US Supreme Court Decides Stump v. Sparkman (1978)
Stump v. Sparkman is the leading US Supreme Court decision on judicial immunity. In 1971, Judge Harold D. Stump granted a mother’s petition to have a tubal ligation performed on her 15-year-old daughter, whom the mother alleged was “somewhat retarded.” The petition was granted the same day that it was filed. The judge did not hold a hearing to receive evidence or appoint a lawyer to protect the daughter’s interests. The daughter underwent the surgery a week later, having been told that she was to have her appendix removed.
The daughter married two years later. Failing to become pregnant, she learned that she had been sterilized during the 1971 operation. The daughter and her husband sued the judge and others associated with the sterilization in federal district court.
The district court found that the judge was immune from suit. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision, holding that the judge had lost his immunity because he failed to observe “elementary principles of due process” when he ordered the sterilization. Finally, in 1978, the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 5-3 decision, reversed the Court of Appeals, announcing a test for deciding when judicial immunity should apply and holding that the judge could not be sued.
Prior to Sparkman, the doctrine of judicial immunity from federal civil rights suits dates only from the 1967 Supreme Court decision in Pierson v. Ray, 386 U.S. 547 (1967), which found a Mississippi justice ofthe peace immune from a civil rights suit when he tried to enforce illegal segregation laws. Until this time, several courts had concluded that Congress never intended to immunize state-court judges from federal civil rights suits.
Although this sounds as if judges can do no wrong, that is not necessarily the case. Here is a selection of case/reference citations regarding judicial immunity when personally suing a Judge for money damages. These references come from the collection of former Phoenix, AZ Attorney Robert A. Hirschfeld, JD. Make sure to read the whole case on these examples before making any decisions on whether they apply to to your case:
When a judge knows that he lacks jurisdiction, or acts in the face of clearly valid statutes expressly depriving him of jurisdiction, judicial immunity is lost. Rankin v. Howard, (1980) 633 F.2d 844, cert den. Zeller v. Rankin, 101 S.Ct. 2020, 451 U.S. 939, 68 L.Ed 2d 326. A judge must be acting within his jurisdiction as to subject matter and person, to be entitled to immunity from civil action for his acts. Davis v. Burris, 51 Ariz. 220, 75 P.2d 689 (1938)
A Judge is not immune for tortious acts committed in a purely Administrative, non-judicial capacity. Forrester v. White, 484 U.S. at 227-229, 108 S.Ct. at 544-545; Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. at 380, 98 S.Ct. at 1106. Mireles v. Waco, 112 S.Ct. 286 at 288 (1991). Administrative-capacity torts by a judge do not involve the “performance of the function of resolving disputes between parties, or of authoritatively adjudicating private rights,” and therefore do not have the judicial immunity of judicial acts. It is said that absolute judicial immunity is favored as public policy, so that judges may fearlessly, and safe from retribution, adjudicate matters before them. True. But equally important, is the public expectation that judicial authority will only be wielded by those lawfully vested with such authority.
“For I know the plans I have for you declares the Lord; plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future.”
“The beauty of the second amendment is that it will not be needed until they try to take it.”
– Thomas Jefferson
“The best thing you can do is to get good at being you.”
~Dennis the Menace
superfluous soo-PER-floo-us, adjective:
More than is wanted or is sufficient; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; unnecessary; useless; excessive.
— SUPERFLUOUSLY, adverb
— SUPERFLUOUSNESS, noun
Superfluous comes ultimately from the Latin superfluus, from superfluo, superfluere, to overflow, from super-, over, above + fluo, fluere, to flow.
37 – Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
193 – Roman Emperor Pertinax is assassinated by Praetorian Guards, who then sell the throne in an auction to Didius Julianus. Sound like Chicago?
1774 – Britain passed the Coercive Act against Massachusetts. This revoked the Massachusetts colonial charter and removed certain democratic elements of the government.
1776 – Juan Bautista de Anza finds the site for the Presidio of San Francisco.
1797 – Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patents a washing machine.
1799 – New York State abolished slavery.
1800 – Essex becomes first U.S. Navy vessel to pass Cape of Good Hope.
1804 – Ohio passed law restricting movement of Blacks.
1814 – War of 1812: HMS Phoebe and Cherub capture USS Essex off Valparaiso, Chile. Before capture, Essex had captured 24 British prizes during the War of 1812. Two-thirds of Essex’s crew is killed but 13-year old Midshipman David Farragut survives.
1834 – The US Senate censures President Andrew Jackson for his actions in de-funding the Second Bank of the United States.
1845 – Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.
1846 – US troops commanded by General Zachary Taylor move onto the left bank of the Rio Grande River, considered Mexican territory.
1854 – The Crimean War began with Britain and France declaring war on Russia. The importance to America in this war was it was the first time that weather reports and statistics were kept to try to determine future weather trends.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of Glorieta Pass – in New Mexico, Union forces stop the Confederate invasion of New Mexico territory. The battle began on March 26.
1864 – Civil War: A group of Copperheads attack Federal soldiers in Charleston, IL. Five were killed and twenty were wounded. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States who opposed the American Civil War.
1865 – Outdoor advertising legislation was enacted in New York State. The law banned “painting on stones, rocks and trees.”
1870 – One hundred twenty-nine Marines seized and destroyed illicit distilleries in “Irishtown” (Brooklyn), New York.
1885 – US Salvation Army was officially organized. Under the leadership of Captains William Evans, Hannah Simpson Evans, and Edwin Gay, the Salvation Army came to Chicago.
1891 – First world weightlifting championship held.
1898 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a child born in the U.S. to Chinese immigrants was a U.S. citizen. This meant that they could not be deported under the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1899 – William Fleming received a patent for a player piano using electricity.
1908 – Automobile owners lobbied the U.S. Congress, supporting a bill that called for vehicle licensing and federal registration.
1910 – Theodore Roosevelt gave his “Law and Order in Egypt” speech at Cairo Univ.
1911 – In New York, suffragists performed the political play “Pageant of Protest.”
1917 – Jews were expelled from Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Turkish authorities.
1920 – Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 1920 affects the Great Lakes region and Deep South states with at least 38 significant tornadoes. This event inspired the tornado scene in “The Wizard of Oz.”
1921 – President Warren Harding named William Howard Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court.
1922 – Bradley A. Fiske of Washington, D.C. patented a microfilm reading device.
1928 – J.L. Rutledge, Pacific Air Transport pilot, ran out of fuel and parachuted from his plane near Orinda, Ca. The plane crashed nearby and he retrieved the mail and delivered it to the Orinda post office.
1933 – German Reichstag conferred dictatorial powers on Hitler.
1933 – In Germany, the Nazis ordered a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
1935 – Goddard uses gyroscopes to control a rocket.
1938 – The US Supreme Court in Lovell v City of Griffin declared that it is unconstitutional to require someone to get a government permit to engage in free speech.
1939 – Hal Kemp and his orchestra recorded “Three Little Fishies” for Victor Records
1941 – World War II: Battle of Cape Matapan – in the Mediterranean Sea, British Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham leads the Royal Navy in the destruction of three major Italian heavy cruisers and two destroyers.
1941 – Gossip columnist Louella Parsons hosted “Hollywood Premiere” for the first time on CBS radio who appeared in dramatized stories.
1945 – World War II: Marburg is taken by US 3rd Corps (part of US 1st Army) which has made a rapid advance from the Remagen bridgehead.
1945 – World War II: US naval forces, including Task Force 58 and Task Force 52, continue air strikes on Okinawa while Task Force 54 continues bombarding the island. Japanese Kamikaze and submarine attacks continue.
1946 – The U S State Department releases the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power.
1947 – The American Helicopter Society revealed a flying device that could be strapped to a person’s body.
1949 – Sec. of Defense James Forrestal resigned due to a mental breakdown. He was worn out by his futile efforts to bring about the unification of the armed services.
1951 – CHART TOPPERS – “If” by Perry Como, “Be My Love” by Mario Lanza, “Mockingbird Hill” by Patti Page and “The Rhumba Boogie” by Hank Snow all topped the charts.
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Air Force Colonel James K. Johnson, 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, became the 29th ace of the Korean War.
1957 – First National Curling Championship held.
1958 – Eddie Cochran recorded “Summertime Blues.”
1958 – Private Elvis Presley earned a marksman’s medal with a carbine and achieved ‘sharpshooter’ level with a pistol and has been named acting assistant leader of his squad.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Tragedy” by Thomas Wayne, “Come Softly to Me” by The Fleetwoods and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1962 – The Air Force announced research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites.
1963 – AFL’s New York Titans become the New York Jets.
1964 – “She Loves You” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1966 – Gary Lewis and the Playboys recorded “Green Grass.”
1967 – CHART TOPPERS – “Happy Together” by The Turtles, “Dedicated to the One I Love” by The Mamas & The Papas, “There’s a Kind of Hush” by Herman’s Hermits and “I Won’t Come in While He’s There” by Jim Reeves all topped the charts.
1967 – Van Morrison recorded “Brown Eyed Girl.”
1967 – Raymond Burr starred in a TV movie titled “Ironside”.
1968 – Vietnam War: The U.S. lost its first F-111 aircraft in the war when it vanished while on a combat mission. North Vietnam claimed that they had shot it down.
1968 – In Memphis, TN, a riot erupted during a protest march in support of striking sanitation workers led by Martin Luther King.
1969 – Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th president of the United States and one of the most highly regarded American generals of World War II, dies in Washington, D.C., at the age of 78.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1971 – CBS aired the final broadcast of its Ed Sullivan Show. Reruns and pre-emptions aired in that time slot throughout the following April and May, and in June.
1972 – Wilt Chamberlain plays his last professional basketball game.
1974 – A streaker ran onto the set of “The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson”
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli, “Lady Marmalade” by LaBelle, “Lovin’ You” by Minnie Riperton and “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender
1978 – The US Supreme Court hands down 5-3 decision in Stump v. Sparkman, 435 U.S. 349, a controversial case involving involuntary sterilization and judicial immunity.
1979 – At 4 a.m. the worst accident in the history of the U.S. nuclear power industry begins when a pressure valve in the Unit-2 reactor at Three Mile Island fails to close, resulting in the evaporation of some contaminated water causing a nuclear meltdown.
1981 – “Rapture” by Blondie topped the charts.
1982 – First NCAA Women’s Basketball Championship: Louisiana Tech beats Cheney 76-62.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club, “Hungry like the Wolf “ by Duran Duran and “Swingin’” by John Anderson all topped the charts.
1985 – Bill Cosby broke more records with “The Cosby Show” on NBC-TV. The program was the highest-rated program of any network series since 1983.
1986 – The U.S. Senate passed $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
1986 – More than 6,000 radio stations of all format varieties played “We are the World” simultaneously at 10:15 a.m. EST.
1987 – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau topped the charts.
1990 – President George H. W. Bush posthumously awards Jesse Owens the Congressional Gold Medal.
1991 – CHART TOPPERS – “One More Try” by Timmy -T-, “Coming Out of the Dark” by Gloria Estafan, “This House” by Tracie Spencer and “Loving Blind” by Clint Black all topped the charts.
1991 – The U.S. embassy in Moscow was severely damaged by fire.
1990 – Michael Jordan scores 69 points, this was the fourth time he scores 60 points in a game.
1993 – The last A-6E Intruder departed from Marine Corps service.
1995 – Loomis guard Rick Price was shot in the head and killed during an armored car robbery in Sonoma, Ca. Bank robber William Crouch was also killed by a second guard and alleged accomplice Joan Carrafa of Glen Ellen was later arrested.
1996 – Congress passed the line-item veto, giving the president power to cut government spending by scrapping specific programs.
1996 – The space shuttle Atlantis astronauts said goodbye to the crew of Russia’s space station Mir and then flew away, leaving Shannon Lucid behind for a five-month stay in orbit.
2000 – A Murray County, Georgia, school bus is hit by a CSX freight train (3 children die in this accident).
2000 – A tornado hit fort Worth, Texas, and four people were killed with over 100 injured. It cut a 2-mile swath and inflicted $450 million in damages.
2001 – The US Senate voted to double the “hard money” contribution limits to candidates and political parties.
2001 – A federal appeals court in San Francisco threw out a record $107 million verdict against anti-abortion activists, ruling that a Web site and wanted posters branding abortion doctors “baby butchers” and criminals were protected by the First Amendment.
2002 – The National Museum of American History put a cornet that had belonged to Louis Armstrong on display.
2000 – In a unanimous ruling, the Supreme Court sharply curtailed police power to rely on anonymous tips to stop and search people.
2002 – Matthew J. Bourgeois (35), a Navy Seal from Tallahassee, was killed by a land mine in Kandahar.
2002 – Walter Hewlett, a director of Hewlett-Packard Co., claimed HP used corporate assets to entice and coerce certain financial institutions to vote for the merger with Compaq Corp.
2003 – In a “friendly fire” incident, two A-10 Thunderbolt II attack aircraft from the United States Idaho Air National Guard’s 190th Fighter Squadron attack British tanks participating in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, killing British soldier Matty Hull.
2003 – In the 10th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom the biggest bombs dropped on Baghdad so far, two 4,700-pound “bunker busters,” struck a communications tower.
2005 – The Colorado Supreme Court threw out the death penalty in a rape-and-murder case because five of the jurors had consulted the Bible and quoted Scripture during deliberations.
2006 – President Bush announced that White House chief of staff Andy Card has resigned and will be replaced by budget director Joshua Bolten.
2007 – Circuit City, a US electronics retailer, fired 3,400 of its highest paid hourly workers and planned to hire replacements wiling to work for less. The laid-off workers were to get a severance package and a chance to reapply for their former jobs at lower pay.
2007 – Discount retailer TJX Cos. revealed that information from at least 45.7 million credit and debit cards was stolen over an 18-month period.
2008 – The US Transportation Security Administration said it will change they way its officers search passengers with body piercings after a Texas woman complained she was forced to remove a nipple ring with pliers in order to board an airplane.
2008 – The grey wolf of the northern Rocky Mountains was taken off the federal protection list after reaching a population of some 1,500 in the greater Yellowstone region. Wolves were reintroduced in 1995 after disappearing from the area in 1926.
2009 – The Space Shuttle Discovery landed in Florida following a 13-day mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
2009 – In North Dakota the Red River crested at 12:15 a.m. at 40.82 feet, more than 22 feet above flood stage.
2010 – President Barack Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan for a firsthand look at the eight-year-old war he inherited and dramatically escalated.
2010 – The TV program 24 is cancelled.
2011 – Volkswagen recalls 71000 2011 model Jetta sedans due to a wiring problem.
2011 – The Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder signs legislation lowering the period that jobless workers can claim state unemployment benefits from 26 weeks to 20 weeks.
2012 – The Mega Millions jackpot in the United States hits a record $500 million dollars, a world record in lottery history.
2012 – The United States suspends planned food aid to North Korea, after the latter plans to launch a rocket next month.
2013 – Barbara Walters, longtime newswoman and host of the American talk show The View, announces plans to retire in May 2014.
2013 – New research suggests that the cloth in the Shroud of Turin likely dates from between 300 BC and 400 AD.
2014 – US Geological Survey records a 5.1 magnitude earthquake in the Los Angeles area of California.
2016 – Winston Moseley, killer of Kitty Genovese, died today after nearly 52 years in prison. Genovese’s murder sparked psychological research on the bystander effect, as it was believed many witnesses ignored her calls for help.
2016 – The Alaska village of Nelson Lagoon is coated in volcanic ash after an especially vigorous and ongoing eruption of Mount Pavlof.
2016 – The United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. is on lockdown following reports of shots fired at the Capitol Visitor Center. The White House, in what appears to be an unrelated incident, was briefly locked down. An armed man was shot by police, is in police custody, and is undergoing surgery at MedStar Washington Hospital Center.
1652 – Samuel Sewall was a Massachusetts judge, best known for his involvement in the Salem witch trials, for which he later apologized (d. 1730)
1793 – Henry Schoolcraft, American geographer and geologist. In 1832 he discovered the source of the Mississippi River. (d. 1864)
1836 – Frederick Pabst was a German-American brewer who founded the Pabst Brewing Company. (d. 1904)
1842 – William Harvey Carney, was an African-American soldier during the Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Fort Wagner. (d. 1908)
1890 – Paul Whiteman, was an American bandleader and orchestral director.
He was the leader of the most popular dance bands in the United States during the 1920s (d. 1967)
1899 – August Anheuser Busch, Jr., brewing magnate and American baseball executive (d. 1989)
1905 – Marlin Perkins, TV host (Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom), was born in Carthage, Mo.
1910 – Jimmie Dodd, was best known as the MC of the popular 1950s Disney TV show The Mickey Mouse Club (d. 1964)
1922 – Joey Maxim, was an American boxer. He was a light heavyweight champion of the world. He took the ring-name Joey Maxim from the Maxim gun, the world’s first self-acting machine gun (d. 2001)
1955 – Reba McEntire is an American country music artist and actress.
1975 – Derek Hill, is an American racing driver. He is the son of 1961 Formula One World Champion Phil Hill.
INGRAM, ROBERT R.
Rank and organization: Corpsman, United States Navy, serving with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines. Place and date: Quang Ngai Province Republic of Vietnam, March 28th, 1966. Entered service at: Coral Gables, Florida. Born: January 20, 1945 Clearwater, Florida. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as Corpsman with Company C, First Battalion, Seventh Marines against elements of a North Vietnam Aggressor (NVA) battalion. Petty Officer Ingram accompanied the point platoon as it aggressively dispatched an outpost of an NVA battalion. The momentum of the attack rolled off a ridge line down a tree covered slope to a small paddy and a village beyond. Suddenly, the village tree line exploded with an intense hail of automatic rifle fire from approximately one-hundred North Vietnamese regulars. In mere moments, the platoon ranks were decimated. Oblivious to the danger, Petty Officer Ingram crawled across the bullet spattered terrain to reach a downed Marine. As he administered aid, a bullet went through the palm of his hand. Calls for “CORPSMAN” echoed across the ridge. Bleeding, he edged across the fire swept landscape, collecting ammunition from the dead and administering aid to the wounded. Receiving two more wounds before realizing the third wound was life-threatening, he looked for a way off the face of the ridge, but again he heard the call for corpsman and again, he resolutely answered. Though severely wounded three times, he rendered aid to those incapable until he finally reached the right flank of the platoon. While dressing the head wound of another corpsman, he sustained his fourth bullet wound. From sixteen hundred hours until just prior to sunset, Petty Officer Ingram pushed, pulled, cajoled, and doctored his Marines. Enduring the pain from his many wounds and disregarding the probability of his demise, Petty Officer Ingram’s intrepid actions saved many lives that day. By his indomitable fighting spirit, daring initiative, and unfaltering dedications to duty, Petty Officer Ingram reflected great credit upon himself and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.
*MATTHEWS, DANIEL P.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company F, 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Vegas Hill, Korea, March 28th, 1953. Entered service at. Van Nuys, Calif. Born: 31 December 1931, Van Nuys, Calif. Award presented: 29 March 19S4. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader of Company F, in action against enemy aggressor forces. Participating in a counterattack against a firmly entrenched and well-concealed hostile force which had repelled 6 previous assaults on a vital enemy-held outpost far forward of the main line of resistance Sgt. Matthews fearlessly advanced in the attack until his squad was pinned down by a murderous sweep of fire from an enemy machine gun located on the peak of the outpost. Observing that the deadly fire prevented a corpsman from removing a wounded man lying in an open area fully exposed to the brunt of the devastating gunfire, he worked his way to the base of the hostile machine gun emplacement, leaped onto the rock fortification surrounding the gun and, taking the enemy by complete surprise, single-handedly charged the hostile emplacement with his rifle. Although severely wounded when the enemy brought a withering hail of fire to bear upon him, he gallantly continued his valiant l-man assault and, firing his rifle with deadly effectiveness, succeeded in killing two of the enemy, routing a third, and completely silencing the enemy weapon, thereby enabling his comrades to evacuate the stricken marine to a safe position. Succumbing to his wounds before aid could reach him, Sgt. Matthews, by his indomitable fighting spirit, courageous initiative, and resolute determination in the face of almost certain death, served to inspire all who observed him and was directly instrumental in saving the life of his wounded comrade. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*HEDRICK, CLINTON M.
Rank and organization: Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company I, 194th Glider Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Lembeck, Germany, March 27th to March 28th, 1945. Entered service at: Riverton, W. Va. Birth: Cherrygrove, W. Va. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He displayed extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action on 27-28 March 1945, in Germany. Following an airborne landing near Wesel, his unit was assigned as the assault platoon for the assault on Lembeck. Three times the landing elements were pinned down by intense automatic weapons fire from strongly defended positions. Each time, T/Sgt. Hedrick fearlessly charged through heavy fire, shooting his automatic rifle from his hip. His courageous action so inspired his men that they reduced the enemy positions in rapid succession. When six of the enemy attempted a surprise, flanking movement, he quickly turned and killed the entire party with a burst of fire. Later, the enemy withdrew across a moat into Lembeck Castle. T/Sgt. Hedrick, with utter disregard for his own safety, plunged across the drawbridge alone in pursuit. When a German soldier, with hands upraised, declared the garrison wished to surrender, he entered the castle yard with four of his men to accept the capitulation. The group moved through a sally port, and was met by fire from a German self-propelled gun. Although mortally wounded, T/Sgt. Hedrick fired at the enemy gun and covered the withdrawal of his comrades. He died while being evacuated after the castle was taken. His great personal courage and heroic leadership contributed in large measure to the speedy capture of Lembeck and provided an inspiring example to his comrades.
INTERIM 1871 – 1898
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company I, 4th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Colorado Valley, Tex., March 28th, 1872. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 27 April 1872. Second award. Citation: In pursuit of a band of cattle thieves from New Mexico.
Easter Sunday 2016
1964 Great Alaskan Earthquake
The Alaskan earthquake occurred on Good Friday, March 27, 1964, at 5:36 PM local time. It was the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America. The USGS gives it a 9.2 intensity. The earthquake lasted for between three and five minutes.
The epicenter was located between Valdez and Anchorage, near Prince William Sound. It occurred on a thrust fault. This fault was a subduction zone, where the Pacific plate plunges underneath the North American plate. The first slip occurred at a depth of approximately 16 miles, which is a shallow depth.
The sudden uplift of the Alaskan seafloor caused a tsunami, which was responsible for 122 of the 131 deaths and it reached speeds over 400 miles per hour. The tsunami reached the Hawaiian Islands and also struck Crescent City, California, killing ten people. Giant redwood logs from a nearby sawmill were thrust into the city streets. A total of 16 people died in Oregon and California.
Seiches, a sloshing of water back and forth, occurred in rivers, lakes, bayous, and protected harbors and waterways along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas, causing minor damage. The earthquake also caused ground liquefaction, whereby the soil and sand temporarily turned from a solid to a liquid state.
Rockslides and avalanches occurred as a result of the liquefaction. Some of the landslides occurred in Anchorage, particularly at Turnagain Heights. Soft clay bluffs at this location collapsed during the strong ground motion. About 75 homes were destroyed.
The property damage cost was about $311 million. Much of the property damage occurred in Anchorage. For example, the J.C. Penney Company building and the Four Seasons apartment building were damaged beyond repair.
The Penney’s building facade consisted of massive concrete panels, which were five inches thick. The panels broke off from the building and fell into the street. A woman driving by was struck and killed in her car. A young man crouching on the street was also killed.
Several schools in Anchorage were also destroyed, including the Government Hill elementary school. Fortunately, the schools were closed due to the Good Friday holiday.
The area where there was significant damage covered about 130,000 square kilometers. The area in which it was felt was about 1,300,000 square kilometers (all of Alaska, parts of Canada, and south to Washington). The four minute duration of shaking triggered many landslides and avalanches. Major structural damage occurred in many of the major cities in Alaska. The damage totalled 300-400 million dollars (1964 dollars).
The 68 foot tall concrete control tower at Anchorage International Airport toppled over, killing the air traffic controller.
In addition, water, sewer, and gas lines ruptured. Telephone and electrical service was also disrupted.
“Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you.”
” You ask, how has it happened that all Europe has acted on the principle, “that Power was Right.” Power always sincerely, conscientiously, de tres bon foi, believes itself right. Power always thinks it has a great soul and vast views, beyond the comprehension of the weak. Power must never be trusted without a check.”
– John Adams, letter to Thomas Jefferson, February 2, 1816;
“A certain amount of opposition is a great help to a man. Kites rise against, not with the wind.”
ersatz AIR-sahts; UR-sats, adjective:
Being a substitute or imitation, usually an inferior one
1513 (not 1512 as often cited) – Explorer Juan Ponce de León sights North America (specifically Florida) for the first time, mistaking it for another island.
1780 – Revolutionary War: The Battle of Rantowle’s Bridge. Three hundred American cavalry, consisting of Lt. Col. William Washington’s 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, the 1st Continental Light Dragoons, under Lt. Col. Anthony White, Pulaski’s Legion cavalry under Major Pierre-François Vernier, and probably as well Col. Daniel Horry’s South Carolina light horse, conducted a twelve-mile ride towards the British lines.
1790 – The shoestring (string and shoe holes) was first invented in England. Before shoestrings, shoes were commonly fastened using padlocks.
1794 – The United States Government establishes a permanent navy and authorizes the building of six frigates. These ships were used primarily to end the threat of the Barbary pirates. The Constitution had 55 Marines assigned as part of its 450-man crew. The first detachment arrived at Edmond Hart’s Shipyard in Boston.
1799 – USS Constitution recaptures American sloop Neutrality from France.
1802 – The Treaty of Aliens between France, Spain, England, and the Netherlands ends European hostilities, offering US shipping a break from trade restraints.
1812 – Hugh McGary Jr. established what is now Evansville, Indiana on a bend in the Ohio River.
1813 – War of 1812: In a US attack on Fort George, near the mouth of the Niagara River, LTC Winfield Scott with a 4000-man force captures the 1600-man British garrison under General John Vincent.
1814 – War of 1812: In central Alabama, U.S. forces under General Andrew Jackson defeat the Creek at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
1834 – Andrew Jackson is censured by the U.S. Senate for his actions regarding the U.S. National Bank.
1836 – Texas Revolution: Goliad massacre – Antonio López de Santa Anna orders the Mexican army to kill about 400 Texas POWs at Goliad, Texas.
1841 – First US steam fire engine tested, New York NY. Designed and built by Paul R. Hodge, it was 14 feet long, weighed about 8 tons, and required two horses to pull it on level ground. A boiler was mounted on two small wheels at the front and two huge wheels in the rear.
1846 – Mexican-American War: Siege of Fort Texas. This was the beginning of active campaigning by the armies of the United States and Mexico during the Mexican-American War.
1849 – Joseph J. Couch received the first U.S. patent for a steam-powered percussion rock drill (No. 6,237) as “improved machinery for drilling rocks. The drill was driven by steam power and acted independently of gravity.
1850 – The party of Dr. Thadeus Hildreth found a 22-pound gold nugget in Tuolemne County, Ca.
1851 – First reported case of Europeans seeing Yosemite Valley.
1855 – Abraham Gesner received the first U.S. patent for a process to obtain oil from bituminous shale and cannel coal for the purpose of illumination, which he called kerosene.
1860 – M L Byrn patents “covered gimlet screw with a ‘T’ handle” (corkscrew).
1861 – African American demonstrators in Charleston staged ride-ins on street cars.
1862 – Civil War: Flag Officer Du Pont reported to Secretary of the Navy Welles that Confederate batteries on Skiddaway and Green Islands, Georgia, had been withdrawn and placed nearer Savannah.
1863 – Civil War: Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis called for this to be a day of fasting and prayer.
1863 – Civil War: U.S.S. Pawnee, Commander Balch, supported an Army landing on Cole’s Island, South Carolina; Balch joined the Army command ashore for a reconnaissance of the island.
1865 – Civil War:Combined Army-Navy operations, the latter commanded by Rear Admiral Thatcher, aimed at capturing the city of Mobile commenced. The objective was Spanish Fort, located near the mouth of the Blakely River and was the key to the city’s defenses.
1865 – Civil War:President Lincoln meets with Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman at City Point, Virginia, to plot the last stages of the war.
1866 – Andrew Rankin patents the urinal.
1866 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson vetoed the civil rights bill, which later became the 14th amendment.
1868 – The Lake Ontario Shore Railroad Company is organized in Oswego, New York.
1880 – USS Constellation departs New York with food for famine victims in Ireland.
1884 – A mob in Cincinnati, Ohio, attacks members of a jury who had returned a verdict of manslaughter in a clear case of murder. Over several days they would riot and destroy the courthouse. The riot was based on a murder that occurred on December 24, 1883, a young white German named William Berner and his accomplice, Joe Palmer, an African American, robbed and murdered their employer, a livery stable owner in the West End.
1886 – Famous Apache warrior, Geronimo, surrenders to the U.S. Army, ending the main phase of the Apache Wars.
1890 – A tornado strikes Louisville, Kentucky, killing 76 and injuring 200.
1901 – Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the U.S.
1904 – Mary Jarris “Mother” Jones was ordered by Colorado state authorities to leave the state. She was accused of stirring up striking coal miners.
1912 – First Japanese cherry blossom trees planted in Washington DC. The famous trees, a gift from Japan signal the coming of Spring with an explosion of life and color surrounding the Jefferson Memorial on the Tidal Basin in a sea of pale pink and white.
1915 – “Typhoid Mary” was quarantined in a cottage in the Bronx. Her name was Mary Mallon, and she was a large and fiery Irish-American woman about 40 years old. She worked as a cook for the wealthy in New York City, and every household she worked in seemed to suffer an outbreak of typhoid fever.
1930 – First US radio broadcast from a ship at sea.
1931 – John McGraw says night baseball will not catch on. John Joseph McGraw , nicknamed “Little Napoleon” and “Muggsy,” was a Major League Baseball player and manager.
1933 – Polyethylene discovered by Reginald Gibson & Eric William Fawcett.
1933 – About 55,000 people staged a protest against Hitler in New York City.
1938 – The U.S. stopped buying Mexican silver in reprisal for the Mexican seizure of American oil companies.
1939 – First NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship: University of Oregon beats Ohio State 46-33.
1941 – Tokeo Yoshikawa arrived in Oahu, HI, and began spying for Japan on the U.S. Fleet at Pearl Harbor.
1942 – World War II: Allies raided the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
1943 – “Blue Ribbon Town” (29:13) was first heard on CBS radio. The show ran from March 27, 1943 to June 17, 1944, but it became widely known as the program that introduced audiences to the one, the only, Groucho Marx.
1943 – World War II: US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – One-thousand Jews left Drancy, France, for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Forty Jewish policemen were shot in the Riga Latvia ghetto by the Gestapo.
1944 – World War II: Holocaust – Thousands of Jews were murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania.
1945 – Ella Fitzgerald & Delta Rhythm Boys record “It’s Only a Paper Moon“.
1945 – World War II: Operation Starvation, the aerial mining of Japan’s ports and waterways begins.
1945 – World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower told reporters in Paris that German defenses on the Western Front had been broken.
1945 – World War II: Iwo Jima was occupied, after 22,000 Japanese and 6,000 US killed.
1945 – World War II: US 9th Army begins to penetrate south into the Ruhr industrial area. US 3rd Army has now crossed the Main both west of Frankfurt, where Wiesbaden is attacked, and to the east.
1945 – World War II: The last German V2 rocket lands southeast of London at Orpington. The V2 campaign has killed over 2700 British civilians and injured 6500. As well as the 1115 launched at British targets, a further 2050 were aimed at Antwerp, Brussels and Liege.
1945 – Cebu City is captured by the US landing force.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “There’s No Tomorrow” by Tony Martin, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Chattanooga Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – Jazz pianist, Erroll Garner became one of the first jazz instrumentalists to give a solo concert. In 1954, he wrote the song “Misty.”
1951 – Frank Sinatra recorded “I’m a Fool to Want You.”
1951 – Korean War: Carrier Group 101, the first all-Reserve naval air group, entered the war aboard the USS Boxer. Two days later, the group flew its first combat missions.
1952 – Korean War: The U.S. Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas.
1953 – Korean War: The 5th Marines, supported by the 2d Battalion, 7th Marines, in the first full day of fighting after the Chinese assault the previous evening of Outpost Vegas on Korea’s western front, counterattacked to regain enemy-held positions.
1953 – Korean War: U.S. Air Force Lieutenant Colonel James P. Hagerstrom, 18th Fighter-Bomber Wing, flying his F-86 Sabre “MiG Poison,” qualified as the 28th ace of the Korean War.
1954 – “Make Love to Me!” by Jo Stafford topped the charts.
1955 – Steve McQueen made his network TV debut on “Goodyear Playhouse.”
1956 – US seized the US communist newspaper “Daily Worker.”
1958 – The U.S. announced a plan to explore space near the moon.
1958 – CBS Labs announce new stereophonic records.
1958 – The Havana Hilton opened. Cuba, at the time, was one of America;s playgrounds.
1964 – The Good Friday Earthquake, the most powerful earthquake in U.S. history at a magnitude of 9.2 strikes South Central Alaska, killing 125 people and inflicting massive damage to the city of Anchorage.
1965 – “Stop! In the Name of Love” by the Supremes topped the charts.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “19th Nervous Breakdown” by The Rolling Stones, “Nowhere Man” by The Beatles and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1967 – The Young Rascals recorded “Groovin’.”
1969 – Mariner 7 is launched.
1970 – The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.
1971 – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin topped the charts.
1971 – UCLA became the first team ever to win five consecutive NCAA basketball titles. The Bruins defeated Villanova 68-62.
1972 – Elvis Presley recorded “Burning Love.” It would turn out to be his last major hit.
1972 – Adolph Rupp retires after 42 years of coaching University of Kentucky.
1974 – CHART TOPPERS – “Dark Lady” by Cher, “Sunshine on My Shoulders” by John Denver, “Mockingbird” by Carly Simon & James Taylor and “There’s a Honky Tonk Angel (Who’ll Take Me Back In)” by Conway Twitty all topped the charts.
1975 – Work began on the Alaskan oil pipeline.
1976 – The first 4.6 miles of the Washington D.C. Metro subway system opens.
1976 – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1976 – Pittsburgh quarterback Terry Bradshaw’s recording of “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry” reached #17, the highest position the country classic had ever reached on the country charts.
1977 – Tenerife disaster: Two Boeing 747 airliners collide on a foggy runway on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, killing 583 (all 247 on KLM and 335 on PAN AM) and 61 survived on a PAN AM flight.
1979 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that police could not stop motorists at random to check licenses and registrations unless there was reason to believe a law had been broken.
1980 – Mount St. Helens, dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam.A loud explosion was heard from the direction of Mt. St. Helens. Although the volcano was shrouded in clouds, a summit eruption was verified by a news team from the Vancouver Columbian. As they circled the summit in an airplane, they spotted a dense column of ash rising through the clouds to a height of about 2000 m.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, “Open Arms” by Journey, “We Got the Beat” by Go-Go’s and “She Left Love All Over Me” by Razzy Bailey all topped the charts.
1982 – The musical “Best Little Whorehouse in Texas” closed at 46th St in New York City after 1577 performances.
1984 – Cyndi Lauper released “Time After Time.”
1987 – The Marine Corps charged that Sgt. Clayton J. Lonetree, a Marine guard, had escorted Soviet agents through the U.S. Embassy in Moscow — an accusation that was later dropped, although Lonetree was convicted of espionage.
1989 – The U.S. anti-missile satellite failed the first test in space.
1990 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Velvet” by Alannah Myles, “Love Will Lead You Back” by Taylor Dayne, “I Wish It Would Rain Down” by Phil Collins and “Hard Rock Bottom of Your Heart” by Randy Travis all topped the charts.
1990 – The United States begins broadcasting TV Martí to Cuba in an effort to bridge the information blackout imposed by the Castro regime.
1990 – Harold Osrow and Zvi Bleier received a patent for a portable ice cream machine.
1992 – Police in Philadelphia, PA, arrested a man with AIDS on charges that he may have infected several hundred teenage boys with HIV through sexual relations.
1992 – Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton, campaigning in New York, apologized for recently golfing at an all-white club.
1994 – One of the biggest tornado outbreaks in recent memory hits the Southeastern United States. One tornado slams into a church in Piedmont, Alabama during Palm Sunday services killing 20 and injuring 90.
1996 – The Gay’s Hill Baptist Church in Millen, Ga., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1998 – The Food and Drug Administration approves Viagra for use as a treatment for male impotence, the first pill to be approved for this condition in the United States.
1998 – Robbers in Commerce, east of LA, escaped with $2.94 million in cash from a Dunbar Security armored car after shooting the driver.
1999 – A $42 million US F-117A stealth fighter was downed over Yugoslavia during continued NATO airstrikes. The American pilot was rescued by US forces. The wreckage was later believed to have been sold.
2000 – The Supreme Court decided the federal government could deny food stamps and other welfare benefits to people who live permanently in the United States but who are not citizens.
2000 – Phillips explosion of 2000 kills one and injures seventy-one in Pasadena, Texas.
2000 – Cisco Systems passed Microsoft as the most valuable company in the world.
2001 – Twelve days before his 88th birthday, Berry Thomas became the oldest bowler in America to roll a perfect 300 game.
2001 – A US federal judge ruled that the Univ. of Michigan racial criteria for accepting minority students with lower test scores than whites was invalid.
2001 – California regulators approved electricity rate hikes of up to 46 percent.
2002 – The aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt, “The Stick”, returns to Norfolk Naval yards after participating in combat and support operations in and over Afghanistan. The Stick now holds the record for a carrier’s continuous days at sea with 159, beating the USS Eisenhower’s previous record of 152 set in 1982.
2002 – The US Supreme Court ruled that illegal immigrants do not have the same rights as Americans when they are wrongly fired from US jobs.
2002 – Milton Berle (93), known as Uncle Miltie and Mr. Television, died. He rose to TV stardom as the host of Texaco Star Theater in 1948.
2003 – The Bush administration seized $1.62 billion in Iraqi assets already frozen in the US. The money would be used to help rebuild Iraq once Saddam Hussein is ousted.
2003 – In the 9th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom a British armored unit destroyed 14 Iraqi tanks trying to break out of the besieged city of Basra.
2005 – In Brazil Vitalmiro Moura, the rancher accused of ordering the killing of American nun Dorothy Stang in the Amazon rainforest six weeks ago, surrendered to police and declared his innocence.
2006 – Zacarias Moussaoui testified in his federal trail that he was the supposed to hijack a fifth airplane on September 11, 2001, and fly it into the White House.
2006 – The US Senate Judiciary Committee approved a proposal to legalize undocumented migrants and provide temporary work visas. Mexicans cheered the approval and credited huge marches of migrants across the US as the decisive factor behind the vote.
2007 – Texas Governor Rick Perry’s office said that he had signed a new law that expands Texans’ existing right to use deadly force to defend themselves “without retreat” in their homes, cars and workplaces. The new law takes affect on September 1.
2007 – NFL owners voted to make instant replay a permanent officiating tool.
2007 – US Attorney John Brownlee announced that ITT Corp. has agreed to pay a $100 million penalty for illegally sending classified night-vision technology to China and other countries.
2008 – The state of Washington became the first state in the U.S. to offer an enhanced driver’s license.
2008 – Adobe systems, the maker of the popular photo-editing software Photoshop, launched a basic version available for free online.
2008 – A US appeals Court in Philadelphia overturned the death sentence of Mumia Abu Jamal, who had been convicted of killing Officer Daniel Faulkner on Dec 9, 1981.
2009 – The Texas Board of Education approved a science curriculum opening the door for teachers and texts to raise doubts about evolution.
2009 – President Barack Obama ordered 4,000 more military troops into Afghanistan, vowing to “disrupt, dismantle and defeat” the Taliban and al-Qaida.
2009 – In North Dakota the Red River rose to a daunting 112-year high and breached one of the dikes fortifying Fargo, but the mayor pledged to “go down swinging” as he called for more evacuations and additional National Guard troops to prevent a devastating flood.
2010 – Robert Krentz (58), a prominent Arizona rancher near the Mexican border, was shot while working at his remote cattle ranch on the Arizona-Mexico border. His family’s ranch sprawled over 35,000 acres. Investigators tracked the footprints of the suspected gunman about 20 miles south to the border with Mexico, prompting some authorities to blame smugglers or illegal immigrants for the killing.
2012 – The Department of Justice says that it will not invoke antitrust laws to stop the merger of Humana with Arcadian Management Services, two important health insurance companies.
2012 – A consortium led by former basketball star Magic Johnson wins an auction process for ownership of the Los Angeles Dodgers.
2013 – The first female Director of the US Secret Service, Julie Ann Pierson, is appointed. She served until October 1, 2014.
2013 – North Korea renews war threats against South Korea and the United States, saying conditions “for a simmering nuclear war” have been created on the Korean peninsula.
2013 – The Chicago Bulls defeated the Miami Heat 101-97, ending their winning streak at 27 games. The Heat had not lost a game since February 1st.
1813 – Nathaniel Currier, American illustrator (d. 1888)
1845 – Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1923) 1863 – Sir Henry Royce, English automobile pioneer (d. 1933)
1899 – Gloria Swanson, American actress (d. 1983)
1901 – Carl Barks, American illustrator (d. 2000)
1909 – Ben Webster, American jazz saxophonist (d. 1973)
1917 – Cyrus Vance, American politician (d. 2002)
1931 – David Janssen, American actor (d. 1980)
1937 – Thomas Aquinas Daly, American painter
1939 – Cale Yarborough, American race car driver
1943 – Phil Frank, American cartoonist (d. 2007)
1947 – Walt Mossberg, the highest-paid journalist at the Wall Street Journal
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Third Class, U.S. Navy Medical Corpsman serving with a Marine rifle company. Place and date: Korea, March 27th, 1953. Entered service at: Ludington, Michigan. Birth: Ludington, Mich. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action against enemy aggressor forces during the early morning hours. Participating in a fierce encounter with a cleverly concealed and well-entrenched enemy force occupying positions on a vital and bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance, HC3c. Charette repeatedly and unhesitatingly moved about through a murderous barrage of hostile small-arms and mortar fire to render assistance to his wounded comrades. When an enemy grenade landed within a few feet of a Marine he was attending, he immediately threw himself upon the stricken man and absorbed the entire concussion of the deadly missile with his body. Although sustaining painful facial wounds, and undergoing shock from the intensity of the blast which ripped the helmet and medical aid kit from his person, HC3c. Charette resourcefully improvised emergency bandages by tearing off part of his clothing, and gallantly continued to administer medical aid to the wounded in his own unit and to those in adjacent platoon areas as well. Observing a seriously wounded comrade whose armored vest had been torn from his body by the blast from an exploding shell, he selflessly removed his own battle vest and placed it upon the helpless man although fully aware of the added jeopardy to himself. Moving to the side of another casualty who was suffering excruciating pain from a serious leg wound, HC3c. Charette stood upright in the trench line and exposed himself to a deadly hail of enemy fire in order to lend more effective aid to the victim and to alleviate his anguish while being removed to a position of safety. By his indomitable courage and inspiring efforts in behalf of his wounded comrades, HC3c. Charette was directly responsible for saving many lives. His great personal valor reflects the highest credit upon himself and enhances the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*HAMMOND, FRANCIS C.
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman, U.S. Navy, attached as a medical corpsman to 1st Marine Division. Place and date: Korea, 26-March 27th, 1953. Entered service at: Alexandria, Va. Birth: Alexandria, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a HC serving with the 1st Marine Division in action against enemy aggressor forces on the night of 26-27 March 1953. After reaching an intermediate objective during a counterattack against a heavily entrenched and numerically superior hostile force occupying ground on a bitterly contested outpost far in advance of the main line of resistance. HC Hammond’s platoon was subjected to a murderous barrage of hostile mortar and artillery fire, followed by a vicious assault by onrushing enemy troops. Resolutely advancing through the veritable curtain of fire to aid his stricken comrades, HC Hammond moved among the stalwart garrison of Marines and, although critically wounded himself, valiantly continued to administer aid to the other wounded throughout an exhausting four-hour period. When the unit was ordered to withdraw, he skillfully directed the evacuation of casualties and remained in the fire-swept area to assist the corpsmen of the relieving unit until he was struck by a round of enemy mortar fire and fell, mortally wounded. By his exceptional fortitude, inspiring initiative and self-sacrificing efforts, HC Hammond undoubtedly saved the lives of many marines. His great personal valor in the face of overwhelming odds enhances and sustains the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
GREELY, ADOLPHUS W.
45 YEARS OF SERVICE
Rank and organization: Major General, U.S. Army, retired. Place and date: —-. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 27 March 1844, Newburyport, Mass. G.O. No.: 3, W.D., 1935. Act of Congress, 21 March 1935. Citation: For his life of splendid public service, begun on March 27th, 1844, having enlisted as a private in the U.S. Army on 26 July 1861, and by successive promotions was commissioned as major general 10 February 1906, and retired by operation of law on his 64th birthday.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company I, 23d U.S. Infantry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 27th, 1873. Entered service at: Lansingburg, N.Y. Birth: Brightstown, N.Y. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: Near Turret Mountain, Ariz., 25 and March 27th, 1873. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Decatur County, lowa. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
Legal Assistants Day
Make Up Your Own Holiday Day
We have all played the game. It isn’t complicated. Two teams form and grab two ends of a rope. The rope has a knot in the middle, and that knot is positioned over the starting point, so that neither side gets an unfair advantage in the beginning. Each side will pull desperately to try to drag the other team across the center line. When one side has successfully pulled the opposing team across the line, the pulling team wins. It is even better if the center is a muddy and messy pit!
The game is simple, but very old. According to a book from the Tang imperial dynasty of China (C7th -10th AD), tug of war (under the name “hook pulling”) was used by the military commander of the State of Chu in east central China to train warriors. Emperor Xuanzong of Tang held large-scale tug of war games, using ropes of five hundred feet with shorter ropes attached and more than five hundred people on each end of the rope. Each side positioned a team of drummers to encourage the participants.
Today, tug-of-war is a game that most adults relegate to those still in their youth, but did you know that tug-of-war used to be an official Olympic Games event?
Since tug-of-war has been a game played by adults for centuries, it became an official event at the second modern Olympic Games in 1900. However, it’s time as an official Olympic event was short-lived and it was last played at the Olympics at the 1920 Games. Tug-of-war was not the only event to be added and then later removed from the Olympic Games; golf, lacrosse, rugby, and polo also shared its fate. The sport is contested in the World Games. The Tug of War International Federation TWIF organizes World Championships for nation teams biannually, for both indoor and outdoor contests, and a similar competition for club teams.
There are numerous principles that can be used and learned in this simple game some of which include the use of force, proper resistance and mental and physical focus. In addition, concepts of center-of-gravity come in to play when one realizes that lowering personal centers makes you much more unmovable and more comfortable. You are less likely to be caught by surprise and can give occasional “breaks” to members next to you. The concept of individualized teamwork is important. This concept is similar to other team sports where highly trained and gifted athletes “give up” a little of their stardom for the good of the team.
The Tug-of-War can also be used as an analogy for when a discussion goes separate ways, where two sides are trying to win most any debate. It speaks of wars where two groups of combatants are trying to win.
If God is for us, who can be against us? 32 He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things? 33 Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies.
“If the freedom of speech is taken away then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter.” ~ George Washington
“Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no help at all.”
~ Dale Carnegie
triskaidekaphobia tris-ky-dek-uh-FOH-bee-uh, noun:
A morbid fear of the number 13 or the date Friday the 13th.
1484 – William Caxton printed his translation of Aesop’s Fables.
1701 – The English Board of Trade advises the king to create royal colonies of all of the American charter colonies.
1790 – US Congress passed a Naturalization Act. It required a 2-year residency.
1804 – Congress orders removal of Indians east of Mississippi to Louisiana.
1804 – The Louisiana Purchase was divided into the Territory of Orleans and the District of Louisiana. Orleans Territory was created on October 1, 1804 by the Organic Act of March 26, 1804, and became Louisiana, the 18th state on March 30, 1812.
1830 – The Book of Mormon is published in Palmyra, New York.
1836 – Mexican Colonel Jose Nicolas de la Portilla received orders from Gen. Santa Anna in triplicate to execute his Texan prisoners at Goliad.
1845 – Joseph Francis, New York NY, patents a corrugated sheet-iron lifeboat.
1845 – Patent awarded for adhesive medicated plaster (No. 3965), precusor of bandaid. Drs. Horace Harrell and William H. Shecut developed a process in which rubber is dissolved in a solvent then spread on fabric.
1859 – First sighting of Vulcan, a planet thought to orbit inside Mercury. In ancient Roman religion and myth, Vulcan is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes.
1862 – Civil War: Battle of La Glorieta Pass, New Mexico Territory (Apache Canyon, Pigeon’s Ranch). It was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the Civil War.
1863 – Voters in West Virginia approved the gradual emancipation of slaves.
1865 – Civil War: A detachment of sailors led by Acting Ensign Peyton H. Randolph of U.S.S. Benton joined troops under the command of Brigadier General B.G. Farrar. They lead a combined expedition to Trinity, Louisiana, where they captured a small number of Confederate soldiers as well as horses, arms and stores.
1872 – Black inventor, Thomas J Martin patents fire extinguisher system.
1872 – A 7.8 earthquake shook the Owens Valley, California.
1878 – Hastings College of Law was founded. The college is now a part of the University of California. It was named after Serranus Clinton Hastings, the first chief justice of the California Supreme Court.
1885 – Eastman Film Co manufactures first commercial motion picture film.
1895 – Charles Jenkins patented a motion picture machine.It was called he Phantoscope, an early motion picture projector that enlarged film images for viewing by large groups.
1910 – The U.S. Congress passed an amendment to the 1907 Immigration Act that barred criminals, paupers, anarchists and carriers of disease from settling in the U.S.
1913 – Dayton, Ohio, was almost destroyed when Scioto, Miami, and Muskingum River reached flood stage simultaneously.
1916 – Robert Stroud stabbed and killed a prison guard in Leavenworth KS. For this crime, he was imprisoned for life, and became the “Birdman of Alcatraz,” named for the prison where he spent his sentence.
1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza – British troops are halted after 17,000 Turks block their advance.
1926 – The first lip-reading tournament held in America.
1926 – U.S. oil companies bought 190,000 tons of kerosene from Russia for $3.2 million.
1930 – Congress appropriates $50,000 for Inter-American highway. The objective of the Inter-American Highway was to link the United States to Mexico City and the capitol cities of the Central-America republics and Panama by paved highway.
1931 – Leo Bentley bowls 3 consecutive perfect games in Lorain, Ohio. It was unsanctioned either because the league or tournament had not agreed to be governed by the ABC prior to the event or because the lane conditions did not satisfy ABC standards.
1936 – The first telescope with a 200″ telescope lens made for the Hale telescope was shipped, Corning Glass Works, New York-Cal Tech to to Mt. Palomar Observatory in California. The lens of the Hale telescope weighed 20 tons.
1937 – Spinach growers of Crystal City TX, erect statue of Popeye. This made Popeye the first cartoon character ever immortalized in public sculpture.
1939 – Pan Am (Pan American) sent a B-314 Yankee Clipper, christened by Eleanor Roosevelt, that had left from Baltimore to Europe on a survey flight that paved the way for soon coming airmail and passenger service.
1941 – Jimmie Lunceford and his orchestra recorded the tune, “Battle Axe“, for Decca Records.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Poland, Auschwitz receives its first female prisoners and the Germans began sending Jews there as well.
1942 – Twenty tons of gelignite killed twenty-one in a stone quarry in Easton, PA. Gelignite is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate).
1943 – World War II: First woman to receive air medal (US Army Nurse Elsie S Ott) It was awarded for her actions in 1943 as an air evac nurse en route from India to the U.S.
1944 – World War II: Japanese patrols again sight large American naval forces heading for Palau Island. They decide to disperse their warships.
1944 – World War II: German Wehrmacht General Anton Dostler Commander of the 75th Army Corps ordered the shooting of 15 unarmed American prisoners of war, in La Spezia, Italy.
1945 – World War II: In Iwo Jima, US forces declare the island “secure.” All Japanese resistance is gone.
1945 – World War II: In the Aleutians, the battle of Komandorski began when the Japanese attempted to reinforce a garrison at Kiska and were intercepted by a U.S. naval force.
1945 – Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton attack at Remagen on the Rhine.
1945 – The US 7th Army begins to send units of US 15th and US 6th Corps across the Rhine River between Worms and Mannheim. To the north all the Allied armies continue to advance.
1946 – International Ice Patrol resumed after being suspended during World War II.
1949 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron, “Far Away Places” by Margaret Whiting, “Powder Your Face with Sunshine” by Evelyn Knight and “Tennessee Saturday Night” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1950 – During a radio broadcast dealing with a Senate investigation into communists in the U.S. Department of State, news is leaked that Senator Joseph McCarthy has charged Professor Owen Lattimore with being a top spy for the Soviet Union.
1951 – USAF flag approved. The flag included the coat of arms, 13 white stars and the Air Force seal on a blue background.
1953 – Jonas Salk announces his polio vaccine. Salk’s vaccine was composed of “killed” polio virus, which retained the ability to immunize without the risk of infecting the patient. Mass trials held in 1953 on 1,830,000 children proved the vaccine was safe and effective.
1954 – The U.S. set off the second H-bomb blast in four weeks in the Marshall Islands at Bikini Island. The 15-megaton device was 750 times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
1955 – “Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes topped the charts.
1956 – Medic Alert Foundation forms.It was founded in Turlock, California by Marion C. Collins, M.D., after his daughter almost died from reaction to a sensitivity test for tetanus antitoxin. MedicAlert relays each member’s key medical facts to emergency responders, so that they receive faster, safer treatment, and avoid harmful or fatal reactions.
1956 – Red Buttons made his debut as a television actor in “Studio One” on CBS television.
1958 – The United States Army launches Explorer 3.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1960 – Orioles-Reds series for Havana, is moved to Miami. The Reds, with a farm club in Cuba, want the trip, but the Orioles fear increased political unrest in the area.
1960 – The University of Southern California (USC) captured the NCAA swimming title, becoming the first Pacific Coast school to do so.
1962 – The U.S. Supreme Court in Baker vs. Carr gave federal courts the power to order reapportionment of seats in a state legislature, a decision that eventually led to the doctrine of “one man, one vote.”
1964 – “Funny Girl” with Barbra Streisand opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 1,348 performances. 1968 Movie Trailer
1965 – CHART TOPPERS – “Eight Days a Week” by The Beatles, “Stop! In the Name of Love” by The Supremes, “The Birds and the Bees” by Jewel Akens and “I’ve Got a Tiger by the Tail” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1965 – A truck loses control down Moosic Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania, killing the driver. This accident later inspired the 1974 Harry Chapin song, “30,000 Pounds of Bananas.”
1966 – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler topped the charts.
1966 – Vietnam War: Operation Jackstay in Navy’s first amphibious assault in Vietnam’s inland waters.
1967 – Ten thousand people gather for one of many Central Park be-ins in New York City.
1968 – Vietnam War: Operation Bold Dragon III began in Mekong Delta it is under the direct control of the Chief of Naval Operations, Vietnam.
1969 – The TV movie “Marcus Welby” was seen on ABC-TV. It was later turned into a series with Robert Young and ran to 1976.
1970 – Five-hundredth nuclear explosion since 1945 was announced by the US.
1971 – “Cannon” with William Conrad premieres on CBS-TV.
1972 – Los Angeles Lakers broke NBA record by winning 69 of 82 games (69-13) .
1972 – Evil Knievel broke his collarbone after successfully clearing 13 cars.
1973 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Train“ by the O’Jays, “Also Sprach Zarathustra (2001)” by Deodato, “Neither One of Us (Wants to Be the First to Say Goodbye)” by Gladys Knight & The Pips and “Teddy Bear Song” by Barbara Fairchild all topped the charts.
1973 – Soap opera “The Young and the Restless” premieres.
1974 – David Essex received a gold record for the hit, “Rock On“.
1975 – Vietnam War: The city of Hue, in northernmost South Vietnam, falls to the North Vietnamese.
1976 – Paul McCartney and Wings released “Wings at the Speed of Sound” album.
1977 – “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates topped the charts.
1977 – Focus on the Family is founded by Dr. James Dobson.
1977 – Rose Bird (1936-1999) was sworn in as Chief Justice of California. She had been confirmed on March 12.
1979 – Michigan State and Indiana State met in the all-time highest rated basketball telecast. The NBC coverage earned a 24.1 rating. Indiana State’s unprecedented 33 consecutive-win streak came to an end as the Spartans of Michigan State won 75-64.
1979 – Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin and Jimmy Carter sign the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty in Washington, DC.
1981 – CHART TOPPERS – “Keep on Loving You” by REO Speedwagon, “Woman” by John Lennon, “The Best of Times” by Styx and “Angel Flying Too Close to the Ground” by Willie Nelson all topped the charts.
1981 – A jury in Los Angeles awarded entertainer Carol Burnett $1.6 million from the “National Enquirer” for an article she’d charged was libelous.
1982 – A groundbreaking ceremony for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is held in Washington, DC. It stands as a symbol of America’s honor and recognition of the men and women who served and sacrificed their lives in the Vietnam War.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1983 – The U.S. performed a nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site.
1984 – US Congress established the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to distribute funds for wildlife and environmental projects.
1987 – National Federation of High School adopts college 3 point shot (21 feet).
1988 – “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1989 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Living Years” by Mike & The Mechanics, “Eternal Flame” by Bangles, “Girl You Know It’s True” by Milli Vanilli and “New Fool at an Old Game” by Reba McEntire all topped the charts.
1990 – “Driving Miss Daisy” won best picture at the 62nd annual Academy Awards and captured the best actress prize for Jessica Tandy.
1991 – A divided US Supreme Court ruled that criminal defendants whose coerced confessions were improperly used as evidence are not always entitled to new trials.
1992 – NHL New York Rangers clinch first NHL regular season championship in 50 years.
1992 – In Indianapolis, IN, heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson was found guilty of rape. He was sentenced to 6 years in prison. He only served three.
1995 – “Defending the Caveman” opened at Helen Hayes Theater in New York City for 671 performances.
1995 – The National Labor Relations Board, in an extraordinary Sunday session, voted 3-2 to seek an injunction against baseball owners as a seven-and-a-half-month-old strike by players continued.
1997 – “Annie” opened at Martin Beck Theater in New York City.
1997 – The 39 bodies of Heaven’s Gate members are found in a mansion in Rancho Santa Fe, CA. The group had committed suicide thinking that they would be picked up by a spaceship following behind the comet Hale-Bopp.
1998 – Unisys Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. pay a $3.15 million fine for selling spare parts at inflated prices to the U.S. federal government.
1998 – In Nevada a new satellite-based survey of the Yucca Mo
untain site for storing radioactive wastes indicated that the Earth’s crust at the site was stretching ten times faster than previous studies have shown.
1999 – The “Melissa worm” infects Microsoft word processing and e-mail systems around the world.
1999 – A jury in Michigan finds Dr. Jack Kevorkian guilty of second-degree murder for administering a lethal injection to a terminally ill man.
1999 – The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, N.M. received its first shipment of nuclear waste. The facility was completed in 1988.
2000 – The Seattle Kingdome was imploded to make room for a new football arena.The 7.9 acre roof collapsed in less than 20 seconds.
2001 – California state regulators proposed a 40% rate increase to help remedy the state’s energy crisis.
2001 – Regional Comair pilots went on strike after failing to settle with corporate parent Delta. The three-month strike began after contract talks with the regional airline broke off.
2001 – In Scotland US Air Force F15C fighter jets were lost during training. The body of one pilot, Lt. Col. Kenneth John Hyvonen, and F-15 wreckage was found the next day. Wreckage of the second F-15 was found after 2 days. The body of Capt. Kirk Jones was found Mar 30.
2002 – The US Supreme Court upheld regulations that allowed federal housing officials to evict an entire household if even one member is arrested for drug violations.
2003 – In the 8th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom about 1,000 members of the US Army’s 173rd Airborne Brigade parachute into northern Iraq and seize control of an airfield.
2003 – The Senate approved a $2.2 trillion budget that provided less than half the $726 billion in tax cuts President Bush wanted.
2004 – West of Baghdad, U.S. Marines and gunmen fought an hour-long battle that left four Iraqis dead and six wounded. A U.S. Marine and an ABC freelance cameraman were killed during the firefight.
2004 – The FDA approved the first HIV test that uses saliva rather than blood. The 20 minute test, made by OraSure, is able to detect HIV antibodies about 6 weeks after infection.
2004 – Phoenix Catholic Bishop Thomas O’Brien was sentenced to four years’ probation and 1,000 hours of community service for a deadly hit-and-run that killed pedestrian Jim Reed.
2006 – In Florida Paul Dana, a 30-year-old rookie in the Indy Racing League, died at Jackson Memorial Hospital from multiple trauma suffered in the crash during the final morning practice for the season-opening Toyota Indy 300.
2007 – The design for the “Forever Stamp” was unveiled by the U.S. Postal Service.
2007 – The US military concluded that high-ranking Army officers had made critical errors in reporting the friendly fire death of Army Ranger Pat Tillman in Afghanistan. The Tillman family rejected the findings.
2007 – An American border inspector was sentenced to nearly six years in prison for taking cash and cars from smugglers, allowing them to shuttle illegal immigrants from Mexico into the United States.
2007 – A new study that suggested that an antioxidant found in blueberries and grapes may offer protection against colon cancer.
2008 – The NASA space shuttle Endeavour and its crew of seven made a night landing in Florida following a 16-day mission to the International Space Station.
2009 – Scientists said the basic ingredients for life: warmth, water and organic chemicals, are in place on Saturn’s small moon Enceladus, in detailing the content of huge plumes erupting off its surface.
2009 – Serial Shooter Dale Hausner receives six death sentences for six murders committed between 2005 and 2006. The Serial Shooter refers to what authorities now believe to be two men who committed multiple drive-by shootings targeting random pedestrians. The shootings occurred in Phoenix, Arizona.
2009 – The Obama administration unveiled a sweeping overhaul of the financial system designed to impose greater regulation on major players like hedge funds.
2009 – The US Internal Revenue Service announced new steps aimed at getting taxpayers hiding money in offshore accounts to pay up, promising not to file criminal charges for those who voluntarily confess to hiding money overseas.
2009 – In Brazil engine pieces from a US plane fell from the sky, hitting 22 houses and a car but sparing passengers and residents on the ground.
2010 – The Obama administration unveiled a revamped Home Affordable Mortgage Program (HAMP).
2010 – Hacker Albert Gonzalez (28), who participated in a cybercrime ring that stole tens of millions of credit and debit card numbers, was sentenced in US District Court to 20 years in prison.
2010 – In south-central Kentucky eleven people were killed in a fiery crash between a tractor-trailer and a van after the truck crossed over the median on Interstate 65 near Munfordville.
2011 – A fuel fire at Miami International Airport causes flight cancellations and delays.
2011 – Geraldine Ferraro, a Democratic Party Congresswoman and the first woman to stand for Vice-President of the United States on a major party ticket dies in Boston.
2012 – One person is killed and several homes destroyed in a wildfire outbreak in Jefferson County, Colorado.
2014 – Former Rep. Keith Farnham, 66, announced his resignation Wednesday, one day after he won the Democratic primary, running unopposed. Federal officials seized the computers of “well-liked” Democratic Rep. Keith Farnham. The Elgin Democrat resigned earlier Wednesday before the bust. Officials are looking at his WORK computers.
1749 – William Blount, American Statesman (d. 1800)
1753 – Benjamin Thompson, American physicist and inventor (d. 1814)
1773 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician and navigation expert (d. 1838)
1874 – Robert Frost, American poet (d. 1963)
1904 – Joseph Campbell, American author (d. 1987)
1911 – Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (d. 1983)
1916 – Christian B. Anfinsen, American chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1995)
1917 – Rufus Thomas, American musician (d. 2001)
1929 – Tom Foley, American politician, former Speaker of the House
1930 – Sandra Day O’Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice
1931 – Leonard Nimoy, American actor and director
1934 – Alan Arkin, American actor
1940 – James Caan, American actor
1943 – Bob Woodward, American journalist
1944 – Diana Ross, American singer (Supremes)
1949 – Vicki Lawrence, American actress and singer
1954 – Curtis Sliwa, American founder of the Guardian Angels
1960 – Marcus Allen, American football player
1960 – Jennifer Grey, American actress
1968 – Kenny Chesney, American singer
1973 – Lawrence E. Page, American search engine pioneer
2233 – James T. Kirk, science fiction captain of USS Enterprise (Star Trek), was born.
*DICKEY, DOUGLAS E.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company C, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, 3d Marine Division (Rein). Place and date: Republic of Vietnam, March 26th, 1967. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Born: 24 December 1946, Greenville, Darke, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While participating in Operation Beacon Hill 1, the 2d Platoon was engaged in a fierce battle with the Viet Cong at close range in dense jungle foliage. Pfc. Dickey had come forward to replace a radio operator who had been wounded in this intense action and was being treated by a medical corpsman. Suddenly an enemy grenade landed in the midst of a group of Marines, which included the wounded radio operator who was immobilized. Fully realizing the inevitable result of his actions, Pfc. Dickey, in a final valiant act, quickly and unhesitatingly threw himself upon the deadly grenade, absorbing with his body the full and complete force of the explosion. Pfc. Dickey’s personal heroism, extraordinary valor and selfless courage saved a number of his fellow Marines from certain injury and possible death at the cost of his life. His actions reflected great credit upon himself, the Marine Corps and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*MARTIN, HARRY LINN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. Born: 4 January 1911, Bucyrus, Ohio. Appointed from. Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as platoon leader attached to Company C, 5th Pioneer Battalion, 5th Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, March 26th, 1945. With his sector of the 5th Pioneer Battalion bivouac area penetrated by a concentrated enemy attack launched a few minutes before dawn, 1st Lt. Martin instantly organized a firing line with the marines nearest his foxhole and succeeded in checking momentarily the headlong rush of the Japanese. Determined to rescue several of his men trapped in positions overrun by the enemy, he defied intense hostile fire to work his way through the Japanese to the surrounded marines. Although sustaining two severe wounds, he blasted the Japanese who attempted to intercept him, located his beleaguered men and directed them to their own lines. When four of the infiltrating enemy took possession of an abandoned machinegun pit and subjected his sector to a barrage of hand grenades, 1st Lt. Martin, alone and armed only with a pistol, boldly charged the hostile position and killed all of its occupants. Realizing that his few remaining comrades could not repulse another organized attack, he called to his men to follow and then charged into the midst of the strong enemy force, firing his weapon and scattering them until he fell, mortally wounded by a grenade. By his outstanding valor, indomitable fighting spirit and tenacious determination in the face of overwhelming odds, 1st Lt. Martin permanently disrupted a coordinated Japanese attack and prevented a greater loss of life in his own and adjacent platoons. His inspiring leadership and unswerving devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.
Kick Butts Day
Old New Years Day
The Winchester House
The house, no, the mansion was built starting with a six room house on a 4.5 acre parcel down from the original 162 acre parcel in San Jose, CA. It now has about 160 rooms, including 40 bedrooms, 13 bathrooms and two ballrooms, one completed and one unfinished. The house also has 47 fireplaces, 10,000 window panes, 17 chimneys (with evidence of two others), two basements and three elevators. At one time, prior to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake it had been seven stories tall. The house is said to be haunted.
While this is all interesting to know, how it came to be is even more interesting.
Sarah Winchester didn’t always want to build a haunted mansion. Born in 1839, Sarah Pardee was one of the social stars of New Haven, Conn. Although she only stood 4 feet 10 inches, she was known for her beauty and her sparkling personality. In 1862, Sarah married William Winchester, who was the heir of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.
The company had developed the repeating rifle, a gun that was easy to reload and fired rapidly, at a rate of one shot every three seconds. The gun was used by Northern troops in the Civil War and was also known as “the gun that won the West.”
The young couple started a family in 1866, but their daughter, Annie, died in infancy, a blow that Mrs. Winchester never recovered from. Mr. Winchester died of tuberculosis 15 years later. Distraught over these losses, she visited a medium for spiritual guidance.
In the late 1800’s spiritualism was a strong movement brought on by the desire to explain the growth of the scientific community. It is defined as “the science, philosophy and religion of continuous life, based upon the demonstrated fact of communication, by means of mediumship, with those who live in the Spirit World.”
After the death of her husband she consulted with one of these spiritual mediums. The medium told her that the Winchester family had been struck by a terrible curse and was haunted by the ghosts of all those killed by the Winchester rifle. Their spirits were seeking vengeance, and the only way to appease them was to build a house for them. The ghosts had another request: that the house never be completed. Never stop building, the medium told Mrs. Winchester, or you will die. We can’t know exactly how she interpreted this advice; she might have thought the spirits would get her if she stopped, or she might have seen continuous construction as a path to eternal life. She, therefore, did everything that she could to try and appease the spirits, lest they harm her.
She kept the house under construction constantly, around the clock, without interruption from 1884 until her death on September 5, 1922, at which time work immediately ceased. Today the mansion can be visited and if you are in the San Jose, CA area you might want to visit but beware, many think it is haunted and floating orbs can be seen as you tour.
1 He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty.
2 I will say of the LORD, “He is my refuge and my fortress, my God, in whom I trust.”
3 Surely he will save you from the fowler’s snare and from the deadly pestilence.
4 He will cover you with his feathers, and under his wings you will find refuge; his faithfulness will be your shield and rampart.
5 You will not fear the terror of night, nor the arrow that flies by day,
6 nor the pestilence that stalks in the darkness, nor the plague that destroys at midday.
“Dependence begets subservience and venality, suffocates the germ of virtue, and prepares fit tools for the designs of ambition.”
–Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, Query 19, 1781
“I’ve always felt it was not up to anyone else to make me give my best.”
~ Akeem Olajuwon
puerile \PYOO-uhr-uhl; PYOOR-uhl\, adjective:
Displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity; juvenile; childish.
Puerile comes from Latin puerilis, from puer, “child, boy.”
0031 – First Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus. Easter falls on the first Sunday following the first ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or after March 21 (the day of the ecclesiastical vernal equinox). Jesus (according to one tradition) was crucified on Friday, March 25 and was resurrected on Sunday, March 27, which should meet the definition of Easter.
1199 – Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6.
1306 – Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John. (See Braveheart)
1584 – Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, renewed Humphrey Gilbert’s patent to explore North America. He went on to settle the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island, naming it after the virgin queen.
1634 – Lord Baltimore founded Catholic colony of Maryland, the first settlers to arrive in Maryland.
1655 – Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens.
1655 – Puritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
1668 – First horse race in America takes place.
1774 – English Parliament passed the Boston Port Bill. This was one of the measures (variously called the Intolerable Acts, the Punitive Acts or the Coercive Acts) that were designed to secure Great Britain’s jurisdictions over her American dominions.It was a response to the Boston Tea Party, it outlawed the use of the Port of Boston (by setting up a barricade/blockade) for “landing and discharging, loading or shipping, of goods, wares, and merchandise” until such time as restitution was made to the King’s treasury (for customs duty lost) and to the East India Company for damages suffered.
1776 – Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington.
1804 – The Secretary of the Navy approved the first formal uniform of the Marine Corps.
1807 – The Slave Trade Act becomes law, abolishing the slave trade in the British Empire.
1813 – The first U.S. flag flown in battle was on the frigate Essex in the Pacific. USS Essex captures HMS Neryeda, first capture by U.S. Navy in Pacific.
1843 – Seventeen Texans, who picked black beans from a jar otherwise filled with white beans, were executed by a Mexican firing squad.
1851 – Yosemite Valley discovered in California.
1856 – A E Burnside patents Burnside carbine. The Burnside carbine was a breech-loading carbine that saw widespread use during the American Civil War.
1857 – The first photograph of a solar eclipse was taken. It was taken by Frederick Laggenheim.
1863 – First Army Medal of Honor was awarded to PVT Jacob Parrott of the 33rd Ohio Infantry. . The first Medals of Honor to be presented went to the six veterans of Andrews’s Raiders.
1863 – Civil War: Union rams Switzerland and Lancaster got underway to run past Vicksburg to join Rear Admiral Farragut below with U.S.S. Hartford and Albatross.
1864 – Civil War: The U.S.S. Peosta and U.S.S. Paw Paw, engaged Confederate troops who had launched a heavy assault on Northern positions at Paducah, Kentucky.
1865 – Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman from the Union in a bloody battle. This was Lee’s last attack of the war in a desperate attempt to break out of Petersburg, Virginia.
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely).
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Bluff Spring, FL.
1879 – Little Wolf, often called “the greatest of the fighting Cheyenne,” surrenders to his friend, Lieutenant W. P. Clark.
1882 – First demonstration of pancake making (Department store in New York NY).
1894 – Coxey’s Army, the first significant American protest march (unemployed people), departs Massillon, Ohio for Washington D.C.
1898 – Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, proposes Navy investigate military application of Samuel Langley’s flying machine, beginning naval aviation.
1902 – Irving W. Colburn patented a sheet glass drawing machine.This machine made the creation of glass for windows possible.
1905 – Rebel battle flags captured during war are returned to South.
1911 – In New York City, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire kills 146 garment workers. It was the worst workplace disaster in New York City until September 11, 2001. The facility was originally known as the Asch Building and currently as the Brown Building, It still survives and has been designated as a National Historic Landmark.
1913 – Great Dayton Flood. In Dayton, Ohio at least 428 people died during the Flood of 1913, and more than twenty thousand homes were totally destroyed.
1915 – The Navy’s first underwater disaster occurred when the submarine F-4 exploded and sank off Honolulu Harbor. Twenty-one lives were lost. F-4 was one of the first submarines assigned to the new naval facility at Pearl Harbor in the years prior to World War I.
1931 – In Alabama, nine young black men, arrested at Paint Rock after riding a freight train, were taken to Scottsboro. Also arrested were two white women, Victoria Price (21) and Ruby Bates (17), who had worked as prostitutes in Huntsville. The two women were dressed as boys. Shortly after the arrest. the nine men were charged with the raping of the two white women, while riding on the freight train. The Scottsboro Boys were accused of rape. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.
1934 – Horton Smith won the first Masters golf tournament under the magnolia trees of Augusta National in Georgia.
1937 – It was revealed Quaker Oats paid Babe Ruth $25,000 per year for being in their advertising.
1938 – First US bred horse (Battleship) to win Grand National Steeplechase
1939 – Billboard Magazine introduced the hillbilly (country) music chart.
1942 – World War II: Rear Admiral John Wilcox commanding Task Force 39 with the battleship Washington, two cruiser and six destroyers sail for Scapa Flow to protect British home waters for the duration of Operation Ironclad — the British invasion of Vichy French controlled Madagascar.
1944 – World War II: On Manus, the largest island of the Admiralty Islands, a final drive by US forces eliminates most of the remaining Japanese forces. On Los Negros, Japanese resistance has been reduced to scattered groups and isolated individuals.
1945 – World War II: US 1st Army units, principally from US 3rd Corps, begin to break out of the Remagen bridgehead. The US 8th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) begins to cross the Rhine River near Boppard.
1945 – World War II: On Iwo Jima, a 300-man Japanese force launched a vicious final counterattack in the vicinity of Airfield Number 2. Army pilots, Seabees and Marines of the 5th Pioneer Battalion and 28th Marines fought the fanatical Japanese force till morning but suffered heavy casualties –more than one hundred killed and another two American wounded. Nearly all of the Japanese force was killed in the battle.
1945 – World War II: Japanese Kamikaze attacks begin, under the direction of Admiral Ugaki, with 26 planes scoring eight hits including one on the American battleship Nevada.
1945 – World War II: American B-24 Liberator bombers of the US 5th Air Force destroy a hydroelectric power station on the island of Formosa (Taiwan).
1945 – World War II: Bombers of the US 8th Air Force bomb Hamburg, Germany with the nominal objective of striking the underground oil stores.
1947 – An explosion in a coal mine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111people.
1948 – CHART TOPPERS – “Now is the Hour” by Bing Crosby, “I’m Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover” by The Art Moonie Orchestra, “Beg Your Pardon “ by Francis Craig and “I’ll Hold You in My Heart (Till I Can Hold You in My Arms)” by Eddy Arnold all topped the charts.
1948 – The first successful tornado forecast predicts that a tornado will strike Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma.
1949 – University of California Pres. Robert Gordon Sproul proposed a faculty loyalty oath. The Univ. of Calif. Board of Regents later voted to require all employees to sign a loyalty oath.
1950 – “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton topped the charts.
1952 – Korean War: Three hundred and seven Allied fighter-bombers dropped 260 tons of bombs on the rail line between Chongju and Sinanju.
1953 – The USS Missouri fired on targets at Kojo, North Korea, the last time her guns fire until the Persian Gulf War of 1992.
1954 – RCA manufactures first color TV set (12*” screen at $1,000).
1955 – United States Customs seizes copies of Allen Ginsberg’s poem “Howl” as obscene. On October 3, 1957 Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that the poem was not obscene, and “Howl” went on to become one of the most popular poems of the Beat Generation.
1955 – The Navy Vought (XF-8A) XF8U-1 Crusader is trucked to Edwards Air Force Base where it made its first flight today. Test pilot John Konrad took the airplane supersonic on this flight, the first time it had ever been done with any fighter on its maiden flight.
1958 – At Fort Chaffee, Elvis Presley received his famous G.I. haircut and coined the phrase ‘Hair today, gone tomorrow’, in a comment to the news media. He was assigned to the Second Armored Division’s ‘Hell On Wheels’ unit (formerly led by General George Patton) and was stationed at Fort Hood, Texas.
1958 – Sugar Ray Robinson is first boxing champion to win five titles.
1958 – Canada’s Avro Arrow makes its first flight. The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft, armed with AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-7 Sparrow missiles, designed and built by Avro Canada. It was cancelled February 20th, 1959.
1960 – First guided missile, a Regulus I, launched from the nuclear powered sub (Halibut).
1961 – Elvis Presley (26) performed live on the USS Arizona, a fund raiser for the memorial.
1961 – “Surrender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1965 – Civil rights activists (25,000) led by Martin Luther King, Jr. successfully complete their 4-day 50-mile march from Selma to the capitol in Montgomery, Alabama.
1965 – Viola Liuzzo (b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala.
1966 – US Supreme court rules “poll tax” unconstitutional.
1967 – The Turtles’ “Happy Together” goes #1.
1968 – Vietnam War: A Harris Poll reports that in the past six weeks “basic” support for the war among Americans declined from 74 percent to 54 percent. The poll also revealed that 60 percent of those questioned regarded the Tet Offensive as a defeat of U.S. objectives in Vietnam.
1970 – Concorde makes its first supersonic flight (700 MPH/1,127 KPH).
1971 – Boston Patriots become New England Patriots.
1971 – Tom Jones went gold with his single, “She’s a Lady“.
1975 – Vietnam War: Hue was lost and Da Nang was endangered. The U.S. ordered a refugee airlift to remove those in danger.
1975 – Faisal of Saudi Arabia is shot and killed by a mentally ill nephew.
1978 – “Night Fever” by the Bee Gees topped the charts.
1979 – The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, “Space Shuttle Columbia”, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.
1980 – CHART TOPPERS – “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd, “Working My Way Back to You/Forgive Me, Girl” by Spinners, “Him” by Rupert Holmes and “Why Don’t You Spend the Night” by Ronnie Milsap all topped the charts.
1981 – The U.S. Embassy in San Salvador was damaged when gunmen attacked, firing rocket propelled grenades and machine guns.
1982 – The TV show “Cagney and Lacey” featured Sharon Gless and Tyne Daly as female police detectives, debuted. The show continued to 1988.
1986 – President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.
1986 – Supreme Court ruled in Goldman v. Weinberger that the Air Force could ban wearing of yarmulkes.
1987 – The US Supreme Court ruled employers may sometimes favor women and members of minority groups over men and whites in hiring and promoting in order to achieve better balance in the work force.
1988 – CHART TOPPERS – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley, “I Get Weak” by Belinda Carlisle, “Man in the Mirror” by Michael Jackson and “Life Turned Her that Way” by Ricky Van Shelton all topped the charts.
1988 – In New York City’s so-called “preppie murder case,” Robert E. Chambers Jr. pleaded guilty to first-degree manslaughter in the death of 18-year-old Jennifer Levin.
1990 – MASS MURDER: In The Bronx, a Cuban terrorist (Julio Gonzalez) set an arson fire at an illegal social club called “Happy Land” killing 87 people.
1990 – “Star Trek V” won the 10th Golden Raspberry Awards as worst picture .
1993 – The Senate approved an outline of President Clinton’s plan to spark the economy and trim the budget deficit by a vote of 54-45.
1994 – At the end of a largely unsuccessful 15-month mission, the last U.S. troops depart Somalia, leaving 20,000 U.N. troops behind to keep the peace and facilitate “nation building” in the divided country.
1995 – Two Americans who had strayed across the Kuwaiti border into Iraq were sentenced to eight years in prison. However, David Daliberti and William Barloon were released by Iraq the following July.
1995 – Mike Tyson was released from the Indiana Youth Center after serving three years for the 1992 rape of Desiree Washington, a beauty pageant contestant.
1996 – An 81-day-long standoff between the anti-government group Montana Freemen and law enforcement near Jordan, Montana, begins.
1996 – US issues newly-redesigned $100 bill.
1996 – France, Britain and the US signed a treaty to ban nuclear weapons from the South Pacific.
1997 – Georgia Gov. Zell Miller signed into law a ban on a controversial form of late-term abortion.
1997 – Former President George Bush, 73, parachuted from a plane over the Arizona desert.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: A 13-year-old student of Fernando Rivera Middle School courtyard yesterday morning wielding a chrome-plated semiautomatic pistol, seeking revenge three weeks after he was sent home for getting into an argument.
The boy, unidentified due to age, is accused of shooting at the principal at the start of school, tossing the small handgun in a bush and returning to math class. The shot missed Principal Matteo Rizzo, who said he sent the boy home Friday March 20th, because the student was angry over an incident involving a friend. This was just one-day after the Jonesboro, AR incident.
1998 – The FCC netted $578.6 million at auction for licenses for new wireless technology.
2003 – The US Navy brought in two specially trained bottle-nosed Atlantic dolphins to help ferret out mines in the approaches of the port of Umm Qasr.
2003 – This was the seventh day of Operation Iraqi Freedom. US aircraft dropped more than 2,000 precision- guided bombs on Iraq since the war’s start.
2003 – Six satellite jamming devices, which Iraq was using to try to thwart American precision guided weapons, were destroyed in the last two nights.
2003 – A light plane carrying three Americans crashed in southern Colombia while searching for 3 other Americans captured by rebels last month.
2003 – Former Waterbury, Conn., Mayor Philip Giordano was convicted by a federal jury of violating the civil rights of two preteen girls by sexually abusing them. Giordano was later sentenced to 37 years in federal prison.
2004 – US Congress passed the Unborn Victims of Violence Act, making it a separate offense to harm a fetus during violent federal crime.
2005 – Losing still more legal appeals, Terri Schiavo’s father, Bob Schindler, said his severely brain-damaged daughter was “down to her last hours” as she entered her second week without the feeding tube that had sustained her life for 15 years.
2005 – Several Imax cinemas in the USA (in Texas, Georgia and the Carolinas) have chosen not to show the film “Volcanoes of the Deep Sea” in light of its reference to the theory of evolution.
2006 – In San Francisco, an evangelical Christian concert, dubbed “Battle Cry for a Generation,” drew some 25,000 teens to AT&T Park.
2006 – MASS SHOOTING: Capitol Hill massacre: A gunman kills six people before taking his own life at a party in Seattle’s Capitol Hill neighborhood.
2008 – The US Supreme Court ruled that US ratification of certain treaties isn’t enforceable unless Congress takes additional steps.
2009 – Broward Circuit Court Judge Ian Richards jumped over his bench to help a witness who was being attacked by the man she had testified against.
2009 – A United States Air Force F-22 Raptor crashes near Edwards AF Base in California, killing its pilot.
2010 – The United States weakens proposed sanctions against Iran in a bid to win broader support on the UN Security Council as Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad dismisses the impact of any new measures to stop Iran’s nuclear program.
2010 – President Barack Obama requests that Cuba’s leaders release all political prisoners, describing human rights there as “deeply disturbing.”
2010 – U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates announces new rules that make it more difficult to expel gay service members.
2010 – Three die in a medical helicopter crash in Tennessee with the helicopter that crashed being operated by Hospital Wing.
2011 – Domonique Ramirez wins a lawsuit against the Miss San Antonio pageant which means she will regain her title and crown, this after being stripped of her title for being “overweight”.
2012 – A student is shot dead on the Mississippi State University campus prompting school-wide alerts. Three suspects escape in a blue Ford Crown Victoria.
2012 – Tiger Woods wins the Arnold Palmer Invitational tournament in Orlando, his first US PGA Tour victory since 2009.
2013 – Six people are wounded during a stabbing attack at a Target store in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A 41-year-old homeless man was arrested.
2014 – A Girl Scout in Oklahoma City is reported as having sold 18,107 boxes of cookies, breaking the previous record of 18,000.
2015 – The conservative group Freedom Watch filed a racketeering lawsuit against former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton that accuses her of failing to produce documents under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The civil suit, filed in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, argues that Clinton used her private emails to sell access to other officials in return for donations to the Clinton Foundation.
1539 – Christopher Clavius, German mathematician was a German Jesuit mathematician and astronomer who was the main architect of the modern Gregorian calendar. (d. 1612)
1797 – John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God, was born.
1840 – Myles Keogh, U.S. Soldier in U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment & Irish Soldier of Fortune. He was part of the command of General George Armstrong Custer He was killed with Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, June 25 1876.
1863 – Simon Flexner, American pathologist . Amongst Flexner’s most important achievements are studies into poliomyelitis and the development of serum treatment for meningitis. He died in 1946.
1867 – Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, his name became a household name through his radio and television broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic repertoire. (d. 1957)
1892 – Andy Clyde, American actor. His career spanned over 40 years and one of his roles was as Cully Wilson, an eccentric farmer and nature lover in the Lassie television series (d. 1967).
1911 – Jack Ruby, killer of Lee Harvey Oswald (d. 1967)
1918 – Howard Cosell, American sports reporter (d. 1995)
1922 – Eileen Ford, American model agency executive
1928 – Jim Lovell, American astronaut
1932 – Gene Shalit, American film critic
1934 – Gloria Steinem, American feminist and publisher
1937 – Tom Monaghan, founder of Dominos pizza
1938 – Hoyt Axton, American actor and country music singer-songwriter (d. 1999)
1940 – Anita Bryant, American singer
1942 – Aretha Franklin, American singer
1943 – Paul Michael Glaser, American actor
1947 – Elton John, English singer and songwriter
1948 – Bonnie Bedelia, American actress
1957 – Jim Uhls, American screenwriter who rose to fame with his script adaptation of the critically acclaimed novel Fight Club.
1967 – Debi Thomas, American figure skater. She is a currently practicing orthpaedic surgeon.
1982 – Danica Patrick, American race car driver
*DOANE, STEPHEN HOLDEN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B, 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division. Place and date: Hau Nghia Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 25th, 1969. Entered service at: Albany, N.Y. Born: 13 October 1947, Beverely, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. First Lt. Doane was serving as a platoon leader when his company, engaged in a tactical operation, abruptly contacted an enemy force concealed in protected bunkers and trenches. Three of the leading soldiers were pinned down by enemy crossfire. One was seriously wounded. After efforts of one platoon to rescue these men had failed, it became obvious that only a small group could successfully move close enough to destroy the enemy position and rescue or relieve the trapped soldiers, 1st Lt. Doane, although fully aware of the danger of such an action, crawled to the nearest enemy bunker and silenced it. He was wounded but continued to advance to a second enemy bunker. As he prepared to throw a grenade, he was again wounded. Undaunted, he deliberately pulled the pin on the grenade and lunged with it into the enemy bunker, destroying this final obstacle. 1st Lt. Doane’s supreme act enabled his company to rescue the trapped men without further casualties. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by this officer were an inspiration to his men and are in the highest traditions of the U.S. Army .
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 25th, 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Monroe County, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 April 1875. Citation: Gallantry in engagements.
HILL, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company A, 5th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Turret Mountain, Ariz., March 25th, 1873. Entered service at:——. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 August 1875. Citation: Gallantry in action.
SHIELS, GEORGE F.
Rank and organization: Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Tuliahan River, Philippine Islands, March 25th, 1899. Entered service at: California. Birth: California. Date of issue: 22 November 1906. Citation: Voluntarily exposed himself to the fire of the enemy and went with four men to the relief of two native Filipinos Iying wounded about 150 yards in front of the lines and personally carried one of them to a place of safety.
CARTER, JOSEPH F.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company D, 3d Maryland Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Baltimore, Md. Birth: Baltimore, Md. Date of issue: 9 July 1891. Citation: Captured the colors of the 51st Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). During the battle he was captured and escaped bringing a number of prisoners with him.
CHAMBERS, JOSEPH B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 100th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: East Brook, Pa. Birth: Beaver County, Pa. Date of issue: 27 July 1871. Citation: Capture of colors of 1st Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).
DEANE, JOHN M.
Rank and organization: Major, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Born: 8 January 1840, Freetown, Mass. Date of issue: 8 March 1895. Citation: This officer, observing an abandoned gun within Fort Haskell, called for volunteers, and under a heavy fire, worked the gun until the enemy’s advancing line was routed.
GAYLORD, LEVI B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 22 June 1896. Citation: Voluntarily assisted in working an abandoned gun, while exposed to heavy fire, until the enemy’s advancing line was routed by a charge on its left flank.
HOUGHTON, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company L, 14th New York Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., 30 July 1864; March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Ogdensburg, N.Y. Born: 30 April 1842, Macomb, St. Lawrence County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 April 1898. Citation: In the Union assault at the Crater (30 July 1864), and in the Confederate assault repelled at Fort Haskell, displayed most conspicuous gallantry and repeatedly exposed himself voluntarily to great danger, was three times wounded, and suffered loss of a leg.
HOWE, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company K, 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Haverhill, Mass. Date of issue: 8 March 1895. Citation: Served an abandoned gun under heavy fire.
LITTLEFIELD, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 1st Maine Veteran Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Fisher, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Skowhegan, Maine. Birth: Skowhegan, Maine. Date of issue: 22 June 1885. Citation: The color sergeant having been wounded, this soldier picked up the flag and bore it to the front, to the great encouragement of the charging column.
McDONALD, GEORGE E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Warwick, R.I. Birth: Warwick, R.I. Date of issue: 21 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag.
MURPHY, JAMES T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company L, 1st Connecticut Artillery. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: New Haven, Conn. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 29 October 1886. Citation: A piece of artillery having been silenced by the enemy, this soldier voluntarily assisted in working the piece, conducting himself throughout the engagement in a gallant and fearless manner.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company M, 100th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Allegheny County, Pa. Birth: Allegheny County, Pa. Date of issue. 3 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 31st Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).
PINKHAM, CHARLES H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 57th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Fort Stedman, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Grafton, Mass. Date of issue: 15 April 1895. Citation: Captured the flag of the 57th North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.) and saved his own colors by tearing them from the staff while the enemy was in the camp.
THOMPKINS, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 124th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Petersburg, Va., March 25th, 1865. Entered service at: Esport Jervis, N.Y. Birth: Orange County, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 April 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 49th Alabama Infantry (C.S.A.) from an officer who, with colors in hand, was rallying his men.
American Chocolate Week
Act Happy Week
National Chocolate Covered Raisin Day
With the volumes of information we have to digest every day, from the newspaper in the morning, to the long-winded emails from well-meaning colleagues, and all the reports, proposals, periodicals, and letters we are sent, reading is one of the most used skills we possess.
It’s also a skill that most of us take for granted by the time we reach the age of eleven or twelve. After all, it seems that if you can read and comprehend textbooks, you must be a good reader.
Unlike most other skills which we try to become better and better at, reading is one that people don’t think about as much as they should. Given the time that reading consumes in our daily lives, it is actually a skill that we can, and should, improve upon.
But what does becoming a better reader involve? In short, getting faster and more efficient at it, while still understanding what you’re reading in sufficient detail. The best starting point for doing this is to unlearn poor reading habits.
Breaking Poor Reading Habits
Habit: Reading word by word
This is how children are taught to read, but when you concentrate on separate words you often miss the overall concept of what is being said. People who read each word as a distinct unit comprehend less than those who read faster by “chunking” words together in blocks.
Solution: Speed reading involves reading blocks of words at one time and comprehending the meaning of the word group. Think of viewing a digital image. There are millions of pixels that only make sense when they are seen together. In the same way, our brains can comprehend ideas better when it takes in a group of words at one time.
Practice expanding the number of words that you read at a time. You may also find that you can increase the number of words read by holding the text a little further from your eyes. The more words you can read in each block, the faster you will read!
This is the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it. Most people do this to some extent or another. When you sub-vocalize you “hear” the word being spoken in your mind. This takes much more time than is necessary because you can comprehend a word much quicker than your can say it.
Solution: To turn off the voice in your head you have to first acknowledge that you do it (how did you read the first part of this article?) and then you have to practice not doing it. When you sit down to read, tell yourself that you will not sub-vocalize. You have to practice and practice this until this bad habit is erased. Reading blocks of words also helps as you can’t “say” a block of words.
Eliminating sub-vocalization alone can increase your reading speed by an astounding amount. Otherwise, you are limited to reading at the same pace as talking which is about 250-350 words per minute. If you are an efficient scanner, you may increase this rate to between 400 and 500 words per minute. The only way to break through this barrier is to stop saying the words in your head as you read. If you can train yourself to simply scan the words without thinking about the pronunciation, you will increase your speed significantly.
Habit: Inefficient eye motion
Slow readers tend to focus on each word and work their way across each line. The eye can actually span about 1.5 inches at a time which, for an average page, encompasses four or five words. Related to this is the fact that most readers don’t use their peripheral vision to see words at the ends of the line.
Solution: Soften your gaze when you read. By relaxing your face and expanding your gaze, you will begin to see blocks of words instead of each word as distinct unit. When you get good at this your eyes will drift across the page. When you get close to the end of the line, let your peripheral vision take over to see the last set of words. This way you can quickly scan across and down to the next line.
This is unnecessary re-reading of material. Sometimes people get in the habit of skipping back to words they just read and other times they jump back a few sentences just to make sure that they read something right. When you “skip back” like this you lose the flow and structure of the text and your overall understanding of the subject decreases.
Solution: Be very conscious of regression and do not allow yourself to re-read material. To reduce the number of times that your eyes skip back to a previous sentence, run a pointer along the line as you read. This could be a finger, or a pen or pencil. Your eyes will follow the tip of your pointer, smoothing the flow of your reading. The speed at which you read using this method will largely depend on the speed at which you move the pointer.
Habit: Poor Concentration
If you’ve tried to read while the TV is on, or when there is lots of activity around you, you know how hard it is to concentrate on one word, let alone on many sentences strung together. Reading has to be done in environment where external distractions are at a minimum.
Solution: Stop multitasking while reading. If you are attempting to speed read, this is particularly important because when you use the speed reading techniques of chunking blocks of words and ceasing to sub-vocalize, you may have “read” one or two pages before you realize you haven’t understood something properly. Pay attention to internal distractions as well. If you are rehashing a heated discussion you had earlier, or wondering what to make for dinner, this will also limit your ability to process more information.
Sub-vocalization actually forces your brain to attend to what you are reading and that is why people often report they can read and listen to the radio or watch TV at the same time. To become an efficient reader you need to stop doing these things all together.
Habit: Approaching reading linearly
We are taught to read across and down, taking in every word, sentence, paragraph, page, and chapter in order. When you do this, though, you pay the same attention to supplementary and superfluous material as you do to the critical portions. There is usually far more information written than you actually need to understand.
Solution: Stop reading a book like you would listen to a speech. Scan the page for headings and look for the bullet points or things in bold. There is no rule saying you have to read in the order the author presents the information. Do a quick scan of the page and decide quickly what is necessary and what isn’t. Skim over the fluff and pay attention to the key material.
As you read, look for the little extras that authors add to make their writing interesting and engaging. If you get the point, there is no need to read the example, anecdote, or metaphor. Similarly, decide what you need to re-read as well. It is far better to read the one critical paragraph twice than to read all eight paragraphs describing that same concept.
Copyright MindTools, Inc.
Phillipians 1: 3-6
3 I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, 4 always in every prayer of mine making request for you all with joy, 5 for your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now, 6 being confident of this very thing, that He who has begun a good work in you will complete it until the day of Jesus Christ;
“When once a republic is corrupted, there is no possibility of remedying any of the growing evils but by removing the corruption and restoring its lost principles; every other correction is either useless or a new evil.”
— Thomas Jefferson –
There’s no such thing as Perfection. But, in striving for perfection, we can achieve excellence.”
apposite \AP-uh-zit\, adjective:
Being of striking appropriateness and relevance; very applicable; apt.
Apposite comes from Latin appositus, past participle of apponere, “to set or put near,” from ad-, “to, toward” + ponere, “to put, to place.”
1663 – Charles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration.
1661 – William Leddra became the last Quaker to be hanged in Boston. Quakers were last hanged on Boston Common.
1663 – The Province of Carolina is granted by charter to eight Lords Proprietor in reward for their assistance in restoring Charles II of England to the throne. The province went from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and from the Ohio River to the bottom of current day Georgia.
1664 – A charter to colonize Rhode Island was granted to Roger Williams.
1688 – Governor Edmund Andros issues an order placing the militia of the New England colonies under his own direct control.
1765 – The Kingdom of Great Britain passes the Quartering Act that requires the Thirteen Colonies to house British troops.
1813 – David Melville, Newport RI, patents apparatus for making coal gas & patented the gas streetlight.
1825 – The Mexican state of Tejas-Coahuilla officially declares itself open to US settlers.
1828 – Philadelphia & Columbia Railway (first state owned) authorized. The system opened in 1834, consisting of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad from Philadelphia west to Columbia on the Susquehanna River.
1832 – In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr..
1832 – As part of Jackson’s continuing effort to move Native American tribes, the Creeks sign a treaty to cede their territory east of the Mississippi to the US.
1864 – Civil War: A closely coordinated Army-Navy expedition departed Beaufort, North Carolina, on board side-wheel steamer U.S.S. Britannia.
1865 – Civil War: U.S.S. Republic, Acting Ensign John W. Bennett, was dispatched up the Cape Fear River from Wilmington to check reports that detachments of General Wheeler’s cavalry were operating in the area.
1868 – Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is formed.
1882 – Robert Koch announces the discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis).
1883 – First telephone call between New York & Chicago .
1896 – A. S. Popov makes the first radio signal transmission in history.
1898 – First automobile sold was a Winton to Robert Allison . He lived in Port Carbon, Pa., and was 70 years old at the time. The company later bought back the car and donated it to the Museum in 1929.
1900 – New York City Mayor Robert Anderson Van Wyck breaks ground for a new underground “Rapid Transit Railroad” that would link Manhattan and Brooklyn.
1903 – George Dewey commissioned Admiral of the Navy with the date of rank, 2 March 1899. He was the only person to hold this rank. The rank was cancelled on January 16th, 1917 when Admiral Dewey died.
1906 – “Census of the British Empire” showed England ruled 1/5 of the world.
1912 – The “Bread and Roses” textile workers strike in Lawrence, Mass., ended.
1913 – Home of vaudeville, Palace Theatre, New York City, opens starring Ed Wynn.
1920 – First US Coast Guard Air Station established in Morehead City NC. It borrowed a few Curtiss HS-2L flying-boats and possibly one or two Aeromarine Model 40’s from the US Navy. However, funds were not provided to support the operation and the station was closed on 1 July 1921.
1932 – Belle Baker hosted a radio variety show from a moving train … a first for radio broadcasting.
1934 – US declares the Philippines to become independent when Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act allowing the Philippines to become a self-governing commonwealth.
1934 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt lit the Easter Cross on Mount Davidson via telegraph from the White House eight days before Easter.
1935 – Major Bowes’ Original Amateur Hour goes national on NBC Radio Network. The show was one of the most popular programs broadcast in the 1930s and 1940s.
1936 – The longest game in NHL history was played between Detroit and Montreal. Detroit scored at 16:30 of the sixth overtime and won the game 1-0.
1938 – The U.S. asked that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis.
1941 – Glenn Miller began work on his first motion picture for 20th Century Fox. The film was “Sun Valley Serenade“. (1:22:30)
1942 – World War II: American positions on Bataan and Corregidor are attacked by Japanese aircraft and artillery.
1944 – World War II: Ardeatine Massacre: German troops kill 335 Italian partisans, who the day before killed 33 German soldiers [policemen] in Rome.
1944 – World War II: In an event later dramatized in the movie The Great Escape, 76 prisoners begin breaking out of Stalag Luft III.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, significant Japanese resistance ends. American forces do not attempt to clear the Japanese remnants from the island.
1944 – World War II: The 22nd Marine Regiment captured Ebon and Namu Atolls in the Marshall Islands.
1945 – World War II: The US 9th Army begins to cross the Rhine a little to the south of the British and Canadians forces.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa. The island is also bombarded by five battleships and eleven destroyers under the command of Admiral Lee.
1945 – World War II: Largest one-day airborne drop: 600 transports and 1300 gliders.
1947 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Anniversary Song” by Dinah Shore, “ Managua, Nicaragua” by The Freddy Martin Orchestra (vocal: Stuart Wade), “Oh, But I Do” by Margaret Whiting/DorisDay and “So Round, So Firm, So Fully Packed” by Merle Travis all topped the charts.
1947 – Congress proposes two-term limitation on the Presidency .
1951 – Korean War: ROK Army units crossed the 38th parallel.
1953 – Korean War: The 2nd Infantry Division’s artillery units began to support the embattled 7th Infantry Division on Pork Chop Hill, firing 15,000 rounds in one week.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1955 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of Davy Crockett” by Bill Hayes, “Sincerely” by McGuire Sisters, “Darling Je Vous Aime Beaucoup” by Nat ‘King’ Cole and “In the Jailhouse Now” by Webb Pierce all topped the charts.
1955 – The Tennessee Williams play, “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof” (1:41:26), opened on Broadway. The hit ran for 694 shows and won the Critics’ Circle Award as the Best American Play.
1955 – The first seagoing oil drill rig (for drilling in over 100 feet of water) was placed in service by the U.S. company C.G. Glasscock Drilling Co.
1958 – Elvis Presley is officially inducted into the U.S.Army. He reported to local draft board 86 in Memphis, TN. Although he had been drafted the previous December, the army granted him a deferral so he could finish shooting his film, King Creole. He became US 53310761.
1960 – US appeals court ruled the novel, “Lady Chatterly’s Lover” by D.H. Lawrence, to be not obscene.
1964 – Kennedy half-dollar was issued.
1965 – NASA spacecraft Ranger 9, equipped to convert its signals into a form suitable for showing on domestic television, brings images of the Moon into ordinary homes before crash landing. It crashed 10 miles NE of crater Alphonsus.
1966 – Selective Service announced college deferments based on performance.
1967 – Vietnam War: Viet Cong ambushed a truck convoy damaging 82 of the 121 trucks.
1971 – CHART TOPPERS – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin, “She’s a Lady” by Tom Jones, “Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)” by The Temptations and “I’d Rather Love You” by Charley Pride all topped the charts.
1973 – Kenyan track runner Kip Keino defeats Jim Ryun at the first-ever professional track meet in Los Angeles, California.
1975 – Vietnam War: The North Vietnamese “Ho Chi Minh Campaign” begins.
1977 – Cuba and the United States enter into direct negotiations when the two nations discuss fishing rights.
1979 – CHART TOPPERS – “Tragedy” by Bee Gees, “What a Fool Believes” by The Doobie Brothers, “Heaven Knows” by Donna Summer with Brooklyn Dreams, “I Just Fall in Love Again” by Anne Murray all topped the charts.
1980 – ABC’s nightly Iran Hostage crisis program was renamed “Nightline.”
1985 – The Golden Raspberry Awards were presented to parody the Oscar Awards. The movie, “Bolero”, won the big award, for John and Bo (I’m a 10!) Derek; winning honors for worst director and worst actress, respectively.
1987 – CHART TOPPERS – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau, “Let’s Wait Awhile“ by Janet Jackson, “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now” by Starship and “I’d Still Be Loving You” by Restless Heart all topped the charts.
1988 – Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges.
1989 – Good Friday Oil Spill. The nation’s worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude (240,000 barrels of oil).
1991 – General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the American commander of Operation Desert Storm, told reporters in Saudi Arabia the United States was closer to establishing a permanent military headquarters on Arab soil.
1992 – The Space Shuttle Atlantis blasted off with seven astronauts on the first shuttle mission devoted to the environment.
1993 – Mahmoud Abouhalima, a cab driver implicated in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was flown back to the United States from Egypt. Abouhalima was later convicted of conspiracy and sentenced to life in prison.
1996 – U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid transfers to the Russian space station Mir from the U.S. Space Shuttle Atlantis for a planned five-month stay. Lucid was the first female U.S. astronaut to live in a space station.
1998 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: Jonesboro massacre: Two students, Mitchell Johnson (13) and Andrew Golden (11), opened fire on a group of schoolchildren from a nearby woods and killed four girls and one teacher and wounded 11 others. Both boys were later convicted of murder and were incarcerated until they turned 21.The older boy was angry at a girl who had broken up with him.
1999 – The US Supreme Court ruled to uphold an 1837 treaty with the Chippewa Indians for hunting and fishing on 13 million acres of public land in Minnesota.
1999 – In California a robber managed to steal $2.3 million from a Loomis armored truck as it traveled on I-80 between San Francisco and Sacramento. The heist was not reported until May 6.
2000 – A US federal judge awarded former hostage Terry Anderson $341 million from Iran, holding Iranian agents responsible for Anderson’s nearly seven years of captivity in Lebanon.
2001 – U.S. skater Michelle Kwan won her fourth World Figure Skating title; Irina Slutskaya of Russia was second, and American Sarah Hughes earned the bronze.
2002 – Halle Berry becomes the first African-American woman to win an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in the movie “Monster’s Ball,” Denzel Washington became the second African-American actor, after Sidney Poitier, to win in the best actor category.
2003 – Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Gulf War: In the sixth day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US forces began strikes against the Medina Division of the Republican Guard guarding Baghdad.
2003 – Gulf War: After Coalition forces have pushed further into Iraq securing most of the southern oilfields over the weekend, Kuwaiti fire fighters are able to enter Iraq and are able to extinguish one of the wellhead fires.
2003 – Gulf War: Iraqi state television showed two men,Chief Warrant Officer David Williams and Chief Warrant Officer Ronald D. Young Jr. spent three weeks in captivity before they were released along with five other POWs.
2004 – Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow: The United States Supreme Court hears oral arguments over the constitutionality of the “under God” clause of the Pledge of Allegiance.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, “Lizzie McGuire”, airs.
2004 – A NASA unpiloted X-43A jet, part of its Hyper-X program, reached a record speed of 5,200 mph, Mach 6.83, after a rocket boosted it to 3,500 mph. It used a new engine called a supersonic-combustion ramjet, or scramjet.
2004 – A group of large employers proposed “scorecards” for doctors in an effort help employees choose doctors based on quality care.
2005 – The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal from the parents of Terri Schiavo to have a feeding tube reinserted into the severely brain-damaged woman.
2005 – The US FDA approved Boniva, a monthly pill to help women fight osteoporosis.
2005 – NBC’s successful comedy “The Office” premiered.
2006 – Space Exploration Technology’s Falcon 1, a partly reusable commercial rocket developed by this California entrepreneur, failed during its maiden launch from a Pacific island.
2006 – It was reported that Iraqi documents captured by US forces in 2003 say Russian intelligence had sources inside the American military that enabled it to feed information about U.S. troop movements and battle plans to Saddam Hussein.
2006 – Hannah Montana starts with its first episode.
2006 – Scientists reported glaciers and ice sheets were melting faster than previously thought and could raise sea levels by 13-20 feet by the end of the century.
2006 – Protests against the US immigration reform bill H.R. 4437 are held in several US cities. 500,000 people march in Los Angeles, California, 50,000 in Denver, Colorado, and 20,000 in Phoenix, Arizona, protesting proposed legislation that includes construction of a security wall along the United States-Mexico border.
2006 – A gunman killed six people at a party and then himself in the Capitol Hill massacre in Seattle, Washington.
2007 – It was reported that the total number of books in existence was estimated to be about 65 million.
2008 – Relatives of victims of the Virginia Tech massacre report that the Government of Virginia will offer victims compensation of $100,000 to forestall law suits.
2008 – In Detroit, Mich., Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick (37) was charged with eight felonies in an obstruction of justice case that involved a romantic affair with a chief of staff.
2008 – Al-Qaida deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahri called on Muslims in a new audiotape to strike Jewish and American targets in revenge for Israel’s recent offensive in the Gaza Strip.
2009 -Immaculata University discovers the mass grave of 57 Irish immigrants in East Whiteland Township, Pennsylvania. The workers came to Philadelphia from Counties Donegal, Tyrone, and Derry to work in Pennsylvania’s growing and new railroad industry. Less than two months after their arrival, all 57 are believed to have died during the second cholera pandemic.
2009 – US Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner called on Congress to grant him new powers to regulate huge financial companies like insurance giant AIG, whose failure would pose a grave danger to the US financial system and the broader economy.
2009 – Project Gun Runner (Fast and Furious) was launched under the orders of President Barack Obama with the knowledge of Attorney General Eric Holder. Deputy Attorney General David Ogden announced the Obama Administration’s new and aggressive ‘comprehensive plan’.The plan was aimed at disrupting gun trafficking between the United States and Mexico.
2009 – The US federal government announces a plan to increase security along its border with Mexico.
2010 – More than one-million baby slings made by Infantino were recalled in the US after claims linking them to three infant deaths.
2010 – Go Daddy, the largest domain name registration company in the world, announces it will cease registering websites in China after the Chinese government required customers to provide photographs and other identifying information before registering.
2010 – President Barack Obama’s administration named 54 alleged Mexican drug cartel lieutenants and enforcers as drug kingpins under a law that allows the US government to freeze their bank accounts and penalize their business associates.
2011 – The United States Census Bureau confirms that New York City is the largest city in the US with 8,175,133 residents at the time of the 2010 United States Census on April 1.
2011 – The Air Force says six pilots who participated in a spectacular flyover before an Iowa football game have been disciplined for flying too low and too fast. The lead pilot is giving up his right to fly military aircraft. The Air Force says the four Talon T-38 Trainer jets flew just 16 feet above the stadium’s press box and at 400 mph (max allowable is 300) when they wowed 70,000 fans inside Kinnick Stadium before Iowa hosted Ohio State on Nov. 20.
2012 – Voters in Louisiana go to the polls for the Louisiana Republican primary with Rick Santorum winning.
2012 – Former Vice President Dick Cheney receives a heart transplant from an unknown donor.
2013 – Mississippi House of Representatives member Jessica Upshaw (51) dies reportedly after being shot in the head. Upshaw was found dead in the home of former Mississippi State Representative Clint Rotenberry in Mendenhall, Mississippi. Police investigated her death, an apparent gunshot suicide.
2014 – In Santa Barbara CA a professor of pornography and black studies at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has been charged with robbery, battery and vandalism after stealing and destroying a pro-life banner and physically attacking a 16-year-old pro-life advocate at a campus event.
2016 – A local Doctor was shot and killed by a patient The 73-year old shooter walked into the doctor’s office, and killed the doctor with a single shot to the head while he treated others in his office near East Jefferson General Hospital in New Orleans.
1795 – John Keats, English poet.
1860 – Juliette Low, American, founder of the Girl Scouts.
1874 – Harry Houdini (Erik Weisz), Hungarian-born American magician and escape artist.
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, first constitutional president of the Republic of China and army general.
1912 – Dale Evans (Frances Butts), American singer-songwriter, actress, wife of Roy Rogers.
1931 – Dan Rather, American TV journalist.
1936 – Michael Landon, American TV actor, producer and director.
*BRYANT, WILLIAM MAUD
Rank and organization: Sergeant First Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. Place and Date: Long Khanh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Detroit, Mich. Born: 16 February 1933, Cochran, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sfc. Bryant, assigned to Company A, distinguished himself while serving as commanding officer of Civilian Irregular Defense Group Company 321, 2d Battalion, 3d Mobile Strike Force Command, during combat operations. The battalion came under heavy fire and became surrounded by the elements of three enemy regiments. Sfc. Bryant displayed extraordinary heroism throughout the succeeding 34 hours of incessant attack as he moved throughout the company position heedless of the intense hostile fire while establishing and improving the defensive perimeter, directing fire during critical phases of the battle, distributing ammunition, assisting the wounded, and providing the leadership and inspirational example of courage to his men. When a helicopter drop of ammunition was made to re-supply the beleaguered force, Sfc. Bryant with complete disregard for his safety ran through the heavy enemy fire to retrieve the scattered ammunition boxes and distributed needed ammunition to his men. During a lull in the intense fighting, Sfc. Bryant led a patrol outside the perimeter to obtain information of the enemy. The patrol came under intense automatic weapons fire and was pinned down. Sfc. Bryant single-handedly repulsed one enemy attack on his small force and by his heroic action inspired his men to fight off other assaults. Seeing a wounded enemy soldier some distance from the patrol location, Sfc. Bryant crawled forward alone under heavy fire to retrieve the soldier for intelligence purposes. Finding that the enemy soldier had expired, Sfc. Bryant crawled back to his patrol and led his men back to the company position where he again took command of the defense. As the siege continued, Sfc. Bryant organized and led a patrol in a daring attempt to break through the enemy encirclement. The patrol had advanced some 200 meters by heavy fighting when it was pinned down by the intense automatic weapons fire from heavily fortified bunkers and Sfc. Bryant was severely wounded. Despite his wounds he rallied his men, called for helicopter gunship support, and directed heavy suppressive fire upon the enemy positions. Following the last gunship attack, Sfc. Bryant fearlessly charged an enemy automatic weapons position, overrunning it, and single-handedly destroying its three defenders. Inspired by his heroic example, his men renewed their attack on the entrenched enemy. While regrouping his small force for the final assault against the enemy, Sfc. Bryant fell mortally wounded by an enemy rocket. Sfc. Bryant’s selfless concern for his comrades, at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*COKER, RONALD L.
Rank and organization: Private First Class, U.S. Marine Corps, Company M, 3d Battalion, 3d Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and date: Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1969. Entered service at: Denver, Colo. Born: 9 August 1947, Alliance, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a rifleman with Company M in action against enemy forces. While serving as point man for the 2d Platoon, Pfc. Coker was leading his patrol when he encountered five enemy soldiers on a narrow jungle trail. Pfc. Coker’s squad aggressively pursued them to a cave. As the squad neared the cave, it came under intense hostile fire, seriously wounding one Marine and forcing the others to take cover. Observing the wounded man lying exposed to continuous enemy fire, Pfc. Coker disregarded his safety and moved across the fire-swept terrain toward his companion. Although wounded by enemy small-arms fire, he continued to crawl across the hazardous area and skillfully threw a hand grenade into the enemy positions, suppressing the hostile fire sufficiently to enable him to reach the wounded man. As he began to drag his injured comrade toward safety, a grenade landed on the wounded Marine. Unhesitatingly, Pfc. Coker grasped it with both hands and turned away from his wounded companion, but before he could dispose of the grenade it exploded. Severely wounded, but undaunted, he refused to abandon his comrade. As he moved toward friendly lines, two more enemy grenades exploded near him, inflicting still further injuries. Concerned only for the safety of his fellow Marine, Pfc. Coker, with supreme effort continued to crawl and pull the wounded Marine with him. His heroic deeds inspired his fellow Marines to such aggressive action that the enemy fire was suppressed sufficiently to enable others to reach him and carry him to a relatively safe area where he succumbed to his extensive wounds. Pfc. Coker’s indomitable courage, inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and of the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.
*SINGLETON, WALTER K.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company A, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, 3d Marine Division. Place and date: Gio Linh District, Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 24th, 1967. Entered service at: Memphis, Tenn. Born: 7 December 1944, Memphis, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sgt. Singleton’s company was conducting combat operations when the lead platoon received intense small arms, automatic weapons, rocket, and mortar fire from a well entrenched enemy force. As the company fought its way forward, the extremely heavy enemy fire caused numerous friendly casualties. Sensing the need for early treatment of the wounded, Sgt. Singleton quickly moved from his relatively safe position in the rear of the foremost point of the advance and made numerous trips through the enemy killing zone to move the injured men out of the danger area. Noting that a large part of the enemy fire was coming from a hedgerow, he seized a machinegun and assaulted the key enemy location, delivering devastating fire as he advanced. He forced his way through the hedgerow directly into the enemy strong point. Although he was mortally wounded, his fearless attack killed eight of the enemy and drove the remainder from the hedgerow. Sgt. Singleton’s bold actions completely disorganized the enemy defense and saved the lives of many of his fellow Marines. His daring initiative selfless devotion to duty and indomitable fighting spirit reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps, and his performance upheld the highest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
*PETERS, GEORGE J.
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, Company G, 507th Parachute Infantry, 17th Airborne Division. Place and date: Near Fluren, Germany, March 24th, 1945. Entered service at: Cranston, R.I. Birth: Cranston, R.I. G.O. No.: 16, 8 February 1946. Citation: Pvt. Peters, a platoon radio operator with Company G, made a descent into Germany near Fluren, east of the Rhine. With ten others, he landed in a field about seventy-five yards from a German machinegun supported by riflemen, and was immediately pinned down by heavy, direct fire. The position of the small unit seemed hopeless with men struggling to free themselves of their parachutes in a hail of bullets that cut them off from their nearby equipment bundles, when Pvt. Peters stood up without orders and began a one-man charge against the hostile emplacement armed only with a rifle and grenades. His single-handed assault immediately drew the enemy fire away from his comrades. He had run halfway to his objective, pitting rifle fire against that of the machinegun, when he was struck and knocked to the ground by a burst. Heroically, he regained his feet and struggled onward. Once more he was torn by bullets, and this time he was unable to rise. With gallant devotion to his self-imposed mission, he crawled directly into the fire that had mortally wounded him until close enough to hurl grenades which knocked out the machinegun, killed two of its operators, and drove protecting riflemen from their positions into the safety of a woods. By his intrepidity and supreme sacrifice, Pvt. Peters saved the lives of many of his fellow soldiers and made it possible for them to reach their equipment, organize, and seize their first objective.
National Puppy Day
Near Miss Day
A near miss is defined as an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage – but had the potential to do so. Only a fortunate break in the chain of events prevented an injury, fatality or damage. The term is used widely in the United States and is almost immediately recognized by most individuals. Other terms that can be and have been used are “close call” or “barely missed”.
In most cases near misses are good. Certainly they are better than the actual disaster but they are also better than having the event not occur. A near miss brings to our immediate attention that a process needs further scrutiny. It brings with the desire to plan, creative thought and adrenaline. When those three are brought together, future near misses and actual disasters can be avoided. The negative side of near misses can be anger, blame, regret, remorse, fear, all of which drastically impede the improvement process. In terms of human lives and property damage, near misses are cheaper, zero-cost learning tools for safety and security than actual injury or property loss. An event that does not occur will not bring these forces into play.
Many industries have formal programs to review near misses to watch for trends and, hopefully, prevent actual incidents from occurring. Major industries included in this group are Aviation, Fire-Fighters, Healthcare and Rail Systems. While those are excellent to prevent major disasters, individual can prevent problems from occurring in their own lives by playing “what-if” games.
The simplest way is to get into the habit of asking the question “What if I (do something this way)? When answering that question, look for safer and more secure ways of doing things. RULE 1: There is no such thing as a stupid idea. Often times the best idea comes from a string of lesser ideas.
1 John 4:11-12 NKJV
Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. No one has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God abides in us, and His love has been perfected in us.
“It cannot be emphasized too strongly or too often that this great nation was founded, not by religionists, but by Christians; not on religions, but on the gospel of Jesus Christ. For this very reason Peoples of other faiths have been afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here.”
Patrick Henry (5 time Governor of Virginia)
“It’s not the size of the dog in the fight, it’s the size of the fight in the dog.”
~ Mark Twain
Buckley’s chance (BUK-leez chans) noun
No chance at all (or only a very slim chance). It is also called “Buckley’s and none” or “Buckley’s hope”.
1066 – 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley’s Comet. In October of this year was also the Battle of Hastings.
1713 – The capture of the Tuscarora tribe’s stronghold of Fort Nohuke by South Carolinian forces ends Tuscarora raids.
1775 – Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his famous speech -“give me liberty or give me death” at St. John’s Church in Richmond, Virginia.
1780 – Revolutionary War: British forces under Banastre Tarleton, moving to Charleston, scatter Colonial Militia at Bee’s Plantation, SC.
1794 – Josiah Pierson patents a “cold-header” (rivet) machine.
1794 – Lieutenant-General Tadeusz Kosciusko returned to Poland.
1806 – After traveling through the Louisiana Purchase and reaching the Pacific Ocean, explorers Lewis and Clark and their “Corps of Discovery” begin their arduous journey home.
1815 – War of 1812 – USS Hornet captures HMS Penguin in battle lasting 22 minutes.
1836 – The first “powered” coining press to be used at the United States Mint in
Philadelphia was invented by Francis Beale.
1839 – First recorded use of “OK” [oll korrect] (Boston’s Morning Post).
1840 – John William Draper takes first successful photo of the Moon (daguerrotype).
1857 – Elisha Otis’s first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway New York City.
1858 – Streetcar patented by Eleazer A Gardner of Philadelphia.
1861 – Could this be why trains are called trains? London’s first tramcars, designed by Mr. Train of New York, began operating.
1861 – John D. Defrees became the first Superintendent of the United States Government Printing Office.
1862 – Civil War: The Battle of Kernstown, Va., began. Winchester, Va., was another embattled town. Confederate General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson faced his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va.
1865 – Civil War: General Sherman and Cox’s troops reached Goldsboro, NC.
1867 – Congress passed a second Reconstruction Act over President Johnson’s veto.
1868 – Gov. Henry Haight signed an act that created the Univ. of California and wed the insolvent College of California to the state with the promised backing of 150,000 acres of federal land.
1880 – John Stevens of Neenah, WI patented the device which was called a grain crushing mill. It boosted flour production efficiency by 70% and produced flour of a superior quality.
1882 – Secretary of the Navy Hunt issues General Order No. 292 creating Office of Naval Intelligence.
1888 – Morrison R. Waite (b.1816), US Supreme Court Chief Justice (1874-1888), died after serving for 14 years. He interpreted constitutional amendments after the Civil War.
1889 – Land Run: President Benjamin Harrison opens Oklahoma to white settlement starting on April 22.
1896 – The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels.
1901 – Dame Nellie Melba, revealed the secret of her now famous toast.
1901 – A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
1903 – The Wright Brothers apply for a patent on their invention of one of the first successful airplanes.
1903 – U.S. troops were sent to Honduras to protect the American consulate during revolutionary activity.
1908 – American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in a hospital two days later.
1909 – Theodore Roosevelt leaves New York for a post-presidency safari in Africa. The trip is sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.
1909 – British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
1910 – First race at Los Angeles Motordrome (first US auto speedway). It introduced a brand-new concept in the construction of speedways– a one-mile, steeply banked circular track with a wood surface patterned after board bicycle tracks.
1912 – Lawrence Luellen and Hugh Moore begin distributing the cone shaped drinking cup called the “Health Kup” and special dispensers through their Individual Drinking Cup Co. Later name changed to Dixie Cups.
1913 – A strong tornado swept through Omaha, Neb., on Easter Sunday leaving over 100 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage.
1917 – In the Midwest U.S., four tornadoes kill 211 people over a four day period.
1917 – Launching of USS New Mexico, first dreadnought with turboelectric drive. A dreadnought is a battleship armed with six or more guns having calibers of 12 inches or more.
1921 – Arthur G. Hamilton set a new parachute record when he safely jumped from 24,400 feet.
1922 – The first airplane landed at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC.
1923 – Frank Silver & Irving Conn release “Yes, We Have No Bananas.” (Great pictures of early 20h century NY)
1925 – The state of Tennessee enacted a law that made it a crime for a teacher in any state-supported public school to teach any theory that was in contradiction to the Bible’s account of man’s creation.
1932 – In the U.S., the Norris-LaGuardia Act established workers’ right to strike.
1932 – The executive committee of the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) ruled to exclude African-Americans from appearing at Constitution Hall.
1933 – The Reichstag passes the Enabling act of 1933, making Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany.
1935 – Signing of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
1938 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis frees 74 St Louis Cardinals minor leaguers.
1940 – First radio broadcast of “Truth or Consequences” on CBS.
1942 – World War II: In the Indian Ocean, Japanese forces capture the Andaman Islands.
1942 – World War II: The US government began moving the first of some 112,000 Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers.
1943 – World War II: Axis forces manage to hold the American advance near El Guettar.
1944 – World War II: On Bougainville, Japanese forces attack American positions without making any progress. Heavy Japanese losses are reported.
1944 – World War II: US destroyers shell the Japanese seaplane base on Elouae in the St. Matthias Islands.
1944 – Nicholas Alkemade falls 18,000 feet without a parachute and lives. He survived with nothing worse than a somewhat twisted ankle.
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conduct air raids on Okinawa.
1945 – World War II: Largest operation in Pacific war: 1,500 US Navy ships bombed Okinawa.
1946 – CHART TOPPERS – “Oh, What It Seemed to Be” by The Frankie Carle Orchestra (vocal: Marjorie Hughes), “Personality” by Johnny Mercer, “Day by Day” by Frank Sinatra and “Guitar Polka” by Al Dexter all topped the charts.
1948 – John Cunningham set a world altitude record with his De Havilland Vampire jet airplane at 54,492′.
1950 – “Beat the Clock“ premiered on CBS-TV.
1950 – “Great to Be Alive” opened at Winter Garden Theater in New York City for 52 performances.
1951 – Korean War: Operation TOMAHAWK, the second airborne operation of the war and the largest in one day, involved 120 C-119s and C-46s, escorted by sixteen F-51s.
1951 – Korean War: U.S. paratroopers descended from flying boxcars (Fairchild C-119) in a surprise attack.
1956 – “West Side Story,” a musical play by Leonard Bernstein, was copyrighted.
1957 – US Army sells last homing pigeons. Used during WW I and WW II for undetectable communication, they were replaced with more modern means.
1958 – First launching of simulated Polaris missile from submerged tactical launcher facility off CA.
1960 – Elvis Presley ends two-year hitch in US Army.
1961 – Elvis Presley recorded “Can’t Help Falling in Love.”
1961 – One of the first American casualties in Southeast Asia, an intelligence-gathering plane en route from Laos to Saigon is shot down over the Plain of Jars in central Laos.
1962 – CHART TOPPERS – “Hey! Baby” by Bruce Channel, “Midnight in Moscow” by Kenny Ball & His Jazzmen, “Don’t Break the Heart that Loves You” by Connie Francis and “That’s My Pa” by Sheb Wooley all topped the charts.
1962 – NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship, was launched as a showcase for Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Atoms for Peace initiative.
1962 – William DeWitt bought the Cincinnati Reds for $4,625,000.
1963 – “Our Day Will Come” by Ruby & the Romantics topped the charts.
1963 – The Beach Boys released “Surfin’ U.S.A.”
1963 – An indoor pole vault record was set by John Pennel in Memphis, TN. He cleared 16 feet, 3 inches.
1965 – NASA launches Gemini 3, the United States’ first two-man space flight (crew: Gus Grissom and John Young). Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
1967 – Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. called the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement.
1968 – Reverend Walter Fauntroy became the first non-voting congressional delegate from Washington DC, since Reconstruction.
1970 – CHART TOPPERS – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel, “The Rapper” by The Jaggerz, “Give Me Just a Little More Time” by Chairmen of the Board and “The Fightin’ Side of Me” by Merle Haggard all topped the charts.
1970 – US performed a nuclear test in the Emery Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1971 – The US Congress proposed the 26th Amendment lowering the voting age from 21 to 18. It was ratified on July 1, 1971.
1972 – Evel Knievel broke 93 bones after successfully jumping 35 cars.
1972 – The U.S. called a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris.
1973 – The last airing of “Concentration” took place. The show had been on NBC for 15 years.
1973 – The soap opera “Love is a Many Splendored Thing” ended after a 5 1/2 year run.
1973 – US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1974 – “Dark Lady” by Cher topped the charts.
1978 – US performed nuclear test in the Cresset/Quicksilver Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1978 – CHART TOPPERS – “Night Fever” by Bee Gees, “Stayin’ Alive” by Bee Gees, “Lay Down Sally” by Eric Clapton and “Mamas Don’t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys” by Waylon & Willie all topped the charts.
1981 – CBS Television announced plans to reduce “Captain Kangaroo” to a 30-minute show.
1981 – U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women. The Court also ruled that states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls seek abortions.
1983 – President Ronald Reagan makes his initial proposal to develop technology to intercept enemy missiles (“Star Wars”).
1983 – Dr. Barney Clark died after 112 days with a permanent artificial heart.
1985 – US performed nuclear test in the Grenadier/Charioteer Series at the Nevada Test Site.
1985 – “Can’t Fight This Feeling” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1986 – CHART TOPPERS -“These Dreams” by Heart, “Secret Lovers” by Atlantic Starr, “Rock Me Amadeus” by Falco and “What’s a Memory like You (Doing in a Love like This)” by John Schneider all topped the charts.
1986 – In the 6th Golden Raspberry Awards the film “Rambo: First Blood Part II” won.
1987 – US offered military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf.
1987 – The soap opera “Bold and Beautiful” premiered.
1987 – Jerry Collins, a millionaire greyhound racetrack owner, donated $1.3 million to help evangelist Oral Roberts reach his goal of raising $8 million for medical scholarships.
1989 – Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann announce cold fusion at the University of Utah.
1992 – Florida Marlins begin selling tickets.
1993 – New York Knicks and the Phoenix Suns get into a major brawl.
1994 – A US Air Force F-16 aircraft collides with a USAF C-130 at Pope Air Force Base and then crashes, killing a group of 24 United States Army soldiers on the ground. It was later referred to the Green Ramp disaster.
1994 – Wayne Gretzky sets NHL record with 802 goals scored.
1996 – “Because You Loved Me” by Celine Dion topped the charts.
1997 – The American Cancer Society recommended that women begin annual mammograms at age 40.
1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that term limits for state lawmakers were constitutional.
1998 – The movie “Titanic” won 11 Oscars at the Academy Awards.
1998 – The California State Supreme Court ruled that the Boy Scouts were a private organization and not subject to the state’s anti-discrimination laws.
1999 – The US Senate voted 58-41 to support US participation in a NATO bombing of Serbia.
2001 – Mississippi Gov. Ronnie Musgrove signed a law that mandated public schools to display “In God We Trust” in classrooms, cafeterias and auditoriums.
2002 – It was reported a the Air Force Academy had implicated 38 cadets in a drug scandal that began in Dec 2000.
2003 – A Maryland nurse died five days after being vaccinated for smallpox. A second nurse died Mar 27.
2003 – TERRORIST ATTACK: Iraq War: Hasan Akbar, a Muslim soldier with the 101st Airborne, kills two fellow soldiers in a grenade attack at Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait.
2003 – Iraq War: In Nasiriyah, Iraq, eleven soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as eighteen U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2003 – A 2000-pound meteorite explodes over Chicago shortly before midnight, raining fragments over the city.
2004 – The US Coast Guard said it had seized over 14.5 tons of cocaine from 3 fishing boats off Mexico and Ecuador over the last 2 months.
2004 – Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Colin Powell defend their pre-September 11 actions, saying that even if Osama bin Laden had been killed, the attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon would have still occurred.
2004 – The last episode of the Disney children’s television series, Lizzie McGuire, airs.
2005 – The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. The Florida Legislature decided not to intervene in the epic struggle over the brain-damaged woman; Schiavo’s parents then filed a request with the Supreme Court.
2005 – An explosion occurs at a BP oil refinery in Texas City, Texas kills 15 workers and injured 170 .
2005 – Truck driver Tyrone Williams was convicted in a federal court in Houston for his role in the 2003 deaths of nineteen illegal immigrants he was smuggling across Texas.
2006 – The US CDC said a new form of TB, called Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB), posed challenges to efforts to bring the disease under control.
2006 – Police took DNA samples from forty-six members of the Duke University lacrosse team after a woman hired to dance for a party charged she’d been raped.
2006 – Desmond T. Doss Sr. (87), a conscientious objector whose achievements as a noncombatant earned him a Medal of Honor in World War II, died in Piedmont, Ala.
2007 – The US House voted for the first time to clamp a cutoff deadline on the Iraq war, agreeing by a thin margin to pull combat troops out by next year and pushing the new Democratic-led Congress ever closer to a showdown with President Bush.
2007 – In Florida the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy was decommissioned after nearly forty years of service.
2007 – The United States Senate votes 52-47 to approve a budget plan that aims to achieve a balanced budget within five years and aims to find offsets for tax cuts passed in President Bush’s first term.
2008 – U.S. military casualties in the Iraq War reach 4,000.
2008 -The Alaska Ranger, a 189-foot fishing vessel, sank off the Aleutian Islands, killing the captain and four crew members. Forty-two crew members were rescued.
2008 – In Wisconsin Madeline Neumann (11) died of complication from diabetes after her parents prayed in lieu of seeking medical help. Both parents were charged with reckless homicide.
2009 – US District Judge Edward Korman ordered the FDA to make the emergency contraceptive pill, marketed as Plan B, available to 17-year-olds without prescription within 30 days from the date of his ruling.
2009 – FedEx Express Flight 80 crashes at Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, killing both pilots.
2009 – Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano erupted five times overnight, sending an ash plume more than nine miles into the air in the volcano’s first emissions in nearly twenty years.
2010 – The US issues new warnings of Al-Qaeda threats to attack ships off coast of Yemen.
2010 – Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShip Two is shown on its maiden flight from the Mojave Air and Spaceport in Mojave, California.
2010 – President Barack Obama signed a historic $938 billion health care overhaul that guarantees coverage for 32 million uninsured Americans and will touch nearly every citizen’s life, presiding over the biggest shift in US domestic policy since the 1960s and capping a divisive, yearlong debate that could define the November elections.
2011 – Reagan National Airport’s air traffic control supervisor on duty reportedly fell asleep during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to contact anyone in the control tower and subsequently landed unassisted.
2011 – English-American actress Elizabeth Taylor dies at the age of 79 in Los Angeles.
2011 – The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit refuses to allow same-sex marriages to resume in the US state of California while it considers the constitutionality of Proposition 8.
2012 – Army Staff Sgt. Robert Bales is charged with 17 counts of murder and various other charges, including attempted murder, in connection with the March 11 shooting deaths of Afghan civilians.
2012 – The Financial Services Committee of the United States House of Representatives receives a memo quoting Edith O’Brien, the treasurer of defunct broker MF Global, to the effect that Jon S. Corzine was personally ordering the transfer of customers’ money to a brokerage account with JP Morgan Chase last October.
2013 – President Barack Obama concludes his visit to the Middle East with a trip to the famous ruins of the ancient city of Petra in Jordan.
2013 – The US Senate approves its first budget in four years by a margin of 50–49.
2014 – The U.S. Geological Survey has recorded 15 earthquakes in Oklahoma since about 9:30 p.m. Friday, the largest being a magnitude 4.0.
2016 – Convicted gunman sues former congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords for emotional and psychological distress. Jared Lee Loughner is serving seven life sentences for the shooting that killed six and wounded 13, including Giffords. He seeks $25 million in damages.
1645 – William Kidd, Pirate Legend From Scotland (d. 1701)
1823 – Schuyler Colfax, Vice President of the United States (d. 1885)
1862 – Nathaniel Reed, American outlaw turned evangelist (d.1950)
1904 – H. Beam Piper, American science fiction author (d. 1964)
1905 – Joan Crawford, American actress (d. 1977)
1922 – Marty Allen, American comedian and actor
1924 – Bette Nesmith Graham, American inventor (d. 1980)
1937 – Craig Breedlove, American land speed record holder
1937 – Robert Gallo, American physician
1938 – Maynard Jackson, first African American mayor of Atlanta (d. 2003)
1952 – Kim Stanley Robinson, American author
1957 – Amanda Plummer, American actress
1965 – Sarah Buxton, American actress
1973 – Jason Kidd, American basketball player
1976 – Keri Russell, American actress
FITZMAURICE, MICHAEL JOHN
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Troop D, 2d Squadron, 17th Cavalry, 101st Airborne Division. Place and date: Khe Sanh, Republic of Vietnam, March 23rd, 1971. Entered service at: Jamestown, N. Dak. Born: 9 March 1950, Jamestown, N. Dak . Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice, 3d Platoon, Troop D, distinguished himself at Khe Sanh. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and three fellow soldiers were occupying a bunker when a company of North Vietnamese sappers infiltrated the area. At the onset of the attack Sp4c. Fitzmaurice observed three explosive charges which had been thrown into the bunker by the enemy. Realizing the imminent danger to his comrades, and with complete disregard for his personal safety, he hurled two of the charges out of the bunker. He then threw his flak vest and himself over the remaining charge. By this courageous act he absorbed the blast and shielded his fellow-soldiers. Although suffering from serious multiple wounds and partial loss of sight, he charged out of the bunker, and engaged the enemy until his rifle was damaged by the blast of an enemy hand grenade. While in search of another weapon, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice encountered and overcame an enemy sapper in hand-to-hand combat. Having obtained another weapon, he returned to his original fighting position and inflicted additional casualties on the attacking enemy. Although seriously wounded, Sp4c. Fitzmaurice refused to be medically evacuated, preferring to remain at his post. Sp4c. Fitzmaurice’s extraordinary heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. These acts of heroism go above and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service, and reflect great credit on Sp4c. Fitzmaurice and the U.S. Army.
*CARTER, EDWARD A., Jr.
A career Army noncommissioned officer. Place and Date: March 23rd, 1945, near Speyer, Germany. Born: May 26, 1916 in Los Angeles, California. He was the son of missionary parents who went to the Far East and finally settled in Shanghai, China.
Citation: For extraordinary heroism in action on 23 March 1945, near Speyer, Germany. When the tank on which he was riding received heavy bazooka and small arms fire, Sergeant Carter voluntarily attempted to lead a three-man group across an open field. Within a short time, two of his men were killed and the third seriously wounded. Continuing on alone, he was wounded five times and finally forced to take cover. As eight enemy riflemen attempted to capture him, Sergeant Carter killed six of them and captured the remaining two. He then crossed the field using as a shield his two prisoners from which he obtained valuable information concerning the disposition of enemy troops. Staff Sergeant Carter’s extraordinary heroism was an inspiration to the officers and men of the Seventh Army Infantry Company Number 1 (Provisional) and exemplify the highest traditions of the Armed Forces.
SPURLING, ANDREW B.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant Colonel, 2d Maine Cavalry. Place and date: At Evergreen, Ala., March 23rd, 1865. Entered service at: Maine. Birth: Cranberry Isles, Maine. Date of issue: 10 September 1897. Citation: Advanced alone in the darkness beyond the picket line, came upon three of the enemy, fired upon them (his fire being returned), wounded two and captured the whole party.
In the 30’s and 40’s crime gangs were very much individual groups surrounding one major leader. When that leader was killed or died there were turf and lots of rival gang members were murdered. It was a very bad “business model.” Today we have what is left of the “Syndicate”. A crime model built on a business model very similar to an American Corporation with divisions and definable structure answering to a “board of directors.”
It also probably lengthened the life span of many criminals because it had a structure. The idea first came from two “innovative” mobsters, “Lucky” Luciano and Johnny Torrio. One of the first concepts that they had to get past was all the indiscriminate killing. There needed to be “order.” This “order was brought to the forefront as the brain child of both Torrio and Luciano and existed until the death of Albert Anastasia, the “Lord High Executioner” of the Syndicate in 1950s. This is the story of Murder, Inc. from its beginning.
At the height of its efficiency, Murder, Inc. was probably responsible for a thousand killings from coast to coast. Guns and knives were used, of course, but so were more imaginative methods like cremation, slow strangling, quicklime and live burial. Some killers liked the icepick — properly inserted into the ear, a skilled killer could scramble a bum’s brains and make it look like a cerebral hemorrhage. One gangster who had cheated his compatriots out of their take of a gambling operation was stabbed and then tied to a pinball machine and dumped into a lake. Until it was broken by a stool pigeon with first-hand knowledge of dozens of killings, Murder, Inc. operated quietly and ruthlessly, rubbing out gangsters who had run afoul of the cartel and lawmen who threatened its existence.
The story of of Murder, Inc. involves remorseless killers and tough, fearless lawmen; of unbelievable brutality committed in the name of greed and of devotion to the rule of law.
8 Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy—meditate on these things. 9 The things which you learned and received and heard and saw in me, these do, and the God of peace will be with you.
“The virtues of men are of more consequence to society than their abilities; and for this reason, the heart should be cultivated with more assiduity than the head.”
– Noah Webster, On the Education of Youth in America, 1788
“The way to happiness: keep your heart free from hate, your mind from worry. Live simply, expect little, give much. Fill your life with love. Scatter sunshine. Forget self, think of others. Do as you would be done by. Try this for a week and you will be surprised.”
~Norman Vincent Peale
relegate REL-uh-gayt, transitive verb:
1. To assign to an inferior position, place, or condition.
2. To assign to an appropriate category or class.
3. To assign or refer (a matter or task, for example) to another for appropriate action.
4. To send into exile; to banish
Relegate is from the past participle of Latin relegare, “to send away, to remove, to put aside, to reject,” from re- + legare, “to send with a commission or charge.”
238 – Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor.
1457 – Gutenberg Bible became the first printed book.
1621 – The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags.
1622 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian Indians kill 347 English settlers around Jamestown, Virginia, a third of the colony’s population.
1630 – Massachusetts Bay Colony outlaws the possession of cards, dice, and gaming tables.
1638 – Anne Hutchinson is expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for religious dissent. John Winthrop, who had replaced Vane as governor, put Hutchinson on trial for heresy. He charged her with violating the Bible’s commandment to “honor thy father and mother,” arguing that Hutchinson had undermined the fathers of the church with her preaching.
1733 – Joseph Priestly invented carbonated water (seltzer).
1765 – The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Stamp Act, which introduced a tax to be levied directly on its American colonies. The legislation levied a direct tax on all materials printed for commercial and legal use in the colonies, from newspapers and pamphlets to playing cards and dice.
1775 – British statesman Edmund Burke made a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
1778 – Captain Cook sights Cape Flattery in Washington State.
1790 – Thomas Jefferson began serving as America’s first Secretary of State under the Constitution. This appointment had been made by President George Washington and approved by the U. S. Senate in September of 1789.
1794 – The U.S. Congress banned U.S. vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
1820 – U.S. Navy officer Stephen Decatur, hero of the Barbary Wars, is mortally wounded in a duel with disgraced Navy Commodore James Barron at Bladensburg, Maryland.
1841 – Cornstarch patented (Orlando Jones).
1857 – First department store elevator for passengers installed. It was installed at E.V. Haughwout & Co. in New York City. Elisha Graves Otis was the inventor, who had sold his first safety elevator machine for freight only four years earlier.
1861 – First US nursing school chartered. The Woman’s Hospital of Philadelphia was established and began a training school for nurses two years later. It was the first known chartered school for nurses.
1865 – Civil War: Raid at Wilson’s: Chickasaw, AL, to Macon, GA.
1871 – In North Carolina, William Woods Holden becomes the first governor of a U.S. state to be removed from office by impeachment.
1872 – Illinois became the first state to require sexual equality in employment.
1874 – The Young Men’s Hebrew Association was organized in New York City.
1882 – Congress passed the Edmunds Act, which was actually a series of amendments to the Morrill Act. It restated that polygamy was a felony punishable by five years of imprisonment and a $500 fine.
1894 – Hockey’s first Stanley Cup championship game was played; the home team Montreal Amateur Athletic Association defeated the Ottawa Capitals, 3-1.
1895 – First display (a private screening) of motion pictures by Auguste and Louis Lumière.
1903 – New York Highlanders (Yankees) tickets first go on sale.
1903 – Niagara Falls ran out of water due to a drought.
1910 – In Liberia, a telegraph cable linked Tenerife and Monrovia. This is included because of the relationship of Liberians to US African Americans.
1915 – The term “Naval Aviator” replaces former “Navy Air Pilot” for officers qualified as aviators.
1917 – The first Coast Guard aviators graduated from Pensacola Naval Aviation Training School. Third Lieutenant Elmer Stone became Naval Aviator #38 (and later Coast Guard Aviator #1).
|1923 – The first radio broadcast of ice hockey is made by Foster Hewitt.
1929 – A US Coast Guard vessel sank a Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor.
1933 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs into law a bill legalizing the sale of beer and wine up to 3.2% alcohol.
1933 – Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück for women.
1934 – The first Masters golf championship began in Augusta, GA.
1934 – Philippine independence was granted by the US and was guaranteed to begin in 1945.
1935 – In New York, blood tests were authorized as evidence in court cases.
1941 – Washington’s Grand Coulee Dam begins to generate electricity.
1943 – World War II: the entire population of Khatyn in Belarus is burnt alive by German occupation forces.
1944 – German Admiral Doenitz orders all U-boats to disperse from groups and work singly. This decision represents the final victory of the Allied escort forces over the German U-boats.
1945 – The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.
1945 – CHART TOPPERS – “A Little on the Lonely Side” by The Guy Lombardo Orchestra (vocal: Jimmy Brown), “Accentuate the Positive” by Johnny Mercer, “My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time” by The Les Brown Orchestra (vocal: Doris Day) and “There’s a New Moon Over My Shoulder” – Jimmie Davis all topped the charts.
1946 – First US rocket to leave the Earth’s atmosphere (50 miles up).
1947 – President Harry Truman orders loyalty checks of federal employees. This in response to the “Commie scare’.
1948 – “The Voice of Firestone” airs for the first time. It was the first commercial radio program to be carried simultaneously on both AM and FM radio stations.
1951 – Korean War: Eighth Army reached the 38th parallel, as it had in fall 1950, after the Inchon invasion.
1952 – “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr topped the charts.
1952 – Six new Marine battalions and Marine air groups were activated on the West Coast, giving the Corps the full authorized limit of three divisions and three wings.
1953 – CHART TOPPERS – “Till I Waltz Again with You – Teresa Brewer , “Don’t Let the Stars Get in Your Eyes” by Perry Como, “Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page and “Kaw-Liga” by Hank Williams all topped the charts.
1953 – Korean War: Chinese forces, supported by artillery and mortar fire, assaulted Hill Hedy and Bunker Hill. Hand-to-hand combat ensued before the enemy was finally forced to disengage.
1954 – First shopping mall opened in Southfield MI . John Graham Jr. designed this modern shopping center with two rows of stores on either side of an open-air pedestrian mall and anchored by department stores at each end.
1955 – Linda Stout became the first person at Mayo Clinic, and the second person in the world, to have open-heart surgery with the aid of a heart-lung bypass machine.
1956 – Perry Como became the first TV variety-show host to book a rock and roll act.
1956 – Sammy Davis, Jr. starred in the play, “Mr. Wonderful”, in New York City. The critics were unkind, saying that they didn’t care for the production. Audiences, however, gave it ‘thumbs up’ and the show went on to be one of Broadway’s more popular musicals.
1957 – An earthquake, centered in Daly City, Ca., hit the San Francisco Bay Area and caused extensive damage to Mary’s Help Hospital.
1958 – South Carolina police pulled over Alabama boat and car racer J. Wilson Morris for exceeding the speed limit, as Morris attempted to race across the state in record time.
1958 – “Tequila” by the Champs topped the charts.
1960 – Arthur Leonard Schawlow & Charles Hard Townes receive the first patent for a laser.
1962 – The play, “I Can Get It For You Wholesale”, opened on Broadway.
1968 – Vietnam War: President Lyndon B. Johnson announces the appointment of Gen. William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff; Gen. Creighton Abrams replaced him as commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
1969 – UCLA defeated Purdue 92-72 to win the NCAA basketball championship. The Bruins were the first team to win three consecutive championships.
1972 – Equal Rights Amendment is passed by the U.S. Senate and sent to the states for ratification. It was not ratified by the states. It fell three states short of the 2/3 majority it required.
1972 – The Supreme Court’s Eisenstadt vs. Baird decision struck down a law that banned the distribution of birth control devices to unmarried people.
1975 – A fire at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Decatur, Alabama causes dangerous lowering of cooling water levels. It caused $10 million in damage and knocked the reactor out of service for over a year.
1975 – “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli topped the charts.
1977 – Comedienne Lily Tomlin made her debut on Broadway in “Lily Tomlin on Stage” in New York.
1977 – CHART TOPPERS – “Love Theme from “A Star is Born” (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand, “Fly like an Eagle” by Steve Miller, “Rich Girl” by Daryl Hall & John Oates and “Southern Nights” by Glen Campbell all topped the charts.
1977 – President Carter proposed the abolition of the Electoral College.
1978 – Karl Wallenda of the The Flying Wallendas dies after falling off a tight-rope between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
1980 – Pink Floyd’s single “Another Brick in the Wall,” tops the charts.
1981 – First class postage raised to 18¢ from 15¢.
1981 – RCA first put on sale the SelectaVision VideoDisc, exactly 10 years after RCA applied for the first patents.
1982 – Third Space Shuttle mission – Columbia 3 launched.
1982 – The US submarine Jacksonville collided with a Turkish freighter near Virginia.
1984 – Teachers at the McMartin preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with Satanic ritual abuse of the children in the school. The charges are later dropped as completely unfounded.
1986 – “These Dreams” by Heart topped the charts.
1987 – A 3,100-ton pile of rotting garbage left Islip, New York looking for a landfill. It came back after being refused by several states and three countries.
|1989 – Clint Malarchuk of the Buffalo Sabres suffers a near-fatal injury when another player accidentally slits his throat with a hockey stick.
1989 – Ann Harrison (15) was abducted as she waited for a school bus in front of her home in Raytown, Missouri. African-Americans Roderick Nunley and Michael Taylor forced her into a stolen car, raped and stabbed her to death.
1989 – NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle announces retirement as NFL commissioner after 29 years.
1990 – A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, found former tanker captain Joseph Hazelwood innocent of three major charges in connection with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, but convicted him of a minor charge of negligent discharge of oil.
1990 – Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released.
1990 – The Major League umpires announce that they will boycott exhibition games.
1991 – Pamela Smart, a high school teacher, was found guilty in New Hampshire of manipulating her student-lover to kill her husband.
1992 – USAir Flight 405 crashes shortly after liftoff from New York City’s LaGuardia Airport, leading to a number of studies into the effect that ice has on aircraft.
1993 – The Intel Corporation ships the first Pentium chips (80586), featuring a 60 MHz clock speed, 100+ MIPS, and a 64 bit data path.
1993 – Cleveland Indians pitchers Steve Olin and Tim Crews were killed in a boating accident in Florida. Bob Ojeda was seriously injured in the accident.
1995 – Shouting erupted in the U.S. House of Representatives as Democrats bitterly accused majority Republicans of trying to ram through a mean-spirited welfare overhaul bill.
1996 – Shannon Lucid, astronaut, went into space on the shuttle Atlantis. She transferred to the Russian Mir space station and broke the US space endurance record of 115 days on 7/15/96.
1997 – Tara Lipinski, age 14 years and 10 months, becomes the youngest champion of the women’s world figure skating competition.
1997 – The Comet Hale-Bopp has its closest approach to earth.
1997 – “Can’t Nobody Hold Me Down” by Puff Daddy topped the charts.
1999 – The Volantor, a flying car, was described. It was designed by Paul Moller of Davis, Ca., and estimated to have range of 900 miles.
2000 – The US Senate voted to abolish the Social Security income penalty for people aged 65-69. Pres. Clinton promised to sign the bill. The penalty had reduced benefits by $1 for every $3 eared above $17,000.
2001 – SCHOOL SHOOTING – In California Jason Hoffman (18) opened fire at Granite Hills High School in El Cajon, San Diego County. 10 people were injured. Hoffman reached a plea agreement and faced at least 27 years in prison. Hoffman hanged himself and was found dead in his cell Oct 29.
2002 – The U.S. Postal Rate Commission approved a request for a postal rate increase of first-class stamps from 34 cents to 37 cents by June 30.
2003 – Iraq War: Three Iraqi sailors were captured in the northern Persian Gulf, the first prisoners of war (POWs) taken by Coast Guard forces deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
2003 – Estimates of between 125,000 and 250,000 people march for peace in New York City. The march was organized by the group United for Peace and Justice.
2004 – Testimony begins in the state murder trial of convicted Oklahoma City bombing accomplice, Terry Nichols, in McAlester, Oklahoma.
2004 – Ahmed Yassin, co-founder and leader of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist militant group Hamas, and bodyguards are killed in the Gaza Strip when hit by Israeli Air Force AH-64 Apache fired Hellfire missiles.
2005 – In Afghanistan US warplanes killed five suspected Taliban or al-Qaida militants near the Pakistani border after guerrillas launched an overnight rocket and gun attack on American and Afghan military positions.
2005 – Iraqi and U.S. forces killed 80 militants in a battle west of Tikrit.
2005 – A federal judge in Florida refused to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube, denying an emergency request from the brain-damaged woman’s parents.
2005 – Anna Ayala of Las Vegas claimed that she bit into a piece of human finger while eating chili at a Wendy’s restaurant in San Jose, Ca. Ayala was arrested on Apr 21 on suspicion of attempted grand theft.
2006 – Three Christian Peacemaker Teams hostages are freed by British forces in Baghdad after 118 days captivity and the death of their colleague, American Tom Fox.
2007 – A senior U.S. District Judge, Lowell Reed Jr., strikes down the Child Online Protection Act, which made it an offense for commercial website operators to allow minors to access “harmful” material.
2007 – In science it was discovered that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is identified as the part of the human brain that combines logic and emotion in order to make moral decisions.
2009 – A Pilatus PC-12 crashes near Butte, Montana, killing at least seventeen people. The PC-12 is a single-engine turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland.
2009 – Four police officers are killed in Oakland, CA. The officers were killed by a convicted felon wanted on a no-bail warrant for a parole violation. The convicted felon, Lovelle Mixon, initially shot and killed two Oakland police officers during a traffic stop, then killed two more when SWAT team officers attempted to apprehend him two hours later.
2009 – Alaska’s Mount Redoubt volcano erupts. Mount Redoubt has erupted four other times since 1900: in 1902, 1922, 1966, 1989. In the 1989 eruption it caught KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747 aircraft, in its plume (the flight landed safely at Anchorage).
2010 – The United States House of Representatives passes the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.
2011 – During Libyan Civil War, two US airmen safely eject prior to their F-15E crashing near Benghazi, Libya, due to mechanical failure.
2011 – Dennis Daugaard, the Governor of South Dakota, signs an abortion bill requiring women to undertake counselling and wait for 72 hours, the longest period in the US.
2012 – The Los Angeles County Coroner’s Office says that Whitney Houston’s official cause of death (02/11/2012) was drowning as a result of cocaine use.
2013 – Actor and director Jake McClain has taken on the monumental task of tweeting every single word of the 906-page “Obamacare” health reform law in hopes of drawing attention to the bill’s content, which he argues is detrimental to the nation’s fiscal health.
2013 – At the Starbucks annual shareholders meeting today, CEO Howard Schultz sent a clear message to anyone who supports traditional marriage over gay marriage: we don’t want your business.
2014 – Idaho Governor Butch Otter signed into law S1332, a bill which will effectively nullify federal gun laws. The nullification legislation will prohibit state enforcement of any future federal act that relates to firearms, accessories or ammunition.
2014 – Officials reported 25 people have died, 90 are missing and 35 more “probably missing”, in Saturday’s deadly landslide near Oso, Washington as some 200 rescuers continued to sort through the massive debris field. The disaster scene, a 25-mile drive east of Arlington, WA, has been compared to the eruption of Mount St. Helens.
1599 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (d. 1641)
1723 – Charles Carroll, American statesman (d. 1783)
1812 – Stephen Pearl Andrews, American abolitionist (d. 1886)
1817 – Braxton Bragg, American Confederate general (d. 1876)
1868 – Robert Millikan, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1953)
1887 – Chico Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1961)
1907 – James Gavin, American general and ambassador (d. 1990)
1908 – Louis L’Amour, American author (d. 1988)
1912 – Karl Malden, American actor
1917 – Virginia Grey, American actress (d. 2004)
1923 – Marcel Marceau, world renown French Mime (d. 2007)
1930 – Pat Robertson, American televangelist
1931 – William Shatner, Canadian actor
1934 – Orrin Hatch, American politician
1935 – M. Emmet Walsh, American actor
1946 – Rudy Rucker, American author
1948 – Wolf Blitzer, American television journalist
1952 – Bob Costas, American sports commentator
1955 – Pete Sessions, American politician
1957 – Stephanie Mills, American actress and singer
1971 – Will Yun Lee, American actor
1976 – Reese Witherspoon, American actress
McNERNEY, DAVID H.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry, 4th Infantry Division. Place and date: Polei Doc, Republic of Vietnam, March 22nd, 1967. Entered service at: Fort Bliss, Tex. Born: 2 June 1931, Lowell, Mass. Citation: 1st Sgt. McNerney distinguished himself when his unit was attacked by a North Vietnamese battalion near Polei Doc. Running through the hail of enemy fire to the area of heaviest contact, he was assisting in the development of a defensive perimeter when he encountered several enemy at close range. He killed the enemy but was painfully injured when blown from his feet by a grenade. In spite of this injury, he assaulted and destroyed an enemy machinegun position that had pinned down five of his comrades beyond the defensive line. Upon learning his commander and artillery forward observer had been killed, he assumed command of the company. He adjusted artillery fire to within twenty meters of the position in a daring measure to repulse enemy assaults. When the smoke grenades used to mark the position were gone, he moved into a nearby clearing to designate the location to friendly aircraft. In spite of enemy fire he remained exposed until he was certain the position was spotted and then climbed into a tree and tied the identification panel to its highest branches. Then he moved among his men readjusting their position, encouraging the defenders and checking the wounded. As the hostile assaults slackened, he began clearing a helicopter landing site to evacuate the wounded. When explosives were needed to remove large trees, he crawled outside the relative safety of his perimeter to collect demolition material from abandoned rucksacks. Moving through a fusillade of fire he returned with the explosives that were vital to the clearing of the landing zone. Disregarding the pain of his injury and refusing medical evacuation 1st Sgt. McNerney remained with his unit until the next day when the new commander arrived. First Sgt. McNerney’s outstanding heroism and leadership were inspirational to his comrades. His actions were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913
The Great Dayton Flood of 1913 flooded Dayton, Ohio, and the surrounding area with water from the Great Miami River. It caused the greatest natural disaster in Ohio history. The flood was created by a series of three winter storms that hit the region in March 1913. Within three days, 8-11 inches of rain fell throughout the Great Miami River watershed on frozen ground, resulting in more than 90% runoff that caused the river and its tributaries to overflow. The existing series of levees failed, and downtown Dayton experienced flooding up to 20 feet deep. The entire Miami Valley faced its greatest challenge. The rain produced 3,000 square miles of flooding, twenty-nine feet deep in many places. Swift currents carried homes, livestock, automobiles, and in some cases, people, to untimely deaths. Despite countless acts of bravery and heroism, more than 300 lost their lives.
The following events took place between March 21 and 26 in 1913:
Friday, March 21, 1913
The first storm arrives with strong winds with temperatures at 60 degrees.
The area experiences a sunny day until the second storm arrives, dropping temperatures to the 20s causing the ground to freeze.
Sunday, March 23, 1913 (Easter Sunday)
The third storm brings rain to the entire Ohio River valley area. The saturated and frozen land can’t absorb any more water, and nearly all of the rain becomes runoff that flows into the Great Miami River and its tributaries.
March 24, 1913
7:00 am – After a day and night of heavy rains with precipitation between 8-11 inches, the river reaches its high stage for the year at 11.6 feet and continues to rise.
March 25, 1913
Midnight – The Dayton Police are warned that the Herman Street levee was weakening and they start the warning sirens and alarms.
5:30 am – The City Engineer, Gaylord Cummin, reports that water is at the top of the levees and is flowing at 100,000 cubic feet per second, an unprecedented rate.
6:00 am – Water overflowing the levees begins to appear in the city streets.
8:00 am – The levees on the south side of the downtown business district fail and flooding begins downtown.
Water levels continue to rise throughout the day.
March 26, 1913
1:30 am – The waters crest, reaching up to 20 feet (6.1 m) deep in the downtown area.
Later that morning, a gas explosion downtown near the intersection of 5th Street and Wilkinson starts a fire that destroys most of a city block. The open gas lines were responsible for several fires throughout the city. The fire department was unable to reach the fires and many additional buildings were lost.
Psalm 46: 1-3
God is our refuge and strength, an ever-present help in trouble. Therefore we will not fear, though the earth give way and the mountains fall into the heart of the sea, though its waters roar and foam and the mountains quake with their surging. “Selah”
“To avoid domestic tyranny, the people must be armed to stand upon [their] own Defense; which if [they] are enabled to do, [they] shall never be put upon it, but [their] Swords may grow rusty in [their] hands; for that Nation is surest to live in Peace, that is most capable of making War; and a Man that hath a Sword by his side, shall have least occasion to make use of it.”
~ John Trenchard (1662–1723)
“Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don’t recognize them.”
~ Ann Landers
factitious fak-TISH-uhs, adjective:
1. Produced artificially, in distinction from what is produced by nature.
2. Artificial; not authentic or genuine; sham.
Factitious comes from Latin facticius, “made by art, artificial,” from the past participle of facere, “to make.”
630 – Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem.
1349 – Three thousand Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt, Germany.
1617 – Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe age 21)) died of either small pox or pneumonia while in England with her husband, John Rolfe. She was buried at St. George’s Church on this day.
1788 – Almost the entire city of New Orleans, LA, was destroyed by fire. Eight hundred fifty-six buildings were destroyed. It spanned the south central French Quarter from Burgundy to Chartres Street, almost to the riverfront buildings.
1790 – Thomas Jefferson reports to President Washington in New York as Secretary of State.
1791 – Hopley Yeaton of New Hampshire was commissioned as “Master of a Cutter in the Service of the United States for the Protection of the Revenue.” This first commission of a seagoing officer of the United States was signed by George Washington and attested to by Thomas Jefferson.
1806 – Lewis and Clark began their trip home after an 8,000 mile trek of the Mississippi basin and the Pacific Coast.
1826 – The Rensselaer School in Troy, NY, was incorporated. The school became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and was the first engineering college in the U.S.
1844 – The original date predicted by William Miller for the return of Christ.
1851 – Yosemite Valley was discovered in California. Fifty-eight men of the Mariposa Battalion under Major James D. Savage were the first whites to enter Yosemite Valley.
1859 – Zoological Society of Philadelphia, first in US, incorporated.
1864 – Civil War: The first (and possibly last) printing of a Civil War newspaper called the Red River Rover. According to the “Saluatory” it was printed on the paper of the Louisiana Democrat.
1864 – Civil War: Battle at Henderson’s Hill (Bayou Rapids), Louisiana.
1865 – Civil War: Union gunboats supported the landing of troops of General Canby’s command at Dannelly’s Mills on the Fish River, Alabama.
1866 – The US Congress authorized national soldiers’ homes.
1868 – The first club for professional women was formed in New York City by writer, Jennie June Croly. The organization was called the Federation of Women’s Clubs (GFWC).
1871 – Journalist Henry Morton Stanley begins his trek to find the missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
1891 – The Hatfield – McCoy feud ends. It apparently all started over a pig. In the fall of 1878, Randolph McCoy sued Floyd Hatfield for stealing his hog.
1902 – In New York, Murray Hill (Park Avenue) mansions were destroyed when a subway tunnel roof caved in. The tunnel roof had cracked.
1904 – At Carnegie Hall, Richard Strauss conducted the world premiere of his Symphonia Domestica. It was his fifth of seven appearances at Carnegie Hall.
1905 – Sterilization legislation was passed in the State of Pennsylvania. The governor vetoed the measure.
1906 – Ohio passed a law that prohibited hazing by fraternities after two fatalities.
1910 – The U.S. Senate granted former President Teddy Roosevelt a yearly pension of $10,000.
1913 – Over 360 are killed and 20,000 homes destroyed in the Great Dayton Flood in Dayton, Ohio.
1917 – Loretta Walsh becomes first woman Navy petty officer when sworn in as Chief Yeoman.
1918 – World War I: Second Battle of the Somme begins.
1919 – Navy installs and tests Sperry gyrocompass, in first instance of test of aircraft gyrocompass.
1924 – First foreign language course broadcast on US radio (WJZ, New York NY).
1924 – Massachusetts Investors Trust becomes first mutual fund set up in US.
1928 – President Calvin Coolidge gave the Congressional Medal of Honor to Charles Lindbergh for his first trans-Atlantic flight.
1933 – Construction of Dachau, the first Nazi Germany concentration camp, is completed.
1935 – Shah Reza Pahlavi formally asks the international community to call Persia by its native name, Iran, which means ‘Land of the Aryans’.
1935 – Incubator ambulance service began in Chicago, IL.
1939 – “God Bless America” was recorded by Kate Smith. This song was written by Irving Berlin in 1918 as a tribute by a successful immigrant to his adopted country. Ms. Smith introduced the song on her Thursday, November 10, 1938 radio show.
1943 – World War II: Holocaust: Massacre of the town of Kalavryta, Greece by German Nazi troops.
1944 – CHARTS TOPPERS – “Mairzy Doats” by The Merry Macs, “Besame Mucho” by The Jimmy Dorsey Orchestra (vocal: Bob Eberly & Kitty Kallen), “Poinciana” by Bing Crosby and “They Took the Stars Out of Heaven” by Floyd Tillman all topped the charts.
1944 – Charles Chaplin went on trial in Los Angeles, accused of transporting former protegee Joan Barry across state lines for immoral purposes. Chaplin was acquitted.
1945 – World War II: British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
1945 – World War II: Allied bombers began four days of raids over Germany.
1945 – World War II: The Japanese 5th Air Force deploys the first Ohka piloted rocket bombs, slung under Misubishi bombers, against the American fleet. The flight of 18 aircraft is intercepted by carrier aircraft and all but one are shot down.
1945 – Bureau of Aeronautics initiates rocket-powered surface-to-air guided missile development by awarding contract to Fairchild.
1945 – General A. A. Vandergrift, 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps, became the first Marine four-star general on active duty.
1946 – The Los Angeles Rams signed Kenny Washington. Washington was the first Black American player to join a National Football League team since 1933.
1947 – Pres. Truman signed Executive Order 9835 requiring all federal employees to swear allegiance to the United States.
1947 – James Baskett (1904-1948) was given a Special Academy Award for his part in Disney’s “Song Of The South”. He was the second American of African descent to receive an Academy Award. Baskett was also the first American of African descent hired by Disney. Unfortunately Baskett was unable to attend the premiere in Atlanta because he was unable to get accommodations.
1948 – “Stop the Music” with Bert Parks premieres on ABC radio.
1951 – Korean War: The 1st Cavalry Division recaptured Chunchon. The Chinese 3rd Field Army appeared in Korean combat for the first time.
1952 – CHART TOPPERS – “Cry” by Johnnie Ray, “Wheel of Fortune” by Kay Starr, “Anytime” by Eddie Fisher and “(When You Feel like You’re in Love) Don’t Just Stand There” by Carl Smith all topped the charts.
1952 – Approximately thirty-one storms crossed six states killing 340 in the south central United States.
1952 – Alan Freed presents the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first rock and roll concert, in Cleveland, Ohio. (39 Videos)
1953 – “The Doggie in the Window” by Patti Page topped the charts.
1953 – Air Force Captains Manuel J. Fernandez, Jr., 4th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, and Harold Fischer, 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing, qualified as the fourth and fifth “double aces” of the war. An “ace” has shot down five enemy aircraft; a double ace, 10.
1953 – The Boston Celtics beat Syracuse Nationals (111-105) in four overtimes to eliminate them from the Eastern Division Semifinals. A total of seven players (both teams combined) fouled out of the game.
1953 – NBA record 106 fouls & 12 players foul out (Boston-Syracuse).
1955 – NBC-TV presented the first “Colgate Comedy Hour” with Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis.
1955 – Brooklyn Bulletin asks Dodger fans not to call their team “Bums.”
1957 – Shirley Booth made her TV acting debut in “The Hostess with the Mostest” on “Playhouse 90” on CBS.
1959 – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon topped the charts.
1960 – The first lunch counters were integrated in San Antonio, Texas.
1961 – Art Modell purchases Cleveland Browns for the then record $3,925,000.
1962 – A bear becomes the first creature to be ejected at supersonic speeds. She landed safely, and became the first living creature to survive a parachute jump from a plane flying faster than sound.
1962 – Philadelphia retires pitcher Robin Roberts’ #36.
1963 – The Alcatraz federal prison island in San Francisco Bay was emptied of its last inmates at the order of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy.
1964 – Beatles’ “She Loves You” single goes #1 & stays #1 for 2 weeks.
1965 – Ranger program: NASA launches Ranger 9 which is the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.
1965 – Martin Luther King Jr leads 3,200 people on the start of the third and finally successful civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.
1966 – Supreme Court reversed Massachusetts ruling that “Fanny Hill” is obscene.
1968 – CHART TOPPERS – “(Sittin’ On) The Dock of the Bay” by Otis Redding, “Love is Blue” by Paul Mauriat, “Simon Says” by 1910 Fruitgum Co. and “A World of Our Own” by Sonny James all topped the charts.
1968 – “Royals” chosen as the name of new Kansas City American League Baseball franchise.
1970 – Vinko Bogataj crashes during a ski-jumping championship in Germany; his image becomes that of the “agony of defeat guy” in the opening credits of ABC’s Wide World of Sports.
1970 – The Beatles established a new record. “Let It Be” entered the “Billboard” chart at number six. This was the highest debuting position ever for a record.
1970 – “Bridge Over Troubled Water” by Simon & Garfunkel topped the charts.
1970 – “ABC” by the Jackson Five was released.
1971 – Daniel Ellsberg obtained a copy of the Pentagon Papers, commissioned by then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, from his former pentagon colleagues and showed it to Neil Sheehan, a young New York Times reporter, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1972 – Vietnam War: In Cambodia, more than 100 civilians are killed and 280 wounded as communist artillery and rockets strike Phnom Penh and outlying areas in the heaviest attack since the beginning of the war in 1970.
1972 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Dunn v. Blumstein that states could not require one year of residency for voting eligibility.
1976 – CHART TOPPERS – “December 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by The Four Seasons, “Dream Weaver” by Gary Wright, “Lonely Night (Angel Face)” by Captain & Tennille and “Faster Horses (The Cowboy and the Poet)” by Tom T. Hall all topped the charts.
1980 – US President Jimmy Carter announces a United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.
1980 – On the season finale of the soap opera Dallas, the infamous character J.R. Ewing is shot by an unseen assailant, leading to the catchphrase “Who Shot JR?”
1981 – “Keep On Loving You” by REO Speedwagon topped the charts.
1982 – Donny Osmond starred in the title role on Broadway of “Little Johnny Jones.”
1983 – Only known typo on Time Magazine cover (control=contol), all recalled.
1984 – NFL owners passed the infamous anti-celebrating rule. This is usually referred to as the “Mark Gastineau Rule” because a major reason why this change was made was to stop him from performing his signature “Sack Dance” every time after he sacked an opposing quarterback.
1984 – A Soviet submarine crashed into the USS Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan.
1987 – “Lean on Me” by Club Nouveau topped the charts.
1987 – Dean Paul Martin (Dino, b.1951), the son of singer Dean Martin, died when his National Guard F-4 Phantom fighter jet crashed in a mountainous area of California, killing him and his RIO (Radar Intercept Officer), Ramon Ortiz.
1989 – Sports Illustrated reports allegations tying baseball player Pete Rose to baseball gambling.
1989 – Dick Clark announced that he would no longer be hosting the show “American Bandstand.” He had been the host for 33 years.
1990 – “Sydney” starring Valerie Bertinelli premiered on CBS-TV.
1991 – Twenty-seven people were lost at sea when two U.S. Navy anti-submarine planes collided.
1992 – “Save the Best for Last” by Vanessa Williams topped the charts.
1992 – During a debate in Buffalo, N.Y., Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton sought to turn the tables on rival Jerry Brown by accusing the former California governor of hypocrisy on the issue of campaign contributions.
1994 – Steven Spielberg won his first Oscars. They were for best picture and best director for “Schindler’s List.” (You Tube has removed all full movies)
1994 – Bill Gates of Microsoft and Craig McCaw of McCaw Cellular Communications announced a $9 billion plan that would send 840 satellites into orbit to relay information around the globe.
1995 – New Jersey officially dedicated the Howard Stern Rest Area along Route 295.
1996 – General Motors and the United Auto Workers reached a settlement in a 17-day brake-factory strike that idled more than 177,000 employees and brought the world’s top automaker to a near standstill.
1997 – In Chicago three white teenagers attacked and severely injured a 13-year-old African-American boy. Lenard Clark (13) was left brain-damaged.
1999 – Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon.
1999 – In Alaska an avalanche killed at least four snowmobilers at the Turnagain Pass in Chugach National Forest.
2000 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had overstepped its regulatory authority when it attempted to restrict the marketing of cigarettes to youngsters.
2000 – A US Federal Judge ruled that Elian Gonzalez should be returned to his father in Cuba.
2001 – Space Shuttle Discovery glided to a predawn touchdown, bringing home the first residents of the International Space Station.
2001 – The Supreme Court ruled that hospitals cannot test pregnant women for drug use without their consent.
2001 – The US State Dept. ordered the expulsion of five suspected Russian spies and informed Moscow that as many as fifty intelligence officers using diplomatic cover would have to leave over the next few months.
2002 – In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh along with three other suspects are charged with murder for their part in the kidnapping and killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
2002 – Marjorie Knoller, whose two huge dogs mauled neighbor Diane Whipple to death in their San Francisco apartment building, was convicted in Los Angeles of murder and involuntary manslaughter; her husband, Robert Noel, was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter.
2003 – A young man from LA visiting Las Vegas won a world record $39 million on a slot machine.
2003 – The Bush administration seizes $US 1.7 billion in Iraqi assets already frozen in the US, saying it will use the money for humanitarian purposes in Iraq.
2003 – An Illinois court ordered the tobacco company Philip Morris to pay $10.1 billion for misleading consumers with the word “light.” The company appeals.
2003 – The House approved a $2.2 trillion budget embracing President Bush’s tax-cutting plan.
2004 – Jimmy Carter, former US president and 2002 Nobel Peace Prize winner, vehemently condemns George W. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war “based upon lies and misinterpretations” in order to oust Saddam Hussein.
2005 – SCHOOL SHOOTING: In northern Minnesota Jeff Weise (16) gunned down five students, a teacher and an unarmed security officer at Red Lake High School. The high school was on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota, where about 5,000 Native Americans live. The teen’s grandfather and his grandfather’s wife also were found dead, and the boy killed himself.
2005 – Pres. Bush signed an emergency bill called the “Palm Sunday Compromise” to permit the reinsertion of a feeding tube to keep Terri Schiavo alive in Florida.
2006 – Jack Dorsey tweeted the first ever tweet on Twitter. This is considered Twitter’s birthday. The service started out as an off-hand project from the creators of podcasting company Odeo.
2006 – Pres. Bush said that the war in Iraq might outlast his presidency. Bush predicted American forces would remain in Iraq for years and that it would be up to a future president to decide when to bring them all home.
2006 – President Bush welcomed Liberia’s Pres. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf to the White House, calling Africa’s first democratically elected female head of state “a pioneer.”
2007 – In Texas investigators said Timothy Wayne Shepherd (27) confessed to strangling Tynesha Stewart (19) because he was angry she had begun a new relationship. Shepherd had dismembered and burned her body on a patio grill.
2007 – Sonia Falcone, former Miss Bolivia (1988), was ordered to leave the United States after pleading guilty to employing four illegal immigrants as household servants at her $10.5 million mansion in Paradise Valley, AZ.
2008 – Two companies that provide workers for the State Department said they fired or otherwise punished those who improperly accessed the passport records of the three major presidential candidates. The security breaches touched off demands for a congressional investigation.
2008 – Daniel Wortham (39), a plumber in Washington state, was killed by his daughter (16) and her boyfriend, Edmund Washington (17), after returning home from work.
2009 – Five thousand people are temporarily evacuated from Wind Gap, Pennsylvania, after a tank truck carrying hydrofluoric acid overturns.
2009 – In Oakland, Ca., Lovelle Mixon (26), a parolee with an “extensive criminal history,” opened fire at a routine traffic stop killing Sgt. Mark Dunakin (40) and Officer John Hege (41). He later killed Sgt. Ervin Romans (43) and Sgt. Daniel Sakai (35), two members of a SWAT team searching for him.
2010 – President Barack Obama announced that he will reaffirm a ban on using federal funds to pay for abortions, which convinced some holdout Democrats to support the healthcare overhaul but riled Republicans who said the decision could be easily reversed.
2011 – The U.S. Supreme Court declines to take an appeal from an appellate court ruling that ordered the disclosure of information about the Federal Reserve’s emergency lending to banks during the 2008 financial crisis. The Supreme Court’s refusal means the ruling of the court below stands.
2011 – The perjury trial of baseball star Barry Bonds begins in federal court in San Francisco.
2011 – Surgeons at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, perform the first full face transplant in the United States.
2012 – The National Football League on Wednesday suspended New Orleans Saints Coach Sean Payton for a year without pay for his role in the team’s bounty program, which promised money to players if they knocked opponents out of games.
2012 – Denver Broncos trade quarterback Tim Tebow to the New York Jets for a fourth-round draft pick.
2013 – President Barack Obama, in a formal visit to Israel and the Palestinian territories, states that “Palestinians deserve a state of their own”.
1685 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (d. 1750)
1713 – Francis Lewis, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1803) 1863 – George Owen Squier, American inventor and Major General in U.S. Signal Corp(d.1934)
1869 – Florenz Ziegfeld, theater producer (d. 1932)
1880 – Gilbert M. ‘Broncho Billy’ Anderson, American actor (d. 1971)
1904 – Forrest Mars Sr., American candymaker (d. 1999)
1922 – Russ Meyer, American film director and producer (d. 2004)
1932 – Walter Gilbert, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
1945 – Rose Stone, American musician (Sly & the Family Stone)
1961 – Shawn Lane, American guitar virtuoso (d. 2003)
1962 – Matthew Broderick, American actor
1962 – Rosie O’Donnell, American comedian, actress, talk show host, and publisher
1974 – Laura Allen, American actress
1978 – Kevin Federline, American dancer/hip hop artist
*HOSKING, CHARLES ERNEST, JR.
Rank and organization: Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces. Place and date: Phuoc Long Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 21st, 1967. Entered service at: Fort Dix, N.J. Born: 12 May 1924, Ramsey, N.J. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. M/Sgt. Hosking (then Sfc.), Detachment A-302, Company A, greatly distinguished himself while serving as company advisor in the III Corps Civilian Irregular Defense Group Reaction Battalion during combat operations in Don Luan District. A Viet Cong suspect was apprehended and subsequently identified as a Viet Cong sniper. While M/Sgt. Hosking was preparing the enemy for movement back to the base camp, the prisoner suddenly grabbed a hand grenade from M/Sgt. Hosking’s belt, armed the grenade, and started running towards the company command group which consisted of two Americans and two Vietnamese who were standing a few feet away. Instantly realizing that the enemy intended to kill the other men, M/Sgt. Hosking immediately leaped upon the Viet Cong’s back. With utter disregard for his personal safety, he grasped the Viet Cong in a “Bear Hug” forcing the grenade against the enemy soldier’s chest. He then wrestled the Viet Cong to the ground and covered the enemy’s body with his body until the grenade detonated. The blast instantly killed both M/Sgt. Hosking and the Viet Cong. By absorbing the full force of the exploding grenade with his body and that of the enemy, he saved the other members of his command group from death or serious injury. M/Sgt. Hosking’s risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in the highest tradition of the U.S. Army and reflect great credit upon himself and the Armed Forces of his country.
*JOHNSTON, DONALD R.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company D, 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. Place and date: Tay Ninh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 21st, 1969. Entered service at: Columbus, Ga. Born: 19 November 1947, Columbus, Ga. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Johnston distinguished himself while serving as a mortarman with Company D, at a fire support base in Tay Ninh Province. Sp4c. Johnston’s company was in defensive positions when it came under a devastating rocket and mortar attack. Under cover of the bombardment, enemy sappers broke through the defensive perimeter and began hurling explosive charges into the main defensive bunkers. Sp4c. Johnston and six of his comrades had moved from their exposed positions to one of the bunkers to continue their fight against the enemy attackers. As they were firing from the bunker, an enemy soldier threw three explosive charges into their position. Sensing the danger to his comrades, Sp4c. Johnston, with complete disregard for his safety, hurled himself onto the explosive charges, smothering the detonations with his body and shielding his fellow soldiers from the blast. His heroic action saved the lives of 6 of his comrades. Sp4c. Johnston’s concern for his fellow men at the cost of his life were in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
If the sun were just a tiny point of light and Earth had no atmosphere, then day and night would each be exactly 12 hours long on a spring equinox day, but to begin with, as seen from Earth, the sun is nearly as large as a little fingertip held at arm’s length, or half a degree wide. Sunrise is defined as the moment the top edge of the sun appears to peek over the horizon. Sunset is when the very last bit of the sun appears to dip below the horizon.
The vernal equinox, however, occurs when the center of the sun crosses the Equator. Plus, Earth’s atmosphere bends the sunlight when it’s close to the horizon, so the golden orb appears a little higher in the sky than it really is. As a result, the sun appears to be above the horizon a few minutes earlier than it really is.The length of day and night may not be equal on the vernal equinox, but that doesn’t make the first day of spring any less special.
This photo is a picture of Venus over a one-year period. Where the lines cross is the equinoxes. Note that it forms the mark of “infinity.”
Some more facts:
The fall and spring equinoxes, for starters, are the only two times during the year when the sun rises due east and sets due west.
The equinoxes are also the only days of the year when a person standing on the Equator can see the sun passing directly overhead.
On the Northern Hemisphere’s vernal equinox day, a person at the North Pole would see the sun skimming across the horizon, beginning six months of uninterrupted daylight and a person at the South Pole would also see the sun skim the horizon, but it would signal the start of six months of darkness.
“The Constitution shall never be construed….to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms.”
It’s simply a matter of doing what you do best and not worrying about what the other fellow is going to do.”
~ John R. Amos
sine qua non sin-ih-kwah-NON; -NOHN; sy-nih-kway-, noun:
An essential condition or element; an indispensable thing.
Sine qua non is from the Late Latin, literally “without which not.”
1345 – Saturn/Jupiter/Mars-conjunction; thought “cause of plague epidemic.” Albertus Magnus said that the conjunction of Mars and Jupiter causes a great pestilence in the air, especially when they come together in a hot, wet sign, as was the case in 1345. It occurred again on March 14, 2012.
1602 – The Dutch East India Company is established.
1616 – Sir Walter Raleigh is freed from the Tower of London after 13 years of imprisonment. He was to seek gold in Guyana.
1760 – The “Great Fire” of Boston, Massachusetts destroys 349 buildings. No one knows what started the fire. Open fires were part of everyday life in colonial Boston. The fire raged for ten hours.
1800 – Volta’s battery announced.
1816 – US Supreme Court affirms its right to review state court decisions. In Martin v Hunter’s Lessee (1816) the state of Virginia, via its highest state court, claimed that state governments and the federal government were equal and therefore the Supreme Court had no jurisdiction over the highest court of a state. Marshall stated that every state had lost part of its sovereignty when it accepted the Constitution and therefore all states were subject to the rulings of the Supreme Court.
1836 – Mexican-American War: At Coleto Creek, Texas, Colonel James Fannin after being surrounded by Mexican forces under General Urrea, agreed to surrender to Colonel Juan Jose Holzinger.
1841 – Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”, considered the first detective story, was published.
1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin subtitled “Life Among the Lowly,” was first published.
1863 – Civil War: Battle of Pensacola, Florida- evacuated by Federals (Union).
1865 – Civil War: Battle of Bentonville, N.C.
1865 – Civil War: A plan by John Wilkes Booth to abduct U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was ruined when Lincoln changed his plans and did not appear at the Soldier’s Home near Washington, DC.
1868 – Jesse James Gang robs the Southern Deposit Bank in Russellville KY of $14,000. Russellville is located at 36°50′33″N 86°53′34″W.
1878 – Thomas Fisher, an alleged member of the Molly McGuires, was hung at the Carbon County Prison of Mauch Chunk, Pa. He had been convicted of the murder of Morgan Powell, a supervisor for the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company.
1886 – First AC power plant in US begins commercial operation, Massachusetts. Its creator, George Westinghouse began a new direction in his career.
1890 – The Blair Bill provided federal support for education and allocated funds to reduce illiteracy among the freedmen was defeated in the Senate, 37-31.
1891 – The first computing scale company was incorporated in Dayton, OH.
1896 – U.S. Marines landed in Corinto, Nicaragua to protect U.S. citizens in the wake of a revolution.
1897 – The first U.S. orthodox Jewish Rabbinical seminary was incorporated in New York.
1897 – The first intercollegiate basketball game that used five players per team was held. The contest was Yale versus Pennsylvania. Yale won by a score of 32-10.
1899 – At Sing Sing prison, Martha M. Place became the first woman to be executed in the electric chair. She was put to death for the murder of her stepdaughter.
1900 – Wireless transmission of electricity patented.
1911 – The National Squash Tennis Association was formed in New York City.
1914 – In New Haven, Connecticut, the first international figure skating championship takes place.
1916 – Albert Einstein publishes his general theory of relativity.
1917 – Gideon Sundback, Swedish-born engineer, patented an all-purpose zipper while working for the Automatic Hook and Eye Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. The zipper name was coined by B.F. Goodrich in 1923, who used it to fasten rubber galoshes.
1922 – The USS Langley is commissioned as the first United States Navy aircraft carrier.
1922 – U.S. President Warren G. Harding ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.
1924 – The Virginia Legislature passed SB 281, “An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases”, henceforth referred to as “The Sterilization Act”.
1930 – Clessie Cummins sets diesel engine speed record of 129.39 kph.
1933 – Giuseppe Zangara is executed in Florida’s electric chair for fatally shooting Anton Cermak in an assassination attempt against President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1933 – The first German concentration camp was completed at Dachau.
1934 – Female Babe Didrickson pitches hitless inning in exhibition game against Brooklyn Dodgers.
1934 – The first test of a practical radar apparatus was made by Rudolf Kuhnold in Kiel Harbour, Germany, Chief of the German Navy Signals Research Department.
1936 – Benny Goodman and his orchestra recorded “Christopher Columbus” on Victor Records.
1939 – Naval Research Lab recommends financing research program to obtain power from uranium.
1939 – Franklin D. Roosevelt named William O. Douglas to the Supreme Court. He replaced Louis D. Brandeis (1856-1941), appointed in 1916, who retired.
1941 – World War II: Sabotage was discovered on an Italian vessel at Wilmington, North Carolina. The Coast Guard investigated all Italian and German vessels in American ports and took into “protective custody” 28 Italian vessels, two German and 35 Danish vessels.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: In Zgierz, Poland, 100 Poles are taken from a labor camp and shot by the Germans.
1942 – World War II: Holocaust: in Rohatyn, western Ukraine, the German SS murder 3,000 Jews, including 600 children, annihilating 70% of Rohatyn’s Jewish ghetto.
1942 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur, at Terowie, South Australia, makes his famous speech regarding the fall of the Philippines, in which he says: “I came out of Bataan and I shall return”.
1943 – World War II: German U-384 was bombed and sank.
1943 – World War II: Colonel Rudolf von Gertsdorff, General Kluge’s chief of intelligence, tried to kill Hitler in the Zeughaus.
1943 – World War II: The Allies attacked Field Marshall Erwin Rommel’s forces on the Mareth Line in North Africa.
1943 – World War II: Marine “Avengers” conducted the first aerial mine-laying mission.
1944 – The US 4th Marine Division (General Noble) lands on Emirau Island, in the Matthias group. There is no Japanese resistance.
1944 – Mount Vesuvius, Italy explodes.
1947 – 180-metric ton blue whale (record) caught in South Atlantic.
1947 – An explosion in a coal mine in Centralia, Illinois kills 111.
1948 – With a Musicians Union ban lifted, the first telecasts of classical music in the United States, under Eugene Ormandy and Arturo Toscanini, are given on CBS and NBC.
1950 – Dr. Ralph Bunche receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in the Palestine crisis. He is the first Black to be so honored.
1951 – Korean War: The battleship USS Missouri fired 246 tons of 16-inch shells and 2,000 rounds of 5-inch ammunition on Wonsan, North Korea in the heaviest such attack of the war.
1952 – The United States Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan.
1953 – Senator Edwin C Johnson offers a bill to ban radio-TV broadcasts of major league games.
1953 – Korean War: The Joint Chiefs of Staff approved Operation MOOLAH. This was an effort to entice MiG pilots to defect with their aircraft and in return receive political asylum and a monetary reward.
1954 – First newspaper vending machine used (Columbia, Pennsylvania).
1954 – “King and I” closed at St. James Theater in New York City after 1246 performances.
1957 – In Washington State the Dalles Dam backed up the Columbia River to reap the benefits of hydroelectric power. It took just six hours for the islands of Celilo Falls to disappear.
1958 – 50″ snow across the Mason-Dixon line.
1959 – CHART TOPPERS – “Venus” by Frankie Avalon, “Charlie Brown” by The Coasters, “Alvin’s Harmonica” by David Seville & The Chipmunks and “Don’t Take Your Guns to Town” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1959 – Bobby Rydell made his first TV appearance, on “American Bandstand.”
1959 – The Longshore Union president, Harry Bridges, issued the same challenge he received in Russia: Within 10 years the Soviet Union will give its workers the highest standard of living in the world, the highest wages, the shortest work week, the best free medical care, the best education, and no unemployment.
1960 – Elvis Presley made his first post-Army recording.
1961 – “Surrender” by Elvis Presley topped the charts.
1961 – Ricky Nelson recorded “Hello Mary Lou.”
1963 – The first “Pop Art” exhibit began in New York City.
1965 – “Eight Days a Week” by the Beatles topped the charts.
1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson orders 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights marchers.
1969 – US president Nixon proclaimed he would end the Vietnam War in 1970.
1969 – The Chicago 8 were indicted in aftermath of Chicago Democratic convention.
1970 – Students struck at the University of Michigan and demanded increased Black enrollment. The strike ended April 2, after the administration agreed to meet their demands.
1971 – “Me and Bobby McGee” by Janis Joplin topped the charts.
1972 – Ringo Starr released “Back Off, Boogaloo.”
1975 – CHART TOPPERS – “Black Water” by The Doobie Brothers, “My Eyes Adored You” by Frankie Valli, “Lady Marmalade” by LaBelle and “Before the Next Teardrop Falls” by Freddy Fender all topped the charts.
1976 – Patricia Hearst was convicted of armed robbery for her role in the hold up of a San Francisco Bank.
1976 – “December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)” by the Four Seasons topped the charts.
1979 -The first fully functional space shuttle orbiter, Columbia, is delivered to the John F. Kennedy Space Center to be prepared for its first launch.
1981 – Jean Harris, former girls’ school headmistress, was sentenced in White Plains, New York, to 15 years to life in prison for slaying “Scarsdale Diet” author Dr. Herman Tarnower.
1982 – The U.S. made an appeal to the International Court concerning the American Hostages in Iran. UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim warns U.S. not to use force in attempt to free American hostages in Iran.
1982 – “I Love Rock ‘n’ Roll” by Joan Jett & the Blackhearts topped the charts.
1982 – U.S. scientists returned from Antarctica with the first land mammal fossils found there.
1983 – CHART TOPPERS – “Billy Jean” by Michael Jackson, “Shame on the Moon” by Bob Seger & The Silver Bullet Band, “Do You Really Want to Hurt Me” by Culture Club and “I Wouldn’t Change You If I Could” by Ricky Skaggs all topped the charts.
1984 – The U.S. Senate rejected an amendment to permit spoken prayer in public schools.
1985 – Libby Riddles becomes the first woman to win the 1,135-mile Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race. The next three were won by Susan Butcher.
1985 – For the first time in its 99-year history, Avon representatives received a salary. Up to that time they had been paid solely on commissions.
1985 – CBS-TV presented “The Romance of Betty Boop.” (23:41)
1986 – Fallon Carrington and Jeff Colby were wed on the TV drama “The Colby’s“. “The Colby’s” was an offshoot of “Dynasty”.
1987 – The Food and Drug Administration approves the anti-AIDS drug, AZT.
1988 – Eight-year-old DeAndra Anrig found herself airborne when the string of her kite was snagged by an airplane flying over Shoreline Park in Mountain View, Calif. Not seriously hurt, she was lifted 10 feet off the ground and carried 100 feet until she let go.
1989 – Baseball announces Reds manager Pete Rose is under investigation.
1989 – A Washington, DC, district court judge blocked a curfew imposed by Mayor Barry and the City Council.
1990 – Los Angeles Lakers retire Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s #33.
1990 – Gloria Estefan and her band are injured in a bus accident near Scranton, PA.
1991 – Court awards Peggy Lee $3 million in contract violation suit against Disney.
1991 – Eric Clapton’s 4 year old son, Conor, died after falling from a 53rd story New York City apartment window.
1991 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that employers could not exclude women from jobs where exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation could potentially damage a fetus.
1991 – A US jet fighter shot down an Iraqi warplane in the first air attack since the Gulf War cease-fire.
1992 – Janice Pennington was awarded $1.3 million for accident on the set of the “Price is Right” TV show.
1992 – The US Congress passed, and President Bush immediately vetoed, a Democratic tax cut for the middle class that would have been funded by a tax hike on the rich.
1995 – Beatles song, “Free As A Bird” is released.
1995 – A sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway kills 12 and wounds 1,300 persons. More than 5500 were sickened by small doses of the gas. This caused the US security management industry to review our security plans.
1995 – Dow-Jones hits 4083.68 (record).
1996 – In Los Angeles, Erik and Lyle Menendez were found guilty of first-degree murder in the killing of their parents.
1996 – The Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Ruleville, Miss., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
1997 – Liggett Group, the maker of Chesterfield cigarettes, settled 22 state lawsuits by admitting the industry marketed cigarettes to teenagers and agreed to warn on every pack that smoking is addictive.
1998 – An Indiana man, Chris Dean (35), was arrested for sending the pipe bomb that killed Christopher Marquis of Vermont.
1999 – Legoland California, the first and only Legoland outside of Europe, opens in Carlsbad, California.
1999 – Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones became the first men to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon. The non-stop trip began on March 3 and covered 26,500 miles.
2000 – Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, a former Black Panther once known as H. Rap Brown, is captured after a gun battle that leaves a Georgia sheriff’s deputy dead.
2000 – The Clinton administration moved to phase out the fuel additive MTBE to avoid further contamination of groundwater.
2000 – In Texas Robert Wayne Harris (28) shot five people to death and critically injured one person at the Mi-T-Fine Car Wash in Irving. He had recently been fired for exposing himself to two women at the business.
2001 – Power-strapped California saw a second day of rolling blackouts.
2001 – The skipper of the USS Greeneville took the stand in a Navy court and accepted sole responsibility for the Feb. 9 collision of his submarine with a Japanese trawler off Hawaii that killed nine Japanese.
2002 – The US Senate approved the bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002. It was better remembered as the McCain-Feingold bill on campaign finance reform after its senatorial sponsors. Pres. Bush planned to sign it. In 2003 a three-judge panel ruled most of the provisions unconstitutional.
2002 – US began war games with South Korea, the biggest ever.
2002 – Arthur Andersen pled innocent to charges that it had shredded documents and deleted computer files related to the energy company Enron.
2002 – At Fort Drum, NY, a soldier was killed and fourteen were injured when two artillery shells fell far short of their target.
2003 – Space shuttle Columbia’s data recorder (“black box”) was found near Hemphill, Texas.
2003 – At 5:34 AM Baghdad time on 20 March, 2003 (9:34 PM, 19 Mar 2003, EST) the Iraq Invasion began. Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein, targeting him personally with a barrage of cruise missiles and bombs as a prelude to invasion.
2003 – About 600 US and Romanian ground troops in Afghanistan began Operation Valiant Strike, an intensified search for Taliban, al Qaeda and loyalists to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
2004 – The US military charged six soldiers with abusing inmates at Abu Ghraib prison.
2004 – The House of Representatives of US state of Georgia passes a ban on genital piercings for women, including consenting adults, as part of a bill to ban female genital mutilation as performed by some Muslim populations, among others.
2004 – A quickly spreading Internet worm destroyed or damaged tens of thousands of personal computers worldwide morning by exploiting a security flaw in a firewall program designed to protect PCs from online threats.
2006 – Otto Zehm (36), a mentally ill man, died after being struck and tasered at a convenience store in Spokane, Wa. In 2011 officer Karl Thompson was found guilty of using violating Zehm’s civil rights by using excessive force and making a false statement.
2007 – In Arizona the Hualapai Indian tribe invited a select few to the unveiling of the horseshoe-shaped deck over the Grand Canyon in advance of a public opening planned for March 28. The deck, which juts 70 feet beyond the canyon’s edge, will accommodate up to 120 guests at a time.
2007 – The second flight of Space Exploration Technologies’ (SpaceX) low-cost Falcon 1 rocket reached 200 miles altitude but did not make it to orbit due to the premature shutdown of its second-stage Kestrel engine.
2007 – Pres. Bush vowed that his top aides will not testify under oath before congressional committees on the scandal involving the firing of eight US attorneys.
2008 – North Carolina lawmakers voted 109-5 to boot Rep. Thomas Wright, a Wilmington Democrat, from office for mishandling $340,000 in loans and contributions.
2008 – In North Carolina Darryl Turner was killed after being shocked by a police officer’s Taser. In 2011 a jury ordered Taser Int’l. to pay Turner’s family $10 million.
2009 – House passes heavy tax on bonuses at rescued firms. the House voted 328 to 93 to levy a 90 percent tax on bonuses paid by any company owing more than $5 billion in bailout money.
2009 – The USS Hartford, a submarine, and the USS New Orleans, an amphibious ship, collided in the Strait of Hormuz. Fifteen sailors aboard the Hartford were slightly injured but able to return to duty. No injuries were reported aboard the New Orleans.
2009 – The US Postal Service said it will reduce management by 15%, offer early retirement to 150,000 workers and close 6 of 80 district offices in response to the slowing economy and losses last year of $2.8 billion.
2010 – The Plastiki, a boat with hull built of 12,500 plastic bottles, departed from Sausalito, Ca. to Australia.Plastiki arrived in Sydney Harbour on July 26, 2010.
2010 – A teenager is arrested in New Jersey, United States in connection with the recent Wal-Mart announcement telling “all blacks” to leave the shop.
2012 – The Denver Broncos announce they have signed star free agent quarterback Peyton Manning to a $96-million five-year deal.
2012 – John Carter records one of the biggest losses in cinema history, forcing Disney to take a $200 million writedown. John Carter was a 2012 American science fantasy film directed by Andrew Stanton; adapted from the first book in the fictional Barsoom series of novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs entitled, A Princess of Mars.
2012 – Voters in the US state of Illinois go to the polls for the Republican primary with Mitt Romney projected as the winner.
2012 – Ross Mirkarimi, the head of the Sheriff’s Department in San Francisco is put on probation for three years for false imprisonment of his wife on New Years Eve 2011.
2013 – Scientists debate the possibility that the Voyager 1 spacecraft, launched in September 1977, may have left the Solar System.
1823 – Ned Buntline, American publisher (d. 1886)
1831 – Solomon L. Spink, U.S. Congressman (d. 1881).
1834 – Charles W. Eliot, President of Harvard University (d. 1926)
1856 – Frederick Winslow Taylor, American inventor (d. 1915) was the first man in recorded history that deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study.
1903 – Edgar Buchanan, American actor (d. 1979)
1906 – Ozzie Nelson, American bandleader and actor (d. 1975)
1918 – Jack Barry, American TV host (d. 1984)
1920 – Pamela Harriman, British-American diplomat (d. 1997)
1922 – Ray Goulding, American comedian (d. 1990)
1922 – Carl Reiner, American film director
1925 – John Ehrlichman, American political figure (d. 1999)
1928 – Fred Rogers, American TV host (d. 2003)
1931 – Hal Linden, American actor
1934 – Willie Brown, American politician
1936 – Vaughn Meader, American comedian (d. 2004)
1945 – Pat Riley former American National Basketball Association player and is the current team president of the Miami Heat.
1957 – Spike Lee, American film director
HAGEMEISTER, CHARLES CHRIS
Rank and organization: Specialist Fifth Class (then Sp4c.) U .S. Army, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Place and date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 20th,1967. Entered service at: Lincoln, Nebr. Born: 21 August 1946, Lincoln, Nebr. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. While conducting combat operations against a hostile force, Sp5c. Hagemeister’s platoon suddenly came under heavy attack from three sides by an enemy force occupying well concealed, fortified positions and supported by machine guns and mortars. Seeing two of his comrades seriously wounded in the initial action, Sp5c. Hagemeister unhesitatingly and with total disregard for his safety, raced through the deadly hail of enemy fire to provide them medical aid. Upon learning that the platoon leader and several other soldiers also had been wounded, Sp5c. Hagemeister continued to brave the withering enemy fire and crawled forward to render lifesaving treatment and to offer words of encouragement. Attempting to evacuate the seriously wounded soldiers, Sp5c. Hagemeister was taken under fire at close range by an enemy sniper. Realizing that the lives of his fellow soldiers depended on his actions, Sp5c. Hagemeister seized a rifle from a fallen comrade, killed the sniper, three other enemy soldiers who were attempting to encircle his position and silenced an enemy machine gun that covered the area with deadly fire. Unable to remove the wounded to a less exposed location and aware of the enemy’s efforts to isolate his unit, he dashed through the fusillade of fire to secure help from a nearby platoon. Returning with help, he placed men in positions to cover his advance as he moved to evacuate the wounded forward of his location. These efforts successfully completed, he then moved to the other flank and evacuated additional wounded men despite the fact that his every move drew fire from the enemy. Sp5c. Hagemeister’s repeated heroic and selfless actions at the risk of his life saved the lives of many of his comrades and inspired their actions in repelling the enemy assault. Sp5c. Hagemeister’s indomitable courage was in the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces and reflect great credit upon himself.
KAWAMURA, TERRY TERUO
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, 173d Engineer Company, 173d Airborne Brigade, Republic of Vietnam. Place and date: Camp Radcliff, Republic of Vietnam, March 20th, 1969. Entered service at: Oahu, Hawaii. Born. 10 December 1949, Wahiawa, Oahu, Hawaii. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Kawamura distinguished himself by heroic action while serving as a member of the 173d Engineer Company. An enemy demolition team infiltrated the unit quarters area and opened fire with automatic weapons. Disregarding the intense fire, Cpl. Kawamura ran for his weapon. At that moment, a violent explosion tore a hole in the roof and stunned the occupants of the room. Cpl. Kawamura jumped to his feet, secured his weapon and, as he ran toward the door to return the enemy fire, he observed that another explosive charge had been thrown through the hole in the roof to the floor. He immediately realized that two stunned fellow soldiers were in great peril and shouted a warning. Although in a position to escape, Cpl. Kawamura unhesitatingly wheeled around and threw himself on the charge. In completely disregarding his safety, Cpl. Kawamura prevented serious injury or death to several members of his unit. The extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Cpl. Kawamura are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
VILLEGAS, YSMAEL R.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company F, 127th Infantry, 32d Infantry Division. Place and date: Villa Verde Trail, Luzon, Philippine Islands, March 20th, 1945. Entered service at: Casa Blanca, Calif. Birth: Casa Blanca, Calif. G.O. No.: 89, 19 October 1945. Citation: He was a squad leader when his unit, in a forward position, clashed with an enemy strongly entrenched in connected caves and foxholes on commanding ground. He moved boldly from man to man, in the face of bursting grenades and demolition charges, through heavy machinegun and rifle fire, to bolster the spirit of his comrades. Inspired by his gallantry, his men pressed forward to the crest of the hill. Numerous enemy riflemen, refusing to flee, continued firing from their foxholes. S/Sgt. Villegas, with complete disregard for his own safety and the bullets which kicked up the dirt at his feet, charged an enemy position, and, firing at point-blank range killed the Japanese in a foxhole. He rushed a second foxhole while bullets missed him by inches, and killed one more of the enemy. In rapid succession he charged a third, a fourth, a fifth foxhole, each time destroying the enemy within. The fire against him increased in intensity, but he pressed onward to attack a sixth position. As he neared his goal, he was hit and killed by enemy fire. Through his heroism and indomitable fighting spirit, S/Sgt. Villegas, at the cost of his life, inspired his men to a determined attack in which they swept the enemy from the field.
The Story of San Juan
Capistrano’s Mission Swallows
The miracle of the “Swallows” of Capistrano takes place each year at the Mission San Juan Capistano, on March 19th, St. Joseph’s Day.As the little birds wing their way back to the most famous Mission in California, the village of San Juan Capistrano takes on a fiesta air and the visitors from all parts of the world, and all walks of life, gather in great numbers to witness the “miracle” of the return of the swallows.
Each year the “Scout Swallows” precede the main flock by a few days and it seems to be their chief duty to clear the way for the main flock to arrive at the “Old Mission” of Capistrano.
With the arrival of early dawn on St. Joseph’s Day, the little birds begin to arrive and begin rebuilding their mud nests, which are clinging to the ruins of the old stone church of San Juan Capistrano. The arches of the two story, high vaulted Chapel were left bare and exposed, as the roof collapsed during the earthquake of 1812.
This Chapel, said to be the largest and most ornate in any of the missions, now has a more humble destiny–that of housing the birds that St. Francis loved so well.
After the summer spent within the sheltered walls of the Old Mission in San Juan Capistrano, the swallows take flight again, and on the Day of San Juan, October 23, they leave after circling the Mission bidding farewell to the “JEWEL OF ALL MISSIONS” San Juan Capistrano, California.
Sponsored by the San Juan Capistrano Fiesta Association
The Ink Spots – When The Swallows Come Back To Capistrano
The Lennon Sisters – When the Swallows Come Back to Capistrano
Romans 8:28 NKJV
“And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose.”
“Religion and virtue are the only foundations, not of republicanism and of all free government, but of social felicity under all government and in all the combinations of human society.”
“Love yourself first and everything else falls into line. You really have to love yourself to get anything done in this world.”
virago vuh-RAH-go; vuh-RAY-go, noun:
1. A woman of extraordinary stature, strength, and courage.
2. A woman regarded as loud, scolding, ill-tempered, quarrelsome, or overbearing.
Virago comes from Latin virago, “a man-like woman, a female warrior, a heroine” from vir, “a man.”
721BC – The earliest recorded lunar eclipse as described in Ptolemy’s Almagest, based on Babylonian sources.
1628 – Massachusetts colony founded by Englishmen. They were granted rights to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers and westward to the Pacific Ocean.
1687 – Explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle, searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River, is murdered by his own men.
1748 – The English Naturalization Act passed granting Jews right to colonize in America.
1776 – St. Joseph’s Day – This is the day that the swallows traditionally return to the Mission San Juan Capistrano in California. It has happened every March 19th since 1776 (with very few exceptions.)
1776 – The Continental Congress authorizes privateering raids on British shipping. American privateers were a significant presence at sea, and played an important role in the success of the Revolution.
1822 – Boston MA incorporated as a city.
1831 – First US bank robbery (City Bank, New York/$245,000.) The perpetrator was Edward Smith who was eventually arrested, convicted, and sentenced to five years in Sing Sing prison.
1850 – Phineas Quimby was issued a patent for a steering machine. Quimby was a watch and clockmaker by trade and held several patents.
1862 – Civil War: Union Flag Officer Foote’s forces attacking Island No. 10 continued to meet with strong resistance from Confederate batteries.
1863 – Civil War: The SS Georgiana, said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, is destroyed on her maiden voyage with a cargo of munitions, medicines and merchandise then valued at over $1,000,000. The wreck was discovered on the same day and month, exactly 102 years later by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence.
1864 – Montana vigilantes lynched Jack Slade (33), a hell-raising freight hauler. Mark Twain had encountered Slade in 1861 and included him in his book “Roughing It” (1872).
1865 – Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins. By the end of the battle two days later, Confederate forces had retreated from Four Oaks, North Carolina.
1865 – Civil War: Confederate General Joseph Johnston makes a desperate attempt to stop Union General Sherman’s “March To The Sea” but his army could not stop the advance of Sherman’s army.
1879 – Jim Currie opened fire on the actors Maurice Barrymore and Ben Porter near Marshall, TX. The shots wounded Barrymore and killed Porter.
1883 – Jan Matzeliger invents first machine to manufacture entire shoes.
1895 – The Los Angeles Railway was established to provide streetcar service.
1898 – USS Oregon departs San Francisco for 14,000 mile trip around South America to join U.S. Squadron off Cuba.
1903 – The U.S. Senate ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and Bahia Honda.
1908 – The state of Maryland barred Christian Scientists from practicing without medical diplomas.
1915 – Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not recognized as a planet.
1916 – Eight American planes (Curtiss JN4D Jennys) take off in pursuit of Pancho Villa, the first United States air-combat mission in history.
1917 – US Supreme Court upheld 8-hour work day for railroad workers. It reaffirmed the Adamson Act that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work.
1917 – Navy Department authorizes enrollment of women in Naval Reserve with ratings of yeoman, radio electrician, or other essential ratings.
1918 – The U.S. Congress establishes time zones and approves Daylight Savings Time.
1918 – Ensign Stephen Potter becomes first US pilot to shoot down a German seaplane.
1920 – The United States Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles for the second time (first time was on November 19, 1919). The vote was 49-35, short of the two-thirds majority needed for approval.
1924 – U.S. troops are rushed to Tegucigalpa as rebel forces take the Honduran capital.
1928 – “Amos & Andy” debuts on radio (NBC Blue Network-WMAQ Chicago.)
1931 – Nevada legalizes gambling. It was the second time and was to raise tax revenues and stabilize the state’s economy. Gov. Fred B. Balzar signed a measure legalizing casino gambling.
1941 – World War II: The 99th Pursuit Squadron also known as the Tuskegee Airmen, the first Black unit of the Army Air Corp, is activated.
1941 – Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded “Green Eyes” featuring Helen O’Connell.
1942 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt orders men between 45 & 64 to register for non- military duty.
1942 – The Thoroughbred Racing Association was formed in Chicago.
1942 – The Secretary of the Navy gave Civil Engineering Corps command of the Seabees.
1943 – Frank Nitti, the Chicago Outfit Boss after Al Capone, commits suicide at the Chicago Central Railyard.
1944 – World War II: Nazi forces occupy Hungary.
1945 – World War II: Off the coast of Japan, a kamikaze dive bomber hits the aircraft carrier USS Franklin, killing 724 of her crew. Badly damaged, the ship is able to return to the U.S. under her own power. (*Other sources say 832 killed)
1945 – World War II: US Task Force 58 (Admiral Mitscher) conducts air raids naval bases in the Inland Sea, with Kure specifically targeted. Six Japanese carriers and three battleships are reported damaged.
1945 – World War II: US 7th Army forces complete the capture of Saarlouis. Fighting in Saarbrucken and the towns to the east continues. US 3rd Army continues to advance east and southeast toward the Rhine River.
1945 – World War II: Adolf Hitler issues his “Nero Decree” ordering all industries, military installations, shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany to be destroyed as the Allies approach.
1948 – Lee Savold knocked out Gino Buonvino in 54 seconds of the first round of their prize fight at Madison Square Gardens.
1949 – First museum devoted exclusively to atomic energy, Oak Ridge, TN.
1949 – “Cruising Down the River” by Blue Barron topped the charts.
1950 – CHART TOPPERS – “I Said My Pajamas” by Tony Martin & Fran Warren, “Music, Music, Music” by Teresa Brewer, “If I Knew You Were Comin’ I’d’ve Baked a Cake” by Eileen Barton and “Chatanoogie Shoe Shine Boy” by Red Foley all topped the charts.
1951 – Herman Wouk’s “Caine Mutiny” is published.
1952 – The 1,000,000th Jeep was produced.
1953 – First time Academy Awards ceremony was broadcast on television and it was to celebrate its silver anniversary . “The Greatest Show on Earth” was named best picture of 1952. Gary Cooper & Shirley Booth won for best actor and actress.
1954 – Joey Giardello knocks out Willie Tory in round seven at Madison Square Garden in the first televised prize boxing fight shown in color.
1954 – First rocket-driven sled on rails was tested in Alamogordo NM.
1955 – “Sincerely” by the McGuire Sisters topped the charts.
1956 – Biggest NBA margin of victory: Minnesota Lakers-133, St Louis Hawks-75 by then record 58 points.
1957 – Elvis Presley bought the mansion he called Graceland.
1958 – CHART TOPPERS – “Don’t/I Beg of You” by Elvis Presley, “Sweet Little Sixteen” by Chuck Berry, “Dinner with Drac (Part 1)” by John Zacherle and “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” by Johnny Cash all topped the charts.
1958 – The film “South Pacific,” adapted from the Rodgers and Hammerstein stage musical, was released.
1958 – The Monarch Underwear Company fire leaves 24 dead and 15 injured. It occurred at 623 Broadway in Manhattan. Six of the injured were hurt when they leaped from the building and missed fire nets.
1960 – Theme from “A Summer Place” by Percy Faith topped the charts.
1963 – In Costa Rica, President John F. Kennedy and six Latin American presidents pledged to fight Communism.
1964 – Sean Connery began shooting his role in “Goldfinger.”
1965 – The wreck of the SS Georgiana, valued at over $50,000,000 and said to have been the most powerful Confederate cruiser, was discovered by then teenage diver and pioneer underwater archaeologist E. Lee Spence exactly 102 years after its destruction. (See today in 1863)
1966 – Texas Western becomes the first college basketball team to win the Final Four, to start five black players. In 2006 the film “Glory Road” depicted the story of the winning team.
1966 – CHART TOPPERS – “The Ballad of the Green Berets” by SSgt Barry Sadler, “19th Nervous Breakdown” by The Rolling Stones, “Nowhere Man” by The Beatles and “Waitin’ in Your Welfare Line” by Buck Owens all topped the charts.
1968 – Howard University students in Washington DC staged rallies, protests and a 5-day sit-in, laying siege to the administration building, shutting down the university in protest over its ROTC program, and demanding a more Afrocentric curriculum.
1972 – Los Angeles Lakers beat Golden State Warriors, 162-99, by then record 63 points.
1975 – Pennsylvania is first state to allow girls to compete with boys in High School sports.
1977 – “Love Theme From A Star Is Born (Evergreen)” by Barbra Streisand topped the charts.
1977 – The last episode of “The Mary Tyler Moore Show” aired.
1979 – The United States House of Representatives begins broadcasting its day-to-day business via the cable television network C-SPAN.
1980 – The US appealed to the International Court of Justice on hostages in Iran.
1982 – CHART TOPPERS – “Centerfold” by The J. Geils Band, “Open Arms” by Journey, “I Love Rock ’N Roll” by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts and “Blue Moon with Heartache” by Roseanne Cash all topped the charts.
1983 – “Billie Jean” by Michael Jackson topped the charts.
1984 – The TV show “Kate & Allie” premiered.
1984 – A Mobile oil tanker spilled 200,000 gallons into the Columbia River.
1985 – IBM announced that it was planning to stop making the PCjr. In the 16 months it was for sale it only sold 240,000 units.
1985 – In a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile. The Senate mix was 53 Republicans and 47 Democrats.
1987 – Televangelist Jim Bakker resigns as head of the PTL Club due to a brewing sex scandal involving Jessica Hahn, a former church secretary from Oklahoma. He hands over control to Jerry Falwell.
1988 – “Never Gonna Give You Up” by Rick Astley topped the charts.
1989 – Boeing V-22 Osprey VTOL aircraft makes maiden flight.
1991 – NFL owners strip Phoenix of 1993 Super Bowl game due to Arizona not recognizing Martin Luther King Day.
1991 – Brett Hull, of the St. Louis Blues, became the third National Hockey League (NHL) player to score 80 goals in a season.
1993 – US Supreme Court Justice Byron R. White announced plans to retire. His departure paved the way for Ruth Bader Ginsburg to become the court’s second female justice.
1995 – Michael Jordan rejoins Chicago Bulls after 17 months, beats Pacers.
1997 – The US Supreme Court heard arguments on Internet indecency.
1997 – It was reported that purple grape juice slows the activity of blood platelets by about 75% and thus reduces the risk of heart attacks. Red wine and aspirin slowed platelet activity by about 45%.
1998 – President Clinton eased US restrictions on humanitarian aid and travel to Cuba. Cuban-American households would be allowed to send back $1,200 a year.
1998 – Rupert Murdoch’s Fox Group won approval to buy the Los Angeles Dodgers for a record $350 million.
2000 – In Nevada five youths on a juvenile offenders cleanup crew were killed by a speeding minivan on I-15 in Las Vegas.
2001 – California officials orders the first two days of rolling blackouts. The state’s two biggest utility companies, Pacific Gas and Electric and Southern California Edison were ordered to cut a total of 500 megawatts of electricity, enough power for roughly 500,000 homes.
2002 – U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda ends (started on March 2) after killing 500 Taliban and al Qaeda fighters with only eleven Allied troop fatalities.
2002 – US intelligence analyst Ana Belen Montes pleaded guilty in federal court to spying for Cuba; she was later sentenced to 25 years in prison.
2002 – Scientists reported that the Larsen B ice shelf in Antarctica, covering some 1,250 square miles, had collapsed into small icebergs over the last 35 days.
2002 – Carly Fiorina, head of Hewlett-Packard, claimed victory by a slim margin in a proxy battle to buy Compaq Computer. Some $180 million was reportedly spent in the effort to win votes.
2003 – President Bush ordered the start of war against Iraq. Because of the time difference, it was early March 20 in Iraq. Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few US targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein.
2003 – Dwight Watson, who had driven a tractor into the Constitution Gardens pond on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., surrendered to federal authorities. The 48 hour standoff severely disrupted the business and traffic of downtown D.C.
2003 – Iraqi President Saddam Hussein appears on national television and rejects the US ultimatum to leave the country or face war. He says “this battle will be Iraq’s last battle against the tyrannous villains and the last battle of aggression undertaken by America against the Arabs”.
2003 – A Cuban airliner was hijacked to Key West. Six hijackers took control of the plane without telling the twenty-five passengers and six crew members about their asylum plans. The six were later convicted of federal hijacking charges.
2004 – The newspaper USA Today admits that a former reporter, Jack Kelley, invented or distorted important parts of at least eight major stories.
2004 – Scientists reported that Earth may be in the middle its 6th big extinction event, which began some 50,000 years ago. A recent survey indicated population extinctions in all the main ecosystems of Britain.
2005 – In Colorado an explosion at the Electric Mountain Lodge, 230 miles SW of Denver, left 3 children dead. Propane gas was suspected.
2007 – President Bush marked the fourth anniversary of the start of the Iraq war with a plea for patience to let his revised battle plan work; Congress’ new Democratic leaders retorted that no patience remained.
2007 – The US Supreme Court hears Morse v. Frederick, in which an Alaskan high school student argues free speech rights in connection with his displaying a banner reading “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” in front of a Juneau high school.
2007 – The Airbus 380 makes a publicity flight with Lufthansa to New York and then Chicago.
2008 – Flooding forced hundreds of people to flee their homes and closed scores of roads across a wide swath of the US midsection as a huge storm system poured as much as 10 inches of rain on the region. Flooding was reported in parts of Arkansas, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, Missouri and Kentucky with over a dozen deaths.
2009 – Pres. Obama appeared on The Tonight Show With Jay Leno” and captured some 11.2% of TV households in 56 US markets.
2009 – The US House of Representatives votes to levy a 90% tax on executive compensation from companies aided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.
2009 – Josias Kumpf (83), a former Nazi concentration-camp guard, was deported from Wisconsin to Austria, despite objections from his lawyer that the guard was simply present at the Trawniki Labor Camp in Poland but committed no acts of persecution.
2010 – A judge in the United States rejects a $657.5 million deal for 10,000 people involved in the aftermath of 9/11.
2010 – In Las Vegas a fire at the private Gilcrease Nature Sanctuary killed over 250 exotic birds and a dog.
2011 – The US Navy fires Tomahawk cruise missiles at Gaddafi’s air defenses as Operation Odyssey Dawn gets underway.
2012 – Wendy’s becomes the second best selling hamburger chain in the USA, overtaking Burger King.
2012 – The US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit rules against a First Amendment free speech challenge to a regulation by the Food and Drug Administration requiring that tobacco companies put graphic images on their cigarette packaging. The imagery is designed to discourage smoking.
2013 – In Ohio, Thomas Lane receives three life sentences for the child murders at Chardon High School that he committed in February 2012 as a 17-year-old.
2013 – The United States Supreme Court holds in a 6–3 decision that the first-sale doctrine applies to the domestic sale of foreign copies of copyrighted work lawfully made abroad. The doctrine is one of the specific statutory restrictions which Congress has placed on the exclusive rights of copyright owners.
1590 – William Bradford, Pilgrim and First Governor of the Plymouth Colony (d. 1657).
1734 – Thomas McKean, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1817).
1813 – David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and explorer (d. 1873)
1848 – Wyatt Earp (Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp), later U.S. Marshal, was born the son of a Sheriff in Illinois. He fought at the Gunfight at the OK Corral and Paula Mitchell Marks later wrote “And Die in the West,” an account of the incident.
1860 – William Jennings Bryan, 41st United States Secretary of State, orator, statesman, known as “The Great Communicator,” (d. 1925)
1864 – Charles Marion Russell, American artist (d. 1926)
1883 – Joseph Stilwell, U.S. general (d. 1946)
1891 – Earl Warren, 14th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1974)
1892 – James Van Fleet, American general (d. 1992)
1904 – John Sirica, the Chief Judge for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, where he became famous for his role in the Watergate scandal. (d. 1992)
1916 – Irving Wallace, American novelist (d. 1990)
1925 – Brent Scowcroft, US National Security Advisor
1944 – Sirhan Sirhan, Palestinian-born assassin. Murderer of Robert Kennedy.
1947 – Glenn Close, American actress
1955 – Bruce Willis, American actor
1966 – James “Big Jim” Wright, American record producer
BUCHA, PAUL WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Captain, U.S. Army, Company D, 3d Battalion. 187th Infantry, 3d Brigade, 101st Airborne Division. Place and Date: Near Phuoc Vinh, Binh Duong Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 16th to March 19th, 1968. Entered service at: U .S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. Born: 1 August 1943, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Capt. Bucha distinguished himself while serving as commanding officer, Company D, on a reconnaissance-in-force mission against enemy forces near Phuoc Vinh, The company was inserted by helicopter into the suspected enemy stronghold to locate and destroy the enemy. During this period Capt. Bucha aggressively and courageously led his men in the destruction of enemy fortifications and base areas and eliminated scattered resistance impeding the advance of the company. On 18 March while advancing to contact, the lead elements of the company became engaged by the heavy automatic weapon, heavy machine gun, rocket propelled grenade, Claymore mine and small-arms fire of an estimated battalion-size force. Capt. Bucha, with complete disregard for his safety, moved to the threatened area to direct the defense and ordered reinforcements to the aid of the lead element. Seeing that his men were pinned down by heavy machine gun fire from a concealed bunker located some forty meters to the front of the positions, Capt. Bucha crawled through the hail of fire to single-handedly destroy the bunker with grenades. During this heroic action Capt. Bucha received a painful shrapnel wound. Returning to the perimeter, he observed that his unit could not hold its positions and repel the human wave assaults launched by the determined enemy. Capt. Bucha ordered the withdrawal of the unit elements and covered the withdrawal to positions of a company perimeter from which he could direct fire upon the charging enemy. When one friendly element retrieving casualties was ambushed and cut off from the perimeter, Capt. Bucha ordered them to feign death and he directed artillery fire around them. During the night Capt. Bucha moved throughout the position, distributing ammunition, providing encouragement and insuring the integrity of the defense. He directed artillery, helicopter gunship and Air Force gunship fire on the enemy strong points and attacking forces, marking the positions with smoke grenades. Using flashlights in complete view of enemy snipers, he directed the medical evacuation of three air-ambulance loads of seriously wounded personnel and the helicopter supply of his company. At daybreak Capt. Bucha led a rescue party to recover the dead and wounded members of the ambushed element. During the period of intensive combat, Capt. Bucha, by his extraordinary heroism, inspirational example, outstanding leadership and professional competence, led his company in the decimation of a superior enemy force which left 156 dead on the battlefield. His bravery and gallantry at the risk of his life are in the highest traditions of the military service, Capt. Bucha has reflected great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*McMAHON, THOMAS J.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 2d Battalion, 1st Infantry, 196th Infantry Brigade, Americal Division. Place and date: Quang Tin province, Republic of Vietnam, March 19th, 1969. Entered service at: Portland, Maine. Born: 24 June 1948, Washington, D.C. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. McMahon distinguished himself while serving as medical aid man with Company A. When the lead elements of his company came under heavy fire from well-fortified enemy positions, three soldiers fell seriously wounded. Sp4c. McMahon, with complete disregard for his safety, left his covered position and ran through intense enemy fire to the side of one of the wounded, administered first aid and then carried him to safety. He returned through the hail of fire to the side of a second wounded man. Although painfully wounded by an exploding mortar round while returning the wounded man to a secure position, Sp4c. McMahon refused medical attention and heroically ran back through the heavy enemy fire toward his remaining wounded comrade. He fell mortally wounded before he could rescue the last man. Sp4c. McMahon’s undaunted concern for the welfare of his comrades at the cost of his life are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit on himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.
*RAY, DAVID ROBERT
Rank and organization: Hospital Corpsman Second Class, U.S. Navy, 2d Battalion, 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein), FMF. Place and Date: Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam, March 19th, 1969. Entered service at: Nashville, Tenn. Born: 14 February 1945, McMinnville, Tenn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a HC2c. with Battery D, 2d Battalion, at Phu Loc 6, near An Hoa. During the early morning hours, an estimated battalion-sized enemy force launched a determined assault against the battery’s position, and succeeded in effecting a penetration of the barbed-wire perimeter. The initial burst of enemy fire caused numerous casualties among the marines who had immediately manned their howitzers during the rocket and mortar attack. Undaunted by the intense hostile fire, HC2c. Ray moved from parapet to parapet, rendering emergency medical treatment to the wounded. Although seriously wounded himself while administering first aid to a Marine casualty, he refused medical aid and continued his lifesaving efforts. While he was bandaging and attempting to comfort another wounded marine, HC2c. Ray was forced to battle two enemy soldiers who attacked his position, personally killing one and wounding the other. Rapidly losing his strength as a result of his severe wounds, he nonetheless managed to move through the hail of enemy fire to other casualties. Once again, he was faced with the intense fire of oncoming enemy troops and, despite the grave personal danger and insurmountable odds, succeeded in treating the wounded and holding off the enemy until he ran out of ammunition, at which time he sustained fatal wounds. HC2c. Ray’s final act of heroism was to protect the patient he was treating. He threw himself upon the wounded Marine, thus saving the man’s life when an enemy grenade exploded nearby. By his determined and persevering actions, courageous spirit, and selfless devotion to the welfare of his Marine comrades, HC2c. Ray served to inspire the men of Battery D to heroic efforts in defeating the enemy. His conduct throughout was in keeping with the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.
BURR, HERBERT H.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company C, 41st Tank Battalion, 11th Armored Division. Place and date: Near Dorrmoschel, Germany, March 19th. 1945. Entered service at: Kansas City, Mo. Birth: St. Joseph, Mo. G.O. No.: 73, 30 August 1945. Citation: He displayed conspicuous gallantry during action when the tank in which he was bow gunner was hit by an enemy rocket, which severely wounded the platoon sergeant and forced the remainder of the crew to abandon the vehicle. Deafened, but otherwise unhurt, S/Sgt. Burr immediately climbed into the driver’s seat and continued on the mission of entering the town to reconnoiter road conditions. As he rounded a turn he encountered an 88-mm. antitank gun at pointblank range. Realizing that he had no crew, no one to man the tank’s guns, he heroically chose to disregard his personal safety in a direct charge on the German weapon. At considerable speed he headed straight for the loaded gun, which was fully manned by enemy troops who had only to pull the lanyard to send a shell into his vehicle. So unexpected and daring was his assault that he was able to drive his tank completely over the gun, demolishing it and causing its crew to flee in confusion. He then skillfully sideswiped a large truck, overturned it, and wheeling his lumbering vehicle, returned to his company. When medical personnel who had been summoned to treat the wounded sergeant could not locate him, the valiant soldier ran through a hail of sniper fire to direct them to his stricken comrade. The bold, fearless determination of S/Sgt. Burr, his skill and courageous devotion to duty, resulted in the completion of his mission in the face of seemingly impossible odds.
GARY, DONALD ARTHUR
Rank and organization: Lieutenant, Junior Grade, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Franklin. Place and date: Japanese Home Islands near Kobe, Japan, March 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Ohio. Born: 23 July 1903, Findlay, Ohio. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as an engineering officer attached to the U.S.S. Franklin when that vessel was fiercely attacked by enemy aircraft during the operations against the Japanese Home Islands near Kobe, Japan, 19 March 1945. Stationed on the third deck when the ship was rocked by a series of violent explosions set off in her own ready bombs, rockets, and ammunition by the hostile attack, Lt. (j.g.) Gary unhesitatingly risked his life to assist several hundred men trapped in a messing compartment filled with smoke, and with no apparent egress. As the imperiled men below decks became increasingly panic stricken under the raging fury of incessant explosions, he confidently assured them he would find a means of effecting their release and, groping through the dark, debris-filled corridors, ultimately discovered an escapeway. Stanchly determined, he struggled back to the messing compartment 3 times despite menacing flames, flooding water, and the ominous threat of sudden additional explosions, on each occasion calmly leading his men through the blanketing pall of smoke until the last one had been saved. Selfless in his concern for his ship and his fellows, he constantly rallied others about him, repeatedly organized and led fire-fighting parties into the blazing inferno on the flight deck and, when firerooms No.1 and No.2 were found to be inoperable, entered the No. 3 fireroom and directed the raising of steam in No.1 boiler in the face of extreme difficulty and hazard. An inspiring and courageous leader, Lt. (j.g.) Gary rendered self-sacrificing service under the most perilous conditions and, by his heroic initiative, fortitude, and valor, was responsible for the saving of several hundred lives. His conduct throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and upon the U.S. Naval Service.
O’CALLAHAN, JOSEPH TIMOTHY
Rank and organization: Commander (Chaplain Corps), U.S. Naval Reserve, U.S.S. Franklin. Place and date: Near Kobe, Japan, March 19th, 1945. Entered service at: Massachusetts. Born: 14 May 1904, Boston, Mass. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as chaplain on board the U.S.S. Franklin when that vessel was fiercely attacked by enemy Japanese aircraft during offensive operations near Kobe, Japan, on 19 March 1945. A valiant and forceful leader, calmly braving the perilous barriers of flame and twisted metal to aid his men and his ship, Lt. Comdr. O’Callahan groped his way through smoke-filled corridors to the open flight deck and into the midst of violently exploding bombs, shells, rockets, and other armament. With the ship rocked by incessant explosions, with debris and fragments raining down and fires raging in ever-increasing fury, he ministered to the wounded and dying, comforting and encouraging men of all faiths; he organized and led firefighting crews into the blazing inferno on the flight deck; he directed the jettisoning of live ammunition and the flooding of the magazine; he manned a hose to cool hot, armed bombs rolling dangerously on the listing deck, continuing his efforts, despite searing, suffocating smoke which forced men to fall back gasping and imperiled others who replaced them. Serving with courage, fortitude, and deep spiritual strength, Lt. Comdr. O’Callahan inspired the gallant officers and men of the Franklin to fight heroically and with profound faith in the face of almost certain death and to return their stricken ship to port.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 31st Wisconsin Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Lafayette County, Wis. Date of issue: 16 June 1865. Citation: Entirely unassisted, brought from the field an abandoned piece of artillery and saved the gun from falling into the hands of the enemy.
CLUTE, GEORGE W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Marathon, Mich. Date of issue: 26 August 1898. Citation: In a charge, captured the flag of the 40th North Carolina (C.S.A.), the flag being taken in a personal encounter with an officer who carried and defended it.
DOUGALL, ALLAN H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant and Adjutant, 88th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: New Haven, Allen County, Ind. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 16 February 1897. Citation: In the face of a galling fire from the enemy he voluntarily returned to where the color bearer had fallen wounded and saved the flag of his regiment from capture.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 14th Michigan Infantry. Place and date: At Bentonville, N.C., March 19th, 1865. Entered service at: Cockery, Mich. Birth: Oswego County, N.Y. Date of issue: 27 April 1896. Citation: Rushed into the midst of the enemy and rescued the colors, the color bearer having fallen mortally wounded.