximum penalty, one year in prison, reduction in rank and a bad conduct discharge, in the first court-martial stemming from mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners at the Abu Ghraib prison.
2005 - J.P. Morgan Chase introduced a no-swipe plastic credit card that used an embedded chip and RFID technology as well as the usual magnetic strip.
2005 – “Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith” brought in 50.0 million in its opening day.
2005 - Scientists discover that the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was the longest ever recorded — lasting nearly ten minutes when most powerful earthquakes last no more than a few seconds — and shook the entire planet.
2006 - The United States Senate votes on an amendment to an immigration reform bill which would “… declare English as the national language of the United States”, giving English an increased de jure capacity (in addition to a de facto one) as the official language within the country. The bill, S. 2611, was passed by the Senate but was never voted on in the House.
2006 - A riot takes place at Guantánamo Bay in Cuba after several inmates attempted suicide.
2006 - In Detroit twelve people died over the last two days from an overdose of a drug called fentanyl that was considered eighty times more powerful than morphine.
2006 - The Da Vinci Code film comes out in theaters worldwide. The movie is based on the controversial thriller by Dan Brown.
2007 - Three people are killed and two wounded in a sniper attack in Moscow, Idaho.
2007 – “Curlin” wins the Preakness Stakes, extending the Triple Crown drought to 29 years.
2009 - The Government Accountability Office warns that the Global Positioning System could fail by 2010.
2009 - US astronauts completed a five-day repair of the nineteen-year-old Hubble Space Telescope. The improved Hubble will take its first pictures by the end of the month.
2010 - Khalid Ouazzani (32) of Kansas City, Mo., admitted that he sent $23,500 to Al-Qaeda between 2007-2008. The Morocco-born auto parts dealer became a US citizen in 2006.
2011 – Katie Couric signs off as the host of the CBS Evening News.
2011 – President Obama gives a speech in support of the Arab Spring during which he states that the solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict must include Israel reverting its borders back to the pre-1967 borders. This is viewed by many in the US as putting a knife in the back of a friend. The Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu rejects the proposal.
2012 – Three protesters are arrested in a police raid ahead of this weekend’s 60-nation NATO summit in Chicago.
2012 – Chinese activist Chen Guangcheng and his wife and children arrive at Newark Liberty International Airport, New Jersey, after boarding a flight from Beijing.
2012 – “I’ll Have Another” wins the 2012 Preakness Stakes giving him the chance to become the first horse to win the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing since “Affirmed” in 1978.
2013 - At least two people were killed and 29 injured in Oklahoma as a severe storm system generated several tornadoes in Kansas, Oklahoma and Iowa. The storms leveled neighborhoods and sent frightened residents scurrying for shelter as extreme conditions are expected to linger across the Midwest.
1795 – Johns Hopkins, American philanthropist (d. 1873)
1879 – Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor, American-born politician, nemesis of Winston Churchill (d. 1964)
1897 – Frank Luke, American World War I pilot (d. 1918)
1925 – Malcolm X, American civil rights activist (d. 1965)
1934 – Jim Lehrer, American television journalist
1939 – Dick Scobee, American astronaut (d. 1986)
1949 – Archie Manning, American football player
1959 – Nicole Brown Simpson, Ex-wife of O.J. Simpson and murder victim. (d. 1994)
1968 – Kyle Eastwood, American jazz musician; son of Clint Eastwood
BROWN, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 19 May 1863. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 24 August 1896. Citation: Voluntarily carried a verbal message from Col. A. C. Parry to Gen. Hugh Ewing through a terrific fire and in plain view of the enemy.
HOWE, ORION P.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company C, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 19 May 1863. Entered service at: Woken, Ill. Birth: Portage County, Ohio. Date of issue: 2 3 April 1896. Citation: A drummer boy, 14 years of age, and severely wounded and exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy, he persistently remained upon the field of battle until he had reported to Gen. W. T. Sherman the necessity of supplying cartridges for the use of troops under command of Colonel Malmborg.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 13th U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 19 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Venango County, Pa. Date of issue: 13 May 1899. Citation: Voluntarily and at the risk of his life, under a severe fire of the enemy, aided and assisted to the rear an officer who had been severely wounded and left on the field.
The Genius of Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison (1847- 1931), American inventor, was born at Milan, Ohio, Feb. 11, 1847. He was educated at home by his mother, because his progress in
school was slow, his parents were not poor and he enjoyed all the advantages usual to a boy of his period. He built up a flourishing business selling newspaper, tobacco and candy on the railroad trains. His journeys on the trains brought him in contact with telegraph operators, and in 1863 he himself became an operator traveling from one position to another in the Midwest.
Six powerful reasons to recognize the genius of Thomas Alva Edison are: 1) Edison devised methods of making telegraph entirely practical. 2) Invented the carbon transmitter which became a part of the telephone,.3) He, devised the phonograph. 4) devised carbon filament for incandescent lamp. 5) the Edison effect. 6) Improving cinematic projector. These are six powerful reasons to remind him.
In 1868 he was employed by the Western Union Telegraph Company in Boston and the next year his first patent was granted, for an electrographic vote recorder. In 1869 he moved to New York City, where he was employed as general manager of Law’s Gold Indicator Company. He also entered into a partnership with Franklin L. Pope and J.N. Ashley, Edison, and Company, electrical engineers specializing in designing and installing all kinds of telegraphic equipment.
Marshall Lefferts, president of the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company, purchased the firm in 1870 and gave Edison $40,000 for the rights too certain improvements which Edison had devised stock-market tickers, with this money Edison set up in business for himself, and he and his associates began a long career as improvers of the telegraph. Although an automatic telegraph had been invented by an Englishman, George Little, it was unwieldy and liable to break down. Edison devised methods of making it entirely practical.
When Alexander graham Bell invented the telephone in 1875, Edison spent a year improving it and invented the carbon transmitter which became a part of the telephone throughout the world, clarifying speech so that it was no longer harsh and impersonal.
His greatest single invention was made in 1877, when he devised the phonograph. In 1876 Edison moved to Menlo Park, N.J., where he built larger research laboratories. In 1879 Edison made incandescent lamp really practicable by the use of a carbon filament.
His work on the lamp led in 1883 to his only contribution to pure science, when he noted that the lamp could be used as a valve receiving negative but not positive electricity. This observation is known as the Edisoneffect. Ambrose Fleming, who made use of Edison’s observations in inventing the electron tube in 1904.
In 1896 Edison bought the rights to Thomas Armat’s cinematic projector and after improving it, placed it on the market as the Edison Vita-scope. In conclusion Edison was granted more than one thousand patents during his lifetime, and his real genius has been recognized as that of a man who could take some impractical device and make it not only work but work well. Edison died in West Orange, Oct. 18, 1931.
“God gave you the gift of 86,400 seconds today. Have you used one to say “thank you”?”
~ William Arthur Ward
alacrity uh-LACK-ruh-tee, noun:
A cheerful or eager readiness or willingness, often manifested by brisk, lively action or promptness in response.
Alacrity comes from Latin alacritas, from alacer, “lively.”
1492 - Christopher Columbus signs contract with Spain to find the Indies
1521 – Martin Luther is excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazano reached the present-day New York Harbor.
1629 – First commercial fishery established.
1629 – Horses were first imported into the colonies by the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1673 – Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River.
1733 - England passed the Molasses Act, putting high tariffs on rum and molasses imported to the colonies from a country other than British possessions.
1756 - Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War.
1775 – Revolutionary War: the Continental Congress bans trade with Canada.
1792 – Twenty-four merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 68 Wall Street.
1803 – John Hawkins & Richard French patent the Reaping Machine.
1838 - Pennsylvania Hall in Philadelphia was burned following an abolitionist meeting.
1839 – Lorenzo Adkins patented a water wheel.
1845 - The rubber band was patented.
1849 - A fire in St. Louis, Mo., destroyed more than 400 buildings and two dozen steamships.
1863 – Civil War: The Union army defeats the Confederates on the Big Black River and drives them into Vicksburg.
1864 – Civil War: The Battle of Adairsville, Georgia, resulted in a Confederate retreat.
1871 – While on a raiding expedition into Texas, one of the most influential of the militant Kiowa chiefs, Satanta, and his warriors set up a trap along the Butterfield Southern Route. The war party let a small army ambulance wagon train pass and attacked the rest. Unknown to the Chief, General William Tecumseh Sherman, the commander of the army, had been riding in the ambulance train.
1875 – The first Kentucky Derby horse race took place at Churchill Downs in Louisville. The horse, Aristides, and his rider, Oliver Lewis, crossed the finish line ahead of the rest of the field. Aristides won the one and a half mile Run for the Roses in a time of 2 minutes, 37-3/4 seconds.
1876 – 7th US Cavalry under Custer leaves Fort Lincoln. Eleven companies with 45 men each left the fort. Their destination was the Big Horn Valley. None returned.
1877 – Edwin T. Holmes installed the first telephone switchboard burglar alarm.
1881 – Frederick Douglass appointed recorder of deeds for Washington DC. Douglass was a loyal spokesman for the Republican party and vigorously campaigned for its candidates. His support helped gain hundreds of thousands of black votes for Republicans.
1881 – The New Testament version of the bible commonly called the “Revised Version” (RV) or the “English Revised Version” (ERV) of 1881 was released.
1883 - Buffalo Bill Cody’s 1st wild west show premiered in Omaha.
1884 – Alaska becomes a US territory.The passage of the First Organic Act (1884) made Alaska a civil and judicial district and provided the territory with judges, clerks, and marshals.
1885 - For the second time in two years, the Apache chief Geronimo breaks out of an Arizona reservation, sparking panic among Arizona settlers.
1890 – Clyde Fitch’s “Beau Brummel” premieres in New York City. Fitch was the first American playwright to publish his plays.
1921 – President Harding opens, via telephone, first Valencia Orange Show. The show folded its tent after a decade, but it eventually became ther Orange County Fair.
1924 - In Santa Cruz, Ca., the Giant Dipper roller coaster opened to the public. It was built by local resident Arthur Looff. It cost $50,000 and took 47 days to construct. It was declared a Historic Landmark in 1987.
1925 – Cleveland Indian Tris Speaker gets his 3,000th hit.
1926 - The U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires was damaged by bombs that were believed set by sympathizers of Sacco and Vanzetti.
1932 – Congress changes the name “Porto Rico” to “Puerto Rico.”
1933 - Jimmie Rodgers began recording a series of 24 songs. He died nine days later at the age of 35.
1938 – Radio quiz show “Information Please!” debuts on NBC Blue Network.
1938 - Congress passed the Vinson Naval Act, providing for a two-ocean navy.
1939 – First sports telecast-Columbia vs Princeton-college baseball.
1939 - The first fashion to be shown on television was broadcast in New York from the Ritz-Carleton Hotel.
1939 – Glenn Miller and his orchestra broadcast from the Glen Island Casino.
1940 – President Roosevelt announces plans to recommission 35 more destroyers.
1941 -Pennsylvania declares legal holiday to honor the Philadelphia A’s manager Connie Mack.
1942 – World War II: USS Tautog (SS-199) sinks Japanese sub, I-28; while USS Triton (SS-201) sinks I-164.
1943 – World War II: The Memphis Belle, one of a group of American bombers based in Britain, becomes the first B-17 to complete 25 missions over Europe.
1944 – World War II: General Eisenhower sets D-Day for June 5th.
1944 – World War II: Allied aircraft carriers HMS Illustrious and USS Saratoga raid oil installations at Surabaya, on Java.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, the US 152nd Division, part of US 11th Corps, entrenches in favorable positions on Woodpecker Ridge as the Japanese retire.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 6th Marine Division continues assaulting Sugar Loaf Hill and have Japanese positions heavily bombarded by aircraft, artillery and ships.
1945 – World War II: Aircraft from the USS Ticonderoga attack targets on the Japanese held island of Taroa and the Maleolap atoll, encountering limited resistance.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “Candy” by Johnny Mercer & Jo Stafford, “I’m Beginning to See the Light” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Kitty Kallen), “Dream” by The Pied Pipers and “At Mail Call Today” by Gene Autry all topped the charts.
1946 - U.S. President Truman seized control of the nation’s railroads, delaying a threatened strike by engineers and trainmen.
1948 - The Soviet Union recognized the new state of Israel.
1951 – Korean War: Aircraft from carriers attack bridges between Wonsan and Hamhung, Korea.
1952 – “Blue Tango” by Leroy Anderson topped the charts.
1952 – “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs topped the charts.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Believe” by Frankie Laine, “April in Portugal“ by The Les Baxter Orchestra, “Song from Moulin Rouge” by The Percy Faith Orchestra and “Mexican Joe” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1954 – Supreme Court unanimously rules on Brown v Topeka Board of Education reversed. Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
1956 – The first synthetic mica (synthamica) was offered for sale. Mica is a crystal-like substance used in electronic applications. It aids in resisting heat and electricity.
1958 - “Jerry Lee Lewis Day” was held in his hometown of Farriday, LA.
1960 - Connecticut executed Joseph “Mad Dog” Taborsky in the electric chair for a series of murders and robberies.
1960 - The YF4H-1 Phantom fighter and Douglas DC-8 were unveiled.
1961 – CHART TOPPERS – “Runaway” by Del Shannon, “Mother-In-Law” by Ernie K-Doe, “A Hundred Pounds of Clay” by Gene McDaniels and “Hello Walls” by Faron Young all topped the charts.
1961 - Cuban leader Fidel Castro offered to exchange prisoners captured in the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion for 500 bulldozers.
1967 – Tennessee Governor Ellington repeals “Monkey Law”, upheld in 1925 Scopes Trial.
1968 – Vietnam War: The second Air Guard unit to arrive in Vietnam is Iowa’s 174th Tactical Fighter Squadron.
1968 - In Maryland the Catonsville Nine including Daniel and Phillip Berrigan (1921-2002), a Catholic priest, took hundreds of files from the draft board at the Knights of Columbus building and set them on fire with gasoline and soap chips.
1969 – CHART TOPPERS – “Aquarius/Let the Sun Shine In” by The 5th Dimension, “Hair” by The Cowsills, “Get Back” by The Beatles and “My Life (Throw It Away if I Want To)” by Bill Anderson all topped the charts.
1969 – Baltimore, Cleveland & Pittsburgh agree to go from NFC to the AFC in the NFL.
1970 -Hank Aaron becomes ninth player to get 3,000 hits.
1970 – Thor Heyerdahl sets sail from Morocco on the papyrus boat “Ra II” to sail the Atlantic Ocean.
1970 - A force of 10,000 South Vietnamese troops, supported by 200 U.S. advisers, aircraft and logistical elements, attack into what was known as the “Parrot’s Beak,” the area of Cambodia that projects into South Vietnam above the Mekong Delta.
1971 – The musical, “Godspell“, opened on Broadway. It ran for 2,124 performances.
1973 – Joe Ferguson, hits the 6,000th Dodger homerun.
1973 – Senate hearings in the Watergate scandal begin exploring the nature of Richard Nixon’s administration. They are televised.
1973 – First woman to hold a major Navy command, Captain Robin Lindsay Quigley assumes command of Navy Service School, San Diego, CA.
1973 – Stevie Wonder releases “You are the Sunshine of my Life.”
1974 – Police in Los Angeles, CA, raid the Symbionese Liberation Army’s headquarters, killing six members. Patty Hearst was not there.
1975 – NBC paid $5 million for rights to show “Gone with the Wind” one time.
1975 – “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” by Tony Orlando & Dawn topped the charts.
1975 - Elton John’s “Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy” album was released. It was the first album to be certified a million-seller on its first day of release.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “When I Need You” by Leo Sayer, “Sir Duke” by Stevie Wonder, “Couldn’t Get It Right” by Climax Blues Band and “Some Broken Hearts Never Mend” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1979 – State record low temperature of 12° happens in Mauna Kea, HI.
1980 – “Call Me” by Blondie topped the charts.
1980 – Rioting erupted in Miami’s Liberty City neighborhood after an all-white jury in Tampa acquitted four former Miami police officers of fatally beating black insurance executive Arthur McDuffie. Eight people were killed in the rioting.
1983 – U.S. Department of Energy declassifies documents showing world’s largest mercury pollution event in Oak Ridge, TN (ultimately found to be 4.2 million pounds), in response to “Appalachian Observer’s” Freedom of Information Act request.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t You Forget About Me” by Simple Minds, “One Night in Bangkok” by Murray Head, “Everything She Wants” by Wham! and “Somebody Should Leave” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1985 - Bobby Ewing died on the season finale of “Dallas” on CBS-TV. He returned the following season.
1986 – “Greatest Love of All” by Whitney Houston topped the charts.
1987 – An Iraqi fighter jet fires two missiles into the U.S. warship USS Stark (FFG-31), killing 37 and injuring 21 of her crew. Both Iraq and the United States said the attack was a mistake.
1987 - Eric ‘Sleepy’ Floyd of the Golden State Warriors set a playoff record for points in a single quarter with 29.
1993 – Intel’s new Pentium processor is unveiled. It had 3.1 million transistors.
1995 - The US Senate ethics committee concluded that Sen. Bob Packwood (R-Ore.) had to face a full-scale Senate investigation of charges that included making improper advances toward women.
1996 - President Clinton signed a measure requiring neighborhood notification when sex offenders move in. Megan’s Law was named for 7-year-old Megan Kanka, who was raped and killed in 1994.
1996 - Scott Brayton, race car driver, was killed during a practice run for the Indy 500 race. He was the 40th driver to die during practice, qualifications or the race. 66 people in all have died in accidents related to the race.
1997 – The space shuttle Atlantis delivers a new oxygen generator and a fresh American astronaut to Russia’s Mir space station.
1997 – “Silver Charm” won the Preakness, two weeks after winning the Kentucky Derby. However, he failed to win the Belmont Stakes.
1998 - New York Yankees pitcher David Wells became the thirteenth player in modern major league baseball history to throw a perfect game.
1999 - The Coast Guard “kept the peace” when the Makah Indian tribe hunted and killed a gray whale in Neah Bay, Washington. The Makah were guaranteed the right to hunt whales in their 1855 treaty with the U.S.
1999 - The US Supreme Court ruled that California cannot pay lower welfare benefits to new residents as proposed in a 1992 state law. The Supreme Court banned states from paying lower welfare benefits to newcomers than to longtime residents.
2000 - Thomas E. Blanton Jr. and David Luker surrendered to police in Birmingham, AL. The two former Ku Klux Klan members were arrested on charges from the bombing of a church in 1963 that killed four young black girls.
2001 -The U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp based on Charles M. Schulz’s “Peanuts” comic strip.
2002 - Former President Jimmy Carter ended a historic visit to Cuba sharply at odds with the Bush administration over how to deal with Fidel Castro.
2002 - Midwest flooding left as many as 9 people dead over the last 2 weeks. Missouri Gov. Bob Holden asked Pres. Bush to declare 37 counties as disaster areas.
2004 – Massachusetts becomes the first U.S. state to legalize same-sex marriage.
2005 - Toyota said it will build a gasoline-electric hybrid version of the Camry at its plant in Georgetown, Ky.
2006 – The U.S. aircraft carrier Oriskany was sunk about 24 miles off Pensacola Beach in the Gulf of Mexico to be an artificial reef.
2006 - The FBI began digging at a Michigan horse farm in search of the remains of former Teamsters leader Jimmy Hoffa; the two-week search yielded no evidence.
2007 – Trains from North and South Korea cross the 38th Parallel in a test-run agreed by both governments. This is the first time that trains have crossed the Demilitarized Zone since 1953.
2007 – US lawmakers branded China and Russia the world’s two biggest copyright thieves.
2007 – In Oakland, Ca., a mother and daughter were kidnapped and tortured by men associated with Your Black Muslim Bakery. Yusuf Bey IV, the group’s leader, believed the women could reveal where a local drug dealer kept his money.
2007 – The journal “Science” reported that Antarctica’s Southern Ocean, a crucial “carbon sink” into which 15 percent of the world’s excess carbon dioxide flows, is reaching saturation and soon may be unable to absorb more , a deeply troubling development.
2007 – Mexican police chased the remnants of a criminal assault force through the mountains of Sonora near the Arizona border after kidnappings and gunbattles that left at least twenty-two people dead.
2008 – This was the official release date by the US Mint for the Adams dollar coin, the 6th of its presidential dollar series.
2008 – In Louisiana six train cars derailed spilling 8-10 thousand gallons of hydrochloric acid and forming a toxic cloud over Lafayette, 125 miles west of New Orleans.
2009 – In Indiana Pres. Obama addressed a graduation ceremony at Notre Dame Univ. and called for “open hearts, open minds and fair-minded words” in the pursuit of “common ground” regarding the issue of abortion rights.
2009 - A 4.7-magnitude earthquake strikes Inglewood and Lennox, CA.
2009 – In New York City, Mitchell Wiener, an assistant principal at a middle school, became the first death linked to the H1N1 flu virus.
2010 – The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that teenagers may not be locked up for life without chance of parole if they haven’t killed anyone.
2011 – The final episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show is recorded in the US city of Chicago.
2011 – The publisher Condé Nast agrees to be the anchor tenant at One World Trade Center, the largest building of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and prospectively the tallest building in the United States.
2012 - A judge struck down a portion of a law giving the government wide powers to regulate the detention, interrogation and prosecution of suspected terrorists, saying it left journalists, scholars and political activists facing the prospect of indefinite detention for exercising First Amendment rights.
2013 - Two commuter trains serving New York City collided in Connecticut during Friday’s evening rush hour, injuring about 50 people, authorities said. There were no reports of fatalities.
1743 – Seth Warner, American revolutionary leader (d. 1784)
1868 – Horace Elgin Dodge, American automobile manufacturer (d. 1920)
1911 – Maureen O’Sullivan, Irish actress (d. 1998)
1940 – Alan Kay, American computer scientist
1955 – Bill Paxton, American actor and film director
1956 – Sugar Ray Leonard, American boxer
1956 – Bob Saget, American actor
*BURKE, ROBERT C.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company 1, 3d Battalion, 27th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Southern Quang Nam Province Republic of Vietnam, 17 May 1968. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 7 November 1949, Monticello, Ill. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty for service as a machine gunner with Company 1. While on Operation ALLEN BROOK, Company 1 was approaching a dry river bed with a heavily wooded treeline that borders the hamlet of Le Nam (1), when they suddenly came under intense mortar, rocket propelled grenades, automatic weapons and small-arms fire from a large, well concealed enemy force which halted the company’s advance and wounded several marines. Realizing that key points of resistance had to be eliminated to allow the units to advance and casualties to be evacuated, Pfc. Burke, without hesitation, seized his machine gun and launched a series of 1-man assaults against the fortified emplacements. As he aggressively maneuvered to the edge of the steep river bank, he delivered accurate suppressive fire upon several enemy bunkers, which enabled his comrades to advance and move the wounded marines to positions of relative safety. As he continued his combative actions, he located an opposing automatic weapons emplacement and poured intense fire into the position, killing 3 North Vietnamese soldiers as they attempted to flee. Pfc. Burke then fearlessly moved from one position to another, quelling the hostile fire until his weapon malfunctioned. Obtaining a casualty’s rifle and hand grenades, he advanced further into the midst of the enemy fire in an assault against another pocket of resistance, killing 2 more of the enemy. Observing that a fellow marine had cleared his malfunctioning machine gun he grasped his weapon and moved into a dangerously exposed area and saturated the hostile treeline until he fell mortally wounded. Pfc. Burke’s gallant actions upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a squad leader serving with the Second Battalion, Twenty-Second Marines, Sixth Marine Division, in sustained combat operations against Japanese forces on Okinawa, Ryukya Islands from 14 to 17 May 1945. On the first day, Corporal Day rallied his squad and the remnants of another unit and led them to a critical position forward of the front lines of Sugar Loaf Hill. Soon thereafter, they came under an intense mortar and artillery barrage that was quickly followed by a ferocious ground attack by some forty Japanese soldiers. Despite the loss of one-half of his men, Corporal Day remained at the forefront, shouting encouragement, hurling hand grenades, and directing deadly fire, thereby repelling the determined enemy. Reinforced by six men, he led his squad in repelling three fierce night attacks but suffered five additional Marines killed and one wounded, whom he assisted to safety. Upon hearing nearby calls for corpsman assistance, Corporal Day braved heavy enemy fire to escort four seriously wounded Marines, one at a time, to safety. Corporal Day then manned a light machine gun, assisted by a wounded Marine, and halted another night attack. In the ferocious action, his machine gun was destroyed, and he suffered multiple white phosphorous and fragmentation wounds. He reorganized his defensive position in time to halt a fifth enemy attack with devastating small arms fire. On three separated occasions, Japanese soldiers closed to within a few feet of his foxhole, but were killed by Corporal Day. During the second day, the enemy conducted numerous unsuccessful swarming attacks against his exposed position. When the attacks momentarily subsided, over 70 enemy dead were counted around his position. On the third day, a wounded and exhausted Corporal Day repulsed the enemy’s final attack, killing a dozen enemy soldiers at close range. Having yielded no ground and with more than 100 enemy dead around his position, Corporal Day preserved the lives of his fellow Marines and made a significant contribution to the success of the Okinawa campaign. By his extraordinary heroism, repeated acts of valor, and quintessential battlefield leadership, Corporal Day inspired the efforts of his outnumbered Marines to defeat a much larger enemy force, reflecting great credit upon himself and upholding the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.
KENDALL, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 49th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Black River Bridge, Miss., 17 May 1863. Entered service at: Dubois County, Ind. Birth: Dubois County, Ind. Date of issue: 12 February 1894. Citation: Voluntarily led the company in a charge and was the first to enter the enemy’s works, taking a number of prisoners.
National Sea Monkeys Day
Car Gets Power From Nothing!!
The 1931 Pierce-Arrow electric motor car that got its energy from thin air.
Posted by PC Latest news, Technology Monday, December 13th, 2010
Nikola Tesla powered this all steel frame and body 1931 Pierce-Arrow with electrical energy that was harnessed from thin air. Not a drop of gasoline or diesel fuel was used. In fact the internal combustion engine was completely removed. No battery banks were used either. This vehicle was driven to speeds of 90 miles per hour with no fossil fuel and just a single 12 volt battery. This infinite and free energy source produces absolutely zero emissions.
Dallas Morning News
The Electric Auto that almost triumphed: Power Source of ‘31 car still a mystery
by A.C. Greene,
January 24th, 1931
It is a mystery car once demonstrated by Nikola Tesla, developer of alternating current, that might have made electrics triumphant. Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. and Westinghouse in 1931, he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternating-current electric motor with no external power source. From the electric motor trailed two very thick cables, which connected with the dashboard. In addition, there was an ordinary 12-volt storage battery. (”There was a 12-volt Willard battery installed in the car, but it was for the lights only and much too small to run the car. In any case.”) The motor was rated at 80 horsepower. Maximum rotor speed was stated to be 30 turns per second (1800 rpm). A 6-foot vertical antenna rod was fitted into the rear section of the car.
At the appointed time, Nikola Tesla arrived from New York City and inspected the Pierce-Arrow automobile. He then went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of tubes (12 radio vacuum tubes), wires and assorted resistors. A box measuring 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high was assembled housing the circuit. The “power receiver” was then placed into the dashboard of the car and its wires connected to the antenna and to the air-cooled, brushless motor. Two rods 1/4” in diameter stuck out of the box about 3” in length. Tesla began making adjustments on the “power receiver.”
Mr. Tesla got into the driver’s seat, pushed the two rods in and stated, “We now have power”. He put the car into gear and it moved forward! This vehicle, powered by an A.C. motor, was driven to speeds of 90 m.p.h. and performed better than any internal combustion engine of its day! One week was spent testing the vehicle. Several newspapers in Buffalo reported this test. When asked where the power came from, Tesla replied, “From the ethers all around us”. (Ethers is Electromagnetic radiation. Radio waves is electromagnetic radiation which has the lowest frequency, the longest wavelength, and is produced by charged particles moving back and forth) Several people suggested that Tesla was mad and somehow in league with sinister forces of the universe. He became incensed, removed his mysterious box from the vehicle and returned to his laboratory in New York City. His secret died with him!
Or did it?
How did ethers power the vehicle? The owner of FuelReducer and editor of this website, Paul W Kincaid, has been trying to answer that question since 2005, when he first read about it in an old magazine he found in a neighbor’s barn. According to data from the 5 years of investigation there is one very plausible explanation as to how ethers powered the car. Research data indicates that Tesla’s mystery box was nothing more than a simple regenerative vacuum tube radio wave receiver.The 1931 Pierce-Arrow electric motor car that got its energy from thin air.
Posted by PC Latest news, Technology Monday, December 13th, 2010
Nikola Tesla powered this all steel frame and body 1931 Pierce-Arrow with electrical energy that was harnessed from thin air. Not a drop of gasoline or diesel fuel was used. In fact the internal combustion engine was completely removed. No battery banks were used either. This vehicle was driven to speeds of 90 miles per hour with no fossil fuel and just a single 12 volt battery. This infinite and free energy source produces absolutely zero emissions.
Dallas Morning News
The Electric Auto that almost triumphed: Power Source of ‘31 car still a mystery
by A.C. Greene,
January 24th, 1931
It is a mystery car once demonstrated by Nikola Tesla, developer of alternating current, that might have made electrics triumphant.
Supported by the Pierce-Arrow Co. and Westinghouse in 1931, he took the gasoline engine from a new Pierce-Arrow and replaced it with an 80-horsepower alternating-current electric motor with no external power source. From the electric motor trailed two very thick cables, which connected with the dashboard. In addition, there was an ordinary 12-volt storage battery. (”There was a 12-volt Willard battery installed in the car, but it was for the lights only and much too small to run the car. In any case.”) The motor was rated at 80 horsepower. Maximum rotor speed was stated to be 30 turns per second (1800 rpm). A 6-foot vertical antenna rod was fitted into the rear section of the car.
At the appointed time, Nikola Tesla arrived from New York City and inspected the Pierce-Arrow automobile. He then went to a local radio store and purchased a handful of tubes (12 radio vacuum tubes), wires and assorted resistors. A box measuring 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high was assembled housing the circuit. The “power receiver” was then placed into the dashboard of the car and its wires connected to the antenna and to the air-cooled, brushless motor. Two rods 1/4” in diameter stuck out of the box about 3” in length. Tesla began making adjustments on the “power receiver”
Mr. Tesla got into the driver’s seat, pushed the two rods in and stated, “We now have power”. He put the car into gear and it moved forward! This vehicle, powered by an A.C. motor, was driven to speeds of 90 m.p.h. and performed better than any internal combustion engine of its day! One week was spent testing the vehicle. Several newspapers in Buffalo reported this test. When asked where the power came from, Tesla replied, “From the ethers all around us”. (Ethers is Electromagnetic radiation. Radio waves is electromagnetic radiation which has the lowest frequency, the longest wavelength, and is produced by charged particles moving back and forth) Several people suggested that Tesla was mad and somehow in league with sinister forces of the universe. He became incensed, removed his mysterious box from the vehicle and returned to his laboratory in New York City. His secret died with him!
Or did it?
How did ethers power the vehicle? The owner of FuelReducer and editor of this website, Paul W Kincaid, has been trying to answer that question since 2005, when he first read about it in an old magazine he found in a neighbor’s barn. According to data from the 5 years of investigation there is one very plausible explanation as to how ethers powered the car. Research data indicates that Tesla’s mystery box was nothing more than a simple regenerative vacuum tube radio wave receiver. A type of electronic instrument that receives radio frequencies from thin air and amplifies the received weak radio signal. This simple receiver makes use of vacuum tubes, resistors and wires (the exact same electronic components used by Tesla) to increase the power and/or amplitude of a signal. The main component of Tesla’s “Power Receiver” is the vacuum tube – also called a valve amplifier. The simplest valve amplifier was invented by John Ambrose Fleming while working for the Marconi Company in London in 1904 and named the diode, as it had two electrodes. The diode conducted electricity in one direction only and was used as a radio detector and a rectifier. The diode was most likely used as an instrument to convert AC (alternating current is when the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction) of RF to DC (direct current is the flow of electric charge is only in one direction) In 1906 Lee De Forest added a third electrode and invented the first electronic amplifying device, the triode, which he named the Audion. This additional control grid modulates the current that flows between cathode and anode.
Tesla used valve amplifiers to increase the power or amplitude of the ordinary radio waves that were received by the 6-foot vertical antenna rod that was fitted into the rear section of the car. An antenna is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. In other words, Tesla used the antenna mounted on the rear of the car to convert the freely available electromagnetic waves called radio waves into electrical current.
Tesla bought vacuum tube diodes which are vacuum tubes (valve amplifiers) with two electrodes; a plate and a cathode. A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current (AC or the power that comes from your home’s electrical outlets) to direct current (DC or the power from a battery). AC power circuit is a sine wave. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires (such as an antenna) are also examples of alternating current.
Tesla used the vacuum tubes, wires and assorted resistors to build a radio wave receiver/amplifier 24 inches long, 12 inches wide and 6 inches high, with a pair of 3-inch rods 1/4” in diameter sticking out. The pair of rods that Tesla pushed in were used to close (complete) the circuit – like an on/off switch. The rod ends were most likely the positive and negative leads (connections) between the car antenna and and the radio wave receiver/amplifier. By pushing them into the box containing the radio wave receiver/amplifier the connection was completed allowing the radio waves that were received from the air by the antenna to flow through the receiver/amplifier to the electric motor. This is like you would do when you plugged an electric guitar into an amplifier. Like the electric guitar amplifier the signal generated by striking a cord (string) of a guitar would travel from the guitar through the wire connecting the guitar to the amplifier and into the amplifier where the barely audible tone would then be amplified. An electric guitar without an amplifier is essential an air guitar until it is plugged into an amplifier. The amplifier amplifies the sound wave generated by striking the strings of the electric guitar. That is basically how Tesla was able to amplify and convert the invisible electromagnetic radiation called radio waves into electricity to power the AC motor in the 1931 Pierce-Arrow. The word electricity comes from the fact that current is nothing more than electrons moving along a conductor, like an antenna, that have been harnessed for energy. Tesla used an antenna (an electrical conductor) and an amplifier to harness and then amplify energy.
Why hasn’t anyone revealed this 80 year old secret? Tesla built a free energy device, a device that would threaten the oil industry, the nuclear energy industry and the hydro electric power monopoly. He built a device that would bankrupt every oil refinery in the World, a device that would literally put an end to Global warming. Disease and illnesses caused by pollution from oil and gas products would simply disappear. If Tesla’s invention was put into mass production the World would never have been involved in wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan, the Exxon Mobil and BP oil spills would never have occurred, and millions of people would still be alive and very healthy today.
“A superficial knowledge is not enough. It must be knowledge capable of analyzing a situation quickly and making an immediate decision.”
bumptious BUMP-shuhs, adjective:
Crudely, presumptuously, or loudly self-assertive.
Bumptious is perhaps a blend of bump and presumptuous.
1691 – Jacob Leisler, American colonist, was hanged for treason.
1771 – The Battle of Alamance, a pre-American Revolutionary War battle between local militia and a group of rebels called “The Regulators”, occurs in present-day Alamance County, North Carolina.
1777 – Lachlan McIntosh and Button Gwinnett shoot each other during a duel near Savannah, Georgia. Gwinnett, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, dies three days later.
1817 – Mississippi River steamboat service begins.
1820 – The U.S.S. Congress becomes first U.S. warship to visit China. She was a 38-gun wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate of the United States Navy.
1843 – The first major wagon train heading for the Pacific Northwest sets out on the Oregon Trail with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri.
1846 – Mexican-American War: Eleven cutters were assigned to cooperate with Army and Navy in the Mexican War. USRCs McLane, Legare, Woodbury, Ewing, Forward, and Van Buren were assigned to the Army. USRCs Wolcott, Bibb, Morris, and Polk were assigned to the Navy.
1861 – Civil War: Confederate government offered war volunteers a $10 premium.
1861 – Civil War: Commander John Rodgers ordered to report to the War Department to establish naval forces on the western rivers under the command of General John C. Fremont.The importance of controlling the Mississippi and its tributaries which pierced the interior in every direction was recognized immediately by the U.S. Government.
1861 – Civil War: Kentucky proclaimed its neutrality.
1861 – Civil War: Tennessee officially admitted to the Confederacy.
1863 – Civil War: The Union army seals the fate of Vicksburg by defeating the Confederates at the Battle of Champion’s Hill.
1864 – Civil War: In the Atlanta Campaign, the battle of Resaca, begun May 13, ended.
1864 – Civil War: Having crossed the rapids of the Red River at Alexandria, Rear Admiral Porter next had to traverse the many bars in the River near its mouth.
1866 – The U.S. Congress eliminates the half dime coin and replaces it with the five cent piece, or nickel.
1866 – Charles Elmer Hires, a pharmacist from Philadelphia, invents root beer.
1868 – President Andrew Johnson is acquitted in his impeachment trial by one vote in the United States Senate.
1874 – A flood on the Mill River in Massachusetts destroys most of four towns and kills 139 people.
1879 – Wallace Wilkerson was executed by firing squad in Utah. It was so disgraceful that one newspaper, the Ogden Junction, sarcastically reminded the state that “the French guillotine never fails.” It was 27 minutes before he could be pronounced dead.
1894 – Fire in Boston destroys baseball stadium & 170 other buildings.
1888 – The first demonstration of recording on a flat disc was demonstrated by Emile Berliner.
1888 – The capitol of Texas was dedicated in Austin.
1899 – One month after the Spanish-American War began in April 1898, an expeditionary force sailed from San Francisco to capture the Spanish colonial capital of Manila, on Luzon Island, Philippines.
1902 – Two deaf-mutes face each other for first time – Reds beat Giants 5-3.
1903 – First transcontinental motorcycle trip begins at San Francisco (George Wymann) Wyman’s trip was made on a 1.25-horsepower, 90cc California motorcycle designed by Roy Marks. It took 50 days.
1910 – The United States Congress authorizes the creation of the US Bureau of Mines.
1914 – Soccer’s first ever National Challenge Cup final is played. Brooklyn Field Club defeats Brooklyn Celtic 2-1.
1914 – American Horseshoe Pitchers Association organizes in Kansas City.
1918 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is passed by the U.S. Congress, making criticism of the government an imprisonable offense. It was repealed two years later.
1919 – Three Navy flying boats begin the first trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland. The naval Curtiss aircraft NC-4′s, commanded by Albert Cushing Read, leave Trepassey, Newfoundland, for Lisbon via the Azores.
1920 – In Rome, Pope Benedict XV canonizes Joan of Arc as a saint.
1922 – “Canada Dry” Pale Ginger Ale was trademark registered. The Canada Dry story begins in 1890 with pharmacist and chemist, John J. McLaughlin. After numerous experiments, in 1904, McLaughlin achieved the formula for his Canada Dry Pale Dry Ginger Ale.
1925 – First network radiocast (WHAS) of Kentucky Derby.
1927 – Yankee outfielder Bob Meusel steals 2B, 3B, and home in the 3rd inning as New York tops Detroit, 6-2.
1927 – Supreme Court ruled bootleggers must pay income tax. The FBI quickly investigated Al Capone’s earnings and discovered that-despite his huge income, he had never filed an income tax return.
1927 – Marines participated in the Battle of La Paz Centro in Nicaragua.
1929 – In Hollywood, CA, the first Academy Awards are handed out. “Wings” with Emil Jennings & Janet Gaynor won.
1929 – Paul Whiteman and his orchestra backed Bing Crosby recorded “Sposin’.”
1933 – Cecil Travis becomes first player to get five hits in his first game.
1939 – First American League night game, Philadelphia Shribe Park (Indians 8, Athletics 3 in 10.)
1939 – Food stamps are first issued.
1940 – Roosevelt asks Congress to authorize the production of 50,000 military planes per year and for a $900,000,000 extraordinary credit to finance WW II.
1941 – First US/radio performance of Bennett’s “Symphony in D for the Dodgers”
1941 – World War II: Last great German air attack on Great Britain (Birmingham).
1943 – World War II: Dambuster bombs dropped. They were used for the first and only time to breach three massive Ruhr Valley dams–the Eder, the Mohne and the Sorpe–that supplied water and hydroelectric power to Germany’s vital armament factories.
1943 – World War II: On Attu near the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, the Japanese are forced to pull back as the Americans continue their attacks near Holtz Bay.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: German troops destroyed the synagogue of Warsaw. Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto ended after 30 days of fighting.
1944 – World War II: American forces move from Hollandia toward Wadke Island.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust: The first of over 180,000 Hungarian Jews reached Auschwitz.
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Long Ago and Far Away” by Helen Forrest & Dick Haymes,“I’ll Get By” by The Harry James Orchestra (vocal: Dick Haymes),“San Fernando Valley” by Bing Crosby and “Too Late to Worry, Too Blue to Cry” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: On Okinawa, the US 6th Marine Division (part of US 3rd Amphibious Corps) reports heavy casualties in continuing attacks on Sugar Loaf Hill.
1945 – World War II: On Luzon, the US 152nd Division, part of US 11th Corps, attacks Woodpecker Ridge with heavy artillery support and entrenches on the summit.
1946 – Musical “Annie Get Your Gun” starring Ethel Merman premieres in New York City.
1946 – Jack Mullin showed the world the first magnetic tape recorder.
1948 – The body of CBS News correspondent George Polk was found in Solonika Bay in Greece. It had been a week after he’d disappeared.
1951 – Korean War : Chinese Communist Forces launched a second step, fifth-phase offensive [in Korea] and gained up to 20 miles of territory.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Blue Tango” by The Leroy Anderson Orchestra, “Kiss of Fire” by Georgia Gibbs, “Blacksmith Blues” by Ella Mae Morse and “The Wild Side of Life” by Hank Thompson all topped the charts.
1953 – “Song From Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart)” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1953 – Bill Haley and His Comets charts with “Crazy Man Crazy”
1953 - American journalist William N. Oatis is released after serving 22 months of a ten-year prison sentence for espionage in Czechoslovakia.
1955 – Rocky Marciano defeated Don Cocknell in 9 rounds in San Francisco’s Kezar Stadium to retain his world heavyweight title.
1957 – US launches its third atomic submarine, USS Skate, at Groton CT.
1957 – Yankees involved in Copacabana Incident, leads to Billy Martin trade. The incident was a group of Yankees celebrating Billy Martin’s 29th birthday in a raucous fashion. An ensuing fight at Manhattan’s Copacabana Club leads to $5,500 in fines and the eventual trade of Billy to Kansas City.
1958 – Eli Beeding experiences 83 g deceleration on a rocket sled at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. This was 35 mph to a complete stop in .1 seconds. He was hospitalized for 3 days for recovery.
1958 – Major Irwin, USAF flies a Lockheed Starfighter to a record 1,404.18 MPH.
1959 – “The Happy Organ” by Dave “Baby” Cortez topped the charts.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “Stuck on You” by Elvis Presley, “Cathy’s Clown” by The Everly Brothers, “Night” by Jackie Wilson and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling” by Hank Locklin all topped the charts.
1960 – A research study reported that TV commercials “in living color” were over three times more effective than black and white commercials.
1960 – Nikita Khrushchev demands an apology from U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower for U-2 spy plane flights over the Soviet Union thus ending a Big Four summit in Paris.
1960 – Theodore Maiman operates the first optical laser, at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California.
1963 – Gordon Cooper completes 22 orbits in Faith 7, ends US Project Mercury.
1964 – “My Guy” by Mary Wells topped the charts.
1965 – Vietnam War: First US gunfire support in Vietnam by USS Tucker.
1965 – Vietnam War: United States government as “an accidental explosion of a bomb on one aircraft which spread to others” at the Bien Hoa air base leaves 27 U.S. servicemen and 4 South Vietnamese dead and some 95 Americans injured. More than 40 U.S. and South Vietnamese planes, including 10 B-57s, were destroyed.
1965 – The Campbell Soup Company introduces Spaghetti-Os under its Franco-American brand.
1965 – Baltimore Oriole Jim Palmer’s pitching debut, beats Yankees 7-5 and hits a home run.
1965 – “The Roar of the Greasepaint, The Smell of the Crowd”, a Broadway musical starring Anthony Newley, made its premiere at the Shubert Theatre in New York City.
1966 – Beach Boys’ “Pet Sounds” is released
1966 – Columbia Records released Bob Dylan’s album “Blonde on Blonde,” the first ever double album in popular music history.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “Honey” by Bobby Goldsboro, “Tighten Up “by Archie Bell & The Drells, “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly” by Hugo Montenegro and “Have a Little Faith” by David Houston all topped the charts.
1968 – Tony Joe White recorded “Polk Salad Annie.”
1970 – “American Woman” by Guess Who topped the charts.
1971 – First class postage now costs 8¢ (was 6¢).
1972 – Greg Luzinski’s 500′ homerun hits the Liberty Bell monument in Philadelphia’s Veteran Stadium.
1972 – Vietnam: A series of air strikes over five days destroys all of North Vietnam’s pumping stations in the southern panhandle, thereby cutting North Vietnam’s main fuel line to South Vietnam.
1974 – SLA members William and Emily Harris were identified with Patty Hearst in LA during a shoplifting attempt at a sporting goods store. They escaped in a stolen van with an 19-year-old kidnapped victim.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “Boogie Fever” by Sylvers, “Silly Love Songs” by Wings, “Fooled Around and Fell in Love” by Elvin Bishop and “What Goes on When the Sun Goes Down” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1977 – Five people were killed when a New York Airways helicopter, idling on top of the Pan Am Building in Manhattan, toppled over, sending a huge rotor blade flying.
1978 – Patricia Hearst (24) entered the Federal correctional Institute at Pleasanton, Ca., to resume her 7-year sentence for a SF bank robbery with the SLA.
1980 – Dr. George C. Nichopoulous was indicted in Memphis on 14 counts of overprescribing drugs to Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and nine other patients.
1981 – “Bette Davis Eyes” by Kim Carnes topped the charts.
1983 – The television special “Motown 25: Yesterday, Today and Forever” aired. It was a taping of the first time that Michael Jackson performed the moonwalk for a live audience. (Part 1 – 25:55) (Part 2 – 24:40)
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hello” by Lionel Richie, “Hold Me Now” by The Thompson Twins, “Let’s Hear It for the Boy” by Deniece Williams and “To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before” by Julio Iglesias & Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1984 – Mackay pays $218,718 for 44,166 tickets to keep Twins in Minnesota; Twins sell 51,863 tickets but only 6,346 fans show up for the game.
1984 – Philadelphia Phillies pitcher Steve Carlton hits a grand slam home run.
1985 – Michael Jordan named NBA Rookie of Year.
1986 – “Top Gun” premieres.
1987 – “With or Without You” by U2 topped the charts.
1987 – Kentucky Derby winner Alysheba captured the Preakness Stakes in Baltimore. Alysheba fell short in the Belmont Stakes, failing to become the first Triple Crown champion since Affirmed.
1987 – “Bobro 400″, a barge carrying 3,200 tons of garbage, set sail from New York. It set sail garbage that nobody wanted. The floating trash heap began an 8-week, 6,000 mile Odyssey in search of a willing dumping site.
1988 – A report by United States’ Surgeon General C. Everett Koop states that the addictive properties of nicotine are similar to those of heroin and cocaine.
1988 – US Supreme Court rules trash may be searched without a warrant. The court ruled that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside a home.
1991 – Queen Elizabeth becomes first British monarch to address US congress.
1991 – US Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third wrapped up his latest Mideast visit in Israel without an agreement for Arab-Israeli peace talks.
1992 – STS-49: Space Shuttle Endeavour lands safely after a successful maiden voyage.
1992 – America3, skippered by Bill Koch, won the 28th defense of the America’s Cup.
1996 – Sammy Sosa is first Chicago Cub to hit two homeruns in one inning.
1996 – The US Treasury Dept. announced planned to issue a new type of government bond that would protect investors from inflation and help government finance the national debt. The new bond would offer returns that would rise and fall in line with inflation.
1996 – Chevron said it spilled as much as 17,000 gallons of oil into Pearl Harbor after a pipeline sprang a leak.
1996 – The US federal government set aside 3.9 million acres of land in California, Oregon and Washington state for the endangered marbled murrelet.
1997 – The space shuttle Atlantis docked with Russia’s Mir station.
2000 – U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton was nominated to run for U.S. Senator in New York. She was the first U.S. first lady to run for public office.
2001 – Former FBI agent Robert Hanssen was indicted on charges of spying for Moscow. Hanssen later pleaded guilty to fifteen counts of espionage and was sentenced to life in prison without parole.
2005 – The US Supreme Court in Swedenburg v. Kelly ruled 5-4 that wine lovers may buy directly from out-of-state vineyards if those states allow direct shipments from in-state wineries.
2005 – Army Specialist Sabrina Harman was convicted at Fort Hood, Texas, of six of the seven charges she faced for her role in the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib.
2005 – Newsweek magazine retracted its Quran abuse story that sparked deadly protests in Afghanistan that left about 15 people dead and scores injured.
2006 – Joe Paterno and Bobby Bowden, the winningest coaches in Division I-A football, were elected to the college football Hall of Fame.
2007 – Anti-war Democrats in the US Senate failed in an attempt to cut off funds for the Iraq war.
2007 – In Mexico over 40 armed men abducted and killed 4 police officers south of the Arizona border.
2009 – In Maryland Rachel Alexandra won the second leg of the Triple Crown. She joined an impressive list when she became the first filly in 85 years to win the Preakness.
2009 – In North Oakland, Ca., motorist Anthony Perea (27) and pedestrian Floyd Ross (41) were killed when 4 suspects in a Berkeley homicide fled police and crashed.
2010 - President Barack Obama is to ask the US Congress for an extra $200m in military aid to help Israel get a short-range rocket defense system called Iron Dome in place against mortar and rocket attacks from Gaza or Southern Lebanon.
2010 - An earthquake of 5.8 magnitude is felt on Puerto Rico.
2011 – The Sahara in Las Vegas closed after 59 years. It was formerly the “hangout” for the likes of the Rat Pack (Dean Martin, Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis, Jr.), Elvis Presley and the Beatles.
2011 - STS-134 (ISS assembly flight ULF6), launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the 25th and final flight for Space Shuttle Endeavour (19:11).
2011 - The Fox TV network cancels America’s Most Wanted after 23 years on the air and 1151 fugitives caught.
2013 - Federal court upholds Arizona Governor Brewer’s Executive Order and Arizona’s law denying driver’s licenses to illegal aliens who President Obama has allowed to remain in our country under his deferred action program.
1801 – William H. Seward, United States Secretary of State, bought Alaska at 2 ¢/acre (d. 1872)
1824 – Levi P. Morton, United States Vice President under Benjamin Harrison (d.1920)
1905 – Henry Fonda, American actor (d. 1982)
1912 – Studs Terkel, American writer
1913 – Woody Herman, American musician and band leader (d. 1987)
1921 – Harry Carey, Jr., American actor
1930 – Betty Carter, American jazz singer (d. 1998)
1944 – Danny Trejo, American actor
1953 – Pierce Brosnan, Irish actor
1966 – Scott Reeves, American actor and singer
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Second Class, U.S. Navy, Company M, 3d Battalion, 4th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, 16 May 1968. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Born: 5 December 1945, Kansas City, Mo. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life and beyond the call of duty while serving as a HC2c. with Company M, in connection with operations against enemy aggressor forces. During the afternoon hours, Company M was moving to join the remainder of the 3d Battalion in Quang Tri Province. After treating and evacuating two heat casualties, HC2c. Ballard was returning to his platoon from the evacuation landing zone when the company was ambushed by a North Vietnamese Army unit employing automatic weapons and mortars, and sustained numerous casualties. Observing a wounded Marine, HC2c. Ballard unhesitatingly moved across the fire swept terrain to the injured man and swiftly rendered medical assistance to his comrade. HC2c. Ballard then directed four Marines to carry the casualty to a position of relative safety. As the four men prepared to move the wounded marine, an enemy soldier suddenly left his concealed position and, after hurling a hand grenade which landed near the casualty, commenced firing upon the small group of men. Instantly shouting a warning to the marines, HC2c. Ballard fearlessly threw himself upon the lethal explosive device to protect his comrades from the deadly blast. When the grenade failed to detonate, he calmly arose from his dangerous position and resolutely continued his determined efforts in treating other Marine casualties. HC2c. Ballard’s heroic actions and selfless concern for the welfare of his companions served to inspire all who observed him and prevented possible injury or death to his fellow marines. His courage, daring initiative, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of extreme personal danger, sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
ROARK, ANUND C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 1st Battalion, 12th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and Date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, 16 May 1968. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Born: 17 February 1948, Vallejo, Calif. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Roark distinguished himself by extraordinary gallantry while serving with Company C. Sgt. Roark was the point squad leader of a small force which had the mission of rescuing eleven men in a hilltop observation post under heavy attack by a company-size force, approximately 1,000 meters from the battalion perimeter. As lead elements of the relief force reached the besieged observation post, intense automatic weapons fire from enemy occupied bunkers halted their movement. Without hesitation, Sgt. Roark maneuvered his squad, repeatedly exposing himself to withering enemy fire to hurl grenades and direct the fire of his squad to gain fire superiority and cover the withdrawal of the outpost and evacuation of its casualties. Frustrated in their effort to overrun the position, the enemy swept the hilltop with small arms and volleys of grenades. Seeing a grenade land in the midst of his men, Sgt. Roark, with complete disregard for his safety, hurled himself upon the grenade, absorbing its blast with his body. Sgt. Roark’s magnificent leadership and dauntless courage saved the lives of many of his comrades and were the inspiration for the successful relief of the outpost. His actions which culminated in the supreme sacrifice of his life were in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect great credit on himself and the U.S. Army .
*MULLER, JOSEPH E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company B, 305th Infantry, 77th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Ishimmi, Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 15-16 May 1945. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Birth: Holyoke, Mass. G.O. No.: 71, 17 July 1946. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty. When his platoon was stopped by deadly fire from a strongly defended ridge, he directed men to points where they could cover his attack. Then through the vicious machinegun and automatic fire, crawling forward alone, he suddenly jumped up, hurled his grenades, charged the enemy, and drove them into the open where his squad shot them down. Seeing enemy survivors about to man a machinegun, He fired his rifle at point-blank range, hurled himself upon them, and killed the remaining 4. Before dawn the next day, the enemy counterattacked fiercely to retake the position. Sgt. Muller crawled forward through the flying bullets and explosives, then leaping to his feet, hurling grenades and firing his rifle, he charged the Japs and routed them. As he moved into his foxhole shared with 2 other men, a lone enemy, who had been feigning death, threw a grenade. Quickly seeing the danger to his companions, Sgt. Muller threw himself over it and smothered the blast with his body. Heroically sacrificing his life to save his comrades, he upheld the highest traditions of the military service.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Wahpeton, N. Dak. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 17 May 1906. Citation: With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
DAVIS, CHARLES P.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Valley City, N. Dak. Birth: Long Prairie, Minn. Date of issue: 28 April 1906. Citation: With twenty-one other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
HIGH, FRANK C.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 2d Oregon Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Picard, Calif. Birth: Yolo County, Calif. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
KINNE, JOHN B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 1st North Dakota Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Fargo, N. Dak. Birth: Beloit, Wis. Date of issue: 17 May 1906. Citation. With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
LONGFELLOW, RICHARD M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Mandan, N. Dak. Birth: Logan County, Ill, Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
ROBERTSON, MARCUS W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 2d Oregon Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands, 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Hood River, Oreg. Birth: Flintville, Wis. Date of issue: 28 April 1906. Citation: With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
ROSS, FRANK F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry. Place and date: Near San Isidro, Philippine Islands 16 May 1899. Entered service at: Langdon, N. Dak. Birth: Avon, Ill. Date of issue: 6 June 1906. Citation: With 21 other scouts charged across a burning bridge, under heavy fire, and completely routed 600 of the enemy who were entrenched in a strongly fortified position.
BABCOCK, JOHN B.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Spring Creek, Nebr., 16 May 1869. Entered service at: Stonington, Conn. Birth: New Orleans, La. Date of issue: 18 September 1897. Citation: While serving with a scouting column, this officer’s troop was attacked by a vastly superior force of Indians. Advancing to high ground, he dismounted his men, remaining mounted himself to encourage them, and there fought the Indians until relieved, his horse being wounded.
GRAY, ROBERT A.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 21st Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Drurys Bluff, Va., 16 May 1864. Entered service at: Groton, Conn. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 13 July 1897. Citation: While retreating with his regiment, which had been repulsed, he voluntarily returned, in face of the enemy’s fire, to a former position and rescued a wounded officer of his company who was unable to walk.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company I, 21st lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Champion Hill, Miss., 16 May 1863. Entered service at: Cascade, lowa. Birth: England. Date of issue: 15 March 1893. Citation: By skillful and brave management captured 3 of the enemy’s pickets.
Rank and organization: Musician, Company C, 40th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Drurys Bluff, Va., 16 May 1864. Entered service at. Lawrence, Mass. Birth: England. Date •r issue. 4 April 1898. Citation: Went to the assistance of a wounded officer Iying helpless between the lines, and under fire from both sides removed him to a place of safety.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 56th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Champion Hill, or Bakers Creek, Miss., 16 May 1863. Entered service at: Lancaster, Ohio. Born: 2 April 1830, Scioto County, Ohio. Date of issue: 17 November 1887. Citation: Having been badly wounded in the breast and captured, he made a prisoner of his captor and brought him into camp.
Capturing the Flag
Receiving a Medal of Honor for any activity is simply ordinary people doing extremely extraordinary things. We tend to look at things such as capturing a flag as fairly simple events when that is far from the truth. First, the flags captured in these contexts are powerful symbols of the organization displaying it. During the CIVIL WAR it was an extreme honor to capture the enemy’s flag and a disgrace to lose your own. To take your enemy’s flag was also a very important mark of success.
Second, in addition to the emotional aspects, having your flag stolen would be tantamount to losing a very important communication device. To the soldiers in the battle it said, “Here are your leaders and they are still standing.” It gave a focal point or a rallying point to those in battle but away from their leaders.
Finally it was a sense of pride that transcended the battle and the war and all of the following history. There is still (2010) contention between states over these banners, guidons and flags from the CIVIL WAR. This demonstrates the military and emotional importance of these pieces of cloth.