For many centuries, humans have tried to fly just like the birds and have studied the flight of birds. Wings made of feathers or light weight wood have been attached to arms to test their ability to fly. The results were often disastrous as the muscles of the human arms are not like a birds and cannot move with the strength of a bird.
The first real studies of flight were done by Leonardo da Vinci in the 1480’s. He had over 100 drawings that illustrated his theories on bird and mechanical flight. The drawings illustrated the wings and tails of birds, ideas for man carrying machines, and devices for the testing of wings.
Sir George Cayley is considered the father of aerodynamics. Cayley experimented with wing design, distinguished between lift and drag, formulated the concepts of vertical tail surfaces, steering rudders, rear elevators, and air screws. George Cayley worked to discover a way that man could fly. Cayley designed many different versions of gliders that used the movements of the body to control. A young boy, whose name is not known, was the first to fly one of Cayley’s gliders, the first glider capable of carrying a human.
German engineer, Otto Lilienthal was the first person to design a glider that could
fly a person and was able to fly long distances.
Sir George Cayley lived and worked at Brompton Hall and conducted his flying trials in Brompton Dale. In 1853, he sent his coachman across the dale on what is said to be the first true glider flight in history -the coachman afterwards gave in his notice.
In 1883, John J. Montgomery flew a glider 600 feet in San Diego, CA . It was the first controlled-wing glider flight in history.
Gliders continued to be developed until World War II. Glider flight was used to deliver troops into Europe. On 6 September 1943, the Central Flying Command at Randolph Field, Texas, directed Sheppard to establish a Glider Classification School for training glider pilots. Sheppard was now home to two of the three schools that glider student pilots attended.
A glider is a special kind of aircraft that has no engine. There are many different types of gliders. Paper airplanes are the simplest gliders to build and fly. Balsa wood or styrofoam toy gliders are an inexpensive vehicle for students to have fun while learning the basics of aerodynamics. Hang-gliders are piloted aircraft having cloth wings and minimal structure. Some hang-gliders look like piloted kites, while others resemble maneuverable parachutes. Sailplanes are piloted gliders that have standard aircraft parts, construction, and flight control systems, but no engine. The Space Shuttle returns to earth as a glider; the rocket engines are used only during liftoff. Even the Wright Brothers gained piloting experience through a series of glider flights from 1900 to 1903.
In flight, a glider has three forces acting on it as compared to the four forces that act on a powered aircraft. Both types of aircraft are subjected to the forces of lift, drag, and weight. The powered aircraft has an engine that generates thrust, while the glider has no thrust.
In order for a glider to fly, it must generate lift to oppose its weight. To generate lift, a glider must move through the air. The motion of a glider through the air also generates drag. In a powered aircraft, the thrust from the engine opposes drag, but a glider has no engine to generate thrust. With the drag unopposed, a glider quickly slows down until it can no longer generate enough lift to oppose the weight, and it then falls to earth.
For paper airplanes and balsa gliders, the aircraft is given an initial velocity by throwing the aircraft. Some larger balsa gliders employ a catapult made from rubber bands and a tow line to provide velocity and some initial altitude. Hang-glider pilots often run and jump off the side of a hill or cliff to get going. Some hang-gliders and most sailplanes are towed aloft by a powered aircraft and then cut loose to begin the glide.
The powered aircraft that pulls the glider aloft gives the glider a certain amount of potential energy. The glider can trade the potential energy difference from a higher altitude to a lower altitude to produce kinetic energy, which means velocity. Gliders are always descending relative to the air in which they are flying.
3 A ruler who oppresses the poor is like a driving rain that leaves no crops.
4 Those who forsake instruction praise the wicked, but those who heed it resist them.
5 Evildoers do not understand what is right,but those who seek the Lord understand it fully.
“As to the position that “the people always mean well,” that they always mean to say and do what they believe to be right and just – it may be popular, but it can not be true. The word people applies to all the individual inhabitants of a country. . . . That portion of them who individually mean well never was, nor until the millennium will be, considerable. Pure democracy, like pure rum, easily produces intoxication and with it a thousand pranks and fooleries. I do not expect mankind will, before the millennium, be what they ought to be and therefore, in my opinion, every political theory which does not regard them as being what they are, will prove abortive. Yet I wish to see all unjust and unnecessary discriminations everywhere abolished, and that the time may come when all our inhabitants of every color and discrimination shall be free and equal partakers of our political liberties.”
“There is no nonsense so errant that it cannot be made the creed of the vast majority by adequate governmental action.”
~ Bertrand Russell
entreat \en-TREET\, intransitive verb:
To make an earnest petition or request; to plead.
To ask earnestly; to beseech; to petition for.
Entreat derives from Medieval French entraiter, from en- (from Latin in-), intensive prefix + traiter, “to treat,” from Latin tractare, frequentative of trahere, “to draw, to pull, to drag.”
1492 – Queen Isabella of Castille issues the Alhambra decree , ordering her 150,000 Jewish subjects to convert to Christianity or face expulsion.
1717 – A sermon on “The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ” by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provoked the Bangorian Controversy.
1736 – Bellevue Hospital Center, most often referred to as simply”Bellevue”, was founded and now is the oldest public hospital in the United States.
1741 – Succession of suspicious fires and reports of slave conspiracies
created hysteria in New York in March and April. Thirty-one slaves and five whites were executed.
1774 – Revolutionary War: In response to the continuing rebelliousness of the Massachusetts colony, an angry British parliament passes a series of Coercive Acts. Great Britain orders the port of Boston, Massachusetts closed in the Boston Port Act.
1777 – Abigail Adams encouraged her husband John to give women voting privileges in the new American government.
1801 – Lt Col Commandant William W. Burrows rode with president Thomas Jefferson to look for “a proper place to fix the Marine Barracks on.” President Jefferson was a personal friend of the Commandant, and deeply interested in the welfare of the Corps. They chose a square in Southeast Washington, bounded by 8th and 9th streets, and ” I ” streets, because it lay near the Navy Yard and was within easy marching distance of the Capitol.
1841 – First performance of Robert Schumann’s first Symphony in B.
1850 – United States Population: 23,191,876. Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7 per cent).
1850 – Massachusetts Supreme Court rejected the argument of Charles Sumner in the Boston school integration suit and established the “separate but equal” precedent.
1854 – Commodore Matthew Perry signs the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade.
1858 – SS New York is launched. It is a passenger cargo vessel. It was sold to Edward Bates of Liverpool in 1874 and later wrecked near Staten Island.
1862 – Civil War: Skirmishing between Rebels and Union forces took place at Island 10 on the Mississippi River.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate troops opened a sustained attack and siege of the Union position at Washington, North Carolina.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Grand Gulf, MS & Dinwiddie Court House, VA.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Boydton, VA (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie Court House).
1865 – Civil War: The final offensive of the Army of the Potomac moves against the left flank of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia.
1865 – Confederate Major General Pickett moved to Five Forks, VA abandoning the defense of Petersburg.
1880 – Wabash, IN becomes the first town completely illuminated by electric lighting.
1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened.
1896 – Whitcomb Judson, Chicago IL, patents a hookless fastening (zipper).
1900 – The W.E. Roach Company was the first automobile company to advertise in a national magazine. One couldn’t miss their advertising slogan, “Automobiles that give satisfaction!” The car company advertised in the “Saturday Evening Post.”
1901 – U.S. Navy Seaman Alphonse Gerandy, serving on the US Petrel, risked his own life to safe crewmen during a fire. His Medal of Honor was presented in 1902.
1903 – Richard Pearse allegedly makes a powered flight in an early aircraft.
1906 – The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later National Collegiate Athletic Association) is established to set rules for amateur sports in the United States.
1909 – Baseball rules players who jump contracts are suspended for 5 years.
1916 – General Pershing and his army routed Pancho Villa’s army in Mexico.
1917 – The United States takes possession of the Danish West Indies after paying $25 million to Denmark, and renames the territory the United States Virgin Islands.
1918 – Daylight saving time goes into effect in the United States for the first time.
1923 – First dance marathon-New York City – Alma Cummings sets record of 27 hours.
1930 – President Hoover nominated Judge John J. Parker of North Carolina for a seat on the U.S. Supreme Court. The NAACP launched a national campaign against the appointment. Parker was not confirmed by the Senate.
1930 – The Motion Pictures Production Code is instituted, imposing strict guidelines on the treatment of sex, crime, religion and violence in film for the next thirty eight years.
1931 – Cab Calloway recorded “Minnie the Moocher“-the first jazz album to sell a million copies.
1931 – Famed Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne and seven other men perished in an airplane crash. He was travelling on business from Kansas City to Los Angeles on TWA Flight 599. The plane had only been airborne a short time when it lost a wing. It crashed on a farm near Bazaar, KS.
1932 – Ford publicly unveils its V-8 engine.
1933 – The Civilian Conservation Corps is established with the mission to relieve rampant unemployment.
1933 – German Republic gave dictatorial power to Hitler.
1933 – First newspaper published on pine pulp paper, “Soperton News” (Georgia).
1937 – Phil Harris recorded “That’s What I Like About the South“.
1940 – The New York Municipal Airport, opened in October, 1939, was renamed La Guardia airport, after the mayor, who had been a bomber pilot in World War I.
1941 – World War II: Germany began a counter offensive in North Africa.
1942 -World War II: Japanese forces invade Christmas Island, then of British possession.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Ivano-Frankivsk (then called Stanislawow), western Ukraine, German Gestapo organize the first deportation of 5.000 Jews from Stanislawow ghetto to Belzec death camp. It was one of the biggest transports to Belzec in the first phase of the camp.
1943 –World War II: An American battalion occupies positions around Morobe at the mouth of the Waria River. Morobe Province is a province on the northern coast of Papua New Guinea.
1944 – World War II: Hungary ordered all Jews to wear yellow stars.
1945 – World War II: US naval forces, including Task Force 58 and TF52, continue air strikes on Okinawa while TF54 continues bombarding the island. Japanese Kamikaze and submarine attacks continue.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Day by Day” by Frank Sinatra, “Personality” by Johnny Mercer and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1949 – Winston Churchill declared that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the USSR from taking over Europe.
1951 – Korean War: Operation RIPPER was officially terminated as Eighth Army fought its way back to the 38th parallel.
1951 – The first commercial United States made computer, the UNIVAC I, is delivered to the United States Census Bureau.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: The Kimpo Provisional Regiment was organized by and within the U.S. 1st Marine Division for the defense of the Kimpo peninsula.
1955 – Chase National (3rd largest bank) and Bank of the Manhattan Company (15th largest bank) merged to form Chase Manhattan.
1957 – The original version of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “Cinderella+,” starring Julie Andrews, aired live in color on CBS. Full Movie
1958 – US Navy formed the Atomic Sub Division and included America’s first nuclear sub, the USS Nautilus.
1960 – Eighteen students suspended by Southern University. Southern University students rebelled March 31, boycotted classes and requested withdrawal slips. Rebellion collapsed after death of professor from heart attack.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis, “Johnny Angel” by Shelley Fabares, “Dream Baby” by Roy Orbison and “She’s Got You” by Patsy Cline all topped the charts.
1963 – Los Angeles ended streetcar service after 90 years.
1965 – US ordered the first combat troops to Vietnam.
1966 – The Soviet Union launches Luna 10 which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon.
1968 – President Lyndon B. Johnson announces a partial halt of bombing missions over North Vietnam and proposes peace talks.
1970 –CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “Let It Be” by The Beatles, “Instant Karma (We All Shine On)” by John Ono Lennon and “The Fightin’ Side of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1970 – Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere (after 12 years in orbit).
1970 – Vietnam War: The U.S. forces in Vietnam downed a MIG-21, the first since September 1968.
1970 – A bankruptcy referee granted the owner of the Seattle Pilots permission to sell the major-league baseball franchise to investors in Milwaukee, WI. The Pilots became the Milwaukee Brewers because the Milwaukee Braves had decided to move to Atlanta.
1971 – Poseidon (C-3) missile becomes operational when USS James Madison began her 3rd patrol carrying 16 tactical Poseidon missiles.
1971 – US Lt. William Calley (b.1943) was sentenced to life for the My Lai Massacre. After an order of house arrest, President Nixon reduced his sentence with a presidential pardon.
1972 – Vietnam War: North Vietnamese Army launches ground assaults against South Vietnamese positions in Quang Tri Province.
1973 – Ken Norton defeated Muhammad Ali in a 12-round split decision. Ali had his jaw broken during the fight.
1975 – The TV show Gunsmoke, which premiered in 1955, aired its last original episode.
1976 – The New Jersey Supreme Court allowed the removal of the respirator that assisted Karen Ann Quinlan, who had been comatose since Apr 15, 1975. Quinlan, who remained comatose, died Jul 11, 1985.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by the Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1980 – The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.
1980 – Iranian officials say American hostages may be handed over to government by militants holding U.S. embassy, as militant leaders meet with President Bani-Sadr.
1980 – President Carter signed the Depository Institutions Deregulation And Monetary Control Act, which deregulated interest rates.
1981 – In the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Can’t Stop the Music” won as worst film of 1980.
1982 – In California an avalanche at the Alpine Meadows ski resort killed 7 people.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS – “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco, “R.O.C.K. in the U.S.A.” by John Cougar Mellencamp, “Kiss” by Prince & The Revolution and “Don’t Underestimate My Love for You” by Lee Greenwood all topped the charts.
1987 – Indiana University won the NCAA basketball finals with a last-second, corner shot by Keith Smart.
1987 – The judge in the “Baby M” case in Hackensack, N.J., awarded custody of the girl born under a surrogate-motherhood contract to her father, William Stern, instead of the surrogate, Mary Beth Whitehead.
1989 – The FBI announced it would conduct a criminal investigation into the massive oil spill in Alaska’s Prince William Sound.
1992 – The USS Missouri (BB-63), the last active United States Navy Battleship, is decommissioned in Long Beach, California. This was the ship on which Japan signed its WWII surrender.
1992 – The U.N. Security Council voted to ban flights and arms sales to Libya, branding it a terrorist state for shielding six men accused of blowing up Pan Am Flight 103 and a French airliner.
1993 – Actor Brandon Lee (28) was killed during the filming of a movie in Wilmington, N.C., by a prop gun that fired part of a dummy bullet instead of a blank.
1995 – Coast Guard Communication Area Master Station Atlantic sent a final message by Morse Code and then signed off, officially ending more than 100 years of telegraph communication.
1995 – In Corpus Christi, Texas, Latin superstar Selena Quintanilla Perez is shot and killed by Yolanda Saldivar, the president of her own fan club.
1995 – US baseball players agreed to end their 232-day strike after a judge granted a preliminary injunction against club owners.
1997 – In the US men’s NCAA Basketball Finals, Arizona beat Kentucky 84-79 in overtime.
1997 – The Supreme Court ruled that the government can force cable television systems to carry local broadcast stations.
1997 – Jury selection began in Denver in the trial of accused Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh.
1998 – Netscape releases the code base of its browser under an open-source license agreement; the project is given the code name Mozilla and would eventually be spun off into the non-profit Mozilla Foundation.
1998 – For the first time in history, the Clinton administration released a detailed financial statement for the federal government showing its assets and liabilities.
1999 – Four New York City police officers were charged with murder for killing Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African immigrant, in a hail of bullets. They were acquitted in Feb 2000.
2003 – In the 13th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US-led troops fought pitched battles with Saddam Hussein’s Republican Guard within 50 miles of the capital.
2003 – NBC said it severed its relations with reporter Peter Arnett after he told Iraqi television that the US war plan against Saddam Hussein had failed.
2004 – Iraq: In Fallujah, Iraq, 4 American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed and their bodies mutilated by cheering crowds.after being ambushed.
2004 – The US Navy closed Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, its last base in Puerto Rico. It was transferred to a special naval agency that will coordinate the closing process. The base had been used for six decades to keep watch over the Caribbean.
2004 – Air America Radio went live in 3 of largest US markets with a left-leaning, round-the-clock, talk format featuring Al Franken and Janeane Garofalo. Air America was conceived by Anita and Sheldon Drobny of Chicago.
2005 – A US Commerce Dept. study on Internet traffic, ordered in 1998, was published under the title “Signposts in Cyberspace.”
2005 – Terri Schiavo (41), the severely brain-damaged woman who spent 15 years connected to a feeding tube in an epic legal and medical battle that went all the way to the White House and Congress, died in Florida, 13 days after the tube was removed.
2005 – A US presidential commission reported that US intelligence agencies were wrong in their prewar assessment of Iraq’s nuclear, biological and chemical weapons.
2007 – It was reported that Antarctica held about 90% of the world’s ice.
2008 – Aloha Airlines, a bankrupt airline, permanently ends passenger service.
2008 – Gregg Bergersen (51), a Pentagon weapons analyst, pleaded guilty to giving classified information about US and Taiwanese military communications systems to Tai Kuo, a New Orleans furniture salesman working with the Chinese government.
2009 – The US Government Accountability Office released a report saying 4 countries designated a terrorism sponsors received $55 million from a US supported program promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy under the IAEA’s Technical Cooperation program. Between 1997 and 2007 Iran received over $15 million, $14 million went to Syria, while Sudan and Cuba received over $11 million each.
2011 – Jet engine explodes, injuring 10 on the flight deck of the USS John C. Stennis. Four Sailors were flown to Naval Medical Center San Diego, where they were in stable condition. The six others were treated for burn injuries onboard the carrier. None of the injuries was life threatening.
2012 – Kentucky advances to NCAA men’s basketball final after beating Louisville, 69 – 61.
2012 – Winning tickets for $640-million Mega Millions jackpot are sold in Kansas, Illinois and Maryland.
2012 – A Shelby County, TN mother faces contempt-of-court charges and possible jail time for baptizing her two children without the knowledge or consent of her ex-husband.
2012 – The Department of Homeland Security and its Immigration and Customs Enforcement office is getting an “indefinite delivery” of an “indefinite quantity” of .40 caliber bullets from defense contractor ATK. U.S. agents will receive a maximum of 450 million rounds over five years, according to a press release on the deal. By 2013 that quantity had increased to 1.6 billion rounds.
2013 – Mayflower oil spill: An Exxon Mobil crude oil pipeline ruptures near the town Of Mayflower, Arkansas, spilling thousands of barrels from the Wabasca oil field (the tar sands).
2013 – Three people are killed and more than 25 people are injured in a 100-vehicle pileup near the Virginia-North Carolina border.
2014 – Mexican federal officers arrested Marine Corps Sgt. Andrew Tahmooressi for weapons possession. Some 50 days later, Sgt. Tahmooressi faces a six to 21 year sentence for the mistake.
1596 – René Descartes, French mathematician (d. 1650)
1794 – Thomas McKean Thompson McKennan, American politician (d. 1852)
1855 – Alfred E. Hunt, founder of Alcoa (d. 1899)
1878 – Jack Johnson, American boxer (d. 1946)
1916 – John H. Wood, Jr., American federal judge (d. 1979)
1924 – Leo Buscaglia, American author (d. 1998)
1924 – Charles Guggenheim, American film director/producer (d. 2002)
1928 – Lefty Frizzell, American singer and songwriter (d. 1975)
1928 – Gordie Howe, Canadian ice hockey player
1929 – Liz Claiborne, Belgian-born American fashion designer (d. 2007)
1934 – Richard Chamberlain, American actor
1934 – Shirley Jones, American singer and actress
1935 – Herb Alpert, American trumpeter and band leader
1942 – Michael Savage, American talk radio host and commentator
1948 – Al Gore, former Vice President of the United States and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
1948 – Rhea Perlman, American actress
1957 – Marc McClure, American actor
1958 – Tony Cox, American actor
1965 – Steven T. Seagle, American comic-book writer
THACKER, BRIAN MILES
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Battery A, 1st Battalion, 92d Artillery. Place and date: Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 31st, 1971. Entered service at: Salt Lake City, Utah. Born: 25 April 1945, Columbus, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. 1st Lt. Thacker, Field Artillery, Battery A, distinguished himself while serving as the team leader of an Integrated Observation System collocated with elements of two Army of the Republic of Vietnam units at Fire Base 6. A numerically superior North Vietnamese Army force launched a well-planned, dawn attack on the small, isolated, hilltop fire base. Employing rockets, grenades, flame-throwers, and automatic weapons, the enemy forces penetrated the perimeter defenses and engaged the defenders in hand-to-hand combat. Throughout the morning and early afternoon, 1st Lt. Thacker rallied and encouraged the U.S. and Republic of Vietnam soldiers in heroic efforts to repulse the enemy. He occupied a dangerously exposed observation position for a period of four hours while directing friendly air strikes and artillery fire against the assaulting enemy forces. His personal bravery and inspired leadership enabled the outnumbered friendly forces to inflict a maximum of casualties on the attacking enemy forces and prevented the base from being overrun. By late afternoon, the situation had become untenable. 1st Lt. Thacker organized and directed the withdrawal of the remaining friendly forces. With complete disregard for his personal safety, he remained inside the perimeter alone to provide covering fire with his M-16 rifle until all other friendly forces had escaped from the besieged fire base. Then, in an act of supreme courage, he called for friendly artillery fire on his own position to allow his comrades more time to withdraw safely from the area and, at the same time, inflict even greater casualties on the enemy forces. Although wounded and unable to escape from the area himself, he successfully eluded the enemy forces for 8 days until friendly forces regained control of the fire base. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by 1st Lt. Thacker were an inspiration to his comrades and are in the highest traditions of the military service .
INTERIM 1901 – 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 13 April 1870, Bellfast, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Petrel for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger in saving others on the occasion of the flre on board that vessel, March 31st, 1901.
INTERIM 1901 – 1911
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 21 January 1868, Guadaloupe, West Indies. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Petrel, for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger for the saving of others, on the occasion of the fire on board that vessel, March 31st, 1901.
PFEIFER, LOUIS FRED
INTERIM 1901 – 1911
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. (Served as Theis, Louis F., during first enlistment.) Born: 19 June 1876, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 85, 22 March 1902. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Petrel; for heroism and gallantry, fearlessly exposing his own life to danger for the saving of the others on the occasion of the fire on board that vessel, March 31st, 1901.
Rank and organization: Chief Master-at-Arms, U.S. Navy. Born: 12 June 1871, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 525 29 July 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. New York off the coast of Jamaica, March 31st, 1899. Showing gallant conduct, Stokes jumped overboard and assisted in the rescue of Peter Mahoney, watertender, U.S. Navy.
BOEHM, PETER M.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company K, 15th New York Cavalry. Place and date: At Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: New York. Date of issue: 15 December 1898. Citation: While acting as aide to General Custer, took a flag from the hands of color bearer, rode in front of a line that was being driven back and, under a heavy fire, rallied the men, re-formed the line, and repulsed the charge.
HOOPER, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Chamberlains Creek, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Willimantic, Conn. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: With the assistance of a comrade, headed off the advance of the enemy, shooting two of his color bearers; also posted himself between the enemy and the led horses of his own command, thus saving the herd from capture.
KING, HORATIO C.
Rank and organization: Major and Quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: Near Dinwiddie Courthouse, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Born: 22 December 1837, Portland, Maine. Date of issue: 23 September 1897. Citation: While serving as a volunteer aide, carried orders to the reserve brigade and participated with it in the charge which repulsed the enemy.
LUTES, FRANKLIN W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 111th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Oneida County, N.Y. Date of issue: 3 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 41st Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.), together with the color bearer and one of the color guard.
SICKLES, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 7th Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Gravelly Run, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at: Columbia County, Wis. Birth: Danube, N.Y. Date of issue: Unknown. Citation: With a comrade, attempted capture of a stand of Confederate colors and detachment of nine Confederates, actually taking prisoner three members of the detachment, dispersing the remainder, and recapturing a Union officer who was a prisoner in hands of the detachment.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company L, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Chamberlains Creek, Va., March 31st, 1865. Entered service at: Jersey City, N.J. Birth: England. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: With the assistance of one comrade, headed off the advance of the enemy, shooting two of his color bearers; also posted himself between the enemy and the lead horses of his own command, thus saving the herd from capture.
Grass is Always Browner on the Other Side of the Fence Day
History of the Lead Pencil
Lead pencils, of course, contain no lead. The writing medium is graphite, a form of carbon. Writing instruments made from sticks cut from high quality natural graphite mined at Cumberland in England and wrapped in string or inserted in wooden tubes came into use around 1560. The term “black lead pencil” was in use by 1565. By 1662, pencils were produced in Nuremberg, in what is now Germany, apparently by gluing sticks of graphite into cases assembled from two pieces of wood. By the early 18th century, wood-cased pencils that did not require the high quality graphite available only in England were produced in Nuremberg with cores made by mixing graphite, sulfur and various binding agents. These German pencils were inferior to English pencils, which continued to be made with sticks cut from natural graphite into the 1860s. The 1855 catalog of Waterlow & Sons, London, offered “Pure Cumberland Lead Pencils.”
In 1795, French chemist Nicholas Jacques Conté received a patent for the modern process for making pencil leads by mixing powdered graphite and clay, forming sticks, and hardening them in a furnace. The brittle ceramic leads…were inserted in wooden cases of a modified design, one used by some early German pencil makers to encase their sulfur-and-graphite leads. The piece of wood into which the leads were placed has a groove about twice as deep as the thickness of the rod of lead. A slat of wood was then glued in over the lead to completely fill the groove, and the pencil was ready to be finished to the desired exterior shape.”
Early American settlers depended on pencils from overseas until the Revoluntionary War cut off imports. William Monroe, a Concord, Massachusetts cabinet-maker, is credited with making America’s first wood pencils in 1812. Another Concord native, famous author Henry David Thoreau, was also famous for his pencil-making prowess.
A common urban legend states that, faced with the fact that ball-point pens will not write in zero-gravity, NASA spent a large amount of money to develop a pen that would write in the conditions experienced during spaceflight (the result purportedly being the Fisher Space Pen), while the Soviet Union took the simpler (and cheaper) route of just using pencils.
Russian cosmonauts used pencils, and grease pencils on plastic slates until also adopting a space pen in 1969 with a purchase of 100 units for use on all future missions. NASA programs previously used pencils (for example a 1965 order of mechanical pencils) but because of the substantial dangers that broken-off pencil tips and graphite dust pose in zero gravity to electronics and the flammable nature of the wood present in pencils a better solution was needed. NASA never approached Paul Fisher to develop a pen, nor did Fisher receive any government funding for the pen’s development. Fisher invented it independently, and then asked NASA to try it. After the introduction of the AG7 Space Pen, both the American and Soviet (later Russian) space agencies adopted it.
Psalm 86: 7-9
…7 In the day of my trouble I shall call upon You, For You will answer me. 8 There is no one like You among the gods, O Lord, Nor are there any works like Yours. 9 All nations whom You have made shall come and worship before You, O Lord, And they shall glorify Your name.…
“”Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers. And it is the duty as well as the privilege and interest, of a Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.”
John Jay to Jedidiah Morse February 28, 1797
“Demand the best from yourself, because others will demand the best from you… Successful people don’t simply give a project hard work. They give it their best work.”
~ Win Borden
dapple \DAP-uhl\, noun:
A small contrasting spot or blotch.
A mottled appearance, especially of the coat of an animal (as a horse).
To mark with patches of a color or shade; to spot.
To become dappled.
Marked with contrasting patches or spots; dappled.
Dapple derives from Old Norse depill, “a spot.”
240 – First recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet.
1492 – King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to convert to Catholicism.
1638 – The first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Swedish Lutherans who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America.
1769 – Baltimore merchants join the non-importation movement by banning the purchase of English goods until the repeal of the Townshend Acts.
1775 – Revolutionary War: King George III endorses the New England Restraining Act, which forbids the New England colonies from trading with any other countries except England after July 1.
1775 – Revolutionary War: King George III bans colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic after July 20th.
1814 – In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians.
1820 –A group of New England missionaries arrives on the Hawaiian Islands, to be greeted by King Kamehameha II.
1822 – Florida Territory created in the United States.
1842 – Anesthesia (ether) is used for the first time in an operation by Dr. Crawford Long. The patient was Mr. James M. Venable.
1852 – Ohio made it illegal for children under 18 and women to work more than 10 hours a day.
1855 – The “CIVIL WAR” did not start in 1861. One of the earliest events was called “Bleeding Kansas” and it occurred when “Border Ruffians” from Missouri invaded Kansas and forced election of a pro-slavery legislature.
1858 – Hymen Lipman patents a pencil with an attached eraser.
1864 – Civil War: After landing at Cherry Grove, Virginia, shortly before dawn, sailors from the U.S.S. Minneapolis silently surrounded the Confederate headquarters and took 20 prisoners.
1864 – Civil War: Skirmish at Mount Elba, Arkansas.
1867 – Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million, about 2 cent/acre, by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The news media call this Seward’s Folly and President Andrew Johnson’s “polar bear garden.”
1867 – Congress approved the Lincoln Memorial.
1868 – U.S. Senate convened as a court to hear charges against President Andrew Johnson.
1870 – Texas is readmitted to the Union following Reconstruction. It is the last one to be readmitted.
1870 – The 15th Amendment, granting African-American men the right to vote was formally adopted into the U.S. Constitution.
1889 – John T Reid opens first US golf course (Yonkers NY).
1903 – Regular news service began between New York and London on Marconi’s wireless. On March 30, 1903, The Times in London became the first newspaper to establish an ongoing arrangement with the Marconi Telegraph Company for the regular transmission of news between the United States and the UK.
1903 – U.S. troops sent to Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic to protect American interests during revolutionary activity.
1909 – In New York, the Queensboro Bridge opens, linking Manhattan & Queens.
1909 – In Oklahoma, Seminole Indians revolted against meager pay for government jobs.
1910 – Mississippi Legislature founded The University of Southern Mississippi.
1916 – Pancho Villa killed 172 at the Guerrero garrison in Mexico.
1923 – The Cunard liner “Laconia” arrived in New York City, becoming the first passenger ship to circumnavigate the world, a cruise of 130 days.
1931 – In Scottsboro, Ala., nine young black men were indicted for rape. By the end of April all were tried, convicted and sentenced to death, except for one age 13, who was sentenced to life in prison. The US Supreme Court later overturned the convictions, but they were convicted at a second trial, even though one of the accused said no rape had occurred. The sentences were again overturned.
1939 – The Heinkel He-100 fighter sets the world airspeed record of 463 mph. The Heinkel company is most closely associated with aircraft used by the Luftwaffe during World War II.
1941 – National Urban League presented one-hour program over a national radio network and urged equal participation for African-Americans in national defense program.
1941 – World War II: The German Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel began its first offensive against British forces in Libya.
1941 – World War II: The U.S. seized Italian, German and Danish ships in 16 ports.
1942 – Coast Guard was designated as a service of the Navy to be administered by the Commandant of Coast Guard under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy, similar to the administration of the Marine Corps.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: German SS murdered 200 inmates of Trawniki labor camp.
1943 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s first collaboration, “Oklahoma”, opened on Broadway.
1944 – World War II: Allied bombers conduct their most severe bombing run on Sofia, Bulgaria.
1944 – World War II: The largest Bomber Command loss of World War II occurred today when the Allies lost 95 bombers. The aircraft were dispatched along the English eastern coast. A total of 795 aircraft are involved, including 572 Lancasters, 214 Halifaxes and 9 Mosquitos. The bombers meet resistance at the coasts of Belgium and the Netherlands from German fighters.
1944 – “Gobbledygook” was coined by US Rep. Maury Maverick, a Texas Democrat, in a memo banning “gobbledygook language” at the Smaller War Plants Corporation. It was a reaction to his frustration with the “convoluted language of bureaucrats.”
1944 – World War II: The U.S. fleet attacked Palau, near the Philippines. This was the first use of torpedo squadrons from carriers to drop aerial mines (Palau Harbor).
1944 – World War II: US forces occupy Pityilu Island to the north of Manus Island.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day), “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Paul Allen), “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer and “Shame on You” by Spade Cooley all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: Soviet Union forces invade Austria and take Vienna, Polish and Soviet forces liberate Gdańsk.
1945 – World War II: A defecting German pilot delivers a Messerschmitt Me 262A-1 to Americans.
1945 – World War II: In American air raids on the northern ports, the German cruiser Koln and 14 U-boats are sunk.
1945 – World War II: A Japanese Kamikaze plane badly damages the cruiser USS Indianapolis.
1945 – World War II: Two hundred eighty-nine anti-fascists were murdered by Nazis in Rombergpark, Dortmund.
1946 – The Allies seized 1,000 Nazis attempting to revive the Nazi party in Frankfurt.
1950 – President Truman denounced Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.
1950 – The invention of the phototransistor was announced. This was a transistor operated by light rather than electric current, invented by Dr. John Northrup Shive of the Bell Telephone Laboratories
1951 – Korean War: The heaviest air attack of the war was staged by 38 B-29’s on twin bridges over the Yalu River at Sinuiju, dropping some 280 tons of bombs. Escorting F-80s and F-86s engaged enemy MiG-15 jets, destroying three and damaging six.
1951 – Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau. UNIVAC I used 5,200 vacuum tubes, weighed 29,000 pounds (13 metric tons), consumed 125 kW, and could perform about 1,905 operations per second running on a 2.25 MHz clock. The main memory consisted of 1000 words of twelve characters. When representing numbers, they were written as eleven decimal digits plus sign.
1952 – A fire completely destroyed the headquarters of the 7th Cavalry Regiment at Camp Crawford, Japan. Many of the regiment’s souvenirs, some dating back to the time of Custer, were lost in the blaze.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till I Waltz Again with You” by Teresa Brewer, “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Pretend” by Nat King Cole and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Einstein published his most recent equations for a unified field theory as an appendix to the fourth edition of The Meaning of Relativity.
1956 – Woody Guthrie’s song, “This Land Is Your Land” was copyrighted.
1958 – The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater gave its initial performance. It is a modern dance company based in New York, New York.
1961 – NASA civilian pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 169,600′.
1963 – “He’s So Fine” by the Crystals topped the charts.
1963 – Leslie Gore first appeared on ABC’s “American Bandstand.” Full Album (42:46)
1964 – “Jeopardy” aired on NBC-TV for the first time. Merv Griffin (1925-2007) created the TV game show “Jeopardy.” He sold the rights for the show to Coca-Cola for $250 million in 1986. Since 1984 with Alex Trebek as host.
1964 – John Glenn withdrew from the Ohio race for U.S. Senate because of injuries suffered in a fall.
1965 – Vietnam War: A car bomb explodes in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, killing 19 Vietnamese, 2 Americans, and 1 Filipino; 183 others were injured.
1966 – Vietnam War: The 7th Marine Regiment terminated Operation Indiana in Vietnam.
1968 – (Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding topped the charts.
1970 – “Another World – Somerset” debuted on NBC-TV.
1972 – Vietnam War: The Easter Offensive begins after North Vietnamese forces cross into the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) of South Vietnam.
1973 – Ellsworth Bunker resigned as US ambassador to South Vietnam. He was succeeded by Graham A. Martin.
1974 – “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver topped the charts.
1975 – As the North Vietnamese forces moved toward Saigon, desperate South Vietnamese soldiers mobbed rescue jets. Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap masterminded the North Vietnamese victory.
1981 – President Ronald Reagan was shot by John Hinckley Jr. outside a Washington hotel. White House press secretary James Brady, a Secret Service agent and a Washington police officer also were wounded. Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity.
1982 – Space Shuttle program: STS-3 Mission completed with the landing of Columbia at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. It was its third and its longest test flight after eight days in space.
1985 – CHART TOPPERS – “One More Night” by Phil Collins, “Lovergirl” by Teena Marie, “We are the World” by USA for Africa and “Seven Spanish Angels” by Ray Charles with Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1987 – Vincent Van Gogh’s “Sunflowers” was bought for $39.85 million.
1988 – US House Democratic and Republican leaders said that they had agreed in principle on a package of about $50 million to aid the Nicaraguan rebels.
1989 – Gladys Knight performed solo for the first time since her grammar school years without The Pips during a gig in Las Vegas.
1990 – Jack Nicklaus made his debut in the “Seniors” golf tournament.
1990 – Idaho Gov. Cecil Andrus vetoed a highly restrictive state abortion measure, saying the bill gave a woman and her family no flexibility in cases of rape and incest.
1991 – “Coming Out of the Dark” by Gloria Estefan topped the charts.
1991 – Patricia Bowman, a resident of Jupiter, Florida, told authorities she’d been raped hours earlier by William Kennedy Smith, the nephew of Senator Edward Kennedy, at the family’s Palm Beach estate.
1992 – “The Silence of the Lambs” won five Oscars at the 64th annual Academy Awards, including best picture, best actress for Jodie Foster and best actor for Anthony Hopkins.
1993 – In the Peanuts comic strip, Charlie Brown hit his first home run.
1993 – Washington attorney Robert Altman went on trial in New York City, charged with wrongdoing in connection with the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). He was later acquitted.
1994 – The Clinton administration announced it was lifting virtually all export controls on non-military products to China and the former Soviet bloc.
1995 – The compromise “don’t ask, don’t tell, don’t pursue” policy allowing homosexuals to serve in the military under certain conditions was struck down by a federal judge in New York as unconstitutional.
1996 – The space shuttle Atlantis narrowly avoided having to make an emergency landing when its cargo-bay doors wouldn’t open at first to release built-up heat.
1996 – In the NCAA basketball finals, Kentucky beat Syracuse, 76-67.
1996 – The El Bethal Church in Satartia, Miss., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – In eastern Arizona nearly a dozen Mexican gray wolves were released into the White Mountains after an absence of 30 years.
1998 – In Columbia Falls, Mont., it was reported that $100 million would be distributed amongst 1000 employees of the Columbia Falls Aluminum plant. Roberta Gilmore led a winning legal suit that claimed the company did not divvy out profits to workers as promised.
1998 – The Univ. of Kentucky beat the Utah Utes 78-69 at the Alamodome in San Antonio for the NCAA men’s basketball finals. It was Kentucky’s 7th national title.
1999 – A jury in Oregon hit Philip Morris with an $81 million verdict for damages in the lung cancer death of Jesse Williams who died of lung cancer after smoking Marlboros for four decades.
2001 – LeAnn Rimes reached an out of court settlement with her father and her former manager. The suit claimed that the two had stolen $12 million from her.
2002 – An unmanned U.S. spy plane crashed at sea in the Southern Philippines.
2003 – Former baseball player Jack Clark, hitting instructor with the Los Angeles Dodgers and former star of the Boston Red Sox and San Diego Padres, suffers a motorcycle accident on his way to Bank One Ballpark in Phoenix, breaking eight ribs. Initially listed in critical condition, he was later updated to stable condition.
2003 – In the 12th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom an Iraqi general, captured by British forces in southern Iraq, was pressed to provide information.
2004 – President Bush agreed to do what he had insisted for weeks he would not: allow National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice to testify publicly and under oath before an independent panel investigating the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
2004 – New Jersey physicist Greg Olsen pays $20 million to conduct environmental research for eight days aboard the International Space Station.
2004 – AT&T officially began to offer phone calls via the Internet (VOIP) in 2 state, New Jersey and Texas.
2005 – Under heavy protection, First Lady Laura Bush visited the capital of Afghanistan, where she talked with Afghan women freed from Taliban repression and urged greater rights.
2005 – The US Supreme Court ruled that federal law allows people 40 and over to file age bias claims over salary and hiring even if employers never intended any harm.
2006 – Jill Carroll, a Christian Science Monitor journalist abducted in Iraq on January 7, is released.
2006 – The Massachusetts Supreme Court said gay couples can’t marry in Massachusetts if they are from US states where same-sex unions are prohibited.
2006 – US Major League Baseball began its investigation into alleged steroid use by Barry Bonds and others.
2006 – U.S. Representative Jean Schmidt has been claiming a degree in secondary education from the University of Cincinnati she did not receive.
2007 – President Bush went to Walter Reed Army Medical Center, where he apologized to troops for shoddy conditions in outpatient housing.
2007 – A video purportedly showing the beheading of a drug cartel hit man appeared on video-sharing Web site YouTube, and its makers called on Mexicans to kill more members of the gang.
2007 – “Back to the Future the Ride” closes at Universal Studios Florida.
2007 – It was reported that shark overfishing has led scallops to decline because their predators, mainly rays, aren’t being eaten.
2008 – Aloha Airlines, a Hawaii based airline which operates inter-island and trans-Pacific flights, has suspended all passenger services due to bankruptcy.
2008 – WrestleMania XXIV takes place from the Citrus Bowl with an all-time attendance record for the stadium at over 70,000 people.2009 – President Obama signed legislation setting aside over 2 million acres as protected wilderness.
2009 – President Barack Obama said that neither General Motors nor Chrysler has proposed sweeping enough changes to justify further large federal bailouts, and demanded “painful concessions” from creditors, unions and others as their price for survival.
2009 – In an unprecedented interference with private ownership, the White House ousted the GM Chairman Rick Wagoner as it rejected GM and Chrysler’s restructuring plans.
2009 – An “Open Cloud” manifesto was published. IBM and other tech companies issued a statement of principles that called for keeping cloud computing services as open as possible.
2010 – Pres. Obama signed into law the final changes to the sweeping medical plan approved by lawmakers last week, along with reforms in college student loan programs.
2010 – A gunman sprayed bullets from a moving vehicle into a crowd in southeastern Washington D.C., killing four and wounding at least five others, before leading police on a chase into neighboring Maryland. Three people were arrested in the drive-by shooting.
2011 – 45,000 Inca artifacts taken by Yale University from Machu Pichu almost a century ago, and described by the president as “the dignity and pride of Peru”, arrive in Lima after a long campaign by Peruvians to have them returned.
2011 – Reuters reports that President Barack Obama has signed an order authorizing covert help for the rebels.
2011 – Google announces plans to make Kansas City, Kansas the first site in its ultra-high speed broadband network.
2011 – Obama Administration endorses Pickens plan for natural gas vehicles.
2012 – VISA and MasterCard warn banks across the United States about a “massive” breach of security with more than ten million credit card numbers potentially compromised.
2012 -The Mega Millions jackpot in the United States is up to $640 million, becoming the world’s largest lottery jackpot.
2013 – Three people are shot (one critically) at three stores at the Edgewood Towne Center shopping plaza near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2013 – The University of Michigan wins the 2013 NCAA Men’s Swimming and Diving Championships.
1746 – Francisco Goya, was a Spanish painter and printmaker. Goya was a court painter to the Spanish Crown and a chronicler of history. He has been regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and as the first of the moderns. (d. 1828)
1820 – Anna Sewell, British author best known as the author of the classic novel “Black Beauty”. (d. 1878)
1853 – Vincent van Gogh, Dutch painter (d. 1890)
1857 – Leon Charles Thevenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
1902 – Brooke Astor, was an American philanthropist and socialite who was the chairwoman of the Vincent Astor Foundation (d. 2007)
1903 – Countee Cullen, was an American Romantic poet. Cullen was one of the leading African American poets of his time, associated with the generation of black poets of the Harlem Renaissance. (d. 1946)
1913 – Richard Helms, American CIA director (d. 2002)
1913 – Frankie Laine, American singer (d. 2007)
1919 – McGeorge Bundy, American National Security Advisor (d. 1996)
1927 – Peter Marshall, American game show host
1929 – Richard Dysart, American actor is probably best known for his role as Leland McKenzie on the NBC legal drama L.A. Law.
1930 – John Astin is best known for the role of Gomez Addams on The Addams Family and similarly eccentric comedic characters.1930 – Rolf Harris, Australian artist and entertainer 1937 – Warren Beatty, American actor and director
1940 – Jerry Lucas in a former basketball player and is now a memory education expert. In 1996, the NBA’s 50th anniversary, he was named one of the 50 greatest players in National Basketball Association history.
1941 – Graeme Edge, British musician (Moody Blues)
1949 – Naomi Sims, American fashion model and businesswoman. She was also Miss Black America in 1969.
1962 – M C Hammer, American rap musician. He became a preacher in the late 1990s and as of 2008 works as a co-founder of a dance website, television show host and CEO, still performing occasionally at concerts and other functions.
1968 – Celine Dion, Canadian singer. In April 2007 Sony BMG announced that Celine Dion had sold over 200 million albums worldwide
1970 – Secretariat was an American thoroughbred racehorse. Secretariat won the 1973 Triple Crown, becoming the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years, (d. 1989)
BOBO, JOHN P.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve, 3d Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 30th, 1967. Entered service at: Buffalo, N.Y. Born: 14 February 1943, Niagara Falls, N.Y. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company #1 was establishing night ambush sites when the command group was attacked by a reinforced North Vietnamese company supported by heavy automatic weapons and mortar fire. 2d Lt. Bobo immediately organized a hasty defense and moved from position to position encouraging the outnumbered Marines despite the murderous enemy fire. Recovering a rocket launcher from among the friendly casualties, he organized a new launcher team and directed its fire into the enemy machine gun positions. When an exploding enemy mortar round severed 2d Lt. Bobo’s right leg below the knee, he refused to be evacuated and insisted upon being placed in a firing position to cover the movement of the command group to a better location. With a web belt around his leg serving as a tourniquet and with his leg jammed into the dirt to curtain the bleeding, he remained in this position and delivered devastating fire into the ranks of the enemy attempting to overrun the Marines. 2d Lt. Bobo was mortally wounded while firing his weapon into the main point of the enemy attack but his valiant spirit inspired his men to heroic efforts, and his tenacious stand enabled the command group to gain a protective position where it repulsed the enemy onslaught. 2d Lt. Bobo’s superb leadership, dauntless courage, and bold initiative reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company K, 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Eisern, Germany, March 30th, 1945. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: Brooklyn, N.Y. G.O. No.: 88, 17 October 1945. Citation: He was an acting platoon sergeant with Company K, near Eisern, Germany. When his company encountered an enemy battalion and came under heavy small-arms, machinegun, and mortar fire, the 2d Platoon was given the mission of flanking the enemy positions while the remaining units attacked frontally. S/Sgt. Peterson crept and crawled to a position in the lead and motioned for the 2d Platoon to follow. A mortar shell fell close by and severely wounded him in the legs, but, although bleeding and suffering intense pain, he refused to withdraw and continued forward. Two hostile machineguns went into action at close range. Braving this grazing fire, he crawled steadily toward the guns and worked his way alone to a shallow draw, where, despite the hail of bullets, he raised himself to his knees and threw a grenade into the nearest machinegun nest, silencing the weapon and killing or wounding all its crew. The second gun was immediately turned on him, but he calmly and deliberately threw a second grenade which rocked the position and killed all four Germans who occupied it. As he continued forward he was spotted by an enemy rifleman, who shot him in the arm. Undeterred, he crawled some twenty yards until a third machinegun opened fire on him. By almost superhuman effort, weak from loss of blood and suffering great pain, he again raised himself to his knees and fired a grenade from his rifle, killing three of the enemy guncrew and causing the remaining one to flee. With the first objective seized, he was being treated by the company aid man when he observed one of his outpost men seriously wounded by a mortar burst. He wrenched himself from the hands of the aid man and began to crawl forward to assist his comrade, whom he had almost reached when he was struck and fatally wounded by an enemy bullet. S/Sgt. Peterson, by his gallant, intrepid actions, unrelenting fighting spirit, and outstanding initiative, silenced three enemy machineguns against great odds and while suffering from severe wounds, enabling his company to advance with minimum casualties.
WILL, WALTER J.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company K 18th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Eisern, Germany, March 30th, 1945. Entered service at: West Winfield, N.Y. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. G.O. No.: 88, 17 October 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry during an attack on powerful enemy positions. He courageously exposed himself to withering hostile fire to rescue two wounded men and then, although painfully wounded himself, made a third trip to carry another soldier to safety from an open area. Ignoring the profuse bleeding of his wound, he gallantly led men of his platoon forward until they were pinned down by murderous flanking fire from two enemy machineguns. He fearlessly crawled alone to within thirty feet of the first enemy position, killed the crew of four and silenced the gun with accurate grenade fire. He continued to crawl through intense enemy fire to within twenty feet of the second position where he leaped to his feet, made a lone, ferocious charge and captured the gun and its nine-man crew. Observing another platoon pinned down by two more German machineguns, he led a squad on a flanking approach and, rising to his knees in the face of direct fire, coolly and deliberately lobbed three grenades at the Germans, silencing one gun and killing its crew. With tenacious aggressiveness, he ran toward the other gun and knocked it out with grenade fire. He then returned to his platoon and led it in a fierce, inspired charge, forcing the enemy to fall back in confusion. 1st Lt. Will was mortally wounded in this last action, but his heroic leadership, indomitable courage, and unflinching devotion to duty live on as a perpetual inspiration to all those who witnessed his deeds.
National Mom & Pop Business Day
If 99.9% is good enough
In the 1990’s there was a great push for 100% customer satisfaction. Out of those great debates on just what that meant came the following information. While the info is dated, the idea still comes through that 100% should mean 100% and no less.
If 99.9% is good enough, then in the USA….
- Two million documents will be lost by the IRS this year.
- 811,000 faulty rolls of 35mm film will be loaded this year.
- 22,000 checks will be deducted from the wrong bank accounts in the next 60 minutes.
- 1,314 phone calls will be misplaced by telecommunication services every minute.
- 12 babies will be given to the wrong parents each day.
- 268,500 defective tires will be shipped this year.
- 14,208 defective personal computers will be shipped this year.
- 103,260 income tax returns will be processed incorrectly this year.
- 2,488,200 books will be shipped in the next 12 months with the wrong cover.
- 5,517,200 cases of soft drinks produced in the next 12 months will be flatter than a bad tire.
- Two plane landings daily at O’Hare International Airport in Chicago will be unsafe.
- 3,056 copies of tomorrow’s Wall Street Journal will be missing one of the three sections.
- 18,322 pieces of mail will be mishandled in the next hour.
- 291 pacemaker operations will be performed incorrectly this year.
- 880,000 credit cards in circulation will turn out to have incorrect cardholder information on their magnetic strips.
- $9,690 will be spent today, tomorrow, next Thursday, and every day in the future on defective, often unsafe sporting equipment.
- 55 malfunction automatic teller machines will be installed in the next 12 months.
- 20,000 incorrect drug prescriptions will be written in the next 12 months.
- 114,500 mismatched pairs of shoes will be shipped this year.
- $761,900 will be spent in the next 12 months on tapes and compact discs that won’t play.
- 107 incorrect medical procedures will be performed by the end of the day today.
- 315 entries in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language will turn out to be misspelled.
- 268,500 defective tires will be shipped this year.
The business concept behind this piece is the “rule of nines.” In the real world, it’s impossible to achieve a 100% accuracy rate on anything of significant quantity, but you can get to 99% or 99.9% or 99.999999999999999%. The rule of nines states that the more nines you add, the more costly and complex the guarantee is.
To someone who doesn’t understand business process, 99.9% may sound like an extremely high ratio. In reality, it may or may not be, depending on the context. If the police solve 99.9% of all crimes, that’s pretty good, and I doubt that any major city’s cops have that good a record. And a 99.9% recovery rate for cancer is also much better than reality. However, the OP states some cases where 99.9% may not be very good. Having too much tolerance for error or having too little tolerance can both be detrimental to a product or service, and it’s a business decision to determine how many nines to build into a process.
1 Thessalonians 5:16-18
“Rejoice always, pray continually, give thanks in all circumstances; for this is God’s will for you in Christ Jesus.”
~ John Jay
“Worry is like a rocking chair; It gives you something to do, but doesn’t get you anywhere.”
~ Incompertus Scriptor
segue \SEG-way; SAYG-way\, intransitive verb:
To proceed without interruption; to make a smooth transition.
An instance or act of segueing; a smooth transition.
Segue is from the Italian, meaning “there follows,” from seguire, “to follow,” from Latin sequi.
1638 – Swedish colonists establish the first settlement in Delaware, naming it New Sweden.
1673 – The English Parliament passed the Test Act. It in effect excluded Roman Catholics from public functions. King Charles II was unable to stop the action.
1676 – Wampanoag allies including the Narragansetts destroyed Providence, Rhode Island. The house of Roger Williams was destroyed as he negotiated with Indian leaders on the outskirts of town.
1791 – Pres. George Washington and French architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant examined the a site along the Potomac River that would become the US capital. Maryland and Virginia had ceded land to the federal government to form the District of Columbia.
1799 – New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state.
1806 – Construction is authorized of the Great National Pike, better known as the Cumberland Road, becoming the first United States federal highway. It was later lengthened, paved and renamed U.S. 40, but was eclipsed in the 1960s by Interstate 70, a parallel superhighway.
1812 – The first White House wedding took place, when Lucy Payne Washington (First Lady Dolly Madison’s sister) married Supreme Court Justice Thomas Todd.
1847 – Mexican-American War: 12,000 US forces led by General Winfield Scott occupied the city of Vera Cruz after Mexican defenders capitulated.
1848 – Niagara Falls stops flowing for 40 hours due to an ice jam upriver from the falls.
1852 – Ohio makes it illegal for children under 18 & women to work more than 10 hours a day.
1860 – The USS Powhatan arrived in San Francisco as part of a diplomatic mission from Japan. It carried official envoys including Niimi Buzennokami, the first Japanese ambassador to the US.
1862 – Civil War: The westernmost skirmish of this war occurred in a place called Stanwix Station, AZ. A detachment of 272 Union troops discovered a small detachment of Confederates (10) burning the hay at this location on the Butterfield Stage Line. One Union private was injured and the Confederates “high-tailed” it to Tucson, AZ under the command of 2nd Lt. John W. Swilling. Swilling would shortly become the original founder of Phoenix, AZ.
1864 – Civil War: Union General Steele’s troops reached Arkadelphia, Arkansas.
1864 – Civil War: The low level of the Red River continued to hinder Rear Admiral Porter’s efforts to get his gun-boats above the rapids at Alexandria for the assault on Shreveport.
1865 – Civil War: The Battle of Appomattox Court House begins. The Appomattox campaign in Virginia left 7582 killed.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Quaker Road, Va.
1865 – Civil War: The final campaign of the war begins in Virginia when Union troops of General Ulysses S. Grant move against the Confederate trenches around Petersburg.
1867 – Congress approves Lincoln Memorial.
1867 – The United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars.
1882 – The Knights of Columbus was granted a charter by the state of Connecticut.
1886 – Dr. John Pemberton brews the first batch of Coca-Cola in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia. It was marketed as a “brain tonic” and claimed to relieve exhaustion.
1893 – US Congressman James Blount arrived in Hawaii to investigate the change in government. He later reported to Congress that annexation to the US was being forced and that the people of Hawaii supported their queen.
1898 – Lieutenants David Jarvis and Ellsworth P. Bertholf and Surgeon Dr. Samuel J. Call of the USRC Bear reached Point Barrow after a 2,000 mile “mush” from Nunivak Island that first started on 17 December 1897, driving reindeer as food for 97 starving whalers caught in the Arctic ice.
1911 – The M1911 .45 ACP pistol becomes the official U.S. Army side arm.
1912 – The U.S. sent rifles to the Mexican ambassador in Mexico City and readied U.S. ships to transport troops to fight the rebels.
1912 – Captain Robert Scott perishes at the South Pole. Scott’s journal contained the final lines: ‘Had we lived I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman’, and ending with the words, ‘We shall stick it out to the end, but we are getting weaker of course and the end cannot be far. It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more. For God’s sake, look after our people. R. Scott’.
1917 – WW I: Marines garrisoned St. Croix to deny harbor to German submarines.
1917 – Man o’ War, the famous American race horse, was foaled.
1927 – Major Henry O’Neil de Hane Segrave became the first man to break the 200 mph barrier. Driving a 1,000 horsepower Mystery Sunbeam, Segrave averaged 203.79mph on the course at Daytona Beach, Florida.
1932 – Jack Benny made his radio debut. He opened the show saying, “Ladies and gentlemen, this is Jack Benny talking. There will be a slight pause while you say, ‘Who cares?”‘ He agreed to join then newspaper columnist, Ed Sullivan, on his radio interview show.
1936 – In Germany, Adolf Hitler receives 99% of the votes in a referendum to ratify Germany’s illegal reoccupation of the Rhineland, receiving 44.5 million votes out of 45.5 million registered voters.
1937 – The radio serial, “Our Gal Sunday”, debuted. This was the story of an orphan girl named Sunday from the little mining town of Silver Creek, Colorado, who in young womanhood married England’s richest, most handsome lord, Lord Henry Brinthrope.
1941 – World War II: British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy forces defeat those of the Italian Regia Marina off the Peloponnesus coast of Greece in the Battle of Cape Matapan.
1941 – The North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement goes into effect at 03:00 local time.
1942 – World War II: The Bombing of Lübeck in World War II was the first major success for the RAF Bomber Command against Germany and a German city.
1942 – World War II: German submarine U-585 sank.
1943 – World War II: Meat, butter & cheese rationed in US during WWII (1.7 lbs/week, 4.4 lbs. for GI’s).
1944 – CHART TOPPERS – “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Mairzy Doats” by The Merry Macs, “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “So Long Pal” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1945 – World War II: German SS as well as Hitler Youth members shot at least 57 laborers in woods near the small town of Deutsch Schuetzen, later part of Austria.
1945 – World War II: American landings in the northwest of the island Negros. The landing force, part of the US 185th Infantry Regiment, encounters heavy Japanese resistance on the island.
1945 – World War II: General George S. Patton’s 3rd Army captures Frankfurt.
1945 – World War II: Last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on England.
1950 – New York’s “Mad Bomber” strikes again. Police frantically search Grand Central Station in New York City for a bomb after receiving a threatening note.The bomb was found and taken care of by the bomb squad. This man planted 33 bombs in 16 years.
1951 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. They were executed in June 1953.
1951 – Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical “The King and I” starring Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner opened at the St James Theater on Broadway and ran for 1246 performances.
1951 – Korean War: The Chinese rejected MacArthur’s offer for a truce in Korea.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher, “Please, Mr. Sun” by Johnnie Ray and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel George L. Jones, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 30th ace of the Korean War.
1957 – The New York, Ontario and Western Railway makes its final run, the first major U.S. railroad to be abandoned in its entirety.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1959 – “Some Like it Hot” with Marilyn Monroe & Jack Lemmon premieres.
1960 – Launch of first fully integrated Fleet Ballistic Missile from USS Observation Island. These were the first nuclear-tipped missles.
1960 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Theme from “A Summer Place“” by Percy Faith, “Wild One” by Bobby Rydell, “Puppy Love” by Paul Anka and “He’ll Have to Go” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1961 – The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to vote in presidential elections.
1962 – Gene Chandler received a gold record for “Duke of Earl.”
1962 – Jack Paar hosted NBC’s “Tonight” show for the final time. He was succeeded by Johnny Carson who stayed to 1992. He left behind a salary of $250,000 and an estimated audience of eight-million people.
1962 – Cuba opened the trial of the Bay of Pigs invaders.
1967 – The first nationwide strike in the 30-year history of the American Federation of Television occurred and lasted for 13 days.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding, “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “La – La – Means I Love You” by The Delfonics and “A World of Our Own” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – Students seized a building at Maryland’s Bowie State College.
1969 – “Dizzy” by Tommy Roe topped the charts
1971 – Lt. William Calley Jr., of the U.S. Army, was found guilty of the premeditated murder of at least 22 Vietnamese civilians. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. The trial was the result of the My Lai massacre in Vietnam on March 16, 1968.
1971 – A Los Angeles, California jury recommends the death penalty for Charles Manson and three female followers.
1973 – Vietnam War: The last United States combat soldiers leave South Vietnam.
1974 – NASA’s Mariner 10 becomes the first spaceprobe to fly by Mercury. It was launched on November 3, 1973.
1974 – Eight Ohio National Guardsmen were indicted on charges stemming from the shooting deaths of four students at Kent State University on May 4, 1970.
1975 – “Lady Marmalade” by Labelle topped the charts.
1975 – Vietnam War: Evacuation of Danang by sea began.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “December 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by The Four Seasons, “Dream Weaver” by Gary Wright, “Lonely Night (Angel Face)” by Captain & Tennille and “Til the Rivers All Run Dry” by Don Williams all topped the charts.
1976 – The Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area Transit Authority ran its first Metrorail passenger train.
1976 – In Memphis, Bruce Springsteen jumped a fence at Graceland in an attempt to see his idol, Elvis Presley.
1979 – The Committee on Assassinations Report issued by U.S. House of Representatives stated the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was the result of a conspiracy.
1979 – Emmett Kelly (b.1898), American circus clown (Weary Willy), died in Arizona.
1980 – “Another Brick in the Wall (Part II)” by Pink Floyd topped the charts.
1982 – The soap opera “Search for Tomorrow” changed from CBS to NBC.
1984 – CHART TOPPERS – “Jump” by Van Halen, “Somebody’s Watching Me” by Rockwell, “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins and “Roll On (Eighteen Wheeler)” by Alabama all topped the charts.
1984 – NFL Baltimore Colts move to Indianapolis under cover of night.
1985 – The Nantucket I was decommissioned, the last lightship in service with the Coast Guard.
1987 -The NCAA Women’s Basketball Rules Committee adopted the 3-point field-goal shot from the same 19-feet-9-inch distance the men used.
1987 – Hulk Hogan took 11 minutes, 43 seconds to pin Andre the Giant before 93,136 Wrestlemania III fans at the Silverdome in Pontiac, MI. The event was the biggest indoor sports/entertainment promotion ever.
1989 – Michael Milken, junk bond king, was indicted in New York City for racketeering.
1990 – Recording companies agree to put a warning label on music products that contain potentially offensive lyrics.
1991 – General H. Norman Schwarzkopf publicly apologized to President Bush for questioning his judgment about calling a cease-fire in the Gulf War.
1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton said “I didn’t inhale and I didn’t try it again” in reference to when he had experimented with marijuana.
1992 – The film “Hudson Hawk” won the 12th Golden Raspberry Award as worst picture.
1994 – Dallas Cowboys coach Jimmy Johnson resigned, capping a longstanding feud with team owner Jerry Jones.
1995 – The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a constitutional amendment that would have limited terms to 12 years in the House and Senate.
1996 – Cleveland Browns choose new name, Baltimore Ravens.
1997 – According to Monica Lewinsky she and Pres. Clinton had their last sexual encounter.
1997 – In Jacksonville, Fla., Philip N. Johnson staged a Loomis, Fargo & Co. armored car robbery for $22 million. He was arrested Aug 30 at a border crossing in Texas.
1998 – Tennessee won the woman’s college basketball championship over Louisiana. Tennessee had set a NCAA record with regular season record or 39-0.
1998 – In Minnesota twisters from St. Peter to Comfrey damaged an estimated 819 homes and left 2 people dead.
1999 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes at 10006.78 – above the 10,000 mark for the first time ever.
1999 – Connecticut beat top-ranked Duke, 77-to-74, for its first NCAA basketball championship.
1999 – It was reported that the US government knowingly risked the lives of thousands of workers over the last 50 years by allowing them to be exposed to dangerous levels of beryllium, a metal critical to the military.
1999 – The Melissa computer virus, first reported Mar 26, was spreading and infecting E-mail in tens of thousands of computers.
1999 – In Michigan five people died in Osseo following an explosion and fire at the Independence Professional Fireworks Co.
2000 – The Patent and Trademark Office became the “United States Patent and Trademark Office” and began operations as a Performance-Based Organization.
2000 – A federal judge ruled that President Clinton “committed a criminal violation of the Privacy Act” by releasing personal letters to undermine the credibility of Kathleen Willey, one of his accusers in the Lewisky Scandal.
2000 – The US Supreme Court affirmed cities’ power to ban nude dancing in a 6-3 decision.
2001 – James Kopp, the fugitive wanted in the 1998 slaying of Dr. Barnett Slepian, a Buffalo, N.Y., abortion provider, was captured in France.
2001 – Release of the game Tribes 2 for the PC.
2001 – Sega’s video game system, the Dreamcast, was officially discontinued.
2003 – In the 11th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom a suicide bomber driving a taxi killed four American soldiers at a checkpoint near Najaf, Iraq. US jets destroyed a building in Basra where paramilitary fighters were meeting and 200 were reported killed.
2003 – Two US special forces soldiers were killed and another wounded in an ambush in southern Afghanistan. Fighting there killed four Taliban with 6 captured.
2004 – Massachusetts lawmakers approved a proposed constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage and legalize civil unions, sending the issue to the next legislative session.
2004 – Scientists discover methane in the Martian atmosphere and state it could mean there is life on the Red Planet. The only known source for methane is rotting plants (coal mines) and animal flatulence.
2005 – At the New York-Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center, Neil Young has successful surgery for a brain aneurysm using a minimally invasive neuro-radiological procedure. He is a musician who helped form Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young as well as Buffalo Springfield.
2005 – New York’s top court ruled that an out-of-state programmer must pay state taxes on his full salary despite working mostly via computer.
2005 – As Terri Schiavo entered her 12th full day without food or water, the Rev. Jesse Jackson prayed with her parents and joined conservatives in calling for Florida lawmakers to order her feeding tube reinserted.
2006 – Jack Abramoff, the US lobbyist who spawned a congressional corruption scandal, drew a 6-year prison term in a Florida fraud case.
2007 – A defiant, Democratic-controlled Senate approved legislation 51-47, joining the Democratic-controlled House of Representatives, that calls for the U.S. to withdraw all troops from Iraq by March 31, 2008 while continuing to fund the war through 2009 and allowing upwards of 80,000 troops to remain.
2007 – West Virginia beat Clemson, 78-73, for its first NIT title in 65 years.
2007 – A spring storm in the US spawned some 65 tornadoes from South Dakota to Texas leaving four people dead.
2009 – A gunman (Robert Stewart (45)) opened fire at a North Carolina nursing home Sunday morning, killing at least six people and wounding several others.
2009 – U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has told a Planned Parenthood convention that reproductive rights, as well as women’s rights and empowerment, are key issues in President Barack Obama’s foreign policy.
2009 – General Motors Chairman/CEO Rick Wagoner resigns under pressure from the Obama White House.
2009 – In North Dakota the bloated Red River briefly breached a dike, pouring water into a school campus.
2009 – The mysterious boom and flash of light seen over parts of Virginia was not a meteor, but actually exploding space junk from the second stage of a Russian Soyuz rocket, launched March 26, falling back to Earth.
2010 – Nine members of the Hutaree militia are arrested in the United States on allegations of a plot to kill policemen then to attack the funerals, in preparation for a war against all levels of American government.
2010 – A patent on two human genes is struck down by a judge in U.S. District Court in Manhattan.
2011 – Nine hospital patients in Alabama die after being treated with I.V.feeding bags. The manufacturer has withdrawn the product.
2011 – Arrest warrants are issued for Tampa Bay Buccaneers cornerback Aqib Talib and his mother on charges of aggravated assault with a deadly weapon in Garland, Texas.
2013 – After 25 years on the air, the American TV show America’s Most Wanted is cancelled.
2013 – Scientists from New Jersey Institute of Technology’s Swarm Lab announce that they have created robotic ants that behave very similarly to real ants.
1602 – John Lightfoot, English churchman donated all his Old Testament books to to Harvard College but they were all lost in the Harvard Great Fire of 1764.(d. 1675)
1668 – Thomas Coram, Founder of the Foundling Hospital. Foundling Hospital was founded to look after unwanted children in Lamb’s Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury, England. It is said to be the world’s first incorporated charity. (d. 1751)
1790 – John Tyler, 10th President of the United States. He was the first ever to obtain that office by succession following the death of President William Henry Harrison in 1841. (d. 1862)
1867 – Cy Young, American baseball player In honor of Young’s contributions to Major League Baseball, the Cy Young Award, an annual award given to the pitcher voted the most effective in each of the two leagues, was created in 1956. (d. 1955)
1874 – Lou Hoover, Wife of Herbert Hoover and First Lady of the United States (d. 1944)
1888 – Enea Bossi, Italian-American engineer and aviation pioneer. He is best-known for designing the Budd BB-1 Pioneer, the first stainless steel aircraft (d. 1963)
1889 – Warner Baxter, American actor known for his role as The Cisco Kid in In Old Arizona. For that role, he won the second Academy Award for Best Actor ever given. (d. 1951)
1895 – Ernst Jünger, German author (d. 1998)
1916 – Eugene McCarthy, American politician (d. 2005)
1917 – Man o’ War, is the greatest American thoroughbred racehorse of all time. During his career just after World War I, he won 20 of 21 races and $249,465 in purses. (d. 1947)
1918 – Pearl Bailey, American singer and actress (d. 1990) Pearl Bailey (d.1990), singer and actress, was born. “There is a way to look at the past. Don’t hide from it. It will not catch you if you don’t repeat it.” “A man without ambition is dead. A man with ambition but no love is dead. A man with ambition and love for his blessings here on earth is ever so alive.”
1918 – Sam Walton was an American businessman and entrepreneur who founded two American retailers, Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club. (d. 1992)
1934 – Paul Crouch, American televangelist is the co-founder, chairman and president of the Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN), the world’s largest Christian television network.
1941 – Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., American astrophysicist, Nobel laureate
1945 – Walt Frazier, American basketball player is considered one of the best point guards in the history of the game.
1954 – Dianne Kay, American actress best known for her role as Nancy Bradford on the ABC television show Eight is Enough (1977-1981).
1954 – Karen Ann Quinlan, American right-to-die cause célèbre (d. 1985)
1956 – Patty Donahue, American singer was the lead singer of the 1980s New Wave rock group The Waitresses. (d. 1996)
1965 – William Oefelein, American Astronaut . He flew as pilot of the STS-116 space shuttle mission.
1976 – Jennifer Capriati is a former World No. 1 American women’s tennis player.
*DIETZ, ROBERT H .
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armored Division. Place and date: Kirchain, Germany, March 29th, 1945. Entered service at: Kingston, N.Y. Birth: Kingston, N.Y. G.O. No.: 119, 17 December 1945. Citation: He was a squad leader when the task force to which his unit was attached encountered resistance in its advance on Kirchain, Germany. Between the town’s outlying buildings 300 yards distant, and the stalled armored column were a minefield and two bridges defended by German rocket-launching teams and riflemen. From the town itself came heavy small-arms fire. Moving forward with his men to protect engineers while they removed the minefield and the demolition charges attached to the bridges, S/Sgt. Dietz came under intense fire. On his own initiative he advanced alone, scorning the bullets which struck all around him, until he was able to kill the bazooka team defending the first bridge. He continued ahead and had killed another bazooka team, bayoneted an enemy soldier armed with a panzerfaust and shot two Germans when he was knocked to the ground by another blast of another panzerfaust. He quickly recovered, killed the man who had fired at him and then jumped into waist-deep water under the second bridge to disconnect the demolition charges. His work was completed; but as he stood up to signal that the route was clear, he was killed by another enemy volley from the left flank. S/Sgt. Dietz by his intrepidity and valiant effort on his self-imposed mission, single-handedly opened the road for the capture of Kirchain and left with his comrades an inspiring example of gallantry in the face of formidable odds.
PEARSON, ALFRED L.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 155th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Lewis’ Farm, Va., March 29th, 1865. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. Date of issue: 17 September 1897. Citation: Seeing a brigade forced back by the enemy, he seized his regimental color, called on his men to follow him, and advanced upon the enemy under a severe fire. The whole brigade took up the advance, the lost ground was regained, and the enemy was repulsed.
US Supreme Court Decides Stump v. Sparkman (1978)
Stump v. Sparkman is the leading US Supreme Court decision on judicial immunity. In 1971, Judge Harold D. Stump granted a mother’s petition to have a tubal ligation performed on her 15-year-old daughter, whom the mother alleged was “somewhat retarded.” The petition was granted the same day that it was filed. The judge did not hold a hearing to receive evidence or appoint a lawyer to protect the daughter’s interests. The daughter underwent the surgery a week later, having been told that she was to have her appendix removed.
The daughter married two years later. Failing to become pregnant, she learned that she had been sterilized during the 1971 operation. The daughter and her husband sued the judge and others associated with the sterilization in federal district court.
The district court found that the judge was immune from suit. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision, holding that the judge had lost his immunity because he failed to observe “elementary principles of due process” when he ordered the sterilization. Finally, in 1978, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-3 decision, reversed the Court of Appeals, announcing a test for deciding when judicial immunity should apply and holding that the judge could not be sued.
Prior to Sparkman, the doctrine of judicial immunity from federal civil rights suits dates only from the 1967 Supreme Court decision in Pierson v. Ray, 386 U.S. 547 (1967), which found a Mississippi justice ofthe peace immune from a civil rights suit when he tried to enforce illegal segregation laws. Until this time, several courts had concluded that Congress never intended to immunize state-court judges from federal civil rights suits.
Although this sounds as if judges can do no wrong, that is not necessarily the case. Here is a selection of case/reference citations regarding judicial immunity when personally suing a Judge for money damages. These references come from the collection of former Phoenix, AZ Attorney Robert A. Hirschfeld, JD. Make sure to read the whole case on these examples before making any decisions on whether they apply to to your case:
When a judge knows that he lacks jurisdiction, or acts in the face of clearly valid statutes expressly depriving him of jurisdiction, judicial immunity is lost. Rankin v. Howard, (1980) 633 F.2d 844, cert den. Zeller v. Rankin, 101 S.Ct. 2020, 451 U.S. 939, 68 L.Ed 2d 326. A judge must be acting within his jurisdiction as to subject matter and person, to be entitled to immunity from civil action for his acts. Davis v. Burris, 51 Ariz. 220, 75 P.2d 689 (1938)
A Judge is not immune for tortious acts committed in a purely Administrative, non-judicial capacity. Forrester v. White, 484 U.S. at 227-229, 108 S.Ct. at 544-545; Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. at 380, 98 S.Ct. at 1106. Mireles v. Waco, 112 S.Ct. 286 at 288 (1991). Administrative-capacity torts by a judge do not involve the “performance of the function of resolving disputes between parties, or of authoritatively adjudicating private rights,” and therefore do not have the judicial immunity of judicial acts. It is said that absolute judicial immunity is favored as public policy, so that judges may fearlessly, and safe from retribution, adjudicate matters before them. True. But equally important, is the public expectation that judicial authority will only be wielded by those lawfully vested with such authority.
“For I know the plans I have for you declares the Lord; plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.”
“The beauty of the second amendment is that it will not be needed until they try to take it.”
– Thomas Jefferson
“The best thing you can do is to get good at being you.”
~Dennis the Menace
superfluous soo-PER-floo-us, adjective:
More than is wanted or is sufficient; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; unnecessary; useless; excessive.
— SUPERFLUOUSLY, adverb
— SUPERFLUOUSNESS, noun
Superfluous comes ultimately from the Latin superfluus, from superfluo, superfluere, to overflow, from super-, over, above + fluo, fluere, to flow.
37 – Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus. Sound like Chicago?
1774 – Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. This revoked the Massachusetts colonial charter and removed certain democratic elements of the government.
1776 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
1797 – Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patents a washing machine.
1799 – New York State abolished slavery.
1800 – Essex becomes first U.S. Navy vessel to pass Cape of Good Hope.
1804 – Ohio passed law restricting movement of Blacks.
1814 – War of 1812: HMS Phoebe and Cherub capture USS Essex off Valparaiso, Chile. Before capture, Essex had captured 24 British prizes during the War of 1812. Two-thirds of Essex’s crew is killed but 13-year old Midshipman David Farragut survives.
1834 – The US Senate censures President Andrew Jackson for his actions in de-funding the Second Bank of the United States.
1845 – Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.
1846 – US troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor move onto the left bank of the Rio Grande River, considered Mexican territory.
1854 – The Crimean War began with Britain and France declaring war on Russia. The importance to America in this war was it was the first time that weather reports and statistics were kept to try to determine future weather trends.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Glorieta Pass – in New Mexico, Union forces stop the Confederate invasion of New Mexico territory. The battle began on March 26.
1864 – Civil War: A group of Copperheads attack Federal soldiers in Charleston, IL. Five were killed and twenty were wounded. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States who opposed the American Civil War.
1865 – Outdoor advertising legislation was enacted in New York State. The law banned “painting on stones, rocks and trees.”
1870 – One hundred twenty-nine Marines seized and destroyed illicit distilleries in “Irishtown” (Brooklyn), New York.
1885 – US Salvation Army was officially organized. Under the leadership of Captains William Evans, Hannah Simpson Evans, and Edwin Gay, the Salvation Army came to Chicago.
1891 – First world weightlifting championship held.
1898 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a child born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrants was a U.S. citizen. This meant that they could not be deported under the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1899 – William Fleming received a patent for a player piano using electricity.
1908 – Automobile owners lobbied the U.S. Congress, supporting a bill that called for vehicle licensing and federal registration.
1910 – Theodore Roosevelt gave his “Law and Order in Egypt” speech at Cairo Univ.
1911 – In New York, suffragists performed the political play “Pageant of Protest.”
1917 – Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
1920 – Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1920 affects the Great Lakes region and Deep South states with at least 38 significant tornadoes. This event inspired the tornado scene in “The Wizard of Oz.”
1921 – President Warren Harding named William Howard Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
1922 – Bradley A. Fiske of Washington, D.C. patented a microfilm reading device.
1928 – J.L. Rutledge, Pacific Air Transport pilot, ran out of fuel and parachuted from his plane near Orinda, Ca. The plane crashed nearby and he retrieved the mail and delivered it to the Orinda post office.
1933 – German Reichstag conferred dictatorial powers on Hitler.
1933 – In Germany, the Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
1935 – Goddard uses gyroscopes to control a rocket.
1938 – The US Supreme Court in Lovell v City of Griffin declared that it is unconstitutional to require someone to get a government permit to engage in free speech.
1939 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded “Three Little Fishies” for Victor Records
1941 – World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan – in the Mediterranean Sea, British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham leads the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian heavy cruisers and two destroyers.
1941 – Gossip columnist Louella Parsons hosted “Hollywood Premiere” for the first time on CBS radio who appeared in dramatized stories.
1945 – World War II: Marburg is taken by US 3rd Corps (part of US 1st Army) which has made a rapid advance from the Remagen bridgehead.
1945 – World War II: US naval forces, including Task Force 58 and Task Force 52, continue air strikes on Okinawa while Task Force 54 continues bombarding the island. Japanese Kamikaze and submarine attacks continue.
1946 – The U S State Department releases the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power.
1947 – The American Helicopter Society revealed a flying device that could be strapped to a person’s body.
1949 – Sec. of Defense James Forrestal resigned due to a mental breakdown. He was worn out by his futile efforts to bring about the unification of the armed services.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Be My Love” by Mario Lanza, “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Colonel James K. Johnson, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 29th ace of the Korean War.
1957 – First National Curling Championship held.
1958 – Eddie Cochran recorded “Summertime Blues.”
1958 – Private Elvis Presley earned a marksman’s medal with a carbine and achieved ‘sharpshooter’ level with a pistol and has been named acting assistant leader of his squad.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Tragedy” by Thomas Wayne, “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1962 – The Air Force announced research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites.
1963 – AFL’s New York Titans become the New York Jets.
1964 – “She Loves You” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – Gary Lewis and the Playboys recorded “Green Grass.”
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Dedicated to the One I Love” by The Mamas & The Papas, “There’s a Kind of Hush” by Herman’s Hermits and “I Won’t Come in While He’s There” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 – Van Morrison recorded “Brown Eyed Girl.”
1967 – Raymond Burr starred in a TV movie titled “Ironside”.
1968 – Vietnam War: The U.S. lost its first F-111 aircraft in the war when it vanished while on a combat mission. North Vietnam claimed that they had shot it down.
1968 – In Memphis, TN, a riot erupted during a protest march in support of striking sanitation workers led by Martin Luther King.
1969 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States and one of the most highly regarded American generals of World War II, dies in Washington, D.C., at the age of 78.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1971 – CBS aired the final broadcast of its Ed Sullivan Show. Reruns and pre-emptions aired in that time slot throughout the following April and May, and in June.
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain plays his last professional basketball game.
1974 – A streaker ran onto the set of “The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson”
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli, “Lady Marmalade” by LaBelle, “Lovin’ You” by Minnie Riperton and “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender
1978 – The US Supreme Court hands down 5-3 decision in Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. 349, a controversial case involving involuntary sterilization and judicial immunity.
1979 – At 4 a.m. the worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close, resulting in the evaporation of some contaminated water causing a nuclear meltdown.
1981 – “Rapture” by Blondie topped the charts.
1982 – First NCAA Women’s Basketball Championship: Louisiana Tech beats Cheney 76-62.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf “ by Duran Duran and “Swingin’” by John Anderson all topped the charts.
1985 – Bill Cosby broke more records with “The Cosby Show” on NBC-TV. The program was the highest-rated program of any network series since 1983.
1986 – The U.S. Senate passed $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
1986 – More than 6,000 radio stations of all format varieties played “We are the World” simultaneously at 10:15 a.m. EST.
1987 – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau topped the charts.
1990 – President George H. W. Bush posthumously awards Jesse Owens the Congressional Gold Medal.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, “Coming Out of the Dark” by Gloria Estafan, “This House” by Tracie Spencer and “Loving Blind” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1991 – The U.S. embassy in Moscow was severely damaged by fire.
1990 – Michael Jordan scores 69 points, this was the fourth time he scores 60 points in a game.
1993 – The last A-6E Intruder departed from Marine Corps service.
1995 – Loomis guard Rick Price was shot in the head and killed during an armored car robbery in Sonoma, Ca. Bank robber William Crouch was also killed by a second guard and alleged accomplice Joan Carrafa of Glen Ellen was later arrested.
1996 – Congress passed the line-item veto, giving the president power to cut government spending by scrapping specific programs.
1996 – The space shuttle Atlantis astronauts said goodbye to the crew of Russia’s space station Mir and then flew away, leaving Shannon Lucid behind for a five-month stay in orbit.
2000 – A Murray County, Georgia, school bus is hit by a CSX freight train (3 children die in this accident).
2000 – A tornado hit fort Worth, Texas, and four people were killed with over 100 injured. It cut a 2-mile swath and inflicted $450 million in damages.
2001 – The US Senate voted to double the “hard money” contribution limits to candidates and political parties.
2001 – A federal appeals court in San Francisco threw out a record $107 million verdict against anti-abortion activists, ruling that a Web site and wanted posters branding abortion doctors “baby butchers” and criminals were protected by the First Amendment.
2002 – The National Museum of American History put a cornet that had belonged to Louis Armstrong on display.
2000 – In a unanimous ruling, the Supreme Court sharply curtailed police power to rely on anonymous tips to stop and search people.
2002 – Matthew J. Bourgeois (35), a Navy Seal from Tallahassee, was killed by a land mine in Kandahar.
2002 – Walter Hewlett, a director of Hewlett-Packard Co., claimed HP used corporate assets to entice and coerce certain financial institutions to vote for the merger with Compaq Corp.
2003 – In a “friendly fire” incident, two A-10 Thunderbolt II attack aircraft from the United States Idaho Air National Guard’s 190th Fighter Squadron attack British tanks participating in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, killing British soldier Matty Hull.
2003 – In the 10th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the biggest bombs dropped on Baghdad so far, two 4,700-pound “bunker busters,” struck a communications tower.
2005 – The Colorado Supreme Court threw out the death penalty in a rape-and-murder case because five of the jurors had consulted the Bible and quoted Scripture during deliberations.
2006 – President Bush announced that White House chief of staff Andy Card has resigned and will be replaced by budget director Joshua Bolten.
2007 – Circuit City, a US electronics retailer, fired 3,400 of its highest paid hourly workers and planned to hire replacements wiling to work for less. The laid-off workers were to get a severance package and a chance to reapply for their former jobs at lower pay.
2007 – Discount retailer TJX Cos. revealed that information from at least 45.7 million credit and debit cards was stolen over an 18-month period.
2008 – The US Transportation Security Administration said it will change they way its officers search passengers with body piercings after a Texas woman complained she was forced to remove a nipple ring with pliers in order to board an airplane.
2008 – The grey wolf of the northern Rocky Mountains was taken off the federal protection list after reaching a population of some 1,500 in the greater Yellowstone region. Wolves were reintroduced in 1995 after disappearing from the area in 1926.
2009 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed in Florida following a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
2009 – In North Dakota the Red River crested at 12:15 a.m. at 40.82 feet, more than 22 feet above flood stage.
2010 – President Barack Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan for a firsthand look at the eight-year-old war he inherited and dramatically escalated.
2010 – The TV program 24 is cancelled.
2011 – Volkswagen recalls 71000 2011 model Jetta sedans due to a wiring problem.
2011 – The Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder signs legislation lowering the period that jobless workers can claim state unemployment benefits from 26 weeks to 20 weeks.
2012 – The Mega Millions jackpot in the United States hits a record $500 million dollars, a world record in lottery history.
2012 – The United States suspends planned food aid to North Korea, after the latter plans to launch a rocket next month.
1652 – Samuel Sewall was a Massachusetts judge, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized (d. 1730)
1793 – Henry Schoolcraft, American geographer and geologist. In 1832 he discovered the source of the Mississippi River. (d. 1864)
1836 – Frederick Pabst was a German-American brewer who founded the Pabst Brewing Company. (d. 1904)
1842 – William Harvey Carney, was an African-American soldier during the Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner. (d. 1908)
1890 – Paul Whiteman, was an American bandleader and orchestral director.
He was the leader of the most popular dance bands in the United States during the 1920s (d. 1967)
1899 – August Anheuser Busch, Jr., brewing magnate and American baseball executive (d. 1989)
1905 – Marlin Perkins, TV host (Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom), was born in Carthage, Mo.
1910 – Jimmie Dodd, was best known as the MC of the popular 1950s Disney TV show The Mickey Mouse Club (d. 1964)
1922 – Joey Maxim, was an American boxer. He was a light heavyweight champion of the world. He took the ring-name Joey Maxim from the Maxim gun, the world’s first self-acting machine gun (d. 2001)
1955 – Reba McEntire is an American country music artist and actress.
1975 – Derek Hill, is an American racing driver. He is the son of 1961 Formula One World Champion Phil Hill.
INGRAM, ROBERT R.
Rank and organization: Corpsman, United States Navy, serving with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines. Place and date: Quang Ngai Province Republic of Vietnam, 28 March 1966. Entered service at: Coral Gables, Florida. Born: January 20, 1945 Clearwater, Florida. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Corpsman with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines against elements of a North Vietnam Aggressor (NVA) battalion. Petty Officer Ingram accompanied the point platoon as it aggressively dispatched an outpost of an NVA battalion. The momentum of the attack rolled off a ridge line down a tree covered slope to a small paddy and a village beyond. Suddenly, the village tree line exploded with an intense hail of automatic rifle fire from approximately one-hundred North Vietnamese regulars. In mere moments, the platoon ranks were decimated. Oblivious to the danger, Petty Officer Ingram crawled across the bullet spattered terrain to reach a downed Marine. As he administered aid, a bullet went through the palm of his hand. Calls for “CORPSMAN” echoed across the ridge. Bleeding, he edged across the fire swept landscape, collecting ammunition from the dead and administering aid to the wounded. Receiving two more wounds before realizing the third wound was life-threatening, he looked for a way off the face of the ridge, but again he heard the call for corpsman and again, he resolutely answered. Though severely wounded three times, he rendered aid to those incapable until he finally reached the right flank of the platoon. While dressing the head wound of another corpsman, he sustained his fourth bullet wound. From sixteen hundred hours until just prior to sunset, Petty Officer Ingram pushed, pulled, cajoled, and doctored his Marines. Enduring the pain from his many wounds and disregarding the probability of his demise, Petty Officer Ingram’s intrepid actions saved many lives that day. By his indomitable fighting spirit, daring initiative, and unfaltering dedications to duty, Petty Officer Ingram reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
*MATTHEWS, DANIEL P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vegas Hill, Korea, 28 March 1953. Entered service at. Van Nuys, Calif. Born: 31 December 1931, Van Nuys, Calif. Award presented: 29 March 19S4. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader of Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in a counterattack against a firmly entrenched and well-concealed hostile force which had repelled 6 previous assaults on a vital enemy-held outpost far forward of the main line of resistance Sgt. Matthews fearlessly advanced in the attack until his squad was pinned down by a murderous sweep of fire from an enemy machine gun located on the peak of the outpost. Observing that the deadly fire prevented a corpsman from removing a wounded man lying in an open area fully exposed to the brunt of the devastating gunfire, he worked his way to the base of the hostile machine gun emplacement, leaped onto the rock fortification surrounding the gun and, taking the enemy by complete surprise, single-handedly charged the hostile emplacement with his rifle. Although severely wounded when the enemy brought a withering hail of fire to bear upon him, he gallantly continued his valiant l-man assault and, firing his rifle with deadly effectiveness, succeeded in killing two of the enemy, routing a third, and completely silencing the enemy weapon, thereby enabling his comrades to evacuate the stricken marine to a safe position. Succumbing to his wounds before aid could reach him, Sgt. Matthews, by his indomitable fighting spirit, courageous initiative, and resolute determination in the face of almost certain death, served to inspire all who observed him and was directly instrumental in saving the life of his wounded comrade. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*HEDRICK, CLINTON M.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 194th Glider Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Lembeck, Germany, 27-28 March 1945. Entered service at: Riverton, W. Va. Birth: Cherrygrove, W. Va. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He displayed extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action on 2728 March 1945, in Germany. Following an airborne landing near Wesel, his unit was assigned as the assault platoon for the assault on Lembeck. Three times the landing elements were pinned down by intense automatic weapons fire from strongly defended positions. Each time, T/Sgt. Hedrick fearlessly charged through heavy fire, shooting his automatic rifle from his hip. His courageous action so inspired his men that they reduced the enemy positions in rapid succession. When six of the enemy attempted a surprise, flanking movement, he quickly turned and killed the entire party with a burst of fire. Later, the enemy withdrew across a moat into Lembeck Castle. T/Sgt. Hedrick, with utter disregard for his own safety, plunged across the drawbridge alone in pursuit. When a German soldier, with hands upraised, declared the garrison wished to surrender, he entered the castle yard with four of his men to accept the capitulation. The group moved through a sally port, and was met by fire from a German self-propelled gun. Although mortally wounded, T/Sgt. Hedrick fired at the enemy gun and covered the withdrawal of his comrades. He died while being evacuated after the castle was taken. His great personal courage and heroic leadership contributed in large measure to the speedy capture of Lembeck and provided an inspiring example to his comrades.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Colorado Valley, Tex., 28 March 1872. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 27 April 1872. Second award. Citation: In pursuit of a band of cattle thieves from New Mexico.
1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake
The Alaskan earthquake occurred on Good Friday, March 27, 1964, at 5:36 PM local time. It was the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America. The USGS gives it a 9.2 intensity. The earthquake lasted for between three and five minutes.
The epicenter was located between Valdez and Anchorage, near Prince William Sound. It occurred on a thrust fault. This fault was a subduction zone, where the Pacific plate plunges underneath the North American plate. The first slip occurred at a depth of approximately 16 miles, which is a shallow depth.
The sudden uplift of the Alaskan seafloor caused a tsunami, which was responsible for 122 of the 131 deaths and it reached speeds over 400 miles per hour. The tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands and also struck Crescent City, California, killing ten people. Giant redwood logs from a nearby sawmill were thrust into the city streets. A total of 16 people died in Oregon and California.
Seiches, a sloshing of water back and forth, occurred in rivers, lakes, bayous, and protected harbors and waterways along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas, causing minor damage. The earthquake also caused ground liquefaction, whereby the soil and sand temporarily turned from a solid to a liquid state.
Rockslides and avalanches occurred as a result of the liquefaction. Some of the landslides occurred in Anchorage, particularly at Turnagain Heights. Soft clay bluffs at this location collapsed during the strong ground motion. About 75 homes were destroyed.
The property damage cost was about $311 million. Much of the property damage occurred in Anchorage. For example, the J.C. Penney Company building and the Four Seasons apartment building were damaged beyond repair.
The Penney’s building facade consisted of massive concrete panels, which were five inches thick. The panels broke off from the building and fell into the street. A woman driving by was struck and killed in her car. A young man crouching on the street was also killed.
Several schools in Anchorage were also destroyed, including the Government Hill elementary school. Fortunately, the schools were closed due to the Good Friday holiday.
The area where there was significant damage covered about 130,000 square kilometers. The area in which it was felt was about 1,300,000 square kilometers (all of Alaska, parts of Canada, and south to Washington). The four minute duration of shaking triggered many landslides and avalanches. Major structural damage occurred in many of the major cities in Alaska. The damage totalled 300-400 million dollars (1964 dollars).
The 68 foot tall concrete control tower at Anchorage International Airport toppled over, killing the air traffic controller.
In addition, water, sewer, and gas lines ruptured. Telephone and electrical service was also disrupted.
“Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.”
” You ask, how has it happened that all Europe has acted on the principle, “that Power was Right.” Power always sincerely, conscientiously, de tres bon foi, believes itself right. Power always thinks it has a great soul and vast views, beyond the comprehension of the weak. Power must never be trusted without a check.”
– John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, February 2, 1816;
“A certain amount of opposition is a great help to a man. Kites rise against, not with the wind.”
ersatz AIR-sahts; UR-sats, adjective:
Being a substitute or imitation, usually an inferior one
1513 (not 1512 as often cited) – Explorer Juan Ponce de León sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first time, mistaking it for another island.
1780 – Revolutionary War: The Battle of Rantowle’s Bridge. Three hundred American cavalry, consisting of Lt. Col. William Washington’s 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, the 1st Continental Light Dragoons, under Lt. Col. Anthony White, Pulaski’s Legion cavalry under Major Pierre-François Vernier, and probably as well Col. Daniel Horry’s South Carolina light horse, conducted a twelve-mile ride towards the British lines.
1790 – The shoestring (string and shoe holes) was first invented in England. Before shoestrings, shoes were commonly fastened using padlocks.
1794 – The United States Government establishes a permanent navy and authorizes the building of six frigates. These ships were used primarily to end the threat of the Barbary pirates. The Constitution had 55 Marines assigned as part of its 450-man crew. The first detachment arrived at Edmond Hart’s Shipyard in Boston.
1799 – USS Constitution recaptures American sloop Neutrality from France.
1802 – The Treaty of Aliens between France, Spain, England, and the Netherlands ends European hostilities, offering US shipping a break from trade restraints.
1812 – Hugh McGary Jr. established what is now Evansville, Indiana on a bend in the Ohio River.
1813 – War of 1812: In a US attack on Fort George, near the mouth of the Niagara River, LTC Winfield Scott with a 4000-man force captures the 1600-man British garrison under General John Vincent.
1814 – War of 1812: In central Alabama, U.S. forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
1834 – Andrew Jackson is censured by the U.S. Senate for his actions regarding the U.S. National Bank.
1836 – Texas Revolution: Goliad massacre – Antonio López de Santa Anna orders the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texas POWs at Goliad, Texas.
1841 – First US steam fire engine tested, New York NY. Designed and built by Paul R. Hodge, it was 14 feet long, weighed about 8 tons, and required two horses to pull it on level ground. A boiler was mounted on two small wheels at the front and two huge wheels in the rear.
1846 – Mexican-American War: Siege of Fort Texas. This was the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States and Mexico during the Mexican-American War.
1849 – Joseph J. Couch received the first U.S. patent for a steam-powered percussion rock drill (No. 6,237) as “improved machinery for drilling rocks. The drill was driven by steam power and acted independently of gravity.
1850 – The party of Dr. Thadeus Hildreth found a 22-pound gold nugget in Tuolemne County, Ca.
1851 – First reported case of Europeans seeing Yosemite Valley.
1855 – Abraham Gesner received the first U.S. patent for a process to obtain oil from bituminous shale and cannel coal for the purpose of illumination, which he called kerosene.
1860 – M L Byrn patents “covered gimlet screw with a ‘T’ handle” (corkscrew).
1861 – African American demonstrators in Charleston staged ride-ins on street cars.
1862 – Civil War: Flag Officer Du Pont reported to Secretary of the Navy Welles that Confederate batteries on Skiddaway and Green Islands, Georgia, had been withdrawn and placed nearer Savannah.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis called for this to be a day of fasting and prayer.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Pawnee, Commander Balch, supported an Army landing on Cole’s Island, South Carolina; Balch joined the Army command ashore for a reconnaissance of the island.
1865 – Civil War:Combined Army-Navy operations, the latter commanded by Rear Admiral Thatcher, aimed at capturing the city of Mobile commenced. The objective was Spanish Fort, located near the mouth of the Blakely River and was the key to the city’s defenses.
1865 – Civil War:President Lincoln meets with Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia, to plot the last stages of the war.
1866 – Andrew Rankin patents the urinal.
1866 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th amendment.
1868 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.
1880 – USS Constellation departs New York with food for famine victims in Ireland.
1884 – A mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, attacks members of a jury who had returned a verdict of manslaughter in a clear case of murder. Over several days they would riot and destroy the courthouse. The riot was based on a murder that occurred on December 24, 1883, a young white German named William Berner and his accomplice, Joe Palmer, an African American, robbed and murdered their employer, a livery stable owner in the West End.
1886 – Famous Apache warrior, Geronimo, surrenders to the U.S. Army, ending the main phase of the Apache Wars.
1890 – A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 and injuring 200.
1901 – Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the U.S.
1904 – Mary Jarris “Mother” Jones was ordered by Colorado state authorities to leave the state. She was accused of stirring up striking coal miners.
1912 – First Japanese cherry blossom trees planted in Washington DC. The famous trees, a gift from Japan signal the coming of Spring with an explosion of life and color surrounding the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin in a sea of pale pink and white.
1915 – “Typhoid Mary” was quarantined in a cottage in the Bronx. Her name was Mary Mallon, and she was a large and fiery Irish-American woman about 40 years old. She worked as a cook for the wealthy in New York City, and every household she worked in seemed to suffer an outbreak of typhoid fever.
1930 – First US radio broadcast from a ship at sea.
1931 – John McGraw says night baseball will not catch on. John Joseph McGraw , nicknamed “Little Napoleon” and “Muggsy,” was a Major League Baseball player and manager.
1933 – Polyethylene discovered by Reginald Gibson & Eric William Fawcett.
1933 – About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City.
1938 – The U.S. stopped buying Mexican silver in reprisal for the Mexican seizure of American oil companies.
1939 – First NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship: University of Oregon beats Ohio State 46-33.
1941 – Tokeo Yoshikawa arrived in Oahu, HI, and began spying for Japan on the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor.
1942 – World War II: Allies raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
1943 – “Blue Ribbon Town” (29:13) was first heard on CBS radio. The show ran from March 27, 1943 to June 17, 1944, but it became widely known as the program that introduced audiences to the one, the only, Groucho Marx.
1943 – World War II: US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Forty Jewish policemen were shot in the Riga Latvia ghetto by the Gestapo.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.
1945 – Ella Fitzgerald & Delta Rhythm Boys record “It’s Only a Paper Moon“.
1945 – World War II: Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan’s ports and waterways begins.
1945 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower told reporters in Paris that German defenses on the Western Front had been broken.
1945 – World War II: Iwo Jima was occupied, after 22,000 Japanese and 6,000 US killed.
1945 – World War II: US 9th Army begins to penetrate south into the Ruhr industrial area. US 3rd Army has now crossed the Main both west of Frankfurt, where Wiesbaden is attacked, and to the east.
1945 – World War II: The last German V2 rocket lands southeast of London at Orpington. The V2 campaign has killed over 2700 British civilians and injured 6500. As well as the 1115 launched at British targets, a further 2050 were aimed at Antwerp, Brussels and Liege.
1945 – Cebu City is captured by the US landing force.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Chattanooga Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – Jazz pianist, Erroll Garner became one of the first jazz instrumentalists to give a solo concert. In 1954, he wrote the song “Misty.”
1951 – Frank Sinatra recorded “I’m a Fool to Want You.”
1951 – Korean War: Carrier Group 101, the first all-Reserve naval air group, entered the war aboard the USS Boxer. Two days later, the group flew its first combat missions.
1952 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas.
1953 – Korean War: The 5th Marines, supported by the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, in the first full day of fighting after the Chinese assault the previous evening of Outpost Vegas on Korea’s western front, counterattacked to regain enemy-held positions.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel James P. Hagerstrom, 18th Fighter-Bomber Wing, flying his F-86 Sabre “MiG Poison,” qualified as the 28th ace of the Korean War.
1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.
1955 – Steve McQueen made his network TV debut on “Goodyear Playhouse.”
1956 – US seized the US communist newspaper “Daily Worker.”
1958 – The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon.
1958 – CBS Labs announce new stereophonic records.
1958 – The Havana Hilton opened. Cuba, at the time, was one of America;s playgrounds.
1964 – The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 strikes South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.
1965 – “Stop! In the Name of Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “19th Nervous Breakdown” by The Rolling Stones, “Nowhere Man” by The Beatles and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – The Young Rascals recorded “Groovin’.”
1969 – Mariner 7 is launched.
1970 – The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.
1971 – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin topped the charts.
1971 – UCLA became the first team ever to win five consecutive NCAA basketball titles. The Bruins defeated Villanova 68-62.
1972 – Elvis Presley recorded “Burning Love.” It would turn out to be his last major hit.
1972 – Adolph Rupp retires after 42 years of coaching University of Kentucky.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dark Lady” by Cher, “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Mockingbird” by Carly Simon & James Taylor and “There’s a Honky Tonk Angel (Who’ll Take Me Back In)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1975 – Work began on the Alaskan oil pipeline.
1976 – The first 4.6 miles of the Washington D.C. Metro subway system opens.
1976 – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1976 – Pittsburgh quarterback Terry Bradshaw’s recording of “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry” reached #17, the highest position the country classic had ever reached on the country charts.
1977 – Tenerife disaster: Two Boeing 747 airliners collide on a foggy runway on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, killing 583 (all 247 on KLM and 335 on PAN AM) and 61 survived on a PAN AM flight.
1979 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that police could not stop motorists at random to check licenses and registrations unless there was reason to believe a law had been broken.
1980 – Mount St. Helens, dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam.A loud explosion was heard from the direction of Mt. St. Helens. Although the volcano was shrouded in clouds, a summit eruption was verified by a news team from the Vancouver Columbian. As they circled the summit in an airplane, they spotted a dense column of ash rising through the clouds to a height of about 2000 m.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, “Open Arms” by Journey, “We Got the Beat” by Go-Go’s and “She Left Love All Over Me” by Razzy Bailey all topped the charts.
1982 – The musical “Best Little Whorehouse in Texas” closed at 46th St in New York City after 1577 performances.
1984 – Cyndi Lauper released “Time After Time.”
1987 – The Marine Corps charged that Sgt. Clayton J. Lonetree, a Marine guard, had escorted Soviet agents through the U.S. Embassy in Moscow — an accusation that was later dropped, although Lonetree was convicted of espionage.
1989 – The U.S. anti-missile satellite failed the first test in space.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Velvet” by Alannah Myles, “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I Wish It Would Rain Down” by Phil Collins and “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – The United States begins broadcasting TV Martí to Cuba in an effort to bridge the information blackout imposed by the Castro regime.
1990 – Harold Osrow and Zvi Bleier received a patent for a portable ice cream machine.
1992 – Police in Philadelphia, PA, arrested a man with AIDS on charges that he may have infected several hundred teenage boys with HIV through sexual relations.
1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton, campaigning in New York, apologized for recently golfing at an all-white club.
1994 – One of the biggest tornado outbreaks in recent memory hits the Southeastern United States. One tornado slams into a church in Piedmont, Alabama during Palm Sunday services killing 20 and injuring 90.
1996 – The Gay’s Hill Baptist Church in Millen, Ga., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States.
1998 – Robbers in Commerce, east of LA, escaped with $2.94 million in cash from a Dunbar Security armored car after shooting the driver.
1999 – A $42 million US F-117A stealth fighter was downed over Yugoslavia during continued NATO airstrikes. The American pilot was rescued by US forces. The wreckage was later believed to have been sold.
2000 – The Supreme Court decided the federal government could deny food stamps and other welfare benefits to people who live permanently in the United States but who are not citizens.
2000 – Phillips explosion of 2000 kills one and injures seventy-one in Pasadena, Texas.
2000 – Cisco Systems passed Microsoft as the most valuable company in the world.
2001 – Twelve days before his 88th birthday, Berry Thomas became the oldest bowler in America to roll a perfect 300 game.
2001 – A US federal judge ruled that the Univ. of Michigan racial criteria for accepting minority students with lower test scores than whites was invalid.
2001 – California regulators approved electricity rate hikes of up to 46 percent.
2002 – The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt, “The Stick”, returns to Norfolk Naval yards after participating in combat and support operations in and over Afghanistan. The Stick now holds the record for a carrier’s continuous days at sea with 159, beating the USS Eisenhower’s previous record of 152 set in 1982.
2002 – The US Supreme Court ruled that illegal immigrants do not have the same rights as Americans when they are wrongly fired from US jobs.
2002 – Milton Berle (93), known as Uncle Miltie and Mr. Television, died. He rose to TV stardom as the host of Texaco Star Theater in 1948.
2003 – The Bush administration seized $1.62 billion in Iraqi assets already frozen in the US. The money would be used to help rebuild Iraq once Saddam Hussein is ousted.
2003 – In the 9th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom a British armored unit destroyed 14 Iraqi tanks trying to break out of the besieged city of Basra.
2005 – In Brazil Vitalmiro Moura, the rancher accused of ordering the killing of American nun Dorothy Stang in the Amazon rainforest six weeks ago, surrendered to police and declared his innocence.
2006 – Zacarias Moussaoui testified in his federal trail that he was the supposed to hijack a fifth airplane on September 11, 2001, and fly it into the White House.
2006 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee approved a proposal to legalize undocumented migrants and provide temporary work visas. Mexicans cheered the approval and credited huge marches of migrants across the US as the decisive factor behind the vote.
2007 – Texas Governor Rick Perry’s office said that he had signed a new law that expands Texans’ existing right to use deadly force to defend themselves “without retreat” in their homes, cars and workplaces. The new law takes affect on September 1.
2007 – NFL owners voted to make instant replay a permanent officiating tool.
2007 – US Attorney John Brownlee announced that ITT Corp. has agreed to pay a $100 million penalty for illegally sending classified night-vision technology to China and other countries.
2008 – The state of Washington became the first state in the U.S. to offer an enhanced driver’s license.
2008 – Adobe systems, the maker of the popular photo-editing software Photoshop, launched a basic version available for free online.
2008 – A US appeals Court in Philadelphia overturned the death sentence of Mumia Abu Jamal, who had been convicted of killing Officer Daniel Faulkner on Dec 9, 1981.
2009 – The Texas Board of Education approved a science curriculum opening the door for teachers and texts to raise doubts about evolution.
2009 – President Barack Obama ordered 4,000 more military troops into Afghanistan, vowing to “disrupt, dismantle and defeat” the Taliban and al-Qaida.
2009 – In North Dakota the Red River rose to a daunting 112-year high and breached one of the dikes fortifying Fargo, but the mayor pledged to “go down swinging” as he called for more evacuations and additional National Guard troops to prevent a devastating flood.
2010 – Robert Krentz (58), a prominent Arizona rancher near the Mexican border, was shot while working at his remote cattle ranch on the Arizona-Mexico border. His family’s ranch sprawled over 35,000 acres. Investigators tracked the footprints of the suspected gunman about 20 miles south to the border with Mexico, prompting some authorities to blame smugglers or illegal immigrants for the killing.
2012 – The Department of Justice says that it will not invoke antitrust laws to stop the merger of Humana with Arcadian Management Services, two important health insurance companies.
2012 – A consortium led by former basketball star Magic Johnson wins an auction process for ownership of the Los Angeles Dodgers.
2013 – The first female Director of the US Secret Service, Julie Ann Pierson, is appointed. She served until October 1, 2014.
2013 – North Korea renews war threats against South Korea and the United States, saying conditions “for a simmering nuclear war” have been created on the Korean peninsula.
2013 – The Chicago Bulls defeated the Miami Heat 101-97, ending their winning streak at 27 games. The Heat had not lost a game since February 1st.
1813 – Nathaniel Currier, American illustrator (d. 1888)
1845 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923) 1863 – Sir Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
1899 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
1901 – Carl Barks, American illustrator (d. 2000)
1909 – Ben Webster, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1973)
1917 – Cyrus Vance, American politician (d. 2002)
1931 – David Janssen, American actor (d. 1980)
1937 – Thomas Aquinas Daly, American painter
1939 – Cale Yarborough, American race car driver
1943 – Phil Frank, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
1947 – Walt Mossberg, the highest-paid journalist at the Wall Street Journal
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy Medical Corpsman serving with a Marine rifle company. Place and date: Korea, March 27th, 1953. Entered service at: Ludington, Michigan. Birth: Ludington, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against enemy aggressor forces during the early morning hours. Participating in a fierce encounter with a cleverly concealed and well-entrenched enemy force occupying positions on a vital and bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance, HC3c. Charette repeatedly and unhesitatingly moved about through a murderous barrage of hostile small-arms and mortar fire to render assistance to his wounded comrades. When an enemy grenade landed within a few feet of a Marine he was attending, he immediately threw himself upon the stricken man and absorbed the entire concussion of the deadly missile with his body. Although sustaining painful facial wounds, and undergoing shock from the intensity of the blast which ripped the helmet and medical aid kit from his person, HC3c. Charette resourcefully improvised emergency bandages by tearing off part of his clothing, and gallantly continued to administer medical aid to the wounded in his own unit and to those in adjacent platoon areas as well. Observing a seriously wounded comrade whose armored vest had been torn from his body by the blast from an exploding shell, he selflessly removed his own battle vest and placed it upon the helpless man although fully aware of the added jeopardy to himself. Moving to the side of another casualty who was suffering excruciating pain from a serious leg wound, HC3c. Charette stood upright in the trench line and exposed himself to a deadly hail of enemy fire in order to lend more effective aid to the victim and to alleviate his anguish while being removed to a position of safety. By his indomitable courage and inspiring efforts in behalf of his wounded comrades, HC3c. Charette was directly responsible for saving many lives. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*HAMMOND, FRANCIS C.
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman, U.S. Navy, attached as a medical corpsman to 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Korea, 26-March 27th, 1953. Entered service at: Alexandria, Va. Birth: Alexandria, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a HC serving with the 1st Marine Division in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26-27 March 1953. After reaching an intermediate objective during a counterattack against a heavily entrenched and numerically superior hostile force occupying ground on a bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance. HC Hammond’s platoon was subjected to a murderous barrage of hostile mortar and artillery fire, followed by a vicious assault by onrushing enemy troops. Resolutely advancing through the veritable curtain of fire to aid his stricken comrades, HC Hammond moved among the stalwart garrison of Marines and, although critically wounded himself, valiantly continued to administer aid to the other wounded throughout an exhausting four-hour period. When the unit was ordered to withdraw, he skillfully directed the evacuation of casualties and remained in the fire-swept area to assist the corpsmen of the relieving unit until he was struck by a round of enemy mortar fire and fell, mortally wounded. By his exceptional fortitude, inspiring initiative and self-sacrificing efforts, HC Hammond undoubtedly saved the lives of many marines. His great personal valor in the face of overwhelming odds enhances and sustains the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
GREELY, ADOLPHUS W.
45 YEARS OF SERVICE
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, retired. Place and date: —-. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 27 March 1844, Newburyport, Mass. G.O. No.: 3, W.D., 1935. Act of Congress, 21 March 1935. Citation: For his life of splendid public service, begun on March 27th, 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on 26 July 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general 10 February 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 27th, 1873. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Birth: Brightstown, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Turret Mountain, Ariz., 25 and March 27th, 1873. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Decatur County, lowa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Legal Assistants Day
Make Up Your Own Holiday Day
We have all played the game. It isn’t complicated. Two teams form and grab two ends of a rope. The rope has a knot in the middle, and that knot is positioned over the starting point, so that neither side gets an unfair advantage in the beginning. Each side will pull desperately to try to drag the other team across the center line. When one side has successfully pulled the opposing team across the line, the pulling team wins. It is even better if the center is a muddy and messy pit!
The game is simple, but very old. According to a book from the Tang imperial dynasty of China (C7th -10th AD), tug of war (under the name “hook pulling”) was used by the military commander of the State of Chu in east central China to train warriors. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang held large-scale tug of war games, using ropes of five hundred feet with shorter ropes attached and more than five hundred people on each end of the rope. Each side positioned a team of drummers to encourage the participants.
Today, tug-of-war is a game that most adults relegate to those still in their youth, but did you know that tug-of-war used to be an official Olympic Games event?
Since tug-of-war has been a game played by adults for centuries, it became an official event at the second modern Olympic Games in 1900. However, it’s time as an official Olympic event was short-lived and it was last played at the Olympics at the 1920 Games. Tug-of-war was not the only event to be added and then later removed from the Olympic Games; golf, lacrosse, rugby, and polo also shared its fate. The sport is contested in the World Games. The Tug of War International Federation TWIF organizes World Championships for nation teams biannually, for both indoor and outdoor contests, and a similar competition for club teams.
There are numerous principles that can be used and learned in this simple game some of which include the use of force, proper resistance and mental and physical focus. In addition, concepts of center-of-gravity come in to play when one realizes that lowering personal centers makes you much more unmovable and more comfortable. You are less likely to be caught by surprise and can give occasional “breaks” to members next to you. The concept of individualized teamwork is important. This concept is similar to other team sports where highly trained and gifted athletes “give up” a little of their stardom for the good of the team.
The Tug-of-War can also be used as an analogy for when a discussion goes separate ways, where two sides are trying to win most any debate. It speaks of wars where two groups of combatants are trying to win.
If God is for us, who can be against us? 32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? 33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
“If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.” ~ George Washington
“Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no help at all.”
~ Dale Carnegie
triskaidekaphobia tris-ky-dek-uh-FOH-bee-uh, noun:
A morbid fear of the number 13 or the date Friday the 13th.
1484 – William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop’s Fables.
1701 – The English Board of Trade advises the king to create royal colonies of all of the American charter colonies.
1790 – US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
1804 – Congress orders removal of Indians east of Mississippi to Louisiana.
1804 – The Louisiana Purchase was divided into the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. Orleans Territory was created on October 1, 1804 by the Organic Act of March 26, 1804, and became Louisiana, the 18th state on March 30, 1812.
1830 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York.
1836 – Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
1845 – Joseph Francis, New York NY, patents a corrugated sheet-iron lifeboat.
1845 – Patent awarded for adhesive medicated plaster (No. 3965), precusor of bandaid. Drs. Horace Harrell and William H. Shecut developed a process in which rubber is dissolved in a solvent then spread on fabric.
1859 – First sighting of Vulcan, a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury. In ancient Roman religion and myth, Vulcan is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of La Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory (Apache Canyon, Pigeon’s Ranch). It was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the Civil War.
1863 – Voters in West Virginia approved the gradual emancipation of slaves.
1865 – Civil War: A detachment of sailors led by Acting Ensign Peyton H. Randolph of U.S.S. Benton joined troops under the command of Brigadier General B.G. Farrar. They lead a combined expedition to Trinity, Louisiana, where they captured a small number of Confederate soldiers as well as horses, arms and stores.
1872 – Black inventor, Thomas J Martin patents fire extinguisher system.
1872 – A 7.8 earthquake shook the Owens Valley, California.
1878 – Hastings College of Law was founded. The college is now a part of the University of California. It was named after Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first chief justice of the California Supreme Court.
1885 – Eastman Film Co manufactures first commercial motion picture film.
1895 – Charles Jenkins patented a motion picture machine.It was called he Phantoscope, an early motion picture projector that enlarged film images for viewing by large groups.
1910 – The U.S. Congress passed an amendment to the 1907 Immigration Act that barred criminals, paupers, anarchists and carriers of disease from settling in the U.S.
1913 – Dayton, Ohio, was almost destroyed when Scioto, Miami, and Muskingum River reached flood stage simultaneously.
1916 – Robert Stroud stabbed and killed a prison guard in Leavenworth KS. For this crime, he was imprisoned for life, and became the “Birdman of Alcatraz,” named for the prison where he spent his sentence.
1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza – British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.
1926 – The first lip-reading tournament held in America.
1926 – U.S. oil companies bought 190,000 tons of kerosene from Russia for $3.2 million.
1930 – Congress appropriates $50,000 for Inter-American highway. The objective of the Inter-American Highway was to link the United States to Mexico City and the capitol cities of the Central-America republics and Panama by paved highway.
1931 – Leo Bentley bowls 3 consecutive perfect games in Lorain, Ohio. It was unsanctioned either because the league or tournament had not agreed to be governed by the ABC prior to the event or because the lane conditions did not satisfy ABC standards.
1936 – The first telescope with a 200″ telescope lens made for the Hale telescope was shipped, Corning Glass Works, New York-Cal Tech to to Mt. Palomar Observatory in California. The lens of the Hale telescope weighed 20 tons.
1937 – Spinach growers of Crystal City TX, erect statue of Popeye. This made Popeye the first cartoon character ever immortalized in public sculpture.
1939 – Pan Am (Pan American) sent a B-314 Yankee Clipper, christened by Eleanor Roosevelt, that had left from Baltimore to Europe on a survey flight that paved the way for soon coming airmail and passenger service.
1941 – Jimmie Lunceford and his orchestra recorded the tune, “Battle Axe“, for Decca Records.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Poland, Auschwitz receives its first female prisoners and the Germans began sending Jews there as well.
1942 – Twenty tons of gelignite killed twenty-one in a stone quarry in Easton, PA. Gelignite is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate).
1943 – World War II: First woman to receive air medal (US Army Nurse Elsie S Ott) It was awarded for her actions in 1943 as an air evac nurse en route from India to the U.S.
1944 – World War II: Japanese patrols again sight large American naval forces heading for Palau Island. They decide to disperse their warships.
1944 – World War II: German Wehrmacht General Anton Dostler Commander of the 75th Army Corps ordered the shooting of 15 unarmed American prisoners of war, in La Spezia, Italy.
1945 – World War II: In Iwo Jima, US forces declare the island “secure.” All Japanese resistance is gone.
1945 – World War II: In the Aleutians, the battle of Komandorski began when the Japanese attempted to reinforce a garrison at Kiska and were intercepted by a U.S. naval force.
1945 – Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton attack at Remagen on the Rhine.
1945 – The US 7th Army begins to send units of US 15th and US 6th Corps across the Rhine River between Worms and Mannheim. To the north all the Allied armies continue to advance.
1946 – International Ice Patrol resumed after being suspended during World War II.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight and “Tennessee Saturday Night” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – During a radio broadcast dealing with a Senate investigation into communists in the U.S. Department of State, news is leaked that Senator Joseph McCarthy has charged Professor Owen Lattimore with being a top spy for the Soviet Union.
1951 – USAF flag approved. The flag included the coat of arms, 13 white stars and the Air Force seal on a blue background.
1953 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine. Salk’s vaccine was composed of “killed” polio virus, which retained the ability to immunize without the risk of infecting the patient. Mass trials held in 1953 on 1,830,000 children proved the vaccine was safe and effective.
1954 – The U.S. set off the second H-bomb blast in four weeks in the Marshall Islands at Bikini Island. The 15-megaton device was 750 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – Medic Alert Foundation forms.It was founded in Turlock, California by Marion C. Collins, M.D., after his daughter almost died from reaction to a sensitivity test for tetanus antitoxin. MedicAlert relays each member’s key medical facts to emergency responders, so that they receive faster, safer treatment, and avoid harmful or fatal reactions.
1956 – Red Buttons made his debut as a television actor in “Studio One” on CBS television.
1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – Orioles-Reds series for Havana, is moved to Miami. The Reds, with a farm club in Cuba, want the trip, but the Orioles fear increased political unrest in the area.
1960 – The University of Southern California (USC) captured the NCAA swimming title, becoming the first Pacific Coast school to do so.
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Baker vs. Carr gave federal courts the power to order reapportionment of seats in a state legislature, a decision that eventually led to the doctrine of “one man, one vote.”
1964 – “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 1,348 performances. 1968 Movie Trailer
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eight Days a Week” by The Beatles, “Stop! In the Name of Love” by The Supremes, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, “30,000 Pounds of Bananas.”
1966 – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam War: Operation Jackstay in Navy’s first amphibious assault in Vietnam’s inland waters.
1967 – Ten thousand people gather for one of many Central Park be-ins in New York City.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Bold Dragon III began in Mekong Delta it is under the direct control of the Chief of Naval Operations, Vietnam.
1969 – The TV movie “Marcus Welby” was seen on ABC-TV. It was later turned into a series with Robert Young and ran to 1976.
1970 – Five-hundredth nuclear explosion since 1945 was announced by the US.
1971 – “Cannon” with William Conrad premieres on CBS-TV.
1972 – Los Angeles Lakers broke NBA record by winning 69 of 82 games (69-13) .
1972 – Evil Knievel broke his collarbone after successfully clearing 13 cars.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Train“ by the O’Jays, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)” by Deodato, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “Teddy Bear Song” by Barbara Fairchild all topped the charts.
1973 – Soap opera “The Young and the Restless” premieres.
1974 – David Essex received a gold record for the hit, “Rock On“.
1975 – Vietnam War: The city of Hue, in northernmost South Vietnam, falls to the North Vietnamese.
1976 – Paul McCartney and Wings released “Wings at the Speed of Sound” album.
1977 – “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1977 – Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson.
1977 – Rose Bird (1936-1999) was sworn in as Chief Justice of California. She had been confirmed on March 12.
1979 – Michigan State and Indiana State met in the all-time highest rated basketball telecast. The NBC coverage earned a 24.1 rating. Indiana State’s unprecedented 33 consecutive-win streak came to an end as the Spartans of Michigan State won 75-64.
1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Keep on Loving You” by REO Speedwagon, “Woman” by John Lennon, “The Best of Times” by Styx and “Angel Flying Too Close to the Ground” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1981 – A jury in Los Angeles awarded entertainer Carol Burnett $1.6 million from the “National Enquirer” for an article she’d charged was libelous.
1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, DC. It stands as a symbol of America’s honor and recognition of the men and women who served and sacrificed their lives in the Vietnam War.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1983 – The U.S. performed a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.
1984 – US Congress established the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to distribute funds for wildlife and environmental projects.
1987 – National Federation of High School adopts college 3 point shot (21 feet).
1988 – “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Living Years” by Mike & The Mechanics, “Eternal Flame” by Bangles, “Girl You Know It’s True” by Milli Vanilli and “New Fool at an Old Game” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1990 – “Driving Miss Daisy” won best picture at the 62nd annual Academy Awards and captured the best actress prize for Jessica Tandy.
1991 – A divided US Supreme Court ruled that criminal defendants whose coerced confessions were improperly used as evidence are not always entitled to new trials.
1992 – NHL New York Rangers clinch first NHL regular season championship in 50 years.
1992 – In Indianapolis, IN, heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson was found guilty of rape. He was sentenced to 6 years in prison. He only served three.
1995 – “Defending the Caveman” opened at Helen Hayes Theater in New York City for 671 performances.
1995 – The National Labor Relations Board, in an extraordinary Sunday session, voted 3-2 to seek an injunction against baseball owners as a seven-and-a-half-month-old strike by players continued.
1997 – “Annie” opened at Martin Beck Theater in New York City.
1997 – The 39 bodies of Heaven’s Gate members are found in a mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, CA. The group had committed suicide thinking that they would be picked up by a spaceship following behind the comet Hale-Bopp.
1998 – Unisys Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. pay a $3.15 million fine for selling spare parts at inflated prices to the U.S. federal government.
1998 – In Nevada a new satellite-based survey of the Yucca Mo
untain site for storing radioactive wastes indicated that the Earth’s crust at the site was stretching ten times faster than previous studies have shown.
1999 – The “Melissa worm” infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.
1999 – A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.
1999 – The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, N.M. received its first shipment of nuclear waste. The facility was completed in 1988.
2000 – The Seattle Kingdome was imploded to make room for a new football arena.The 7.9 acre roof collapsed in less than 20 seconds.
2001 – California state regulators proposed a 40% rate increase to help remedy the state’s energy crisis.
2001 – Regional Comair pilots went on strike after failing to settle with corporate parent Delta. The three-month strike began after contract talks with the regional airline broke off.
2001 – In Scotland US Air Force F15C fighter jets were lost during training. The body of one pilot, Lt. Col. Kenneth John Hyvonen, and F-15 wreckage was found the next day. Wreckage of the second F-15 was found after 2 days. The body of Capt. Kirk Jones was found Mar 30.
2002 – The US Supreme Court upheld regulations that allowed federal housing officials to evict an entire household if even one member is arrested for drug violations.
2003 – In the 8th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom about 1,000 members of the US Army’s 173rd Airborne Brigade parachute into northern Iraq and seize control of an airfield.
2003 – The Senate approved a $2.2 trillion budget that provided less than half the $726 billion in tax cuts President Bush wanted.
2004 – West of Baghdad, U.S. Marines and gunmen fought an hour-long battle that left four Iraqis dead and six wounded. A U.S. Marine and an ABC freelance cameraman were killed during the firefight.
2004 – The FDA approved the first HIV test that uses saliva rather than blood. The 20 minute test, made by OraSure, is able to detect HIV antibodies about 6 weeks after infection.
2004 – Phoenix Catholic Bishop Thomas O’Brien was sentenced to four years’ probation and 1,000 hours of community service for a deadly hit-and-run that killed pedestrian Jim Reed.
2006 – In Florida Paul Dana, a 30-year-old rookie in the Indy Racing League, died at Jackson Memorial Hospital from multiple trauma suffered in the crash during the final morning practice for the season-opening Toyota Indy 300.
2007 – The design for the “Forever Stamp” was unveiled by the U.S. Postal Service.
2007 – The US military concluded that high-ranking Army officers had made critical errors in reporting the friendly fire death of Army Ranger Pat Tillman in Afghanistan. The Tillman family rejected the findings.
2007 – An American border inspector was sentenced to nearly six years in prison for taking cash and cars from smugglers, allowing them to shuttle illegal immigrants from Mexico into the United States.
2007 – A new study that suggested that an antioxidant found in blueberries and grapes may offer protection against colon cancer.
2008 – The NASA space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven made a night landing in Florida following a 16-day mission to the International Space Station.
2009 – Scientists said the basic ingredients for life: warmth, water and organic chemicals, are in place on Saturn’s small moon Enceladus, in detailing the content of huge plumes erupting off its surface.
2009 – Serial Shooter Dale Hausner receives six death sentences for six murders committed between 2005 and 2006. The Serial Shooter refers to what authorities now believe to be two men who committed multiple drive-by shootings targeting random pedestrians. The shootings occurred in Phoenix, Arizona.
2009 – The Obama administration unveiled a sweeping overhaul of the financial system designed to impose greater regulation on major players like hedge funds.
2009 – The US Internal Revenue Service announced new steps aimed at getting taxpayers hiding money in offshore accounts to pay up, promising not to file criminal charges for those who voluntarily confess to hiding money overseas.
2009 – In Brazil engine pieces from a US plane fell from the sky, hitting 22 houses and a car but sparing passengers and residents on the ground.
2010 – The Obama administration unveiled a revamped Home Affordable Mortgage Program (HAMP).
2010 – Hacker Albert Gonzalez (28), who participated in a cybercrime ring that stole tens of millions of credit and debit card numbers, was sentenced in US District Court to 20 years in prison.
2010 – In south-central Kentucky eleven people were killed in a fiery crash between a tractor-trailer and a van after the truck crossed over the median on Interstate 65 near Munfordville.
2011 – A fuel fire at Miami International Airport causes flight cancellations and delays.
2011 – Geraldine Ferraro, a Democratic Party Congresswoman and the first woman to stand for Vice-President of the United States on a major party ticket dies in Boston.
2012 – One person is killed and several homes destroyed in a wildfire outbreak in Jefferson County, Colorado.
2014 – Former Rep. Keith Farnham, 66, announced his resignation Wednesday, one day after he won the Democratic primary, running unopposed. Federal officials seized the computers of “well-liked” Democratic Rep. Keith Farnham. The Elgin Democrat resigned earlier Wednesday before the bust. Officials are looking at his WORK computers.
1749 – William Blount, American Statesman (d. 1800)
1753 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (d. 1814)
1773 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician and navigation expert (d. 1838)
1874 – Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
1904 – Joseph Campbell, American author (d. 1987)
1911 – Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (d. 1983)
1916 – Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
1917 – Rufus Thomas, American musician (d. 2001)
1929 – Tom Foley, American politician, former Speaker of the House
1930 – Sandra Day O’Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1931 – Leonard Nimoy, American actor and director
1934 – Alan Arkin, American actor
1940 – James Caan, American actor
1943 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
1944 – Diana Ross, American singer (Supremes)
1949 – Vicki Lawrence, American actress and singer
1954 – Curtis Sliwa, American founder of the Guardian Angels
1960 – Marcus Allen, American football player
1960 – Jennifer Grey, American actress
1968 – Kenny Chesney, American singer
1973 – Lawrence E. Page, American search engine pioneer
2233 – James T. Kirk, science fiction captain of USS Enterprise (Star Trek), was born.
*DICKEY, DOUGLAS E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, 3d Marine Division (Rein). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, March 26th, 1967. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 24 December 1946, Greenville, Darke, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While participating in Operation Beacon Hill 1, the 2d Platoon was engaged in a fierce battle with the Viet Cong at close range in dense jungle foliage. Pfc. Dickey had come forward to replace a radio operator who had been wounded in this intense action and was being treated by a medical corpsman. Suddenly an enemy grenade landed in the midst of a group of Marines, which included the wounded radio operator who was immobilized. Fully realizing the inevitable result of his actions, Pfc. Dickey, in a final valiant act, quickly and unhesitatingly threw himself upon the deadly grenade, absorbing with his body the full and complete force of the explosion. Pfc. Dickey’s personal heroism, extraordinary valor and selfless courage saved a number of his fellow Marines from certain injury and possible death at the cost of his life. His actions reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*MARTIN, HARRY LINN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 4 January 1911, Bucyrus, Ohio. Appointed from. Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as platoon leader attached to Company C, 5th Pioneer Battalion, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, March 26th, 1945. With his sector of the 5th Pioneer Battalion bivouac area penetrated by a concentrated enemy attack launched a few minutes before dawn, 1st Lt. Martin instantly organized a firing line with the marines nearest his foxhole and succeeded in checking momentarily the headlong rush of the Japanese. Determined to rescue several of his men trapped in positions overrun by the enemy, he defied intense hostile fire to work his way through the Japanese to the surrounded marines. Although sustaining two severe wounds, he blasted the Japanese who attempted to intercept him, located his beleaguered men and directed them to their own lines. When four of the infiltrating enemy took possession of an abandoned machinegun pit and subjected his sector to a barrage of hand grenades, 1st Lt. Martin, alone and armed only with a pistol, boldly charged the hostile position and killed all of its occupants. Realizing that his few remaining comrades could not repulse another organized attack, he called to his men to follow and then charged into the midst of the strong enemy force, firing his weapon and scattering them until he fell, mortally wounded by a grenade. By his outstanding valor, indomitable fighting spirit and tenacious determination in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Martin permanently disrupted a coordinated Japanese attack and prevented a greater loss of life in his own and adjacent platoons. His inspiring leadership and unswerving devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Kick Butts Day
Old New Years Day
The Winchester House
The house, no, the mansion was built starting with a six room house on a 4.5 acre parcel down from the original 162 acre parcel in San Jose, CA. It now has about 160 rooms, including 40 bedrooms, 13 bathrooms and two ballrooms, one completed and one unfinished. The house also has 47 fireplaces, 10,000 window panes, 17 chimneys (with evidence of two others), two basements and three elevators. At one time, prior to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake it had been seven stories tall. The house is said to be haunted.
While this is all interesting to know, how it came to be is even more interesting.
Sarah Winchester didn’t always want to build a haunted mansion. Born in 1839, Sarah Pardee was one of the social stars of New Haven, Conn. Although she only stood 4 feet 10 inches, she was known for her beauty and her sparkling personality. In 1862, Sarah married William Winchester, who was the heir of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.
The company had developed the repeating rifle, a gun that was easy to reload and fired rapidly, at a rate of one shot every three seconds. The gun was used by Northern troops in the Civil War and was also known as “the gun that won the West.”
The young couple started a family in 1866, but their daughter, Annie, died in infancy, a blow that Mrs. Winchester never recovered from. Mr. Winchester died of tuberculosis 15 years later. Distraught over these losses, she visited a medium for spiritual guidance.
In the late 1800’s spiritualism was a strong movement brought on by the desire to explain the growth of the scientific community. It is defined as “the science, philosophy and religion of continuous life, based upon the demonstrated fact of communication, by means of mediumship, with those who live in the Spirit World.”
After the death of her husband she consulted with one of these spiritual mediums. The medium told her that the Winchester family had been struck by a terrible curse and was haunted by the ghosts of all those killed by the Winchester rifle. Their spirits were seeking vengeance, and the only way to appease them was to build a house for them. The ghosts had another request: that the house never be completed. Never stop building, the medium told Mrs. Winchester, or you will die. We can’t know exactly how she interpreted this advice; she might have thought the spirits would get her if she stopped, or she might have seen continuous construction as a path to eternal life. She, therefore, did everything that she could to try and appease the spirits, lest they harm her.
She kept the house under construction constantly, around the clock, without interruption from 1884 until her death on September 5, 1922, at which time work immediately ceased. Today the mansion can be visited and if you are in the San Jose, CA area you might want to visit but beware, many think it is haunted and floating orbs can be seen as you tour.
1 He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty.
2 I will say of the LORD, “He is my refuge and my fortress, my God, in whom I trust.”
3 Surely he will save you from the fowler’s snare and from the deadly pestilence.
4 He will cover you with his feathers, and under his wings you will find refuge; his faithfulness will be your shield and rampart.
5 You will not fear the terror of night, nor the arrow that flies by day,
6 nor the pestilence that stalks in the darkness, nor the plague that destroys at midday.
“Dependence begets subservience and venality, suffocates the germ of virtue, and prepares fit tools for the designs of ambition.”
–Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, Query 19, 1781
“I’ve always felt it was not up to anyone else to make me give my best.”
~ Akeem Olajuwon
puerile \PYOO-uhr-uhl; PYOOR-uhl\, adjective:
Displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity; juvenile; childish.
Puerile comes from Latin puerilis, from puer, “child, boy.”
0031 – First Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus. Easter falls on the first Sunday following the first ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or after March 21 (the day of the ecclesiastical vernal equinox). Jesus (according to one tradition) was crucified on Friday, March 25 and was resurrected on Sunday, March 27, which should meet the definition of Easter.
1199 – Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
1306 – Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John. (See Braveheart)
1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, renewed Humphrey Gilbert’s patent to explore North America. He went on to settle the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island, naming it after the virgin queen.
1634 – Lord Baltimore founded Catholic colony of Maryland, the first settlers to arrive in Maryland.
1655 – Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens.
1655 – Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
1668 – First horse race in America takes place.
1774 – English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill. This was one of the measures (variously called the Intolerable Acts, the Punitive Acts or the Coercive Acts) that were designed to secure Great Britain’s jurisdictions over her American dominions.It was a response to the Boston Tea Party, it outlawed the use of the Port of Boston (by setting up a barricade/blockade) for “landing and discharging, loading or shipping, of goods, wares, and merchandise” until such time as restitution was made to the King’s treasury (for customs duty lost) and to the East India Company for damages suffered.
1776 – Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington.
1804 – The Secretary of the Navy approved the first formal uniform of the Marine Corps.
1807 – The Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
1813 – The first U.S. flag flown in battle was on the frigate Essex in the Pacific. USS Essex captures HMS Neryeda, first capture by U.S. Navy in Pacific.
1843 – Seventeen Texans, who picked black beans from a jar otherwise filled with white beans, were executed by a Mexican firing squad.
1851 – Yosemite Valley discovered in California.
1856 – A E Burnside patents Burnside carbine. The Burnside carbine was a breech-loading carbine that saw widespread use during the American Civil War.
1857 – The first photograph of a solar eclipse was taken. It was taken by Frederick Laggenheim.
1863 – First Army Medal of Honor was awarded to PVT Jacob Parrott of the 33rd Ohio Infantry. . The first Medals of Honor to be presented went to the six veterans of Andrews’s Raiders.
1863 – Civil War: Union rams Switzerland and Lancaster got underway to run past Vicksburg to join Rear Admiral Farragut below with U.S.S. Hartford and Albatross.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Peosta and U.S.S. Paw Paw, engaged Confederate troops who had launched a heavy assault on Northern positions at Paducah, Kentucky.
1865 – Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union in a bloody battle. This was Lee’s last attack of the war in a desperate attempt to break out of Petersburg, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely).
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Bluff Spring, FL.
1879 – Little Wolf, often called “the greatest of the fighting Cheyenne,” surrenders to his friend, Lieutenant W. P. Clark.
1882 – First demonstration of pancake making (Department store in New York NY).
1894 – Coxey’s Army, the first significant American protest march (unemployed people), departs Massillon, Ohio for Washington D.C.
1898 – Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, proposes Navy investigate military application of Samuel Langley’s flying machine, beginning naval aviation.
1902 – Irving W. Colburn patented a sheet glass drawing machine.This machine made the creation of glass for windows possible.
1905 – Rebel battle flags captured during war are returned to South.
1911 – In New York City, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire kills 146 garment workers. It was the worst workplace disaster in New York City until September 11, 2001. The facility was originally known as the Asch Building and currently as the Brown Building, It still survives and has been designated as a National Historic Landmark.
1913 – Great Dayton Flood. In Dayton, Ohio at least 428 people died during the Flood of 1913, and more than twenty thousand homes were totally destroyed.
1915 – The Navy’s first underwater disaster occurred when the submarine F-4 exploded and sank off Honolulu Harbor. Twenty-one lives were lost. F-4 was one of the first submarines assigned to the new naval facility at Pearl Harbor in the years prior to World War I.
1931 – In Alabama, nine young black men, arrested at Paint Rock after riding a freight train, were taken to Scottsboro. Also arrested were two white women, Victoria Price (21) and Ruby Bates (17), who had worked as prostitutes in Huntsville. The two women were dressed as boys. Shortly after the arrest. the nine men were charged with the raping of the two white women, while riding on the freight train. The Scottsboro Boys were accused of rape. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.
1934 – Horton Smith won the first Masters golf tournament under the magnolia trees of Augusta National in Georgia.
1937 – It was revealed Quaker Oats paid Babe Ruth $25,000 per year for being in their advertising.
1938 – First US bred horse (Battleship) to win Grand National Steeplechase
1939 – Billboard Magazine introduced the hillbilly (country) music chart.
1942 – World War II: Rear Admiral John Wilcox commanding Task Force 39 with the battleship Washington, two cruiser and six destroyers sail for Scapa Flow to protect British home waters for the duration of Operation Ironclad — the British invasion of Vichy French controlled Madagascar.
1944 – World War II: On Manus, the largest island of the Admiralty Islands, a final drive by US forces eliminates most of the remaining Japanese forces. On Los Negros, Japanese resistance has been reduced to scattered groups and isolated individuals.
1945 – World War II: US 1st Army units, principally from US 3rd Corps, begin to break out of the Remagen bridgehead. The US 8th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) begins to cross the Rhine River near Boppard.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, a 300-man Japanese force launched a vicious final counterattack in the vicinity of Airfield Number 2. Army pilots, Seabees and Marines of the 5th Pioneer Battalion and 28th Marines fought the fanatical Japanese force till morning but suffered heavy casualties –more than one hundred killed and another two American wounded. Nearly all of the Japanese force was killed in the battle.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks begin, under the direction of Admiral Ugaki, with 26 planes scoring eight hits including one on the American battleship Nevada.
1945 – World War II: American B-24 Liberator bombers of the US 5th Air Force destroy a hydroelectric power station on the island of Formosa (Taiwan).
1945 – World War II: Bombers of the US 8th Air Force bomb Hamburg, Germany with the nominal objective of striking the underground oil stores.
1947 – An explosion in a coal mine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111people.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Beg Your Pardon “ by Francis Craig and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The first successful tornado forecast predicts that a tornado will strike Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma.
1949 – University of California Pres. Robert Gordon Sproul proposed a faculty loyalty oath. The Univ. of Calif. Board of Regents later voted to require all employees to sign a loyalty oath.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Three hundred and seven Allied fighter-bombers dropped 260 tons of bombs on the rail line between Chongju and Sinanju.
1953 – The USS Missouri fired on targets at Kojo, North Korea, the last time her guns fire until the Persian Gulf War of 1992.
1954 – RCA manufactures first color TV set (12*” screen at $1,000).
1955 – United States Customs seizes copies of Allen Ginsberg’s poem “Howl” as obscene. On October 3, 1957 Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that the poem was not obscene, and “Howl” went on to become one of the most popular poems of the Beat Generation.
1955 – The Navy Vought (XF-8A) XF8U-1 Crusader is trucked to Edwards Air Force Base where it made its first flight today. Test pilot John Konrad took the airplane supersonic on this flight, the first time it had ever been done with any fighter on its maiden flight.
1958 – At Fort Chaffee, Elvis Presley received his famous G.I. haircut and coined the phrase ‘Hair today, gone tomorrow’, in a comment to the news media. He was assigned to the Second Armored Division’s ‘Hell On Wheels’ unit (formerly led by General George Patton) and was stationed at Fort Hood, Texas.
1958 – Sugar Ray Robinson is first boxing champion to win five titles.
1958 – Canada’s Avro Arrow makes its first flight. The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft, armed with AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-7 Sparrow missiles, designed and built by Avro Canada. It was cancelled February 20th, 1959.
1960 – First guided missile, a Regulus I, launched from the nuclear powered sub (Halibut).
1961 – Elvis Presley (26) performed live on the USS Arizona, a fund raiser for the memorial.
1961 – “Surrender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1965 – Civil rights activists (25,000) led by Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully complete their 4-day 50-mile march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama.
1965 – Viola Liuzzo (b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala.
1966 – US Supreme court rules “poll tax” unconstitutional.
1967 – The Turtles’ “Happy Together” goes #1.
1968 – Vietnam War: A Harris Poll reports that in the past six weeks “basic” support for the war among Americans declined from 74 percent to 54 percent. The poll also revealed that 60 percent of those questioned regarded the Tet Offensive as a defeat of U.S. objectives in Vietnam.
1970 – Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (700 MPH/1,127 KPH).
1971 – Boston Patriots become New England Patriots.
1971 – Tom Jones went gold with his single, “She’s a Lady“.
1975 – Vietnam War: Hue was lost and Da Nang was endangered. The U.S. ordered a refugee airlift to remove those in danger.
1975 – Faisal of Saudi Arabia is shot and killed by a mentally ill nephew.
1978 – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1979 – The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, “Space Shuttle Columbia”, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd, “Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl” by Spinners, “Him” by Rupert Holmes and “Why Don’t You Spend the Night” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. Embassy in San Salvador was damaged when gunmen attacked, firing rocket propelled grenades and machine guns.
1982 – The TV show “Cagney and Lacey” featured Sharon Gless and Tyne Daly as female police detectives, debuted. The show continued to 1988.
1986 – President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.
1986 – Supreme Court ruled in Goldman v. Weinberger that the Air Force could ban wearing of yarmulkes.
1987 – The US Supreme Court ruled employers may sometimes favor women and members of minority groups over men and whites in hiring and promoting in order to achieve better balance in the work force.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley, “I Get Weak” by Belinda Carlisle, “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson and “Life Turned Her that Way” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1988 – In New York City’s so-called “preppie murder case,” Robert E. Chambers Jr. pleaded guilty to first-degree manslaughter in the death of 18-year-old Jennifer Levin.
1990 – MASS MURDER: In The Bronx, a Cuban terrorist (Julio Gonzalez) set an arson fire at an illegal social club called “Happy Land” killing 87 people.
1990 – “Star Trek V” won the 10th Golden Raspberry Awards as worst picture .
1993 – The Senate approved an outline of President Clinton’s plan to spark the economy and trim the budget deficit by a vote of 54-45.
1994 – At the end of a largely unsuccessful 15-month mission, the last U.S. troops depart Somalia, leaving 20,000 U.N. troops behind to keep the peace and facilitate “nation building” in the divided country.
1995 – Two Americans who had strayed across the Kuwaiti border into Iraq were sentenced to eight years in prison. However, David Daliberti and William Barloon were released by Iraq the following July.
1995 – Mike Tyson was released from the Indiana Youth Center after serving three years for the 1992 rape of Desiree Washington, a beauty pageant contestant.
1996 – An 81-day-long standoff between the anti-government group Montana Freemen and law enforcement near Jordan, Montana, begins.
1996 – US issues newly-redesigned $100 bill.
1996 – France, Britain and the US signed a treaty to ban nuclear weapons from the South Pacific.
1997 – Georgia Gov. Zell Miller signed into law a ban on a controversial form of late-term abortion.
1997 – Former President George Bush, 73, parachuted from a plane over the Arizona desert.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A 13-year-old student of Fernando Rivera Middle School courtyard yesterday morning wielding a chrome-plated semiautomatic pistol, seeking revenge three weeks after he was sent home for getting into an argument.
The boy, unidentified due to age, is accused of shooting at the principal at the start of school, tossing the small handgun in a bush and returning to math class. The shot missed Principal Matteo Rizzo, who said he sent the boy home Friday March 20th, because the student was angry over an incident involving a friend. This was just one-day after the Jonesboro, AR incident.
1998 – The FCC netted $578.6 million at auction for licenses for new wireless technology.
2003 – The US Navy brought in two specially trained bottle-nosed Atlantic dolphins to help ferret out mines in the approaches of the port of Umm Qasr.
2003 – This was the seventh day of Operation Iraqi Freedom. US aircraft dropped more than 2,000 precision- guided bombs on Iraq since the war’s start.
2003 – Six satellite jamming devices, which Iraq was using to try to thwart American precision guided weapons, were destroyed in the last two nights.
2003 – A light plane carrying three Americans crashed in southern Colombia while searching for 3 other Americans captured by rebels last month.
2003 – Former Waterbury, Conn., Mayor Philip Giordano was convicted by a federal jury of violating the civil rights of two preteen girls by sexually abusing them. Giordano was later sentenced to 37 years in federal prison.
2004 – US Congress passed the Unborn Victims of Violence Act, making it a separate offense to harm a fetus during violent federal crime.
2005 – Losing still more legal appeals, Terri Schiavo’s father, Bob Schindler, said his severely brain-damaged daughter was “down to her last hours” as she entered her second week without the feeding tube that had sustained her life for 15 years.
2005 – Several Imax cinemas in the USA (in Texas, Georgia and the Carolinas) have chosen not to show the film “Volcanoes of the Deep Sea” in light of its reference to the theory of evolution.
2006 – In San Francisco, an evangelical Christian concert, dubbed “Battle Cry for a Generation,” drew some 25,000 teens to AT&T Park.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: Capitol Hill massacre: A gunman kills six people before taking his own life at a party in Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that US ratification of certain treaties isn’t enforceable unless Congress takes additional steps.
2009 – Broward Circuit Court Judge Ian Richards jumped over his bench to help a witness who was being attacked by the man she had testified against.
2009 – A United States Air Force F-22 Raptor crashes near Edwards AF Base in California, killing its pilot.
2010 – The United States weakens proposed sanctions against Iran in a bid to win broader support on the UN Security Council as Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad dismisses the impact of any new measures to stop Iran’s nuclear program.
2010 – President Barack Obama requests that Cuba’s leaders release all political prisoners, describing human rights there as “deeply disturbing.”
2010 – U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates announces new rules that make it more difficult to expel gay service members.
2010 – Three die in a medical helicopter crash in Tennessee with the helicopter that crashed being operated by Hospital Wing.
2011 – Domonique Ramirez wins a lawsuit against the Miss San Antonio pageant which means she will regain her title and crown, this after being stripped of her title for being “overweight”.
2012 – A student is shot dead on the Mississippi State University campus prompting school-wide alerts. Three suspects escape in a blue Ford Crown Victoria.
2012 – Tiger Woods wins the Arnold Palmer Invitational tournament in Orlando, his first US PGA Tour victory since 2009.
2013 – Six people are wounded during a stabbing attack at a Target store in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A 41-year-old homeless man was arrested.
2014 – A Girl Scout in Oklahoma City is reported as having sold 18,107 boxes of cookies, breaking the previous record of 18,000.
2015 – The conservative group Freedom Watch filed a racketeering lawsuit against former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton that accuses her of failing to produce documents under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The civil suit, filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, argues that Clinton used her private emails to sell access to other officials in return for donations to the Clinton Foundation.
1539 – Christopher Clavius, German mathematician was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. (d. 1612)
1797 – John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
1840 – Myles Keogh, U.S. Soldier in U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment & Irish Soldier of Fortune. He was part of the command of General George Armstrong Custer He was killed with Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, June 25 1876.
1863 – Simon Flexner, American pathologist . Amongst Flexner’s most important achievements are studies into poliomyelitis and the development of serum treatment for meningitis. He died in 1946.
1867 – Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, his name became a household name through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire. (d. 1957)
1892 – Andy Clyde, American actor. His career spanned over 40 years and one of his roles was as Cully Wilson, an eccentric farmer and nature lover in the Lassie television series (d. 1967).
1911 – Jack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (d. 1967)
1918 – Howard Cosell, American sports reporter (d. 1995)
1922 – Eileen Ford, American model agency executive
1928 – Jim Lovell, American astronaut
1932 – Gene Shalit, American film critic
1934 – Gloria Steinem, American feminist and publisher
1937 – Tom Monaghan, founder of Dominos pizza
1938 – Hoyt Axton, American actor and country music singer-songwriter (d. 1999)
1940 – Anita Bryant, American singer
1942 – Aretha Franklin, American singer
1943 – Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
1947 – Elton John, English singer and songwriter
1948 – Bonnie Bedelia, American actress
1957 – Jim Uhls, American screenwriter who rose to fame with his script adaptation of the critically acclaimed novel Fight Club.
1967 – Debi Thomas, American figure skater. She is a currently practicing orthpaedic surgeon.
1982 – Danica Patrick, American race car driver
*DOANE, STEPHEN HOLDEN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 25th, 1969. Entered service at: Albany, N.Y. Born: 13 October 1947, Beverely, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. First Lt. Doane was serving as a platoon leader when his company, engaged in a tactical operation, abruptly contacted an enemy force concealed in protected bunkers and trenches. Three of the leading soldiers were pinned down by enemy crossfire. One was seriously wounded. After efforts of one platoon to rescue these men had failed, it became obvious that only a small group could successfully move close enough to destroy the enemy position and rescue or relieve the trapped soldiers, 1st Lt. Doane, although fully aware of the danger of such an action, crawled to the nearest enemy bunker and silenced it. He was wounded but continued to advance to a second enemy bunker. As he prepared to throw a grenade, he was again wounded. Undaunted, he deliberately pulled the pin on the grenade and lunged with it into the enemy bunker, destroying this final obstacle. 1st Lt. Doane’s supreme act enabled his company to rescue the trapped men without further casualties. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by this officer were an inspiration to his men and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army .
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 25th, 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monroe County, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in engagements.
HILL, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 25th, 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
SHIELS, GEORGE F.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Tuliahan River, Philippine Islands, March 25th, 1899. Entered service at: California. Birth: California. Date of issue: 22 November 1906. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of the enemy and went with four men to the relief of two native Filipinos Iying wounded about 150 yards in front of the lines and personally carried one of them to a place of safety.
CARTER, JOSEPH F.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 9 July 1891. Citation: Captured the colors of the 51st Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). During the battle he was captured and escaped bringing a number of prisoners with him.
CHAMBERS, JOSEPH B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 100th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: East Brook, Pa. Birth: Beaver County, Pa. Date of issue: 27 July 1871. Citation: Capture of colors of 1st Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
DEANE, JOHN M.
Rank and organization: Major, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Born: 8 January 1840, Freetown, Mass. Date of issue: 8 March 1895. Citation: This officer, observing an abandoned gun within Fort Haskell, called for volunteers, and under a heavy fire, worked the gun until the enemy’s advancing line was routed.
GAYLORD, LEVI B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 22 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily assisted in working an abandoned gun, while exposed to heavy fire, until the enemy’s advancing line was routed by a charge on its left flank.
HOUGHTON, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company L, 14th New York Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864; March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Ogdensburg, N.Y. Born: 30 April 1842, Macomb, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: In the Union assault at the Crater (30 July 1864), and in the Confederate assault repelled at Fort Haskell, displayed most conspicuous gallantry and repeatedly exposed himself voluntarily to great danger, was three times wounded, and suffered loss of a leg.
HOWE, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Haverhill, Mass. Date of issue: 8 March 1895. Citation: Served an abandoned gun under heavy fire.
LITTLEFIELD, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st Maine Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Skowhegan, Maine. Birth: Skowhegan, Maine. Date of issue: 22 June 1885. Citation: The color sergeant having been wounded, this soldier picked up the flag and bore it to the front, to the great encouragement of the charging column.
McDONALD, GEORGE E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Warwick, R.I. Birth: Warwick, R.I. Date of issue: 21 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
MURPHY, JAMES T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 1st Connecticut Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 29 October 1886. Citation: A piece of artillery having been silenced by the enemy, this soldier voluntarily assisted in working the piece, conducting himself throughout the engagement in a gallant and fearless manner.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 100th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Birth: Allegheny County, Pa. Date of issue. 3 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
PINKHAM, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 57th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Grafton, Mass. Date of issue: 15 April 1895. Citation: Captured the flag of the 57th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.) and saved his own colors by tearing them from the staff while the enemy was in the camp.
THOMPKINS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 124th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Esport Jervis, N.Y. Birth: Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 49th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.) from an officer who, with colors in hand, was rallying his men.
Declaration of Indulgence of King James II, April 4, 1687
- suspended all penal laws in matters ecclesiastical for not attending the established Church of England or not receiving communion according to its rites;
- permitted people to worship other than in the established Church of England either in private houses or in chapels;
- ended the requirement that people take various religious oaths before advancement to civil or military office.
The declaration applied to Catholics, Protestants, Unitarians, Jews, Muslims, and people of any or even no faith.
A printed version of the text can be found on pages 399 and 400 of English Historical Documents, 1660-1714, edited by Andrew Browning (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1953).
His Majesty’s gracious declaration to all his loving subjects for liberty of conscience.
It having pleased Almighty God not only to bring us to the imperial crown of these kingdoms through the greatest difficulties, but to preserve us by a more than ordinary providence upon the throne of our royal ancestors, there is nothing now that we so earnestly desire as to establish our government on such a foundation as may make our subjects happy, and unite them to us by inclination as well as duty; which we think can be done by no means so effectually as by granting to them the free exercise of their religion for the time to come, and add that to the perfect enjoyment of their property, which has never been in any case invaded by us since our coming to the crown; which being the two things men value most, shall ever be preserved in these kingdoms, during our reign over them, as the truest methods of their peace and our glory.
We cannot but heartily wish, as it will easily be believed, that all the people of our dominions were members of the Catholic Church. Yet we humbly thank Almighty God, it is and has of long time been our constant sense and opinion (which upon divers occasions we have declared) that conscience ought not to be constrained nor people forced in matters of mere religion; it has ever been directly contrary to our inclination, as we think it is to the interest of government, which it destroys by spoiling trade, depopulating countries, and discouraging strangers, and finally, that it never obtained the end for which it was employed. And in this we are the more confirmed by the reflections we have made upon the conduct of the four last reigns. For after all the frequent and pressing endeavours that were used in each of them to reduce this kingdom to an exact conformity in religion, it is visible the success has not answered the design, and that the difficulty is invincible.
We therefore, out of our princely care and affection unto all our loving subjects that they may live at ease and quiet, and for the increase of trade and encouragement of strangers, have thought fit by virtue of our royal prerogative to issue forth this our declaration of indulgence, making no doubt of the concurrence of our two Houses of Parliament when we shall think it convenient for them to meet.
In the first place we do declare, that we will protect and maintain the archbishops, bishops, and clergy, and all other our subjects of the Church of England, in the free exercise of their religion, as by law established, and in the quiet and full enjoyment of all their possessions, without any molestation or disturbance whatsoever.
We do likewise declare, that it is our royal will and pleasure, that from henceforth the execution of all and all manner of penal laws in matters ecclesiastical, for not coming to church, or not receiving the Sacrament, or for any other nonconformity to the religion established, or for or by reason of the exercise of religion in any manner whatsoever, be immediately suspended; and the further execution of the said penal laws and every of them is hereby suspended.
And to the end that by the liberty hereby granted, the peace and security of our government in the practice thereof may not be endangered, we have thought fit, and do hereby straightly charge and command all our loving subjects, that as we do freely give them leave to meet and serve God after their own way and manner, be it in private houses or in places purposely hired or built for that use, so that they take especial care, that nothing be preached or taught amongst them which may any ways tend to alienate the hearts of our people from us or our government; and that their meetings and assemblies be peaceably, openly, and publicly held, and all persons freely admitted to them; and that they do signify and make known to some one or more of the next justices of the peace what place or places they set apart for those uses.
And that all our subjects may enjoy such their religious assemblies with greater assurance and protection, we have thought it requisite, and do hereby command, that no disturbance of any kind be made or given unto them, under pain of our displeasure, and to be further proceeded against with the uttermost severity.
And forasmuch as we are desirous to have the benefit of the service of all our loving subjects, which by the law of nature is inseparably annexed to, and inherent in, our royal person, and that none of our subjects may for the future be under any discouragement or disability (who are otherwise well inclined and fit to serve us) by reason of some oaths or tests, that have been usually administered on such occasions, we do hereby further declare, that it is our royal will and pleasure, that the oaths commonly called, The Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance, and also the several tests and declarations mentioned in the Acts of Parliament made in the 25th and 30th years of the reign of our late royal brother King Charles the Second, shall not at any time hereafter be required to be taken, declared, or subscribed by any person or persons whatsoever, who is or shall be employed in any office or place of trust either civil or military, under us or under our government. And we do further declare it to be our pleasure and intention from time to time hereafter, to grant our royal dispensations under our great seal to all our loving subjects so to be employed, who shall not take the said oaths, or subscribe or declare the said tests or declarations in the abovementioned Acts and every of them.
And to the end that all our loving subjects may receive and enjoy the full benefit and advantage of our gracious indulgence hereby intended, and may be acquitted and discharged from all pains, penalties, forfeitures and disabilities by them or any of them incurred or forfeited, or which they shall or may at any time hereafter be liable to, for or by reason of their nonconformity or the exercise of their religion, and from all suits, troubles, or disturbances for the same, we do hereby give our free and ample pardon unto all nonconformists, recusants, and other our loving subjects, for all crimes and things by them committed or done contrary to the penal laws formerly made relating to religion and the profession or exercise thereof, hereby declaring, that this our royal pardon and indemnity shall be as good and effectual to all intents and purposes, as if every individual person had been therein particularly named, or had particular pardons under our great seal, which we do likewise declare shall from time to time be granted unto any person or persons desiring the same, willing and requiring our judges, justices, and other officers, to take notice of and obey our royal will and pleasure herein before declared.
And although the freedom and assurance we have hereby given in relation to religion and property might be sufficient to remove from the minds of our loving subjects all fears and jealousies in relation to either, yet we have thought fit further to declare, that we will maintain them in all their properties and possessions, as well of church and abbey-lands as in any other their lands and properties whatsoever.
Given at our court at Whitehall, the fourth day of April, 1687, in the third year of our reign.
American Chocolate Week
Act Happy Week
National Chocolate Covered Raisin Day
With the volumes of information we have to digest every day, from the newspaper in the morning, to the long-winded emails from well-meaning colleagues, and all the reports, proposals, periodicals, and letters we are sent, reading is one of the most used skills we possess.
It’s also a skill that most of us take for granted by the time we reach the age of eleven or twelve. After all, it seems that if you can read and comprehend textbooks, you must be a good reader.
Unlike most other skills which we try to become better and better at, reading is one that people don’t think about as much as they should. Given the time that reading consumes in our daily lives, it is actually a skill that we can, and should, improve upon.
But what does becoming a better reader involve? In short, getting faster and more efficient at it, while still understanding what you’re reading in sufficient detail. The best starting point for doing this is to unlearn poor reading habits.
Breaking Poor Reading Habits
Habit: Reading word by word
This is how children are taught to read, but when you concentrate on separate words you often miss the overall concept of what is being said. People who read each word as a distinct unit comprehend less than those who read faster by “chunking” words together in blocks.
Solution: Speed reading involves reading blocks of words at one time and comprehending the meaning of the word group. Think of viewing a digital image. There are millions of pixels that only make sense when they are seen together. In the same way, our brains can comprehend ideas better when it takes in a group of words at one time.
Practice expanding the number of words that you read at a time. You may also find that you can increase the number of words read by holding the text a little further from your eyes. The more words you can read in each block, the faster you will read!
This is the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it. Most people do this to some extent or another. When you sub-vocalize you “hear” the word being spoken in your mind. This takes much more time than is necessary because you can comprehend a word much quicker than your can say it.
Solution: To turn off the voice in your head you have to first acknowledge that you do it (how did you read the first part of this article?) and then you have to practice not doing it. When you sit down to read, tell yourself that you will not sub-vocalize. You have to practice and practice this until this bad habit is erased. Reading blocks of words also helps as you can’t “say” a block of words.
Eliminating sub-vocalization alone can increase your reading speed by an astounding amount. Otherwise, you are limited to reading at the same pace as talking which is about 250-350 words per minute. If you are an efficient scanner, you may increase this rate to between 400 and 500 words per minute. The only way to break through this barrier is to stop saying the words in your head as you read. If you can train yourself to simply scan the words without thinking about the pronunciation, you will increase your speed significantly.
Habit: Inefficient eye motion
Slow readers tend to focus on each word and work their way across each line. The eye can actually span about 1.5 inches at a time which, for an average page, encompasses four or five words. Related to this is the fact that most readers don’t use their peripheral vision to see words at the ends of the line.
Solution: Soften your gaze when you read. By relaxing your face and expanding your gaze, you will begin to see blocks of words instead of each word as distinct unit. When you get good at this your eyes will drift across the page. When you get close to the end of the line, let your peripheral vision take over to see the last set of words. This way you can quickly scan across and down to the next line.
This is unnecessary re-reading of material. Sometimes people get in the habit of skipping back to words they just read and other times they jump back a few sentences just to make sure that they read something right. When you “skip back” like this you lose the flow and structure of the text and your overall understanding of the subject decreases.
Solution: Be very conscious of regression and do not allow yourself to re-read material. To reduce the number of times that your eyes skip back to a previous sentence, run a pointer along the line as you read. This could be a finger, or a pen or pencil. Your eyes will follow the tip of your pointer, smoothing the flow of your reading. The speed at which you read using this method will largely depend on the speed at which you move the pointer.
Habit: Poor Concentration
If you’ve tried to read while the TV is on, or when there is lots of activity around you, you know how hard it is to concentrate on one word, let alone on many sentences strung together. Reading has to be done in environment where external distractions are at a minimum.
Solution: Stop multitasking while reading. If you are attempting to speed read, this is particularly important because when you use the speed reading techniques of chunking blocks of words and ceasing to sub-vocalize, you may have “read” one or two pages before you realize you haven’t understood something properly. Pay attention to internal distractions as well. If you are rehashing a heated discussion you had earlier, or wondering what to make for dinner, this will also limit your ability to process more information.
Sub-vocalization actually forces your brain to attend to what you are reading and that is why people often report they can read and listen to the radio or watch TV at the same time. To become an efficient reader you need to stop doing these things all together.
Habit: Approaching reading linearly
We are taught to read across and down, taking in every word, sentence, paragraph, page, and chapter in order. When you do this, though, you pay the same attention to supplementary and superfluous material as you do to the critical portions. There is usually far more information written than you actually need to understand.
Solution: Stop reading a book like you would listen to a speech. Scan the page for headings and look for the bullet points or things in bold. There is no rule saying you have to read in the order the author presents the information. Do a quick scan of the page and decide quickly what is necessary and what isn’t. Skim over the fluff and pay attention to the key material.
As you read, look for the little extras that authors add to make their writing interesting and engaging. If you get the point, there is no need to read the example, anecdote, or metaphor. Similarly, decide what you need to re-read as well. It is far better to read the one critical paragraph twice than to read all eight paragraphs describing that same concept.
Copyright MindTools, Inc.
Phillipians 1: 3-6
3 I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, 4 always in every prayer of mine making request for you all with joy, 5 for your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now, 6 being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ;
“When once a republic is corrupted, there is no possibility of remedying any of the growing evils but by removing the corruption and restoring its lost principles; every other correction is either useless or a new evil.”
— Thomas Jefferson –
There’s no such thing as Perfection. But, in striving for perfection, we can achieve excellence.”
apposite \AP-uh-zit\, adjective:
Being of striking appropriateness and relevance; very applicable; apt.
Apposite comes from Latin appositus, past participle of apponere, “to set or put near,” from ad-, “to, toward” + ponere, “to put, to place.”
1663 – Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration.
1661 – William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common.
1663 – The Province of Carolina is granted by charter to eight Lords Proprietor in reward for their assistance in restoring Charles II of England to the throne. The province went from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and from the Ohio River to the bottom of current day Georgia.
1664 – A charter to colonize Rhode Island was granted to Roger Williams.
1688 – Governor Edmund Andros issues an order placing the militia of the New England colonies under his own direct control.
1765 – The Kingdom of Great Britain passes the Quartering Act that requires the Thirteen Colonies to house British troops.
1813 – David Melville, Newport RI, patents apparatus for making coal gas & patented the gas streetlight.
1825 – The Mexican state of Tejas-Coahuilla officially declares itself open to US settlers.
1828 – Philadelphia & Columbia Railway (first state owned) authorized. The system opened in 1834, consisting of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad from Philadelphia west to Columbia on the Susquehanna River.
1832 – In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr..
1832 – As part of Jackson’s continuing effort to move Native American tribes, the Creeks sign a treaty to cede their territory east of the Mississippi to the US.
1864 – Civil War: A closely coordinated Army-Navy expedition departed Beaufort, North Carolina, on board side-wheel steamer U.S.S. Britannia.
1865 – Civil War: U.S.S. Republic, Acting Ensign John W. Bennett, was dispatched up the Cape Fear River from Wilmington to check reports that detachments of General Wheeler’s cavalry were operating in the area.
1868 – Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed.
1882 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis).
1883 – First telephone call between New York & Chicago .
1896 – A. S. Popov makes the first radio signal transmission in history.
1898 – First automobile sold was a Winton to Robert Allison . He lived in Port Carbon, Pa., and was 70 years old at the time. The company later bought back the car and donated it to the Museum in 1929.
1900 – New York City Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck breaks ground for a new underground “Rapid Transit Railroad” that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn.
1903 – George Dewey commissioned Admiral of the Navy with the date of rank, 2 March 1899. He was the only person to hold this rank. The rank was cancelled on January 16th, 1917 when Admiral Dewey died.
1906 – “Census of the British Empire” showed England ruled 1/5 of the world.
1912 – The “Bread and Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended.
1913 – Home of vaudeville, Palace Theatre, New York City, opens starring Ed Wynn.
1920 – First US Coast Guard Air Station established in Morehead City NC. It borrowed a few Curtiss HS-2L flying-boats and possibly one or two Aeromarine Model 40’s from the US Navy. However, funds were not provided to support the operation and the station was closed on 1 July 1921.
1932 – Belle Baker hosted a radio variety show from a moving train … a first for radio broadcasting.
1934 – US declares the Philippines to become independent when Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act allowing the Philippines to become a self-governing commonwealth.
1934 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt lit the Easter Cross on Mount Davidson via telegraph from the White House eight days before Easter.
1935 – Major Bowes’ Original Amateur Hour goes national on NBC Radio Network. The show was one of the most popular programs broadcast in the 1930s and 1940s.
1936 – The longest game in NHL history was played between Detroit and Montreal. Detroit scored at 16:30 of the sixth overtime and won the game 1-0.
1938 – The U.S. asked that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis.
1941 – Glenn Miller began work on his first motion picture for 20th Century Fox. The film was “Sun Valley Serenade“. (1:22:30)
1942 – World War II: American positions on Bataan and Corregidor are attacked by Japanese aircraft and artillery.
1944 – World War II: Ardeatine Massacre: German troops kill 335 Italian partisans, who the day before killed 33 German soldiers [policemen] in Rome.
1944 – World War II: In an event later dramatized in the movie The Great Escape, 76 prisoners begin breaking out of Stalag Luft III.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, significant Japanese resistance ends. American forces do not attempt to clear the Japanese remnants from the island.
1944 – World War II: The 22nd Marine Regiment captured Ebon and Namu Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
1945 – World War II: The US 9th Army begins to cross the Rhine a little to the south of the British and Canadians forces.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa. The island is also bombarded by five battleships and eleven destroyers under the command of Admiral Lee.
1945 – World War II: Largest one-day airborne drop: 600 transports and 1300 gliders.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “ Managua, Nicaragua” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Stuart Wade), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting/DorisDay and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Congress proposes two-term limitation on the Presidency .
1951 – Korean War: ROK Army units crossed the 38th parallel.
1953 – Korean War: The 2nd Infantry Division’s artillery units began to support the embattled 7th Infantry Division on Pork Chop Hill, firing 15,000 rounds in one week.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Sincerely” by McGuire Sisters, “Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup” by Nat ‘King’ Cole and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The Tennessee Williams play, “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” (1:41:26), opened on Broadway. The hit ran for 694 shows and won the Critics’ Circle Award as the Best American Play.
1955 – The first seagoing oil drill rig (for drilling in over 100 feet of water) was placed in service by the U.S. company C.G. Glasscock Drilling Co.
1958 – Elvis Presley is officially inducted into the U.S.Army. He reported to local draft board 86 in Memphis, TN. Although he had been drafted the previous December, the army granted him a deferral so he could finish shooting his film, King Creole. He became US 53310761.
1960 – US appeals court ruled the novel, “Lady Chatterly’s Lover” by D.H. Lawrence, to be not obscene.
1964 – Kennedy half-dollar was issued.
1965 – NASA spacecraft Ranger 9, equipped to convert its signals into a form suitable for showing on domestic television, brings images of the Moon into ordinary homes before crash landing. It crashed 10 miles NE of crater Alphonsus.
1966 – Selective Service announced college deferments based on performance.
1967 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong ambushed a truck convoy damaging 82 of the 121 trucks.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin, “She’s a Lady” by Tom Jones, “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations and “I’d Rather Love You” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Kenyan track runner Kip Keino defeats Jim Ryun at the first-ever professional track meet in Los Angeles, California.
1975 – Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese “Ho Chi Minh Campaign” begins.
1977 – Cuba and the United States enter into direct negotiations when the two nations discuss fishing rights.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tragedy” by Bee Gees, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Heaven Knows” by Donna Summer with Brooklyn Dreams, “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1980 – ABC’s nightly Iran Hostage crisis program was renamed “Nightline.”
1985 – The Golden Raspberry Awards were presented to parody the Oscar Awards. The movie, “Bolero”, won the big award, for John and Bo (I’m a 10!) Derek; winning honors for worst director and worst actress, respectively.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau, “Let’s Wait Awhile“ by Janet Jackson, “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship and “I’d Still Be Loving You” by Restless Heart all topped the charts.
1988 – Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges.
1989 – Good Friday Oil Spill. The nation’s worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude (240,000 barrels of oil).
1991 – General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis blasted off with seven astronauts on the first shuttle mission devoted to the environment.
1993 – Mahmoud Abouhalima, a cab driver implicated in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was flown back to the United States from Egypt. Abouhalima was later convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.
1996 – U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid transfers to the Russian space station Mir from the U.S. Space Shuttle Atlantis for a planned five-month stay. Lucid was the first female U.S. astronaut to live in a space station.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Jonesboro massacre: Two students, Mitchell Johnson (13) and Andrew Golden (11), opened fire on a group of schoolchildren from a nearby woods and killed four girls and one teacher and wounded 11 others. Both boys were later convicted of murder and were incarcerated until they turned 21.The older boy was angry at a girl who had broken up with him.
1999 – The US Supreme Court ruled to uphold an 1837 treaty with the Chippewa Indians for hunting and fishing on 13 million acres of public land in Minnesota.
1999 – In California a robber managed to steal $2.3 million from a Loomis armored truck as it traveled on I-80 between San Francisco and Sacramento. The heist was not reported until May 6.
2000 – A US federal judge awarded former hostage Terry Anderson $341 million from Iran, holding Iranian agents responsible for Anderson’s nearly seven years of captivity in Lebanon.
2001 – U.S. skater Michelle Kwan won her fourth World Figure Skating title; Irina Slutskaya of Russia was second, and American Sarah Hughes earned the bronze.
2002 – Halle Berry becomes the first African-American woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the movie “Monster’s Ball,” Denzel Washington became the second African-American actor, after Sidney Poitier, to win in the best actor category.
2003 – Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Gulf War: In the sixth day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US forces began strikes against the Medina Division of the Republican Guard guarding Baghdad.
2003 – Gulf War: After Coalition forces have pushed further into Iraq securing most of the southern oilfields over the weekend, Kuwaiti fire fighters are able to enter Iraq and are able to extinguish one of the wellhead fires.
2003 – Gulf War: Iraqi state television showed two men,Chief Warrant Officer David Williams and Chief Warrant Officer Ronald D. Young Jr. spent three weeks in captivity before they were released along with five other POWs.
2004 – Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow: The United States Supreme Court hears oral arguments over the constitutionality of the “under God” clause of the Pledge of Allegiance.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, “Lizzie McGuire”, airs.
2004 – A NASA unpiloted X-43A jet, part of its Hyper-X program, reached a record speed of 5,200 mph, Mach 6.83, after a rocket boosted it to 3,500 mph. It used a new engine called a supersonic-combustion ramjet, or scramjet.
2004 – A group of large employers proposed “scorecards” for doctors in an effort help employees choose doctors based on quality care.
2005 – The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal from the parents of Terri Schiavo to have a feeding tube reinserted into the severely brain-damaged woman.
2005 – The US FDA approved Boniva, a monthly pill to help women fight osteoporosis.
2005 – NBC’s successful comedy “The Office” premiered.
2006 – Space Exploration Technology’s Falcon 1, a partly reusable commercial rocket developed by this California entrepreneur, failed during its maiden launch from a Pacific island.
2006 – It was reported that Iraqi documents captured by US forces in 2003 say Russian intelligence had sources inside the American military that enabled it to feed information about U.S. troop movements and battle plans to Saddam Hussein.
2006 – Hannah Montana starts with its first episode.
2006 – Scientists reported glaciers and ice sheets were melting faster than previously thought and could raise sea levels by 13-20 feet by the end of the century.
2006 – Protests against the US immigration reform bill H.R. 4437 are held in several US cities. 500,000 people march in Los Angeles, California, 50,000 in Denver, Colorado, and 20,000 in Phoenix, Arizona, protesting proposed legislation that includes construction of a security wall along the United States-Mexico border.
2006 – A gunman killed six people at a party and then himself in the Capitol Hill massacre in Seattle, Washington.
2007 – It was reported that the total number of books in existence was estimated to be about 65 million.
2008 – Relatives of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre report that the Government of Virginia will offer victims compensation of $100,000 to forestall law suits.
2008 – In Detroit, Mich., Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (37) was charged with eight felonies in an obstruction of justice case that involved a romantic affair with a chief of staff.
2008 – Al-Qaida deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahri called on Muslims in a new audiotape to strike Jewish and American targets in revenge for Israel’s recent offensive in the Gaza Strip.
2009 -Immaculata University discovers the mass grave of 57 Irish immigrants in East Whiteland Township, Pennsylvania. The workers came to Philadelphia from Counties Donegal, Tyrone, and Derry to work in Pennsylvania’s growing and new railroad industry. Less than two months after their arrival, all 57 are believed to have died during the second cholera pandemic.
2009 – US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner called on Congress to grant him new powers to regulate huge financial companies like insurance giant AIG, whose failure would pose a grave danger to the US financial system and the broader economy.
2009 – Project Gun Runner (Fast and Furious) was launched under the orders of President Barack Obama with the knowledge of Attorney General Eric Holder. Deputy Attorney General David Ogden announced the Obama Administration’s new and aggressive ‘comprehensive plan’.The plan was aimed at disrupting gun trafficking between the United States and Mexico.
2009 – The US federal government announces a plan to increase security along its border with Mexico.
2010 – More than one-million baby slings made by Infantino were recalled in the US after claims linking them to three infant deaths.
2010 – Go Daddy, the largest domain name registration company in the world, announces it will cease registering websites in China after the Chinese government required customers to provide photographs and other identifying information before registering.
2010 – President Barack Obama’s administration named 54 alleged Mexican drug cartel lieutenants and enforcers as drug kingpins under a law that allows the US government to freeze their bank accounts and penalize their business associates.
2011 – The United States Census Bureau confirms that New York City is the largest city in the US with 8,175,133 residents at the time of the 2010 United States Census on April 1.
2011 – The Air Force says six pilots who participated in a spectacular flyover before an Iowa football game have been disciplined for flying too low and too fast. The lead pilot is giving up his right to fly military aircraft. The Air Force says the four Talon T-38 Trainer jets flew just 16 feet above the stadium’s press box and at 400 mph (max allowable is 300) when they wowed 70,000 fans inside Kinnick Stadium before Iowa hosted Ohio State on Nov. 20.
2012 – Voters in Louisiana go to the polls for the Louisiana Republican primary with Rick Santorum winning.
2012 – Former Vice President Dick Cheney receives a heart transplant from an unknown donor.
2013 – Mississippi House of Representatives member Jessica Upshaw (51) dies reportedly after being shot in the head. Upshaw was found dead in the home of former Mississippi State Representative Clint Rotenberry in Mendenhall, Mississippi. Police investigated her death, an apparent gunshot suicide.
2014 – In Santa Barbara CA a professor of pornography and black studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has been charged with robbery, battery and vandalism after stealing and destroying a pro-life banner and physically attacking a 16-year-old pro-life advocate at a campus event.
1795 – John Keats, English poet.
1860 – Juliette Low, American, founder of the Girl Scouts.
1874 – Harry Houdini (Erik Weisz), Hungarian-born American magician and escape artist.
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, first constitutional president of the Republic of China and army general.
1912 – Dale Evans (Frances Butts), American singer-songwriter, actress, wife of Roy Rogers.
1931 – Dan Rather, American TV journalist.
1936 – Michael Landon, American TV actor, producer and director.
*BRYANT, WILLIAM MAUD
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. Place and Date: Long Khanh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 16 February 1933, Cochran, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Bryant, assigned to Company A, distinguished himself while serving as commanding officer of Civilian Irregular Defense Group Company 321, 2d Battalion, 3d Mobile Strike Force Command, during combat operations. The battalion came under heavy fire and became surrounded by the elements of three enemy regiments. Sfc. Bryant displayed extraordinary heroism throughout the succeeding 34 hours of incessant attack as he moved throughout the company position heedless of the intense hostile fire while establishing and improving the defensive perimeter, directing fire during critical phases of the battle, distributing ammunition, assisting the wounded, and providing the leadership and inspirational example of courage to his men. When a helicopter drop of ammunition was made to re-supply the beleaguered force, Sfc. Bryant with complete disregard for his safety ran through the heavy enemy fire to retrieve the scattered ammunition boxes and distributed needed ammunition to his men. During a lull in the intense fighting, Sfc. Bryant led a patrol outside the perimeter to obtain information of the enemy. The patrol came under intense automatic weapons fire and was pinned down. Sfc. Bryant single-handedly repulsed one enemy attack on his small force and by his heroic action inspired his men to fight off other assaults. Seeing a wounded enemy soldier some distance from the patrol location, Sfc. Bryant crawled forward alone under heavy fire to retrieve the soldier for intelligence purposes. Finding that the enemy soldier had expired, Sfc. Bryant crawled back to his patrol and led his men back to the company position where he again took command of the defense. As the siege continued, Sfc. Bryant organized and led a patrol in a daring attempt to break through the enemy encirclement. The patrol had advanced some 200 meters by heavy fighting when it was pinned down by the intense automatic weapons fire from heavily fortified bunkers and Sfc. Bryant was severely wounded. Despite his wounds he rallied his men, called for helicopter gunship support, and directed heavy suppressive fire upon the enemy positions. Following the last gunship attack, Sfc. Bryant fearlessly charged an enemy automatic weapons position, overrunning it, and single-handedly destroying its three defenders. Inspired by his heroic example, his men renewed their attack on the entrenched enemy. While regrouping his small force for the final assault against the enemy, Sfc. Bryant fell mortally wounded by an enemy rocket. Sfc. Bryant’s selfless concern for his comrades, at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*COKER, RONALD L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 9 August 1947, Alliance, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company M in action against enemy forces. While serving as point man for the 2d Platoon, Pfc. Coker was leading his patrol when he encountered five enemy soldiers on a narrow jungle trail. Pfc. Coker’s squad aggressively pursued them to a cave. As the squad neared the cave, it came under intense hostile fire, seriously wounding one Marine and forcing the others to take cover. Observing the wounded man lying exposed to continuous enemy fire, Pfc. Coker disregarded his safety and moved across the fire-swept terrain toward his companion. Although wounded by enemy small-arms fire, he continued to crawl across the hazardous area and skillfully threw a hand grenade into the enemy positions, suppressing the hostile fire sufficiently to enable him to reach the wounded man. As he began to drag his injured comrade toward safety, a grenade landed on the wounded Marine. Unhesitatingly, Pfc. Coker grasped it with both hands and turned away from his wounded companion, but before he could dispose of the grenade it exploded. Severely wounded, but undaunted, he refused to abandon his comrade. As he moved toward friendly lines, two more enemy grenades exploded near him, inflicting still further injuries. Concerned only for the safety of his fellow Marine, Pfc. Coker, with supreme effort continued to crawl and pull the wounded Marine with him. His heroic deeds inspired his fellow Marines to such aggressive action that the enemy fire was suppressed sufficiently to enable others to reach him and carry him to a relatively safe area where he succumbed to his extensive wounds. Pfc. Coker’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*SINGLETON, WALTER K.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Gio Linh District, Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1967. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Born: 7 December 1944, Memphis, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Singleton’s company was conducting combat operations when the lead platoon received intense small arms, automatic weapons, rocket, and mortar fire from a well entrenched enemy force. As the company fought its way forward, the extremely heavy enemy fire caused numerous friendly casualties. Sensing the need for early treatment of the wounded, Sgt. Singleton quickly moved from his relatively safe position in the rear of the foremost point of the advance and made numerous trips through the enemy killing zone to move the injured men out of the danger area. Noting that a large part of the enemy fire was coming from a hedgerow, he seized a machinegun and assaulted the key enemy location, delivering devastating fire as he advanced. He forced his way through the hedgerow directly into the enemy strong point. Although he was mortally wounded, his fearless attack killed eight of the enemy and drove the remainder from the hedgerow. Sgt. Singleton’s bold actions completely disorganized the enemy defense and saved the lives of many of his fellow Marines. His daring initiative selfless devotion to duty and indomitable fighting spirit reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps, and his performance upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*PETERS, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 507th Parachute Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Fluren, Germany, March 24th, 1945. Entered service at: Cranston, R.I. Birth: Cranston, R.I. G.O. No.: 16, 8 February 1946. Citation: Pvt. Peters, a platoon radio operator with Company G, made a descent into Germany near Fluren, east of the Rhine. With ten others, he landed in a field about seventy-five yards from a German machinegun supported by riflemen, and was immediately pinned down by heavy, direct fire. The position of the small unit seemed hopeless with men struggling to free themselves of their parachutes in a hail of bullets that cut them off from their nearby equipment bundles, when Pvt. Peters stood up without orders and began a one-man charge against the hostile emplacement armed only with a rifle and grenades. His single-handed assault immediately drew the enemy fire away from his comrades. He had run halfway to his objective, pitting rifle fire against that of the machinegun, when he was struck and knocked to the ground by a burst. Heroically, he regained his feet and struggled onward. Once more he was torn by bullets, and this time he was unable to rise. With gallant devotion to his self-imposed mission, he crawled directly into the fire that had mortally wounded him until close enough to hurl grenades which knocked out the machinegun, killed two of its operators, and drove protecting riflemen from their positions into the safety of a woods. By his intrepidity and supreme sacrifice, Pvt. Peters saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers and made it possible for them to reach their equipment, organize, and seize their first objective.
National Puppy Day
Near Miss Day
A near miss is defined as an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage – but had the potential to do so. Only a fortunate break in the chain of events prevented an injury, fatality or damage. The term is used widely in the United States and is almost immediately recognized by most individuals. Other terms that can be and have been used are “close call” or “barely missed”.
In most cases near misses are good. Certainly they are better than the actual disaster but they are also better than having the event not occur. A near miss brings to our immediate attention that a process needs further scrutiny. It brings with the desire to plan, creative thought and adrenaline. When those three are brought together, future near misses and actual disasters can be avoided. The negative side of near misses can be anger, blame, regret, remorse, fear, all of which drastically impede the improvement process. In terms of human lives and property damage, near misses are cheaper, zero-cost learning tools for safety and security than actual injury or property loss. An event that does not occur will not bring these forces into play.
Many industries have formal programs to review near misses to watch for trends and, hopefully, prevent actual incidents from occurring. Major industries included in this group are Aviation, Fire-Fighters, Healthcare and Rail Systems. While those are excellent to prevent major disasters, individual can prevent problems from occurring in their own lives by playing “what-if” games.
The simplest way is to get into the habit of asking the question “What if I (do something this way)? When answering that question, look for safer and more secure ways of doing things. RULE 1: There is no such thing as a stupid idea. Often times the best idea comes from a string of lesser ideas.
1 John 4:11-12 NKJV
Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us.
“It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded, not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the gospel of Jesus Christ. For this very reason Peoples of other faiths have been afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here.”
Patrick Henry (5 time Governor of Virginia)
“It’s not the size of the dog in the fight, it’s the size of the fight in the dog.”
~ Mark Twain
Buckley’s chance (BUK-leez chans) noun
No chance at all (or only a very slim chance). It is also called “Buckley’s and none” or “Buckley’s hope”.
1066 – 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. In October of this year was also the Battle of Hastings.
1713 – The capture of the Tuscarora tribe’s stronghold of Fort Nohuke by South Carolinian forces ends Tuscarora raids.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech -“give me liberty or give me death” at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1780 – Revolutionary War: British forces under Banastre Tarleton, moving to Charleston, scatter Colonial Militia at Bee’s Plantation, SC.
1794 – Josiah Pierson patents a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
1794 – Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
1806 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their “Corps of Discovery” begin their arduous journey home.
1815 – War of 1812 – USS Hornet captures HMS Penguin in battle lasting 22 minutes.
1836 – The first “powered” coining press to be used at the United States Mint in
Philadelphia was invented by Francis Beale.
1839 – First recorded use of “OK” [oll korrect] (Boston’s Morning Post).
1840 – John William Draper takes first successful photo of the Moon (daguerrotype).
1857 – Elisha Otis’s first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1858 – Streetcar patented by Eleazer A Gardner of Philadelphia.
1861 – Could this be why trains are called trains? London’s first tramcars, designed by Mr. Train of New York, began operating.
1861 – John D. Defrees became the first Superintendent of the United States Government Printing Office.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle of Kernstown, Va., began. Winchester, Va., was another embattled town. Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson faced his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va.
1865 – Civil War: General Sherman and Cox’s troops reached Goldsboro, NC.
1867 – Congress passed a second Reconstruction Act over President Johnson’s veto.
1868 – Gov. Henry Haight signed an act that created the Univ. of California and wed the insolvent College of California to the state with the promised backing of 150,000 acres of federal land.
1880 – John Stevens of Neenah, WI patented the device which was called a grain crushing mill. It boosted flour production efficiency by 70% and produced flour of a superior quality.
1882 – Secretary of the Navy Hunt issues General Order No. 292 creating Office of Naval Intelligence.
1888 – Morrison R. Waite (b.1816), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1874-1888), died after serving for 14 years. He interpreted constitutional amendments after the Civil War.
1889 – Land Run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
1896 – The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1901 – Dame Nellie Melba, revealed the secret of her now famous toast.
1901 – A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
1903 – The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1903 – U.S. troops were sent to Honduras to protect the American consulate during revolutionary activity.
1908 – American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1909 – Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
1909 – British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
1910 – First race at Los Angeles Motordrome (first US auto speedway). It introduced a brand-new concept in the construction of speedways– a one-mile, steeply banked circular track with a wood surface patterned after board bicycle tracks.
1912 – Lawrence Luellen and Hugh Moore begin distributing the cone shaped drinking cup called the “Health Kup” and special dispensers through their Individual Drinking Cup Co. Later name changed to Dixie Cups.
1913 – A strong tornado swept through Omaha, Neb., on Easter Sunday leaving over 100 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage.
1917 – In the Midwest U.S., four tornadoes kill 211 people over a four day period.
1917 – Launching of USS New Mexico, first dreadnought with turboelectric drive. A dreadnought is a battleship armed with six or more guns having calibers of 12 inches or more.
1921 – Arthur G. Hamilton set a new parachute record when he safely jumped from 24,400 feet.
1922 – The first airplane landed at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC.
1923 – Frank Silver & Irving Conn release “Yes, We Have No Bananas.” (Great pictures of early 20h century NY)
1925 – The state of Tennessee enacted a law that made it a crime for a teacher in any state-supported public school to teach any theory that was in contradiction to the Bible’s account of man’s creation.
1932 – In the U.S., the Norris-LaGuardia Act established workers’ right to strike.
1932 – The executive committee of the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) ruled to exclude African-Americans from appearing at Constitution Hall.
1933 – The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 – Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1938 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis frees 74 St Louis Cardinals minor leaguers.
1940 – First radio broadcast of “Truth or Consequences” on CBS.
1942 – World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
1942 – World War II: The US government began moving the first of some 112,000 Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
1943 – World War II: Axis forces manage to hold the American advance near El Guettar.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, Japanese forces attack American positions without making any progress. Heavy Japanese losses are reported.
1944 – World War II: US destroyers shell the Japanese seaplane base on Elouae in the St. Matthias Islands.
1944 – Nicholas Alkemade falls 18,000 feet without a parachute and lives. He survived with nothing worse than a somewhat twisted ankle.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: Largest operation in Pacific war: 1,500 US Navy ships bombed Okinawa.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Personality” by Johnny Mercer, “Day by Day” by Frank Sinatra and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1948 – John Cunningham set a world altitude record with his De Havilland Vampire jet airplane at 54,492′.
1950 – “Beat the Clock“ premiered on CBS-TV.
1950 – “Great to Be Alive” opened at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for 52 performances.
1951 – Korean War: Operation TOMAHAWK, the second airborne operation of the war and the largest in one day, involved 120 C-119s and C-46s, escorted by sixteen F-51s.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. paratroopers descended from flying boxcars (Fairchild C-119) in a surprise attack.
1956 – “West Side Story,” a musical play by Leonard Bernstein, was copyrighted.
1957 – US Army sells last homing pigeons. Used during WW I and WW II for undetectable communication, they were replaced with more modern means.
1958 – First launching of simulated Polaris missile from submerged tactical launcher facility off CA.
1960 – Elvis Presley ends two-year hitch in US Army.
1961 – Elvis Presley recorded “Can’t Help Falling in Love.”
1961 – One of the first American casualties in Southeast Asia, an intelligence-gathering plane en route from Laos to Saigon is shot down over the Plain of Jars in central Laos.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel, “Midnight in Moscow” by Kenny Ball & His Jazzmen, “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis and “That’s My Pa” by Sheb Wooley all topped the charts.
1962 – NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace initiative.
1962 – William DeWitt bought the Cincinnati Reds for $4,625,000.
1963 – “Our Day Will Come” by Ruby & the Romantics topped the charts.
1963 – The Beach Boys released “Surfin’ U.S.A.”
1963 – An indoor pole vault record was set by John Pennel in Memphis, TN. He cleared 16 feet, 3 inches.
1965 – NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States’ first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young). Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
1967 – Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. called the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement.
1968 – Reverend Walter Fauntroy became the first non-voting congressional delegate from Washington DC, since Reconstruction.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “The Rapper” by The Jaggerz, “Give Me Just a Little More Time” by Chairmen of the Board and “The Fightin’ Side of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1970 – US performed a nuclear test in the Emery Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1971 – The US Congress proposed the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age from 21 to 18. It was ratified on July 1, 1971.
1972 – Evel Knievel broke 93 bones after successfully jumping 35 cars.
1972 – The U.S. called a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris.
1973 – The last airing of “Concentration” took place. The show had been on NBC for 15 years.
1973 – The soap opera “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” ended after a 5 1/2 year run.
1973 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1974 – “Dark Lady” by Cher topped the charts.
1978 – US performed nuclear test in the Cresset/Quicksilver Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1981 – CBS Television announced plans to reduce “Captain Kangaroo” to a 30-minute show.
1981 – U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women. The Court also ruled that states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls seek abortions.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles (“Star Wars”).
1983 – Dr. Barney Clark died after 112 days with a permanent artificial heart.
1985 – US performed nuclear test in the Grenadier/Charioteer Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1985 – “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS -“These Dreams” by Heart, “Secret Lovers” by Atlantic Starr, “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco and “What’s a Memory like You (Doing in a Love like This)” by John Schneider all topped the charts.
1986 – In the 6th Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Rambo: First Blood Part II” won.
1987 – US offered military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – The soap opera “Bold and Beautiful” premiered.
1987 – Jerry Collins, a millionaire greyhound racetrack owner, donated $1.3 million to help evangelist Oral Roberts reach his goal of raising $8 million for medical scholarships.
1989 – Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1992 – Florida Marlins begin selling tickets.
1993 – New York Knicks and the Phoenix Suns get into a major brawl.
1994 – A US Air Force F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing a group of 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground. It was later referred to the Green Ramp disaster.
1994 – Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 802 goals scored.
1996 – “Because You Loved Me” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1997 – The American Cancer Society recommended that women begin annual mammograms at age 40.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that term limits for state lawmakers were constitutional.
1998 – The movie “Titanic” won 11 Oscars at the Academy Awards.
1998 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts were a private organization and not subject to the state’s anti-discrimination laws.
1999 – The US Senate voted 58-41 to support US participation in a NATO bombing of Serbia.
2001 – Mississippi Gov. Ronnie Musgrove signed a law that mandated public schools to display “In God We Trust” in classrooms, cafeterias and auditoriums.
2002 – It was reported a the Air Force Academy had implicated 38 cadets in a drug scandal that began in Dec 2000.
2003 – A Maryland nurse died five days after being vaccinated for smallpox. A second nurse died Mar 27.
2003 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Iraq War: Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Iraq War: In Nasiriyah, Iraq, eleven soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as eighteen U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2003 – A 2000-pound meteorite explodes over Chicago shortly before midnight, raining fragments over the city.
2004 – The US Coast Guard said it had seized over 14.5 tons of cocaine from 3 fishing boats off Mexico and Ecuador over the last 2 months.
2004 – Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Colin Powell defend their pre-September 11 actions, saying that even if Osama bin Laden had been killed, the attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon would have still occurred.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, Lizzie McGuire, airs.
2005 – The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. The Florida Legislature decided not to intervene in the epic struggle over the brain-damaged woman; Schiavo’s parents then filed a request with the Supreme Court.
2005 – An explosion occurs at a BP oil refinery in Texas City, Texas kills 15 workers and injured 170 .
2005 – Truck driver Tyrone Williams was convicted in a federal court in Houston for his role in the 2003 deaths of nineteen illegal immigrants he was smuggling across Texas.
2006 – The US CDC said a new form of TB, called Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB), posed challenges to efforts to bring the disease under control.
2006 – Police took DNA samples from forty-six members of the Duke University lacrosse team after a woman hired to dance for a party charged she’d been raped.
2006 – Desmond T. Doss Sr. (87), a conscientious objector whose achievements as a noncombatant earned him a Medal of Honor in World War II, died in Piedmont, Ala.
2007 – The US House voted for the first time to clamp a cutoff deadline on the Iraq war, agreeing by a thin margin to pull combat troops out by next year and pushing the new Democratic-led Congress ever closer to a showdown with President Bush.
2007 – In Florida the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy was decommissioned after nearly forty years of service.
2007 – The United States Senate votes 52-47 to approve a budget plan that aims to achieve a balanced budget within five years and aims to find offsets for tax cuts passed in President Bush’s first term.
2008 – U.S. military casualties in the Iraq War reach 4,000.
2008 -The Alaska Ranger, a 189-foot fishing vessel, sank off the Aleutian Islands, killing the captain and four crew members. Forty-two crew members were rescued.
2008 – In Wisconsin Madeline Neumann (11) died of complication from diabetes after her parents prayed in lieu of seeking medical help. Both parents were charged with reckless homicide.
2009 – US District Judge Edward Korman ordered the FDA to make the emergency contraceptive pill, marketed as Plan B, available to 17-year-olds without prescription within 30 days from the date of his ruling.
2009 – FedEx Express Flight 80 crashes at Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, killing both pilots.
2009 – Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano erupted five times overnight, sending an ash plume more than nine miles into the air in the volcano’s first emissions in nearly twenty years.
2010 – The US issues new warnings of Al-Qaeda threats to attack ships off coast of Yemen.
2010 – Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShip Two is shown on its maiden flight from the Mojave Air and Spaceport in Mojave, California.
2010 – President Barack Obama signed a historic $938 billion health care overhaul that guarantees coverage for 32 million uninsured Americans and will touch nearly every citizen’s life, presiding over the biggest shift in US domestic policy since the 1960s and capping a divisive, yearlong debate that could define the November elections.
2011 – Reagan National Airport’s air traffic control supervisor on duty reportedly fell asleep during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to contact anyone in the control tower and subsequently landed unassisted.
2011 – English-American actress Elizabeth Taylor dies at the age of 79 in Los Angeles.
2011 – The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit refuses to allow same-sex marriages to resume in the US state of California while it considers the constitutionality of Proposition 8.
2012 – Army Staff Sgt. Robert Bales is charged with 17 counts of murder and various other charges, including attempted murder, in connection with the March 11 shooting deaths of Afghan civilians.
2012 – The Financial Services Committee of the United States House of Representatives receives a memo quoting Edith O’Brien, the treasurer of defunct broker MF Global, to the effect that Jon S. Corzine was personally ordering the transfer of customers’ money to a brokerage account with JP Morgan Chase last October.
2013 – President Barack Obama concludes his visit to the Middle East with a trip to the famous ruins of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan.
2013 – The US Senate approves its first budget in four years by a margin of 50–49.
2014 – The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded 15 earthquakes in Oklahoma since about 9:30 p.m. Friday, the largest being a magnitude 4.0.
1645 – William Kidd, Pirate Legend From Scotland (d. 1701)
1823 – Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
1862 – Nathaniel Reed, American outlaw turned evangelist (d.1950)
1904 – H. Beam Piper, American science fiction author (d. 1964)
1905 – Joan Crawford, American actress (d. 1977)
1922 – Marty Allen, American comedian and actor
1924 – Bette Nesmith Graham, American inventor (d. 1980)
1937 – Craig Breedlove, American land speed record holder
1937 – Robert Gallo, American physician
1938 – Maynard Jackson, first African American mayor of Atlanta (d. 2003)
1952 – Kim Stanley Robinson, American author
1957 – Amanda Plummer, American actress
1965 – Sarah Buxton, American actress
1973 – Jason Kidd, American basketball player
1976 – Keri Russell, American actress
FITZMAURICE, MICHAEL JOHN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Troop D, 2d Squadron, 17th Cavalry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Khe Sanh, Republic of Vietnam, March 23rd, 1971. Entered service at: Jamestown, N. Dak. Born: 9 March 1950, Jamestown, N. Dak . Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice, 3d Platoon, Troop D, distinguished himself at Khe Sanh. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and three fellow soldiers were occupying a bunker when a company of North Vietnamese sappers infiltrated the area. At the onset of the attack Sp4c. Fitzmaurice observed three explosive charges which had been thrown into the bunker by the enemy. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades, and with complete disregard for his personal safety, he hurled two of the charges out of the bunker. He then threw his flak vest and himself over the remaining charge. By this courageous act he absorbed the blast and shielded his fellow-soldiers. Although suffering from serious multiple wounds and partial loss of sight, he charged out of the bunker, and engaged the enemy until his rifle was damaged by the blast of an enemy hand grenade. While in search of another weapon, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice encountered and overcame an enemy sapper in hand-to-hand combat. Having obtained another weapon, he returned to his original fighting position and inflicted additional casualties on the attacking enemy. Although seriously wounded, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice refused to be medically evacuated, preferring to remain at his post. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice’s extraordinary heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. These acts of heroism go above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect great credit on Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and the U.S. Army.
*CARTER, EDWARD A., Jr.
A career Army noncommissioned officer. Place and Date: March 23rd, 1945, near Speyer, Germany. Born: May 26, 1916 in Los Angeles, California. He was the son of missionary parents who went to the Far East and finally settled in Shanghai, China.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 23 March 1945, near Speyer, Germany. When the tank on which he was riding received heavy bazooka and small arms fire, Sergeant Carter voluntarily attempted to lead a three-man group across an open field. Within a short time, two of his men were killed and the third seriously wounded. Continuing on alone, he was wounded five times and finally forced to take cover. As eight enemy riflemen attempted to capture him, Sergeant Carter killed six of them and captured the remaining two. He then crossed the field using as a shield his two prisoners from which he obtained valuable information concerning the disposition of enemy troops. Staff Sergeant Carter’s extraordinary heroism was an inspiration to the officers and men of the Seventh Army Infantry Company Number 1 (Provisional) and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
SPURLING, ANDREW B.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 2d Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Evergreen, Ala., March 23rd, 1865. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Cranberry Isles, Maine. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Advanced alone in the darkness beyond the picket line, came upon three of the enemy, fired upon them (his fire being returned), wounded two and captured the whole party.